Ions sentence example

ions
  • A diminution in the number of positive ions would thus naturally be accompanied by a rise in potential gradient.

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  • The rate of loss of charge is thus largely dependent on the extent to which ions are present in the surrounding air.

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  • Thus the osmotic pressure, or the depression of the freezing point of a solution of potassium chloride should, at extreme dilution, be twice the normal value, but of a solution of sulphuric acid three times that value, since the potassium salt contains two ions and the acid three.

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  • This will be composed of a conduction and a convection current, the latter due to rising or falling air currents carrying ions.

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  • This phenomenon is connected with the fact that incandescent bodies, especially in rarefied gases, throw off or emit electrons or gaseous negative ions.

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  • Wehnelt discovered that the same effect could be produced by using instead of a carbon filament a platinum wire covered with the oxides of calcium or barium, which when incandescent have the property of copiously emitting negative ions.

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  • When the ions are set free at the electrodes, they may unite with the substance of the electrode or with some constituent of the solution to form secondary products.

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  • At the electrodes, however, the small quantity of hydrogen and hydroxyl ions from the water are liberated first in cases where the ions of the salt have a higher decomposition voltage.

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  • An alternative hypothesis is given by the idea of complex ions.

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  • For instance, to take the two solutions to which we have already referred, we have of ions between molecules at the instants of molecular collision only; during the rest of the life of the ions they were regarded as linked to each other to form electrically neutral molecules.

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  • In 1887 Svante Arrhenius, professor of physics at Stockholm, put forward a new theory which supposed that the freedom of the opposite ions from each other was not a mere momentary freedom at the instants of molecular collision, but a more or less permanent freedom, the ions moving independently of each other through the liquid.

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  • A study of the products of decomposition does not necessarily lead directly to a knowledge of the ions actually employed in carrying the current through the electrolyte.

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  • When the amount of this ion in the surface layer becomes too small to carry all the current across the junction, other ions must also be used, and either they or their secondary products will appear also at the electrode.

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  • In aqueous solutions, for instance, a few hydrogen (H) and hydroxyl (OH) ions derived from the water are always present, and will be liberated if the other ions require a higher decomposition voltage and the current be kept so small that hydrogen and hydroxyl ions can be formed fast enough to carry all the current across the junction between solution and electrode.

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  • If the current be so strong that new hydrogen and hydroxyl ions cannot be formed in time, other substances are liberated; in a solution of sulphuric acid a strong current will evolve sulphur dioxide, the more readily as the concentration of the solution is increased.

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  • Here the ions are potassium and the group Ag(CN)2.1 Each potassium ion as it reaches the cathode precipitates silver by reacting with the solution in accordance with the chemical equation K--+KAg(CN) 2 =2KCN+Ag, while the anion Ag(CN) 2 dissolves an atom of silver from the anode, and re-forms the complex cyanide KAg(CN) 2 by combining with the 2KCN produced in the reaction described in the equation.

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  • The salt must therefore be derived from an acid, chloroplatinic acid, H 2 PtC1 6, and have the formula Na 2 PtC1 6, the ions being Na and PtCls", for if it were a double salt it would decompose as a mixture of sodium chloride and platinum chloride and both metals would go to the cathode.

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  • Hittorf (1853) to the unequal speeds with which he supposed the two opposite ions to travel.

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  • If the ions move at equal rates, the salt which is decomposed to supply the ions liberated must be taken equally from the neighbourhood of the two electrodes.

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  • If the black ions move twice as fast as the white ones, the state of things after the passage of a current will be represented by the lower part of the figure.

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  • Here the middle part of the solution is unaltered and the number of ions liberated is the same at either end, but the amount of salt left at one end is less than that at the other.

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  • There is reason to believe that in certain cases such complex ions do exist, and interfere with the results of the differing ionic velocities.

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  • If some of the anions, instead of being simple iodine ions represented chemically by the symbol I, are complex structures formed by the union of iodine with unaltered cadmium iodide - structures represented by some such chemical formula as I(CdI 2), the concentration of the solution round the anode would be increased by the passage of an electric current, and the phenomena observed would be explained.

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  • It is found that, in such cases as this, where it seems necessary to imagine the existence of complex ions, the transport number changes rapidly as the concentration of the original solution is changed.

