Iodine sentence example
It does not liberate iodine from potassium iodide, neither does it decolorize iodine solution.
Courtois isolated the element iodine from " kelp," the burnt ashes of marine plants.
It has a strong and characteristic odour, and a hot sweetish taste, is soluble in ten parts of water, and in all proportions in alcohol, and dissolves bromine, iodine, and, in small quantities, sulphur and phosphorus, also the volatile oils, most fatty and resinous substances, guncotton, caoutchouc and certain of the vegetable alkaloids.
The industries of the town and its environs (Sandnaes, &c.) are prosperous, including factories for preserved foods, woollens and linens, lime, iodine from seaweed, and domestic commodities.
This acid may also be prepared by the electrolysis of concentrated sulphuric acid, and it is distinguishable from persulphuric acid by the fact that it immediately liberates iodine from potassium iodide.Advertisement
This difference in behaviour of the three elements, chlorine, bromine and iodine, which in many respects exhibit considerable resemblance, may be explained in the following manner.
The chemical analogy of this substance to chlorine was quickly perceived, especially after its investigation by Davy and Gay Lussac. Cyanogen, a compound which in combination behaved very similarly to chlorine and iodine, was isolated in 1815 by Gay Lussac. This discovery of the first of the then-styled " compound radicals " exerted great influence on the prevailing views of chemical composition.
Unfortunately, the term normal is sometimes given to solutions which are strictly decinormal; for example, iodine, sodium thiosulphate, &c. In technical analysis, where a solution is used for one process only, it may be prepared so that I cc. is equal to.
Its power depends on the fact that it is slowly decomposed by the tissues, and free iodine given off.
In many cases it acts as a reducing agent (when used in the presence of acids); thus, permanganates are reduced to manganous salts, iodates are reduced with liberation of iodine, &c., 2KMnO 4 + 550 2 + 2H 2 0 = K 2 SO 4 + 2MnSO 4 + 2H 2 SO 4; 2K103+ 550 2 + 4H 2 O =1 3 + 2KHSO 4 + 3H2S04.Advertisement
Its aqueous solution gradually decomposes with evolution of oxygen, behaves as a strong oxidant, and liberates iodine from potassium iodide.
Among the principal varieties are those which contain carbolic acid and other ingredients of coal tar, salicylic acid, petroleum, borax, camphor, iodine, mercurial salts, sulphur and tannin.
Thus, in the production of hydrochloric acid from hydrogen and chlorine 22,000 calories are developed; in the production of hydrobromic acid from hydrogen and bromine, however, only 8440 caloriesare developed; and in the formation of hydriodic acid from hydrogen and iodine 6040 calories are absorbed.
With iodine compounds, iodic acid is likely to be formed, and hence the solution must be reduced with sulphurous acid before precipitation with silver nitrate.
Caoutchouc, like other "unsaturated" molecules, forms compounds with chlorine, bromine, iodine and sulphur.Advertisement
With iodine it reacts to form nitrogen iodide.
It will only combine with hydrogen in the presence of a catalyst, but combines with many other elements directly; for example, phosphorus melts and then inflames, antimony burns in the vapour, and mercury when heated with iodine combines with it rapidly.
With chlorine it gives phosphoryl and " metaphosphoryl " chlorides, the action being accompanied with a greenish flame; bromine gives phosphorus pentabromide and pentoxide which interact to give phosphoryl and " metaphosphoryl " bromides; iodine gives phosphorus di-iodide, P 2 I 4, and pentoxide, P 2 0 5; whilst hydrochloric acid gives phosphorus trichloride and phosphorous acid, which interact to form free phosphorus, phosphoric acid and hydrochloric acid.
Therefore, the radioactive iodine builds up in the thyroid gland.
Iodine is an essential component of the thyroid hormone, thyroxine, which is the master regulator of metabolism.Advertisement
A highly polished sheet of silver-plated copper was made sensitive to light by exposing it to the fumes of iodine.
The supernatant fluid above the crystals is a saturated solution of iodine.
Grave 's disease is widely treated, where medical methods are deemed unsatisfactory, by partial thyroidectomy, or Radioactive Iodine ablation.
People with hypothyroidism or with thyrotoxicosis treated either surgically or with radioiodine would not be at risk from stable iodine.
The best chemical purifier is tincture of iodine at the rate of four drops per liter.Advertisement
Some elements only exist in nature in pairs of atoms, including hydrogen, nitrogen, and iodine.
Foods like bananas, carrots, and fish that are high in iodine are also natural ways to stop gray hair.
In order to increase the information obtained from a conventional x ray, air or contrast media (such as barium or iodine) may be used to enhance the images.
Contrast agent-Also called a contrast medium, this is usually a barium or iodine dye that is injected into the area under investigation.
As far as human nutrition is concerned, the inorganic nutrients include water, sodium, potassium, chloride, calcium, phosphate, sulfate, magnesium, iron, fluorine, copper, zinc, chromium, manganese, iodine, selenium, and molybdenum.Advertisement
Toxic levels of iodine inhibit the secretion of thyroid hormone, resulting in lower levels of thyroid hormone in the bloodstream.
Goiter is usually caused by iodine deficiency.
In addition to goiter, iodine toxicity produces a brassy taste in the mouth, excessive production of saliva, and ulcers on the skin.
This skin condition has been called kelp acne because of its association with eating kelp, an ocean plant that contains high levels of iodine.
Iodine toxicity occurs fairly frequently in Japan, where people consume large amounts of seaweed.Advertisement
The prognosis for treating iodine toxicity is excellent.
In the case of iodine, toxicity can be prevented by avoiding overconsumption of seaweed or kelp.
