They add on alkyl iodides readily, forming alkyl azonium salts.
The chloride,CdC1 2, bromide,CdBr 2, and iodide,Cdl2,arealsoknown, cadmium iodide being sometimes used in photography, as it is one of the few iodides which are soluble in alcohol.
Taking as types hydrogen, hydrochloric acid, water and ammonia, he postulated that all organic compounds were referable to these four forms: the hydrogen type included hydrocarbons, aldehydes and ketones; the hydrochloric acid type, the chlorides, bromides and iodides; the water type, the alcohols, ethers, monobasic acids, acid anhydrides, and the analogous sulphur compounds; and the ammonia type, the amines, acid-amides, and the analogous phosphorus and arsenic compounds.
We may also notice that thio-ethers combine with alkyl iodides to form sulphide or sulphonium compounds, R3; SI.
A sublimate may be formed of: sulphur - reddish-brown drops, cooling to a yellow to brown solid, from sulphides or mixtures; iodine - violet vapour, black sublimate, from iodides, iodic acid, or mixtures; mercury and its compounds - metallic mercury forms minute globules, mercuric sulphide is black and becomes red on rubbing, mercuric chloride fuses before subliming, mercurous chloride does not fuse, mercuric iodide gives a yellow sublimate; arsenic and its compounds - metallic arsenic gives a grey mirror, arsenious oxide forms white shining crystals, arsenic sulphides give reddish-yellow sublimates which turn yellow on cooling; antimony oxide fuses and gives a yellow acicular sublimate; lead chloride forms a white sublimate after long and intense heating.
For instance, constant differences are found between the chlorides, bromides and iodides of sodium and potassium According to H.
Kryst., 1902, 36, p. 268) on ammonium and the quaternary ammonium iodides, of J.
They may also be prepared by the reduction of primary nitro compounds with stannous chloride and concentrated hydrochloric acid; by the reduction of unsaturated nitro compounds with minium amalgam or zinc dust in the presence of dilute acetic acid' Bouveault, Comptes rendus, 1902, 134, p. 1145):R2C:[[Chno 2 -R 2 C: Ch Nhoh - R 2 Ch Ch: Noh]], and by the action of alkyl iodides on the sodium salt of nitro-hydroxylamine (A.
The thiazoles are somewhat basic in character, and combine with the alkyl iodides to form thiazolium iodides.
Grignard (Comptes Rendus, 1900 et seq.) showed that aldehydes combine with magnesium alkyl iodides (in absolute ether solution) to form addition products, which are decomposed by water with the formation of secondary alcohols, thus from acetaldehyde and magnesium methyl iodide, isopropyl alcohol is obtained.
Aiphatic Nitro Compounds.-The nitroparaffins may be obtained by the action of the alkyl iodides on silver nitrite (V.
Both iodides combine with ammonia.
The nitrate of this base (known as nitron) is so insoluble that nitrates may be gravimetrically estimated with its help. These bases combine with the alkyl iodides to yield quaternary ammonium salts.
hope dealing elements of disease, with its first beginnings; and in the field of therapeutics, chemical and biological experiment, as in the case of digitalis, mercury and the iodides, was rapidly simplifying remedies and defining their virtues, so that these agents could be used at the bedside with more precision.
They combine readily with the alkyl iodides to form alkyl acridinium iodides, which are readily transformed by the action of alkaline potassium ferricyanide to N-alkyl acridones.
The normal esters may be prepared by the action of silver carbonate on the alkyl iodides, or by the action of alcohols on the chlorcarbonic esters.
With ammonia and alkaline bromides and iodides double salts are formed.
By the action of ammonia on the alkyl iodides a complex mixture of primary, secondary and tertiary amines, along with a quaternary ammonium salt, is obtained, the separation of which is difficult.
The corresponding iodides are obtained by the addition of potassium iodide to solutions of the sulphonates, and are optically active antipodes.
When heated with alkyl or aryl iodides, they are converted into secondary and tertiary amines.
The mixed secondary amines are prepared by the action of alkyl iodides on the primary amines, or by heating salts of the primary amine with alcohols under pressure.
On treatment with zinc and alkyl iodides or with zinc alkyls they are converted into esters of hydroxy-dialkyl acetic acids.
The bromides and iodides resemble the chlorides.
Thoulet's solution, an aqueous solution of potassium and mercuric iodides (potassium iodo-mercurate), introduced by Thoulet and subsequently investigated by V.
rend., 1905, p. 141) has investigated the solutions of mercuric iodide in other alkaline iodides; sodium iodo-mercurate solution has a density of 3.46 at 26°, and gives with an excess of water a dense precipitate of mercuric iodide, which dissolves without decomposition in alcohol; lithium iodo-mercurate solution has a density of 3.28 at 25.6°; and ammonium iodo-mercurate solution a density of 2.98 at 26°.