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  • In such salts as potassium chloride the ions seem to be simple throughout" a wide range of concentration since the transport numbers for the same series of concentrations as those used above run Potassium chloride 0.5 1 5, 0.515, 0.514, 0.513, 0.509, 0.508, 0.507, 0.507, 0.506.

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  • Kohlrausch formulated a theory of electrolytic conduction based on the idea that, under the action of the electric forces, the oppositely charged ions moved in opposite directions through the liquid, carrying their charges with them.

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  • On the view of the process of conduction described above, the amount of electricity conveyed per second is measured by the product of the number of ions, known from the concentration of the solution, the charge carried by each of them, and the velocity with which, on the average, they move through the liquid.

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  • The concentration is known, and the conductivity can be measured experimentally; thus the average velocity with which the ions move past each other under the existent electromotive force can be estimated.

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  • The velocity with which the ions move past each other is equal to the sum of their individual velocities, which can therefore be calculated.

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  • Hence the absolute velocities of the two ions can be determined, and we can calculate the actual speed with which a certain ion moves through a given liquid under the action of a given potential gradient or electromotive force.

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  • The details of the calculation are given in the article Electric conduction, § where also will be found an account of the methods which have been used to measure the velocities of many ions by direct visual observation.

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  • The results go to show that, where the existence of complex ions is not indicated by varying transport numbers, the observed velocities agree with those calculated on Kohlrausch's theory.

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  • The verification of Kohlrausch's theory of ionic velocity verifies also the view of electrolysis which regards the electric current as due to streams of ions moving in opposite directions through the liquid and carrying their opposite electric charges with them.

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  • There remains the question how the necessary migratory freedom of the ions is secured.

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  • As we have seen, Grotthus imagined that it was the electric forces which sheared the ions past each other and loosened the chemical bonds holding the opposite parts of each dissolved molecule together.

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  • Arrhenius pointed out that these exceptions would be brought into line if the ions of electrolytes were imagined to be separate entities each capable of producing its own pressure effects just as would an ordinary dissolved molecule.

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  • The freezing point curve usually lies below the electrical one, but approaches it as dilution is increased.2 Returning once more to the consideration of the first relation, which deals with the comparison between the number of ions and the number of pressure-producing particles in dilute solution, one caution is necessary.

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  • The electrical phenomena show that there are two ions to the molecule, and that these ions are electrically charged.

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  • It' would be possible for a body in solution to be dissociated into non-electrical parts, which would give osmotic pressure effects twice or three times the normal value, but, being uncharged, would not act as ions and impart electrical conductivity to the solution.

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  • It is necessary to point out that the dissociated ions of such a body as potassium chloride are not in the same condition as potassium and chlorine in the free state.

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  • The ions are associated with very large electric charges, and, whatever their exact relations with those charges may be, it is certain that the energy of a system in such a state must be different from its energy when unelectrified.

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  • Again, water, the best electrolytic solvent known, is also the body of the highest specific inductive capacity (dielectric constant), and this property, to whatever cause it may be due, will reduce the forces between electric charges in the neighbourhood, and may therefore enable two ions to separate.

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  • For instance, the colour of a salt solution is the colour obtained by the superposition of the colours of the ions and the colour of any undissociated salt that may be present.

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  • Solid copper chloride is brown or yellow, so that its concentrated solution, which contains both ions and undissociated molecules, is green, but changes to blue as water is added and the ionization becomes complete.

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  • The dissociation theory refers this to the action of electric charges carried by the free ions.

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  • If a certain minimum charge must be collected in order to start coagulation, it will need the conjunction of 6n monovalent, or 3n divalent, to equal the effect of 2n trivalent ions.

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  • While it seems clear that the conduction in this case is carried on by ions similar to those of solutions, since Faraday's laws apply equally to both, it does not follow necessarily that semi-permanent dissociation is the only way to explain the phenomena.

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  • Moreover, a study of the chemical relations of electrolytes indicates that it is always the electrolytic ions that are concerned in their reactions.

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  • The tests for a salt, potassium nitrate, for example, are the tests not for KNO 3, but for its ions K and NO 3, and in cases of double decomposition it is always these ions that are exchanged for those of other substances.