Also in rare cases, the salivary glands can become blocked, develop tumors, or swell due to the use of certain drugs, such as iodine.
The minerals that are relevant to human nutrition are water, sodium, potassium, chloride, calcium, phosphate, sulfate, magnesium, iron, copper, zinc, manganese, iodine, selenium, and molybdenum.
Iodine is needed in the diet for proper thyroid function.Advertisement
The best source of iodine is fish, but table salt normally has iodine added to it, and even modest amounts of salt will meet the daily iodine requirements.
Because contrast material may contain iodine, sensitivity to contrast material may occur if the child has other allergies to iodine or seafood, and CT staff should be informed if the child has such allergies.
The thyroid stores iodine that the body obtains from food, and uses this mineral to create the thyroid hormones.
Radiation. Radioactive iodine used to treat hyperthyroidism (overactive thyroid) or radiation treatments for head or neck cancers can destroy the thyroid gland.
Because the thyroid makes T4 from iodine in food, an iodine-deficient diet can cause hypothyroidism.Advertisement
Radioactive iodine is often prescribed to damage cells that make thyroid hormone.
The cells need iodine to make the hormone, so they absorb any iodine found in the body.
The patient may take an iodine capsule daily for several weeks, resulting in the eventual shrinkage of the thyroid, reduced hormone production, and a return to normal blood levels.
Some patients may receive a single larger oral dose of radioactive iodine to treat the disease more quickly.
Some patients may be candidates for surgery because they were not good candidates for iodine therapy or refused iodine administration.Advertisement
Iodine is required for thyroid gland function and metabolizing fats.
Iodine deficiency is a public health problem in parts of the world that have iodine-deficient soils.
Iodine is needed to make thyroid hormone, which has a variety of roles in human embryo development.
Iodine deficiency occurs when soil is iodine-poor and foods grown in the soil are correspondingly low in iodine.
An iodine intake of 0.10-0.15 mg/day is considered to be nutritionally adequate.
Iodine deficiency occurs when intake is below 0.05 mg/day.
Although goiter continues to be a problem in other parts of the world, it no longer occurs in the United States because of the fortification of foods with iodine.
Iodine deficiency during pregnancy can result in cretinism in newborns, involving mental retardation and a large tongue.
Iodine deficiency is diagnosed by measuring the concentration of iodine in urine.
A urinary level greater than 0.05 mg iodine per gram of creatinine (another metabolite excreted in urine) indicates adequate iodine status.
Then, if a current is sent from the spring to the roller through the paper, a brown mark will be mace by the spring due to the liberation of iodine.
Molybdenum combines with the halogen elements in varying proportions, forming with chlorine a di-, tri-, tetraand penta-chloride, and similar compounds with bromine and iodine.
The combination, as it is ordinarily termed, of chlorine with hydrogen, and the displacement of iodine in potassium iodide by the action of chlorine, may be cited as examples; if these reactions are represented, as such reactions very commonly are, by equations which merely express the relative weights of the bodies which enter into reaction, and of the products, thus Cl = HC1 Hydrogen.
Where a solution is likely to change in composition on keeping, such as potassium permanganate, iodine, sodium hydrate, &c., it is necessary to check or re-standardize it periodically.
We may therefore regard the nitrogen atoms as occupying the centres of a cubic space lattice composed of iodine atoms, between which the hydrogen atoms are distributed on the tetrahedron face normals.
It exports iodine and immense quantities of nitrate of soda obtained from the desert region of the province.
The hyaline material, unlike the amyloid, does not give the metachromatic staining reactions with methyleneviolet or iodine.
Watery solution of iodine imparts to it a deep mahogany-brown colour; iodine and sulphuric acid occasionally, but not always, an azure-blue, methylviolet, a brilliant rose-pink and methyl-green gives a reaction very much like that of methyl-violet, but not so vivid.
The reaction with iodine is seen best by direct light; the reactions with the other substances are visible only by transmitted light.
The name "amyloid " was applied to it by Virchow on account of the blue reaction which it gives occasionally with iodine and sulphuric acid, resembling that given with vegetable cellulose.
Iodine gives usually a dark brown reaction, sometimes a deep blue; iodine and sulphuric acid almost always call forth an intense deep blue reaction; and methyl-violet usually a brilliant pink, quite resembling that of true amyloid.
Silicon tetraiodide, Si14, is formed by passing iodine vapour mixed with carbon dioxide over strongly-heated silicon (C. Friedel, Comptes rendus, 1868, 67, p. 98); the iodo-compound condenses in the colder portion of the apparatus and is purified by shaking with carbon bisulphide and with mercury.
It is an excellent solvent for gums, resins, fats, &c.; sulphur, phosphorus and iodine also dissolve in it.
Hydriodic acid reduces it to hexamethylene" (cyclo-hexane or hexa-hydro-benzene); chlorine and bromine form substitution and addition products, but the action is slow unless some carrier such as iodine, molybdenum chloride or ferric chloride for chlorine, and aluminium bromide for bromine, be present.
The mother liquors used to be thrown away, but are now utilized for the extraction of their iodine.
In 1830 he published in the Philosophical Transactions a paper on the iodine and bromine of mineral waters.
It crystallizes in small colourless needles and is easily soluble in water; the concentrated aqueous solution dissolves bromine and iodine readily.
Traces of ethyl alcohol in solutions are detected and estimated by oxidation to acetaldehyde, or by conversion into iodoform by warming with iodine and potassium hydroxide.
Skey showed that in substances which contain small quantities of gold the precious metal may be removed by the solvent action of iodine or bromine in water.
Aurous iodide, Aul, is a light-yellow, sparingly soluble powder obtained, together with free iodine, by adding potassium iodide to auric chloride; auric iodide, Au13, is formed as a dark-green powder at the same time, but it readily decomposes to aurous iodide and iodine.