Rohrbach's solution, an aqueous solution of barium and mercuric iodides, introduced by Carl Rohrbach, has a density of 3.588.
Iodides are also known.
3, p. 319.) Ammonia finds a wide application in organic chemistry as a synthetic reagent; it reacts with alkyl iodides to form amines, with esters to form acid amides, with halogen fatty acids to form amino-acids; while it also combines with isocyanic esters to form alkyl ureas and with the mustard oils to form alkyl thioureas.
Iodine does not occur in nature in the uncombined condition, but is found very widely but sparingly distributed in the form of iodides and iodates, chiefly of sodium and potassium.
Sulphuric acid is now added to the liquid, and any alkaline sulphides and sulphites present are decomposed, while iodides and bromides are converted into sulphates, and hydriodic and hydrobromic acids are liberated and remain dissolved in the solution.
It is only very sparingly soluble in water, but dissolves readily in solutions of the alkaline iodides and in alcohol, ether, carbon bisulphide, chloroform, and many liquid hydrocarbons.
Its solutions in the alkaline iodides and in alcohol and ether are brown in colour, whilst in chloroform and carbon bisulphide the solution is violet.
It has all the characteristics of an acid, dissolving many metals with evolution of hydrogen and formation of salts, called iodides.
The iodides can be prepared either by direct union of iodine with a metal, from hydriodic acid and a metal, oxide, hydroxide or carbonate, or by action of iodine on some metallic hydroxides or carbonates (such as those of potassium, sodium, barium, &c.; other products, however, are formed at the same time).
The iodides as a class resemble the chlorides and bromides, but are less fusible and volatile.
Silver iodide, mercurous iodide, and mercuric iodide are insoluble in water; lead iodide is sparingly soluble, whilst most of the other metallic iodides are soluble.
Strong heating decomposes the majority of the iodides.
The soluble iodides, on the addition of silver nitrate to their nitric acid solution, give a yellow precipitate of silver iodide, which is insoluble in ammonia solution.
Hydriodic acid and the iodides may be estimated by conversion into silver iodide.
The most commonly used salt is the iodide of potassium; the iodides of sodium and ammonium are almost as frequently employed, and those of calcium and strontium are in occasional use.
In its tertiary stages - and also earlier - this disease yields in the most rapid and unmistakable fashion to iodides; so much so that the administration of these salts is at present the best means of determining whether, for instance, a cranial tumour be syphilitic or not.
The essential part of the medicinal treatment of this condition is the administration of iodides, which are able to decompose the insoluble albuminates of lead which have become locked up in the tissues, rapidly causing their degeneration, and to cause the excretion of the poisonous metal by means of the intestine and the kidneys.
The following is a list of the principal conditions in which iodides are recognized to be of definite value: metallic poisonings, as by lead and mercury, asthma, aneurism, arteriosclerosis, angina pectoris, gout, goitre, syphilis, haemophilia, Bright's disease (nephritis) and bronchitis.
Gautier (Ann., 1869, 151, p. 239) by the action of alkyl iodides on silver cyanide, and the distillation of the resulting compound with potassium cyanide in concentrated aqueous solution: RIR Ag(NC) 2 -)R NC+KAg(NC)2.
Soc., 1902, 81, p. 1 59 6) who showed that the products obtained by the action of alkyl iodides on the isonitriles in alcoholic solution at 100° C. yield amine hydroidides and formic acid when hydrolysed.
- Considerable discussion has taken place as to the structure of the metallic cyanides, since potassium cyanide and silver cyanide react with alkyl iodides to form nitriles and isonitriles respectively, thus apparently pointing to the fact that these two compounds possess the formulae KCN and AgNC. The metallic cyanides are analogous to the alkyl isocyanides, since they form soluble double silver salts, and the fact that ethyl ferrocyanide on distillation yields ethyl isocyanide also points to their isocyanide structure.
10 a Analogous bromine and iodine compounds are unknown, since bromides and iodides on heating with potassium bichromate and concentrated sulphuric acid give free bromine or free iodine.
By heating magnesium filings with methyl and ethyl iodides A.
The compounds formed by the action of magnesium on alkyl iodides in the cold have been largely used in synthetic organic Gri chemistry since V.
They can be distinguished from the corresponding bromides and iodides by the fact that on distillation with a mixture of potassium bichromate and concentrated sulphuric acid they yield chromium oxychloride, whereas bromides and iodides by the same treatment give bromine and iodine respectively.
The waters are tasteless and inodorous, and contain calcium and magnesium bicarbonates, combinations of hydrogen and silicon, and of iodides, bromides and lithium.