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  • A better basis of comparison would be the ratio of the actual to the limiting conductivity, but since the conductivity of acids is chiefly due to the mobility of the hydrogen ions, its limiting value is nearly the same for all, and the general result of the comparison would be unchanged.

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  • Let x be the number of molecules which dissociate per second when the number of undissociated molecules in unit volume is unity, then in a dilute solution where the molecules do not interfere with each other, xp is the number when the concentration is p. Recombination can only occur when two ions meet, and since the frequency with which this will happen is, in dilute solution, proportional to the square of the ionic concentration, we shall get for the number of molecules re-formed in one second ye where q is the number of dissociated molecules in one cubic centimetre.

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  • Van 't Hoff's formula is equivalent to taking the frequency of dissociation as proportional to the square of the concentration of the molecules, and the frequency of recombination as proportional to the cube of the concentration of the ions.

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  • An explanation of the failure of the usual dilution law in these cases may be given if we remember that, while the electric forces between bodies like undissociated molecules, each associated with equal and opposite charges, will vary inversely as the fourth power of the distance, the forces between dissociated ions, each carrying one charge only, will be inversely proportional to the square of the distance.

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  • The forces between the ions of a strongly dissociated solution will thus be considerable at a dilution which makes forces between undissociated molecules quite insensible, and at the concentrations necessary to test Ostwald's formula an electrolyte will be far from dilute in the thermodynamic sense of the term, which implies no appreciable intermolecular or interionic forces.

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  • It is evident that the undissociated part of each acid must eventually be in equilibrium with the free hydrogen ions, and, if the concentrations are not such as to secure this condition, readjustment must occur.

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  • In order that there should be no change in the states of dissociation on mixing, it is necessary, therefore, that the concentration of the hydrogen ions should be the same in each separate solution.

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  • In order that the solutions of these should be isohydric and the concentrations of the hydrogen ions the same, we must have a very large quantity of the feebly dissociated acetic acid, and a very small quantity of the strongly dissociated hydrochloric, and in such proportions alone will equilibrium be possible.

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  • The influence of temperature on the conductivity of solutions depends on (I) the ionization, and (2) the frictional resistance of the liquid to the passage of the ions, the reciprocal of which is called the ionic fluidity.

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  • Since the salts, both before and after mixture, exist mainly as dissociated ions, it is obvious that large thermal effects can only appear when the state of dissociation of the products is very different from that of the reagents.

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  • In dilute solution such substances as hydrochloric acid and potash are almost completely dissociated, so that, instead of representing the reaction as HC1+KOH = KC1 d-H20, we must write The ions K and Cl suffer no change, but the hydrogen of the acid and the hydroxyl (OH) of the potash unite to form water, which is only very slightly dissociated.

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  • The heat liberated, then, is almost exclusively that produced by the formation of water from its ions.

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  • In the case of weaker acids, the dissociation of which is less complete, divergences from this constant value will occur, for some of the molecules have to be separated into their ions.

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  • We can calculate the heat of formation from its ions for any substance dissolved in a given liquid, from a knowledge of the temperature coefficient of ionization, by means of an application of the well-known thermodynamical process, which also gives the latent heat of evaporation of a liquid when the temperature coefficient of its vapour pressure is known.

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  • But when zinc dissolves, the zinc ions carry their electric charges with them, and the liquid tends to become positively electrified.

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  • The electric forces then soon stop further action unless an equivalent quantity of positive ions are removed from the solution.

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  • In order that positively electrified ions may enter a solution, an equivalent amount of other positive ions must be removed or negative ions be added, and, for the process to occur spontaneously, the possible action at the two electrodes must involve a decrease in the total available energy of the system.

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  • When the solutions may be taken as effectively dilute, so that the gas laws apply to the osmotic pressure, this relation reduces to E _ nrRT to c1 ey gE c2 where n is the number of ions given by one molecule of the salt, r the transport ratio of the anion, R the gas constant, T the absolute temperature, y the total valency of the anions obtained from one molecule, and c i and c 2 the concentrations of the two solutions.

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  • Silver chloride is a very insoluble substance, and here the amount in solution is still further reduced by the presence of excess of chlorine ions of the potassium salt.