Aurous iodide is also obtained as a green solid by acting upon gold with iodine.
Its advantages rest on its high density and mobility; its main disadvantages are its liability to decomposition, the originally colourless liquid becoming dark owing to the separation of iodine, and its high coefficient of expansion.
Its density may be raised to 3.65 by dissolving iodoform and iodine in it.
The pentabromide exists, but tantalum and iodine apparently do not combine.
The amount of methyl alcohol present in wood spirit is determined by converting it into methyl iodide by acting with phosphorus iodide; and the acetone by converting it into iodoform by boiling with an alkaline solution of iodine in potassium iodide; ethyl alcohol is detected by giving acetylene on heating with concentrated sulphuric acid, methyl alcohol, !under the same circumstances, giving methyl ether.
Chemical methods of sterilization have also been suggested, depending on the use of iodine, chlorine, bromine, ozone, potassium permanganate, copper sulphate or chloride and ()their substances.
It acts as an oxidizing agent, liberating iodine from potassium iodide, converting alcohol into acetaldehyde, &c.
Orthophosphoric acid, H3P04, a tribasic acid, is obtained by boiling a solution of the pentoxide in water; by oxidizing, red phosphorus with nitric acid, or yellow phosphorus under the surface of water by bromine or iodine; and also by decomposing a mineral phosphate with sulphuric acid.
Therapic and jecoleic acids apparently do not occur elsewhere in the animal kingdom, and it is probable that the therapeutic properties of the oil are associated with the presence of these acids, and not with the small amount of iodine present as was at one time supposed.
Chattaway determined its composition as N 2 H 3 I 3, by the addition of excess of standard sodium sulphite solution, in the dark, and subsequent titration of the excess of the sulphite with standard iodine.
It gradually turns yellow on standing in moist air, owing to decomposition with liberation of iodine.
For sodii bromidum, iodidum and salicylatum see Bromine, Iodine and Salicylic Acid respectively.
Potassium iodide, KI, is obtained by dissolving iodine in potash, the deoxidation of the iodate being facilitated by the addition of charcoal before ignition, proceeding as with the bromide.
Iodine dissolves in an aqueous solution of the salt to form a dark brown liquid, which on evaporation over sulphuric acid gives black acicular crystals of the tri-iodide, K1 3.
For the oxyhalogen salts see Chlorate, Chlorine, Bromine and Iodine.
The action of potassium bromide and potassium iodide has been treated under bromine and iodine (q.v.).
P. Leroux discovered that iodine vapour refracted the red rays more than the violet, the intermediate colours not being transmitted; and in 1870 Christiansen found that an alcoholic solution of fuchsine refracted the violet less than the red, the order of the successive colours being violet, red, orange, yellow; the green being absorbed and a dark interval occurring between the violet and red.
Iodine does not occur in nature in the uncombined condition, but is found very widely but sparingly distributed in the form of iodides and iodates, chiefly of sodium and potassium.
Deep-sea weeds as a rule contain more iodine than those which are found in the shallow waters.
Iodine is obtained either from kelp (the ashes of burnt seaweed) or from the mother-liquors obtained in the purification of Chile saltpetre.
In the former case the seaweed is burnt in large heaps, care being taken that too high a temperature is not reached, for if the ash be allowed to fuse much iodine is lost by volatilization.
The liquid is run into the iodine still and gently warmed, manganese dioxide in small quantities being added from time to time, when the iodine distils over and is collected.
Iodine may also be prepared by the decomposition of an iodide with chlorine, or by heating a mixture of an iodide and manganese dioxide with concentrated sulphuric acid.
Commercial iodine may be purified by mixing it with a little potassium iodide and then subliming the mixture; in this way any traces of bromine or chlorine are removed.
Stas recommends solution of the iodine in potassium iodide and subsequent precipitation by the addition of a large excess of water, the precipitate being washed, distilled in steam, and dried in vacuo over solid calcium nitrate, and then over solid caustic baryta.
Iodine is a greyish-black shining solid, possessing a metallic lustre and having somewhat the appearance of graphite.
The specific heat of iodine vapour at constant pressure is o-03489, and at constant volume o 02697.
Iodine possesses a characteristic penetrating smell, not so pungent, however, as that of chlorine or bromine.
Iodine can be readily detected by the characteristic blue coloration that it immediately gives with starch paste; the colour is destroyed on heating, but returns on cooling provided the heating has not been too prolonged.
Iodine in the presence of water frequently acts as an oxidizing agent; thus arsenious acid and the arsenites, on the addition of iodine solution, are converted into arsenic acid and arsenates.
Iodine finds application in organic chemistry, forming addition products with unsaturated compounds, the combination, however, being more slow than in the case of chlorine or bromine.
As a rule it is preferable to use iodine in the presence of a carrier, such as amorphous phosphorus or ferrous iodide or to use it with a solvent.
Hydriodic acid, HI, is formed by the direct union of its components in the presence of a catalytic agent; for this purpose platinum black is used, and the hydrogen and iodine vapour are passed over the heated substance.
On shaking up iodine with a solution of sulphuretted hydrogen in water, a solution of hydriodic acid is obtained, sulphur being at the same time precipitated.
The acid cannot be prepared by the action of concentrated sulphuric acid on an iodide on account of secondary reactions taking place, which result in the formation of free iodine and sulphur dioxide.
The usual method is to make a mixture of amorphous phosphorus and a large excess of iodine and then to allow water to drop slowly upon it; the reaction starts readily, and the gas obtained can be freed from any admixed iodine vapour by passing it through a tube containing some amorphous phosphorus.