It may be diminished or its increase prevented by a diet from which red meat and meat extracts are excluded, by the use of the lactic acid bacillus, by the administration of laxatives and cholagogues to regulate the bowels, and by the use of iodides and nitrites.
(K-k) 2 = 2T/gp the specific cohesion, we may state the general results of his experiments as follows: The bromides and iodides have a specific cohesion about half that of mercury.
Ladenburg that the pyridinium alkyl iodides rearrange themselves when strongly heated and yield a and -y alkyl pyridines (Ber., 1883, 16, p. 1410 seq.; Ann., 1888, 247, p. I).
Similar bromides and iodides are known.
Water and the caustic alkalis readily decompose it with liberation of phosphine and the formation of iodides or hydriodic acid.
Phosphorus forms three iodides.
In 1855 Adolph Wurtz had shown that when sodium acted upon alkyl iodides, the alkyl residues combined to form more complex hydrocarbons; Fittig developed this method by showing that a mixture of an aromatic and alkyl haloid, under similar treatment, yielded homologues of benzene.
Arsenic certainly forms two, or possibly three iodides.
It combines with alkaline iodides to form very unstable compounds.
The tertiary arsines, such as As(CH3)3, trimethyl arsine, and the quaternary arsonium iodides and hydroxides, (CH3)4AsI and (CH3)4AsOH, tetramethyl arsonium iodide and hydroxide, have been obtained.
Aniline combines directly with alkyl iodides to form secondary and tertiary amines; boiled with carbon disulphide it gives sulphocarbanilide (diphenyl thio-urea), CS(NHC 6 H 5) 2, which may be decomposed into phenyl mustard-oil, C 6 H 5 CNS, and triphenyl guanidine, C 6 H 5 N: C(NHC6H5)2.
Sodium nitrate, potassium nitrate, potassium chloride, ammonium chloride, the alkaline iodides and bromides, also belong partly to this group, although most of them have also specific actions.
Apart from certain conditions of ill health, the iodides, as such, have no very marked influence on the healthy body beyond their saline action.
All the salts are explosive and readily interact with the alkyl iodides.
Much more research is required to unravel the ecological significance (if any) of the alkyl iodides.
These compounds may be obtained by heating the alkylen iodides or bromides (e.g.
The primary amines may also be prepared by heating the alkyl iodides with ammonia (A.
CON 3 --> RÃ¯¿½NHÃ¯¿½CO 2 C 2 H 5 - R.NH2 azide urethane The secondary amines are prepared, together with the primary and tertiary, by the action of ammonia on the alkyl iodides (see below), or by the hydrolysis of para-nitroso derivatives ` of tertiary aromatic amines, such as para-nitrosodimethylaniline, thus: NOÃ¯¿½C 6 H 4 Ã¯¿½N(CH 3) 2 Ã¯¿½ H 2 O = NOÃ¯¿½C 6 H 4.
rend., 1905, p. 141) has investigated the solutions of mercuric iodide in other alkaline iodides; sodium iodo-mercurate solution has a density of 3.46 at 26Ã‚°, and gives with an excess of water a dense precipitate of mercuric iodide, which dissolves without decomposition in alcohol; lithium iodo-mercurate solution has a density of 3.28 at 25.6Ã‚°; and ammonium iodo-mercurate solution a density of 2.98 at 26Ã‚°.
No surgeon would think of operating on such a case until iodides had been freely administered and, by failing to cure, had proved the disease to be non-syphilitic. Another instance of this deobstruent power - "alterative," it was formerly termed - is seen in the case of chronic lead poisoning.
They may be prepared by heating the alkyl iodides with potassium cyanide; by heating sulphuric acid esters with potassium cyanide; by distilling the acid-amides with phosphorus pentoxide; and by distilling amines (containing more than five atoms of carbon) with bromine and potash (A.
Soc., 1902, 81, p. 1 59 6) who showed that the products obtained by the action of alkyl iodides on the isonitriles in alcoholic solution at 100Ã‚° C. yield amine hydroidides and formic acid when hydrolysed.
The primary and secondary phosphines are produced when the alkyl iodides are heated with phosphonium iodide and zinc oxide to 150Ã‚° C. (A.
Thenard (Comptes rendus, 45, P 44; 47, 5, 892), are formed (together with the quaternary phosphonium salts) by heating alkyl iodides with phosphonium iodide to 150-180Ã‚° C.: PH 4 I+3CH 3 I = P(CH3)3HI + 3HI; P(CH 3) 3 HI + CH 3 I = P(CH 3) 4 I + HI (see also Fireman, Ber., 1897, 30, p. 1088).
Medication. Nitroprusside, lithium, or iodides can induce hypothyroidism.
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