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  • Thus silver, at one end of the cell in contact with many silver ions of the silver nitrate solution, at the other end is in contact with a liquid in which the concentration of those ions is very small indeed.

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  • Again, Hittorf has shown that the effect of a cyanide round a copper electrode is to combine with the copper ions.

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  • The concentration of the simple copper ions is then so much diminished that the copper plate becomes an anode with regard to zinc. Thus the cell - copper I potassium cyanide solution I potassium sulphate solution - zinc sulphate solution I zinc - gives a current which carries copper into solution and deposits zinc. In a similar way silver could be made to act as anode with respect to cadmium.

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  • But the ions of an electrolytic solution can move independently through the liquid, even when no current flows, as the consequences of Ohm's law indicate.

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  • The ions will therefore diffuse independently, and the faster ion will travel quicker into pure water in contact with a solution.

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  • The ions carry their charges with them, and, as a matter of fact, it is found that water in contact with a solution takes with respect to it a positive or negative potential, according as the positive or negative ion travels the faster.

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  • This process will go on until the simultaneous separation of electric charges produces an electrostatic force strong enough to prevent further separation of ions.

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  • We can therefore calculate the rate at which the salt as a whole will diffuse by examining the conditions for a steady transfer, in which the ions diffuse at an equal rate, the faster one being restrained and the slower one urged forward by the electric forces.

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  • Metal goes into solution in the form of electrified ions.

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  • Our views of the nature of the ions of electrolytes have been extended by the application of the ideas of the relations between matter and electricity obtained by the study of electric conduction through gases.

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  • In the article Electrolysis it is shown how the passage of an electric current through a solution containing metallic ions involves the deposition of the metal on the cathode.

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  • Since that date it has more than once been suggested that the molecular currents producing magnetism might be due to the revolution of one or more of the charged atoms or " ions " constituting the molecule.

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  • There must be considerable dissociation of molecules, and as a first approximation it may be taken that of io molecules of most of the components about 9 (or in the case of magnesium sulphate 5) have been separated into their ions, and that it is only during slow concentration as in a natural saline that the ions combine to produce the various salts in the proportions set out in the above table.

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  • Modern research has proved that such reactions are not occasioned by water acting as H 2 0, but really by its ions (hydrions and hydroxidions), for the velocity is proportional (in accordance with the law of chemical mass action) to the concentration of these ions.

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  • Electrolytic or ionic dissociation is the separation of a substance in solution into ions.

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  • Modern theory accepts the deduction, but ascribes the momentum to the revolving ions in the molecules of matter traversed by the light; for the magneto-optic effect is present only in material media.

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  • The fundamental assumption is that the medium contains positively and negatively charged ions or electrons which are acted on by the periodic electric forces which occur in wave propagation on Maxwell's theory.

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  • This would occur if there were several kinds of ions, each with its own natural period.

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  • Its aqueous solution is not an electrolyte, and consequently does not give the reactions of the mercury and cyanogen ions.

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  • The violet form gives a purple solution, and all its chlorine is precipitated by silver nitrate, the aqueous solution containing four ions, probably Cr(OH 2) 6 and three chlorine ions.

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  • When an electric current from a battery is sent through a tube containing hydrogen, increase of current simply means increase in the number of ions which take part where is an additional constant.

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  • Dust-free air will remain supersaturated with water-vapour in conditions where a dense cloud would be formed in presence of solid dustnuclei or electric ions which serve the same purpose.

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  • The movement in opposite directions of these charged ions constitutes the electric current in the solution.

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  • To explain the electrical properties of sulphuric acid in aqueous solution, the supposition of three ions, two of hydrogen and one of the chemical group S04, is necessary.

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  • Now measurements of osmotic properties of these solutions show that their osmotic pressures are abnormally great and that, at extreme dilution, the ratio of their osmotic pressures to that of equivalent solutions of non-electrolytes is equal to the number of ions indicated by the electrolytic properties.

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  • Since some ions are more mobile than others, a separation will ensue when water is placed in contact with a solution, the faster moving ion penetrating quicker into the water under the driving force of the osmotic pressure gradient.

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  • The separation also sets up electrostatic forces, which increase until they are strong enough to drag the slower moving ions along faster, and to retard the naturally faster ions till they travel at the same rate.