The saturated aqueous solution is colourless and fumes strongly on exposure to air; after a time it darkens in colour owing to liberation of iodine.
It is a powerful reducing agent, and is frequently employed for this purpose in organic chemistry; thus hydroxy acids are readily reduced on heating with the concentrated acid, and nitro compounds are reduced to amino compounds, &c. It is preferable to use the acid in the presence of amorphous phosphorus, for the iodine liberated during the reduction is then utilized in forming more hydriodic acid, and consequently the original amount of acid goes much further.
The iodides can be prepared either by direct union of iodine with a metal, from hydriodic acid and a metal, oxide, hydroxide or carbonate, or by action of iodine on some metallic hydroxides or carbonates (such as those of potassium, sodium, barium, &c.; other products, however, are formed at the same time).
Nitrous acid and chlorine readily decompose them with liberation of iodine; the same effect being produced when they are heated with concentrated sulphuric acid and manganese dioxide.
Bunsen by boiling iodine with aqua regia and extracting with ether.
The trichloride, IC1 31 results from the action of excess of chlorine on iodine, or from iodic acid and hydrochloric acid, or by heating iodine pentoxide with phosphorus pentachloride.
Rohner (Ber., 1909, 42, p. 4 0 93) obtained a yellowish white oxide, of the formula I 4 0 9, which they regard as an iodate of tervalent iodine, Millon's oxide being considered a basic iodate.
Although hypoiodous acid is not known, it is extremely probable that on adding iodine or iodine monochloride to a dilute solution of a caustic alkali, hypoiodites are formed, the solution obtained having a characteristic smell of iodoform, and being of a pale yellow colour.
The solution is readily decomposed on the addition of sodium or potassium bicarbonates, with liberation of iodine.
The peculiar nature of the action between iodine and chlorine in aqueous solution has led to the suggestion that the product is a base, i.e.
Iodic Acid, H10 3, can be prepared by dissolving iodine pentoxide in water; by boiling iodine with fuming nitric acid, 61+10HN03= 6H10 3 +10N0+2H 2 O; by decomposing barium iodate with the calculated quantity of sulphuric acid, previously diluted with water, or by suspending iodine in water and passing in chlorine, 12+5C12+ 6H 2 0=2H10 3 +10HC1.
The salts, known as the iodates, can be prepared by the action of the acid on a base, or sometimes by the oxidation of iodine in the presence of a base.
They are more easily reduced than the corresponding chlorates; an aqueous solution of hydriodic acid giving free iodine and a metallic oxide, whilst aqueous hydrochloric acid gives iodine trichloride, chlorine, water and a chloride.
They are decomposed on heating, with liberation of oxygen, in some cases leaving a residue of iodide and in others a residue of oxide of the metal, with liberation of iodine as well as of oxygen.
Iodine has extensive applications in volumetric analysis, being used more especially for the determination of copper.
Stas, from the analysis of pure silver iodate, and by C. Marignac from the determinations of the ratios of silver to iodine, and of silver iodide to iodine; the mean value obtained for the atomic weight being 126.53.
In medicine iodine is frequently applied externally as a counterirritant, having powerful antiseptic properties.
In the form of certain salts iodine is very widely used, for internal administration in medicine and in the treatment of many conditions usually classed as surgical, such as the bone manifestations of tertiary syphilis.
It can be estimated quantitatively by mixing a dilute solution with potassium iodide and hydrochloric acid in excess, adding excess of zinc sulphate, neutralizing the excess of free acid with sodium bicarbonate, and determining the amount of free iodine by a standard solution of sodium thiosulphate.
It dissolves iodine and absorbs chlorine, and is decomposed by water with formation of chromic and hydrochloric acids; it takes fire in contact with sulphur, ammonia, alcohol, &c., and explodes in contact with phosphorus; it also acts as a powerful oxidizing agent.
On the Bade Insel is the Kurhaus (1872) and also the chief spring, the Elisabethquelle, impregnated with iodine and bromine, and prescribed for scrofulous, bronchial and rheumatic disorders.
When there is appreciable absorption as in the case of the vapours of chlorine, bromine, iodine, sulphur, selenium and arsenic, luminosity begins at a red heat.
Such spectra seem to be characteristic of complex molecular structure, as they appear when compounds are raised to incandescence without decomposition, or when we examine the absorption spectra of vapours such as iodine and bromine and other cases where we know that the molecule consists of more than one atom.
The experiment proves only the transparency of the gases experimented upon, and this is confirmed by the fact that bodies like bromine and iodine give on heating an emission spectrum corresponding to the absorption spectrum seen at ordinary temperatures.
The detection of the presence of chlorine or bromine or iodine in a compound is at present undecided, and it may be well that we may have to look for its effects in a different part of the spectrum.
When magnesium is heated in fluorine or chlorine or in the vapour of bromine or iodine there is a violent reaction, and the corresponding halide compounds are formed.
In preparing the Grignard reagent the commencement of the reaction is accelerated by a trace of iodine.
Besides this substance, a very similar one, Isolichenin, is also found which is distinguished from lichenin by the fact that it dissolves in cold water and turns blue under the reaction of Iodine.
A solution of iodine is also used as a test owing to the blue or wine-red colour which the thallus, hymenium or spores may give with this reagent.
The waters, which contain over 45% of salt, iodine and sulphur, are among the strongest of their kind in Europe; and are of high repute, being annually visited by more than a thousand patients.
It is an exceedingly good solvent, especially for fats, alkaloids and iodine.
At the other extreme the cell-walls of many lichen-fungi are soft and colourless, but turn blue in iodine, as does starch.
