The Different Elements Potential Gradient, Dissipation, Ionization And Radioactivityare Clearly Not Independent Of One Another.
The vapourpressure equations are seldom known with sufficient accuracy, and the ionization data are incomplete.
Ionization seems to increase notably as temperature rises.
The theory of the ionization of salts in solution has raised much discussion amongst chemists, but the general fact is certain that electricity only moves through liquids in association with matter, and simultaneously involves chemical dissociation of molecular groups.
The loss of the dissipation body due to the natural ionization of the air is first allowed for.
(3) If a colourless compound gives a coloured one on solution or by salt-formation, the production of colour may be explained as a particular form of ionization (Baeyer), or by a molecular rearrangement (Hantzsch).
The measurements of freezing points of solutions at the extreme dilution necessary to secure complete ionization is a matter of great difficulty, and has been overcome only in a research initiated by E.
The influence of temperature on the conductivity of solutions depends on (I) the ionization, and (2) the frictional resistance of the liquid to the passage of the ions, the reciprocal of which is called the ionic fluidity.
As the concentration is increased and un-ionized molecules are formed, a change in temperature begins to affect the ionization as well as the fluidity.
But the temperature coefficient of conductivity is now generally less than before; thus the effect of temperature on ionization must be of opposite sign to its effect on fluidity.
The ionization of a solution, then, is usually diminished by raising the temperature, the rise in conductivity being due to the greater increase in fluidity.
The chlorine is not completely precipitated by silver nitrate in nitric acid solution, the ionization apparently not proceeding to all the chlorine atoms. Thallic iodide, T11 3, is interesting on account of its isomorphism with rubidium and caesium tri-iodides, a resemblance which suggests the formula T11 (12) for the salt, in which the metal is obviously monovalent.
It appears that the relatively enormous deviations of CaC1 2 from Raoult's law are accounted for on the hypothesis that a=9, but there is a slight uncertainty about the degree of ionization of the strongest solutions at-50° C. Cane-sugar appears to require 5 molecules of water of hydration both at o° C. and at loo° C., whereas KC1 and NaCI take more water at loo° C. than at o° C. The cases considered by Callendar (loc. cit.) are necessarily limited, because the requisite data for strong solutions are comparatively scarce.
Gockel found a diminution of ionization with rise of relative humidity.
Mache thinks that the ionization observed in the atmosphere may be wholly accounted for by the radioactive emanation.
(2) As the concentration of the solutions increases, the ionization as measured electrically and the dissociation as measured osmotically might decrease more or less together, though, since the thermodynamic theory only holds when the solution is so dilute that the dissolved particles are beyond each other's sphere of action, there is much doubt whether this second relation is valid through any appreciable range of concentration.
The salts tabulated are those of which the equivalent conductivity reaches a limiting value indicating that complete ionization is reached as dilution is increased.
5.08 At the concentration used by Loomis the electrical conductivity indicates that the ionization is not complete, particularly in the case of the salts with divalent ions in the second list.
We may take it, then, that only that portion of these bodies is chemically active which is electrolytically active - that ionization is necessary for such chemical activity as we are dealing with here, just as it is necessary for electrolytic conductivity.
At extreme dilution, when the ionization is complete, a variation in temperature cannot change its amount.
The fact that at most places the morning shows a marked decay of auroral frequency and intensity as compared to the evening, the maximum preceding midnight by several hours, is certainly favourable to theories which postulate ionization of the atmosphere by some cause or other emanating from the sun.
There is a difficulty in reconciling observed values of the ionization with the results obtained from balloon ascents as to the variation of the potential with altitude.
Allowing for incomplete ionization the general concordance of these numbers with the theoretical ones is very striking.
Solid copper chloride is brown or yellow, so that its concentrated solution, which contains both ions and undissociated molecules, is green, but changes to blue as water is added and the ionization becomes complete.
We can calculate the heat of formation from its ions for any substance dissolved in a given liquid, from a knowledge of the temperature coefficient of ionization, by means of an application of the well-known thermodynamical process, which also gives the latent heat of evaporation of a liquid when the temperature coefficient of its vapour pressure is known.
It has also been shown that when different salts of the amine are used, their catalytic influence varies in amount and is almost proportional to their degree of ionization in aqueous solution.