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  • The resistance offered by the liquid, and therefore the force F, required to drive one grammemolecule through the liquid with unit velocity is the sum of the corresponding quantities for the individual ions.

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  • Now the velocities u and v of the opposite ions under unit potential gradient, and therefore U and V under unit force, are known from electrical data.

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  • The osmotic pressure of an electrolyte consisting of two ions is double that of a non-electrolyte.

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  • If we assume that a certain minimum electric charge must be brought into contact with a group of colloid particles to produce coagulation, twice as many univalent ions must collect to produce the same effect as a number of divalent ions, and three times as many as an effective number of trivalent ions.

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  • Determinations of the electrical conductivity of the diazonium chloride and nitrate also show that the diazonium radical is strictly comparable with other quaternary ammonium ions.

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  • On mixing dilute solutions of the diazonium hydroxide and the alkali together, it is found that the molecular conductivity of the mixture is much less than the sum of the two electrical conductivities of the solutions separately, from which it follows that a portion of the ions present have changed to the non-ionized condition.

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  • Furthermore his electrochemical investigations, and particularly his discovery of the important law of electrolysis, that the movement of a certain quantity of electricity through an electrolyte is always accompanied by the transfer of a certain definite quantity of matter from one electrode to another and the liberation at these electrodes of an equivalent weight of the ions, gave foundation for the idea of a definite atomic charge of electricity.

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  • The boric acid being scarcely ionized gives only a very small quantity of hydrogen ions, whilst the base (sodium hydroxide) produced by the hydrolysis occasioned by the dilution of the solution, being a "strong base," is highly ionized and gives a comparatively large amount of hydroxyl ions.

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  • In the solution, therefore, there is now an excess of hydroxyl ions; consequently it has an alkaline reaction and the litmus turns blue.

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  • He obtained from the emperor Otto III., with whom he was in great favour in 983, a considerable extension of territory, that now covered by the Zuider Zee and southward down to ions.

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  • Wharfinger states that in chlorosis the specific action of iron is only obtained by administering those inorganic preparations which give a reaction with the ordinary reagents; the iron ions in a state of dissociation act as a catalytic agent, destroying the hypothetical toxin which is the cause of chlorosis.

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  • Others have considered conduction in a metal to be analogous to electrolytic conduction, and the observed effects to be due to " migration of the ions."

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  • The Department operates two accelerators, causing charged atoms (ions) to reach 10% of the speed of light.

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  • Electron Transport System- Hydrogen ions produced during the 3 preparatory steps of aerobic respiration are carried by nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD ).

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  • Do copper ions break down the ionic bonds between the polypeptide chains of egg albumen - thus causing it to denature?

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  • Thus, the rate of diffusion of ions in grain boundaries is strongly anisotropic.

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  • At apogee, the craft will be above it, seeing upgoing ions in the bright Aurora and upgoing electrons in the black aurora.

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  • The corresponding neutrals of the ions have a relatively low basicity compared to the analyzed substrate.

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  • Calcium ions form an important part of this signaling cascade.

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  • What we get is a solution which contains sodium cations (positive ions) and chloride anions (negative ions ).

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  • At higher photon energies, smaller fragment ions are formed following cleavage of more than one bond.

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  • Selected peptide ions from this first analysis can then be subjected to high-energy collision to obtain fragment ions.

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  • This same extended network also supports proton conduction, a flow of positive electricity that occurs much faster than the diffusion of ions.

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  • The ions smooth the cuticle of each hair to leave the whole head looking and feeling soft, smooth and shiny.

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  • These ions are harmful to organic substrates, such as paper, because they catalyze the oxidative degradation of cellulose and other organic materials.

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  • Fig 2. An outline of the merged beam experiment; D 1 and D 2 are calibrated detectors for photons and ions.

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  • However, rays diffracted by individual ions in a crystal may or may not be in phase with rays diffracted by other ions.

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  • In a 0.1 M aqueous solution of NaCl the average distance between the fully dissociated ions is about 0.8 nm.

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  • The blue band is due to positive copper ions, Cu 2+, moving toward the negative electrode.

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  • The electrical conducting solution or melt of ions is called the electrolyte.

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  • Metal atoms of a metal electrode can also be oxidized to form positive metal ions which pass into the liquid electrolyte.