In the case of iodine, the substitution is effected by adding a warm solution of potassium iodide to the diazonium solution, no copper or cuprous salt being necessary; whilst for the production of nitriles a solution of potassium cuprous cyanide is used.
The monovalent iodine, for instance, is transformed by heating into an allotropic form, corresponding to the formula I, whereas ordinary iodine answers to I 2.
The third most valuable indication which molecular structure gives about these isomers is how to prepare them, for instance, that normal hexane, represented by CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH3, may be obtained by action of sodium on propyl iodide, CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 I, the atoms of iodine being removed from two molecules of propyl iodide, with the resulting fusion.
Generally speaking, it may be laid down that atropine is more likely than iodine to relieve a pain of quite superficial origin; and conversely.
There is, however, considerable variation in the nature of the membrane in different species; thus the cell-wall of Oedogonium, treated with sulphuric acid and iodine, turns a bright blue, while the colour is very faint in the case of Spirogyra, the wall of which is said to consist for the most part of pectose.
The ash of seaweeds, known in Scotland as kelp, and in Brittany as varec, was formerly used as a source of iodine to a greater extent than is at present the case.
It may be synthetically prepared by the fusion of cymol sulphonic acid with caustic potash; by the action of nitrous acid on 1-methyl-2-amino-4-propyl benzene; by prolonged heating of 5 parts of camphor with r part of iodine; or by heating carvol with glacial phosphoric acid.
The valuation of pyrolusite is generally carried out by means of a distillation with hydrochloric acid, the liberated chlorine passing through a solution of potassium iodide, and the amount of iodine liberated being ascertained by means of a standard solution of sodium thiosulphate.
When powdered bark is treated with tincture of iodine, little effect is visible in the case of pure cinnamon of good quality, but when cassia is present a deep-blue tint is produced, the intensity of the coloration depending on the proportion of the cassia.
Chlorine acts on it readily in the cold, bromine not so easily, and iodine only when the mixture is heated.
With chlorine, in the presence of iodine or antimony chloride, it yields meta-chlornitrobenzene.
Davy, passing through Paris on his way to Italy at the end of 1813, obtained a few fragments of iodine, which had been discovered by Bernard Courtois (1777-1838) in 1811, and after a brief examination by the aid of his limited portable laboratory perceived its analogy to chlorine and inferred it to be an element.
Cyanogen iodide and iodine monoand tri-chloride effect similar decompositions with simultaneous liberation of iodine; sulphuric acid reacts slowly, forming nickel sulphate and liberating hydrogen and carbon monoxide.
Its solution liberates chlorine from hydrochloric acid and iodine from potassium iodide.
The di-iodide is obtained as green metallic scales on passing iodine over red-hot tungsten.
The term is applied to the four elements fluorine, chlorine, bromine and iodine, on account of the great similarity of their sodium salts to ordinary sea-salt.
Thus, as the atomic weight increases, the state of aggregation changes from that of a gas in the case of fluorine and chlorine, to that of a liquid (bromine) and finally to that of the solid (iodine); at the same time the melting and boiling points rise with increasing atomic weights.
The halogen of lower atomic weight can displace one of higher atomic weight from its hydrogen compound, or from the salt derived from such hydrogen compound, while, on the other hand, the halogen of higher atomic weight can displace that of lower atomic weight, from the halogen oxy-acids and their salts; thus iodine will liberate chlorine from potassium chlorate and also from perchloric acid.
All four of the halogens unite with hydrogen, but the affinity for hydrogen decreases as the atomic weight increases, hydrogen and fluorine uniting explosively at very low temperatures and in the dark, whilst hydrogen and iodine unite only at high temperatures, and even then the resulting compound is very readily decomposed by heat.
On the other hand the stability of the known oxygen compounds increases with the atomic weight, thus iodine pentoxide is, at ordinary temperatures, a well-defined crystalline solid, which is only decomposed on heating strongly, whilst chlorine monoxide, chlorine peroxide, and chlorine heptoxide are very unstable, even at ordinary temperatures, decomposing at the slightest shock.
Iodine, antimony trichloride, molybdenum pentachloride, ferric chloride, ferric oxide, antimony, tin, stannic oxide and ferrous sulphate have all been used as chlorine carriers.
They can be distinguished from the corresponding bromides and iodides by the fact that on distillation with a mixture of potassium bichromate and concentrated sulphuric acid they yield chromium oxychloride, whereas bromides and iodides by the same treatment give bromine and iodine respectively.
Cuprous iodide, Cu 2 l 21 is obtained as a white powder, which suffers little alteration on exposure, by the direct union of its components or by mixing solutions of cuprous chloride in hydrochloric acid and potassium iodide; or, with liberation of iodine, by adding potassium iodide to a cupric salt.
The principal exports are gold, silver, copper (bars, regulus and ores), cobalt and its ores, lead and its ores, vanadium ores, manganese, coal, nitrate of soda, borate of lime, iodine, sulphur, wheat and guano.
Among the non-metallic minerals are nitrate of soda, borate of lime, coal, salt and sulphur, together with various products derived from these minerals, such as iodine, sulphuric acid, &c. Guano is classed among the mineral products and still figures as an export, though the richest Chilean deposits were exhausted long before the war with Peru.
Extensive deposits of borax and common salt have been found in the same region, which with several other products of these saline deposits, such as iodine, add considerably to its exports.
To ensure an income that would meet its foreign engagements, the government collected the nitrate and iodine taxes and import duties in gold.
Antimony tribromide, SbBr 3, and tri-iodide, SbI 31 may be prepared by the action of antimony on solutions of bromine or iodine in carbon bisulphide.
The occurrence of a starch-like substance which stains deep blue with iodine has been clearly shown in some forms even where the bacterium is growing on a medium containing no starch, as shown by Ward and others.
In other forms a substance (probably glycogen or amylo-dextrin) which turns brown with iodine has been observed.
In some cases the spore-forming protoplasm gives a blue reaction with iodine solutions.
This is the case in the methods for staining the tubercle bacillus and also in Gram's method, the essential point in which latter is the treatment with a solution of iodine before decolorizing.
The amount of iodine liberated is therefore a measure of the copper in the solution, and when the sodium thiosulphate has been carefully standardized the method is extremely accurate.
In the presence of iodine and an alkali it gives iodoform.
Nor was his action in regard to iodine calculated to conciliate.
Thymol iodide, official in the United States, is a compound of iodine and thymol; it is also known as aristol or annidalin.
It is decomposed by hydriodic acid with liberation of selenium and iodine, and by ammonia with formation of selenium and nitrogen.
By adding an alcoholic solution of iodine to a solution of the sulphate in acetic acid a compound known as herapathite, 4Qu 3H 2 SO 4.2HI Ie6H 2 O, is obtained, which possesses optical properties similar to those of tourmaline; it is soluble in Iwo parts of boiling water; and its sparing solubility in cold alcohol has been utilized for estimating quinine quantitatively.
Its chemical properties are in general intermediate between those of chlorine and iodine; thus it requires the presence of a catalytic agent, or a fairly high temperature, to bring about its union with hydrogen.
The action of bromine is sometimes accelerated by the use of compounds which behave catalytically, the more important of these substances being iodine, iron, ferric chloride, ferric bromide, aluminium bromide and phosphorus.
Boulough (Comptes rendus, 1905, 141, p. 256), who acted with dry iodine on phosphorus dissolved in carbon disulphide; with alkalis it gives P 4 (OH).
Thiel (Ber., 1905, 3 8, p. 2719 1910, 43, p. 1223), who heated sulphur with phosphorus in carbon disulphide solution with a trace of iodine to 120 0 -130 0.
In the Valcea department, besides many other iodine, sulphur and mud baths, there are the state-supported spas of Calimanescii, Caciulata and Govora, situated among some of the finest Carpathian scenery Most famous of all is Sinaia, the summer residence of the Court; while important springs exist at Lake Sarat, near Braila; at Slanic, in the Prahova department, where flooded and abandoned salt-mines are fitted up as baths; at the Tekir Ghiol mere, near Constantza; and at Baltzatesti (Baltate,itii), in the Neamtzu (Neamtu) department, a favourite resort of invalids from many parts of eastern Europe.
Hydrochloric, hydrobromic, hydriodic, hydrofluoric, nitric, phosphoric and many other acids are manufactured by the action of sulphuric acid on their salts; the alkali and chlorine industries, and also the manufacture of bromine and iodine, employ immense quantities of this acid.
In front of the aperture were placed a plate of transparent rock-salt, and a flat cell of thin glass containing a solution of iodine in carbon bisulphide.
Both rock-salt and carbon bisulphide are extremely transparent to the luminous and also to the infra-red rays The iodine in the solution, however, has the property of absorbing the luminous rays, while transmitting the infra-red rays copiously, so that in sufficient thicknesses the solution appears nearly black.
Owing to the inflammable nature of carbon bisulphide, the plate of rock-salt was found to be hardly a sufficient protection, and Tyndall surrounded the iodine cell with an annular vessel through which cold water was made to flow.
A simpler arrangement, also employed by Tyndall, is to cause the rays to be reflected outwards parallel to one another, and to concentrate them by means of a small flask, containing the iodine solution and used as a lens, placed some distance from the camera.
The important reducing agents include hydrogen, hydrides such as those of iodine, sulphur, phosphorus, &c., carbon, many metals, potassium, sodium, aluminium, magnesium, &c., salts of lower oxyacids, lower salts of metals and lower oxides.
The alcohol is first acted upon with phosphorus and iodine, and the resulting alkyl iodide is treated with silver nitrite, which gives the corresponding nitroalkyl.
Waters rich in iodine and sulphur occur in the Machva.
The most important are, the alkaline springs of Carlsbad, Marienbad, Franzensbad and Bilin; the alkaline acidulated waters of Giesshiibel, largely used as table waters; the iron springs of Marienbad, Franzensbad and of Pyrawarth in Lower Austria; the bitter waters of Piillna, Saidschitz and Sedlitz; the saline waters of Ischl and of Aussee in Styria; the iodine waters of Hall in Upper Austria; the different waters of Gastein; and lastly the thermal waters of Teplitz-SchOnau, Johannisbad, and of Rcmerbad in Styria.
The most frequented mineral springs are the alkaline springs at Szczawnica and Krynica, the sulphur springs at Krzesowice, Szklo and Lubian, and the iodine springs at Iwonicz.
For further purification, it may be sublimed, after having been previously mixed with a little powdered charcoal, or it may be mixed with a small quantity of iodine and heated.
Arsenic can also be estimated by volumetric methods; for this purpose it must be in the arsenious condition, and the method of estimation consists in converting it into the arsenic condition by means of a standard solution of iodine, in the presence of a cold saturated solution of sodium bicarbonate.
Chlorine, bromine and iodine decompose arsine readily, the action being most violent in the case of chlorine.
The tri-iodide, AsI3 prepared by subliming arsenic and iodine together in a retort, by leading arsine into an alcoholic iodine solution, or by boiling powdered arsenic and iodine with water, filtering and evaporating, forms brick-red hexagonal tables, of specific gravity 4.39, soluble in alcohol, ether and benzene, and in a large excess of water; in the presence of a small quantity of water, it is decomposed with formation of hydriodic acid and an insoluble basic salt of the composition 4AsOI.