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  • There are few things that seem fatal to anemones, other than metal-based chemical therapeutics or accidental introduction of metal ions from other sources.

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  • There is a reaction between the aluminum oxide and the cryolite to produce a range of complex ions involving aluminum, oxygen and/or fluorine.

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  • Ionizing radiation means gamma rays, x-rays etc., which directly or indirectly are capable of producing ions (charged particles ).

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  • This generates high brightness beams of energetic gamma rays, protons, neutrons, and heavy ions.

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  • Glutamine is readily synthesized from glutamate and ammonium ions by the enzyme glutamine is readily synthesized from glutamate and ammonium ions by the enzyme glutamine synthetase.

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  • In the first case, only one of the acidic hydrogens has reacted with the hydroxide ions from the base.

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  • A similar model was proposed with hydroxyl ions hydrogen bonding to surface H causing polarization and conductivity.

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  • At high hydrogen concentrations the microorganism would allow hydrogen ions to leak through the cell membrane.

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  • Urease breaks down urea to form ammonia and free hydrogen ions which raise the pH of the urine making it alkaline.

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  • An alkali is a solution containing excess hydroxide ions OH - (aq ).

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  • There must have been some slight reaction with the water to produce hydroxide ions in solution.

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  • You will get complexes formed involving hydroxide ions, but the formulae of these aren't very clear-cut.

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  • Sodium chlorate(I) solution is alkaline and contains enough hydroxide ions to carry out the second half of the reaction.

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  • Infrared spectra show the presence of different types of water molecules and/or hydroxyl ions.

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  • Plasma events resulting in redistribution of magnetic energy also impart energy to the ions.

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  • The superconductor was then incinerated in a furnace... A moving electron is flying compared to the motion of the heavier ions.

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  • The two main reasons for iron gall ink corrosion have been identified to be acid hydrolysis and oxidation, catalyzed by ferrous ions.

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  • The particles are on average, 5 microns in diameter and contain dissolved metal ions.

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  • This is best shown in the fact that Sn 2+ ions in solution are good reducing agents.

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  • Why, then, does aluminum form Al 3+ ions?

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  • Na + and ca 2+ ions can destroy the low density structuring in a cooperative manner.

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  • Carbon dioxide and inorganic ions are thus made available for re-use.

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  • There must have been some slight reaction with the water to produce hydroxide ion with the water to produce hydroxide ions in solution.

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  • The copper might react with the hydrogen ions or with the nitrate ions.

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  • In the process, the chlorine is reduced to chloride ions.

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  • A voltage across the channel acted like a gate voltage in a conventional transistor, shutting off the flow of potassium ional transistor, shutting off the flow of potassium ions.

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  • Relate the color of an ionic compound to the color of an ionic compound to the color of an ionic compound to the color of its positive or negative ions.

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  • The material may also have a fully ionic structure, or the mobile ions may be in a covalent host structure.

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  • Atomic or molecular transitions are often induced by the screened Coulomb potentials of atoms or partially ionized ions.

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  • How do phosphate ions in nutrient solutions affect mitosis in root tips?

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  • Each mole of sodium hydroxide dissolves to give a mole of hydroxide ions in solution.

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  • These bicarbonate ions immediately latch onto a section of the crocodiles ' hemoglobin molecules, forcing the hemoglobin to release its attached oxygen.

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  • For example, we have produced silicon nitride containing small amounts of lanthanide ions.

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  • However, the unsubstituted nucleosides could lightly yield the fragment ions of the nucleoside base and sugar ring.

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  • The summary information gives an at-a-glance overview of the contents of each PDB entry including numbers of protein chains, ligands, metal ions.

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  • Particle Accelerators are devices used to accelerate charged elementary particle Accelerators are devices used to accelerate charged elementary particles or ions to high energies.

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  • Reverse osmosis a high pressure filtration system that uses selectively permeable membranes with extremely small pores to separate ions and particles.

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  • Ion channels pores in cell membranes that allow charged ions into and out of the cell.

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  • The two Fe ions are each coordinated by two conserved cysteine residues.

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  • The arrival of an action potential in the interior of the cardiac muscle cell causes the release of calcium ions from the sarcoplasmic reticulum.