By the action of oxidizing agents such as nitric acid, iodine solution, &c., arsenious acid is readily converted into arsenic acid, in the latter case the reaction proceeding according to the equation H3AsO3 +I2 + H2O = H3AsO4 + 2HI.
At Woodhall Spa on the Horncastle branch railway there is a much-frequented bromine and iodine spring.
A second guiding principle is afforded by the different amounts of iodine (see Oil Testing below) the various oils and fats are capable of absorbing.
The tables on the following pages contain chiefly the most important oils and fats together with their sources, yields and principal uses, arranged according to the above classification, and according to the magnitude of the iodine value.
One of the most important values in oil testing is the iodine value.
This indicates the percentage of iodine absorbed by an oil or fat when the latter is dissolved in chloroform or carbon tetrachloride, and treated with an accurately measured amount of free iodine supplied in the form of iodine chloride.
The unsaturated fatty acids which occur chiefly in oils and fats are oleic acid, iodine value 90.07; erucic acid, iodine value 75.15; linolic acid, iodine value 181.42; linolenic acid, iodine value 274.1; and clupanodonic acid, iodine value 367.7.
If one individual oil or fat is given, the iodine value alone furnishes the readiest means of finding its place in the above system, and in many cases of identifying it.
Even if a mixture of several oils and fats be present, the iodine value assists greatly in the identification of the components of the mixture, and furnishes the most important key for the attacking and resolving of this not very simple problem.
Thus it points the way to the application of a further method to resolve the isolated fatty acids of an oil or fat into saturated fatty acids, which do not absorb iodine, and into unsaturated fatty acids, which absorb iodine in various proportions as shown above.
The first class includes such substances as iodine, mercury, iron, carbon, and their various compounds, and such bodies as alcohol, chloroform and chloral, all of which are found in nature or can be prepared by ordinary chemical processes of manufacture.
Iodine has a special interest, as it is a necessary constituent of food, and is present in the secretion of the thyroid gland.
Racing to the dairy, she jerked out a drawer and removed the book, some disposable gloves, a pair of scissors, some cord and a bottle of iodine.
Right heart insufficiency and pulmonary hypertension may precipitate bradycardia and systemic hypotension, when the organic iodine solution is injected.
There is emerging evidence for the presence of reactive bromine and iodine in the troposphere.
In some parts of the world, iodine is so scarce that most of the population have goiters.
Each 85 mg potassium iodate tablet contains 50 mg equivalent mass of stable iodine.
There will also be red colors where the iodine comes into contact with the solid iodide.
He dilutes the iodine with water tho, which is better.
Often contrast agents contain iodine, which can cause allergic reaction in some individuals.
As fluid is absorbed, the pore size of the lattice increases, releasing iodine.
Clean wound with running water or with antiseptic lotion, don't use iodine or alcohol.
All river water was to be filtered and have iodine added as a disinfectant.
Therefore, we encouraged investigation of the bioavailability of iodine in iodophors and the different chemical forms of iodine in iodophors and the different chemical forms of iodine in cows' milk.
Checking for the presence of radioactive iodine in the thyroid gland.
Taking stable iodine is combined with sheltering or evacuation.
The rectal stump is then washed out with povidone iodine solution to kill any intraluminal tumor cells.
Sundberg and Meller (1997) claim that 1 gram of cadexomer iodine can absorb up to seven milliliters of body fluid.
None of the patients had had previous radioactive iodine therapy or external irradiation.
Other Information These tablets are made using finest quality wild sea kelp, a naturally rich marine source of iodine.
Iodine is required by the thyroid glands which regulates body metabolism.
I've read on an on-line debate on smoking that chrome and iodine accelerate the metabolism.
In the UK, iodine can also be found in cows ' milk.
Investigate the nature of the inhibition using the enzyme phosphatase and the inhibitors phosphate and iodine.
Radioiodine (iodine-131) This is iodine that has been made radioactive, similar to the iodine used for a scintigraphy scan.
You might like to try growing sugar crystals, copper sulfate crystals, sodium silicate crystals, potassium permanganate crystals or iodine crystals.
In females, the vagina is packed with an iodine soaked swab.
Grave's disease is widely treated, where medical methods are deemed unsatisfactory, by partial thyroidectomy, or Radioactive Iodine ablation.
The main use of iodine in the body is to make thyroxine.
Formula 4 Feet contains the amino acid tyrosine and the element iodine, which when combined, form thyroxine, the thyroid hormone.
We want to improve iodine uptake from soils into crops and then into human food.
It was verified very exactly by Stas's experiments, in which he removed the oxygen from the ternary compound silver iodate and found that the whole of the silver and the iodine remained in combination with each other as silver iodide; his results prove, to one part in ten millions, that the combining ratio of the silver and the iodine is unaltered by the removal of the oxygen.
When heated with hydriodic acid and phosphorus, it yields n-valeric acid; and with iodine and caustic soda solution it gives iodoform, even in the cold.
This is met with in the form of small granular specks in the substance of the chloroplast, specks which assume a blue color when treated with a solution of iodine.
Thus, an atom of iodine only combines with one of hydrogen, VI.
The complete conversion of stannous into stannic chloride may be effected by a great many reagents - for instance, by chlorine (bromine, iodine) readily; by mercuric chloride in the heat, with precipitation of calomel or metallic mercury; by ferric chloride in the heat, with formation of ferrous chloride; by arsenious chloride in strongly hydrochloric solutions, with precipitation of chocolate-brown metallic arsenic. All these reactions are available as tests for "stannosum" or the respective agents.
It is obvious that electrolytic iodine and bromine, and oxygen compounds of these elements, may be produced by methods similar to those applied to chlorides (see Alkali Manufacture and Chlorates), and Kellner and others have patented processes with this end in view.
According to its position in the periodic classification of the elements one would expect its atomic weight to be less than that of iodine, instead of approximately equal, and on this account many efforts have been made to isolate another element from tellurium compounds, but none have as yet been successful.
Adding iodine to table salt and other common foods has eliminated iodine deficiency in the United States.
Iodine deficiency is easily treated and prevented by consuming foods fortified with iodine, such as table salt.
In iodine deficiency, the prognosis for treating goiter is excellent.
Kelp is high in iodine, which is essential for thyroid function, as well as iron, which is needed for proper function of the blood cells.
This supplement contains vitamins C, D2, E, B1, B2, B3, B6, B12, folic acid, iodine, zinc, copper and magnesium, along with PABA, Fenugreek, Aloe Vera and silica.
Additional nutrients necessary for optimum nutrition include chloride, potassium, sodium, chromium, copper, iodine, fluoride, manganese, molybdenum, selenium, and zinc.
Cheese salt is a special kind of salt that melts easily and contains no iodine, which will kill the bacteria culture.
It can be tempting to reach for the table salt you have on hand, but the iodine in the salt will interfere with the pickling and fermentation process.
If 127 parts of iodine, which is an almost black solid, and loo parts of mercury, which is a white liquid metal, be intimately mixed by rubbing them together in a mortar, the two substances wholly disappear, and we obtain instead a brilliant red powder quite unlike the iodine or the mercury; almost the only property that is unchanged is the weight.
The atomist has an easy answer; he says that the new body is made up by the juxtaposition of the atoms of iodine and mercury, which still exist in the red powder.
His opponent would be disposed to say that the iodine and the mercury ceased to exist when the red powder was formed, that they were components but not constituents of it.
Stas, in his syntheses of silver iodide, weighed the silver and the iodine separately, and after converting them into the compound he weighed this also.
In each of a number of experiments he found that the weight of the silver iodide did not differ by one twenty-thousandth of the whole from the sum of the weights of the silver and the iodine used.
Cobalt dioxide, Co02, has not yet been isolated in the pure state; it is probably formed when iodine and caustic soda are added to a solution of a cobaltous salt.
The iodide, Co12, is produced by heating cobalt and iodine together, and forms a greyish-green mass which dissolves readily in water forming a red solution.
Boron and iodine do not combine directly, but gaseous hydriodic acid reacts with amorphous boron to form the iodide, BI 31 which can also be obtained by passing boron chloride and hydriodic acid through a red-hot porcelain tube.
Thus the equation Cl 2 -1-2KI, Aq=2KC1, Aq+12+52400 cal., or (C12) +2KI, Aq =2KC1, Aq+-I-52400 cal., would express that when gaseous chlorine acts on a solution of potassium iodide, with separation of solid iodine, 52400 calories are evolved.
It is a good solvent for sulphur, phosphorus, wax, iodine, &c. It dissociates when heated to a sufficiently high temperature.
In the second group, we may notice the application of litmus, methyl orange or phenolphthalein in alkalimetry, when the acid or alkaline character of the solution commands the colour which it exhibits; starch paste, which forms a blue compound with free iodine in iodometry; potassium chromate, which forms red silver chromate after all the hydrochloric acid is precipitated in solutions of chlorides; and in the estimation of ferric compounds by potassium bichromate, the indicator, potassium ferricyanide, is placed in drops on a porcelain plate, and the end of the reaction is shown by the absence of a blue coloration when a drop of the test solution is brought into contact with it.
The elements which play important parts in organic compounds are carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, chlorine, bromine, iodine, sulphur, phosphorus and oxygen.
Coplanar substitution in four hydrogen atoms would involve the pushing apart of the iodine atoms in four horizontal directions.
Iodine in alkaline solution converts pyrrol into iodol (tetra-iodopyrrol), crystallizing in yellowishbrown needles, which decompose on heating.
If some of the anions, instead of being simple iodine ions represented chemically by the symbol I, are complex structures formed by the union of iodine with unaltered cadmium iodide - structures represented by some such chemical formula as I(CdI 2), the concentration of the solution round the anode would be increased by the passage of an electric current, and the phenomena observed would be explained.
Thus, diminishing the concentration of the cadmium iodine solution from normal to one-twentieth normal changes the transport number from I 12 to o 64.
There are about thirty mineral springs, the best known being the salt baths of Ischl and the iodine waters at Hall.
Of its mineral springs, the best known are the sulphur springs of Baden, the iodine springs of Deutsch-Altenburg, the iron springs of Pyrawarth, and the thermal springs of Voslau.
C. Brodie in 1853 showed that a trace of iodine also expedited the change_ The same form is also produced by submitting ordinary phosphorus to the silent electric discharge, to sunlight or the ultraviolet light.
It gives a characteristic red-brown reaction with iodine solution.
In its medicinal use glycerin is an excellent solvent for such substances as iodine, alkaloids, alkalis, &c., and is therefore used for applying them to diseased surfaces, especially as it aids in their absorption.
Iodine unites with silver in the proportion of 126.97 parts to 107.93 parts of the latter, but it combines with chlorine in two proportions, viz.
Lastly, in the production of gaseous hydriodic acid from hydrogen and solid iodine H2 - 1 - 12=HI+HI, so much energy is expended in the decomposition of the hydrogen and iodine molecules and in the conversion of the iodine into the gaseous condition, that the heat which it may be supposed is developed by the combination of the hydrogen and iodine atoms is insufficient to balance the expenditure, and the final result is therefore negative; hence it is necessary in forming hydriodic acid from its elements to apply heat continuously.