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  • Ammoniacal nitrogen may increase blossom-end rot as excess ammonium ions reduce calcium uptake.

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  • Students have successfully grown cress seedlings in glass tubes of agar containing the metal ions.

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  • Room temperature ionic liquids are liquids which consist solely of ions, e.g. molten sodium chloride.

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  • When an action potential reaches the synapse these channels open, causing calcium ions to flow into the cell.

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  • Glutamine is readily synthesized from glutamate and ammonium ions by the enzyme glutamine synthetase.

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  • A voltage across the channel acted like a gate voltage in a conventional transistor, shutting off the flow of potassium ions.

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  • The rise in q and Q indicates that the diminished rate of dissipation is most marked for positive charges, and that negative ions are even more reduced then positive.

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  • If this is true we should have q= an t, where q is the number of ions of one sign made in I cc. of air per second by the emanation, a the constant of recombination, and n the number of ions found simultaneously by, say, Ebert's apparatus.

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  • If the atmosphere at different heights is exposed to ionizing radiation of uniform intensity the rate of production of ions per cc., q, will vary as the pressure.

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  • The ordinary laws of chemical equilibrium have been applied to the case of the dissociation of a substance into its ions.

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  • The heat of formation of a substance from its ions is, of course, very different from that evolved when it is formed from its elements in the usual way, since the energy associated with an ion is different from that possessed by the atoms of the element in their normal state.

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  • Thomson has shown (see CONDUCTION, ELECTRIC, § III.) that the negative ions in certain cases of gaseous conduction are much more mobile than the corresponding positive ions, and possess a mass of about the one-thousandth part of that of a hydrogen atom.

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  • Electrolytic or ionic dissociation is the separation of a substance in solution into ions (see Electrolysis; Solution).

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  • Poincare 's hypothesis remained most striking facet produce ions and radiographs by oudin.

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  • The sulfate ions are spectator ions and play no part in the reaction.

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  • Hydrogen ions, Potassium ions and Chloride ions are important, but sucrose concentration in the guard cells affects the osmotic concentration too.

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  • Fehling 's solution contains copper(II) ions complexed with tartrate ions in sodium hydroxide solution.

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  • Transition metal ions are often at the ' heart ' of many biological catalysts.

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  • In dry etching, the material is sputtered or dissolved using reactive ions or a vapor phase etchant.

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  • After the silicon vertex detector is the Central Outer Tracker, a gas drift chamber which operates via the detection of charged ions.

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  • The relative effect of the ions is the reverse of the Hofmeister series just given with weakly hydrated ions binding best, i.e.

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  • Over time, hard water reduces the ability of special ions to move water through pipes.

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  • Sodium or potassium is used to replace the ions that make the water hard.

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  • It works by using the active ingredient apoaequorin, which binds to calcium ions.

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  • Magnetic fields influence cell interactions with ions, and this actually accelerates the body's ability to heal itself by increasing blood circulation to key areas in the body.

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  • Electrolytes-Salts and minerals that produce electrically charged particles (ions) in body fluids.

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  • The role of the CFTR protein is to allow chloride ions to exit the mucus-producing cells.

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  • When the chloride ions leave these cells, water follows, thinning the mucus.

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  • In CF, the CFTR protein cannot allow chloride ions out of the mucus-producing cells.

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  • Electrolytes are salts (sodium, potassium, chloride, calcium, magnesium, phosphate, sulfate, and bicarbonate) that become ions when mixed with fluids in the body and blood and have the ability to conduct electricity.

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  • They involve mutations in the proteins that transport copper, that is, in special channels that allow the passage of copper ions through cell membranes.

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  • At the muscle, chemicals released by the motor neuron stimulate the internal release of calcium ions from stores within the muscle cell.

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  • These calcium ions then interact with muscle proteins within the cell, causing the proteins (actin and myosin) to slide past one another.

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  • Calcium ions may not be recaptured quickly enough, causing prolonged contraction.

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  • Electrolytes are mineral salts that form electrically charged particles (ions) in body fluids; they help control body fluid balance and participate in many essential body functions.

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  • Both diseases involve mutations in copper transport proteins, special channels that allow copper ions to pass through cell membranes.

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  • Purging may lead to a loss of potassium and other essential metabolic ions.

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  • Solia flat irons are equipped with Ceramic/Tourmaline plates that not only boosts the ability to produce shinier healthier-looking hair, the plates also emit both far-infrared heat and large amounts of negative ions.

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  • The combination of infrared heat and negative ions nearly eradicate the possibility of heat damage while granting hair a frizz-free image.

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  • This device works to prevent fertilization by contaminating the sperm (copper ions are toxic to the sperm).

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  • Instead, you'll need to add it as silver ions.

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  • The unit's oxygenator kicks in to convert ozone to oxygen, and the air revitalize freshens stale air by releasing negative ions.

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  • An air ionizer creates negatively charged ions which bond to the positively charged particles, which can include dust, pollen, smoke, bacteria and other allergens.

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  • Both of these natural occurrences create large amounts of negative ions which essentially clean the air, leaving behind a fresh smell, or what one might call an "ozone smell."

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  • They remove heavy pollutants and positively-charged particles out of the air by emitting negatively charged ions which bond to the pollutants, causing them to fall to the floor.

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  • Certain models utilize the electronic ionizing breeze technology that releases high-voltage electrons into the air that produce ions with active oxygen and negative charges that kill viruses, bacteria and other disease-laden particles.

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  • Other types use the precipitation approach in which moisture creates negatively charged ions that block contaminated air particles.

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  • The manufacturer, Wein Products, claims it rids the air of dust, odors and cigarette smoke while destroying bacteria and viruses at a production rate of 120 trillion ions per second.

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  • This type of air purifier does not use a traditional filter but disperses ions into the air.

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  • The ions are negatively charged and attract the particles that cause allergies.

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  • According to the Journal of Nutrition, your body responds to the acidifying effect of uric acid by releasing calcium ions from your skeleton to buffer your blood.

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  • Hard on this came the recognition of the fact that freely charged positive and negative ions are always present in the atmosphere, and that a radioactive emanation can be collected.

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  • The air, as is now known, has always present in it ions, some carrying a positive and others a negative charge, and those having the opposite sign to the charged body are attracted and tend to discharge it.

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  • It depends, however, in addition on the natural mobility of the ions, and also on the opportunities for convection.

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  • Air is drawn by an aspirator between the surfaces, and the ions having the opposite sign to the inner cylinder are deposited on it.

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  • The volume of air from which the ions have been extracted being known, a measure is obtained of the total charge on the ions, whether positive or negative.

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  • The conditions must, of course, be such as to secure that no ions shall escape, otherwise there is an underestimate.

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  • I + is used to denote the charge on positive ions, I_ that on negative ions.

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  • At barometric pressures such as exist between 18 and 36 kilometres above the ground the mobility of the ions varies inversely as the pressure, whilst the coefficient of recombination a varies approximately as the pressure.

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  • In the steady state the number, n, of ions of either sign per cc. is given by n=-Vg/a, and so is independent of the pressure or the height.

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  • In the case of separation from solutions, either by crystallization or by precipitation by double decomposition, the temperature, the concentration of the solution, and the presence of other ions may modify the form obtained.

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  • Perfectly pure distilled sea-water dissociates, to an infinitesimal degree, into hydrogen (H) and hydroxyl (HO) ions, so that one litre of such water contains 1 X 10 7, or 1 part of a gram-molecule of either hydr010,000,000 gen or hydroxyl (a gramme-molecule of hydrogen is 2 grammes, or of hydroxyl 17 grammes).

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  • The colloidal particles are electrically charged and become discharged by the ions of sodium, magnesium and calcium present in the sea-water.

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  • Since the electric forces are active throughout the whole solution, all the ions must come under its influence and therefore move, but their separation from the electrodes is determined by the electromotive force needed to liberate them.

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  • The opposite parts of an electrolyte, which work their way through the liquid under the action of the electric forces, were named by Faraday the ions - the travellers.

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  • It is clear that, when two opposite streams of ions move past each other, equivalent quantities are liberated at the two ends of the system.

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  • If a solution, let us say of sugar, be confined in a closed vessel through the walls of It is probable that in both these solutions complex ions exist at fairly high concentrations, but gradually gets less in number and finally disappear as the dilution is increased.

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