How to use Investigations in a sentence
Lenard and Helmholtz, contain many biographical details, together with statements of the scope and significance of his investigations.
He had no taste for historical investigations.
The article listed past instances of use, admitting on rare occasions the psychic proved helpful to police investigations.
Their sense-organs require renewed investigations.
Miles made his adventurous journey through Oman, while Theodore Bent threw searchlights backwards into ancient Semitic history by his investigations in the Bahrein Islands in 1888 and in Hadramut in 1894 - 181n northern Asia it is impossible to follow in detail the results of the organized Russian surveys.Advertisement
The different threads of social activity are so closely interwoven that we cannot follow any one for very long without forming wrong impressions, and it becomes necessary to turn back and study others which seemed at first sight unrelated to the subject of our investigations.
There are very few questions of public or commercial importance upon which the best and most recent investigations are to be found amongst English works.
The high degree of civilization then prevailing in the country is proved by its architectural remains dating from the early Christian centuries; the investigations of De Vogue, Butler and others, have shown that from the 1st to the 7th century there prevailed in north Syria and the Hauran a special style of architecture - partly, no doubt, following Graeco-Roman models, but also showing a great deal of originality in details.
The theory of proportion, and the study of acoustics and music were considerably advanced by his investigations.
The processes and extent of the manufacture were revolutionized at about the beginning of the 19th century by Chevreul's classical investigations on the fats and oils, and by Leblanc's process for the manufacture of caustic soda from common salt.Advertisement
Papers on "The Levirate and Polyandry," following up the line of his previous investigations (Fortnightly Review, 1877), were the last work he was able to publish.
Arago, with whom he had already carried out investigations on the refractive properties of different gases, in the measurement of an arc of the meridian in Spain, and in subsequent years he was engaged in various other geodetic determinations.
The fact that spring water is not now found in this locality is by no means fatal to the theory; recent engineering investigations have shown that much of the surface water of the Attic plain has sunk to a lower level.
Important researches at Epidaurus, Eleusis, Mycenae, Amyclae and Rhamnus may be numbered among its principal undertakings, in addition to the complete exploration of the Acropolis and a series of investigations in Athens and Attica.
The monuments of the Byzantine epoch have latterly occupied a prominent place in its investigations.Advertisement
First and foremost, he demanded that the balance must be used in all investigations into chemical changes.
At all times the air had received attention, especially since van Helmont made his far-reaching investigations on gases.
By his insistence upon the use of the balance as a quantitative check upon the masses involved in all chemical reactions, Lavoisier was enabled to establish by his own investigations and the results achieved by others the principle now known as the " conservation of mass."
The great number and striking character of the compounds of this group of metals have formed the subject of many investigations, and already there is a most voluminous literature.
By his own investigations and those of Sir Edward Frankland it was proved that the radical methyl existed in acetic acid; and by the electrolysis of sodium acetate, Kolbe concluded that he had isolated this radical; in this, however, he was wrong, for he really obtained ethane, C 2 H 6, and not methyl, CH 3.Advertisement
From similar investigations of valerianic acid he was led to conclude that fatty acids were oxygen compounds of the radicals hydrogen, methyl, ethyl, &c., combined with the double carbon equivalent C2.
The next advance was made by Joseph Louis Proust, whose investigations led to a clear grasp of the law of constant proportions.
This subject has occupied a dominant position in physico-chemical research since the investigations of van't Hoff and Arrhenius.
Mendeleeff endeavoured to obtain a connexion between surface energy and constitution; more successful were the investigations of Schiff, who found that the " molecular surface tension," which he defined as the surface tension divided by the weight.
Other substituent groups exercise morphotropic effects similar to those exhibited by the alkyl radicles; investigations have been made on halogen-, hydroxy-, and nitro-derivatives of benzene and substituted benzenes.Advertisement
Philological investigations show that it is probable that the progenitors I From the enlistment of Kabyles speaking the Zouave dialect the Zouave regiments of the French army came to be so called.
But as a matter of fact no small part of the interest and value of investigations in this field of inquiry lies in the relationships which may thereby be established between biological and psychological interpretations.
All these views have, however, been cast in the shade by more recent investigations based on minute literary analysis of the Pentateuch, begun by Graf, continued by Kuenen, and culminating in the work of Wellhausen and Robertson Smith.
He also pushed his investigations into the great temple of Edfu, visited Elephantine and Philae, cleared the great temple at Abu Simbel of sand (1817), made excavations at Karnak, and opened up the sepulchre of Seti I.
In 1823 extensive explorations of the Minnesota and Red River valleys were conducted by Major Stephen Harriman Long (1784-1864), and subsequently (1834-1836) knowledge of the region was extended by the investigations of the artist George Catlin (1796-1872), the topographer George William Featherstonhaugh (1780-1866), and the geologist Jean Nicholas Nicollett (1786-1843).Advertisement
Orthodox in practice and feeling, his critical treatment of the rabbinic literature prepared the way for the scientific investigations of the 19th century.
These investigations, together with his discovery of the "wonderful phenomenon" of polarization, are recorded in his Traite de la lumiere, published at Leiden in 1690, but composed in 1678.
A volume entitled Opera posthuma (Leiden, 1703) contained his "Dioptrica," in which the ratio between the respective focal lengths of object-glass and eye-glass is given as the measure of magnifying power, together with the shorter essays De vitris figurandis, De corona et parheliis, &c. An early tract De ratiociniis tin ludo aleae, printed in 16J7 with Schooten's Exercitationes mathematicae, is notable as one of the first formal treatises on the theory of probabilities; nor should his investigations of the properties of the cissoid, logarithmic and catenary curves be left unnoticed.
But it was the occupation of Tunisia by the French in 1881 which really gave the impetus to modern investigations in this district of ruined cities.
This, and allied alkaloids, have formed the subject of many investigations by Wyndham Dunstan and his pupils in England, and by Martin Freund and Paul Beck in Berlin.Advertisement
The factor of proportionality will be I-41r, so that ' The principal theoretical investigations are summarized in Mascart and Joubert's Electricity and Magnetism, i.
He began his experimental work in 1841 with investigations of oil of turpentine and tolu balsam, in the course of which he discovered toluene.
He first took up the subject about 1857, and it was in the course of his investigations on it that he devised the apparatus known as the " Deville hot and cold tube."
Joao Barbosa Rodrigues has done some good work in botany, especially in the study of the palms of the Amazon, and Joao Baptista de Lacerda has made important biological investigations at the national museum of Rio de Janeiro.
Its investigations pointed to the loosening of tribal ties and to the corresponding growth of a spirit of individual independence.Advertisement
Beyond appearing at the meetings of learned societies he took little part in public affairs; he lived alone, conducting his investigations in a deliberate and exhaustive manner, but in the most rigid seclusion, no person being admitted to his laboratory on any pretext.
Astronomy was also enriched by his investigations, and he was led to several remarkable theorems on conics which bear his name.
It was followed by a series of profound investigations, in which Lagrange and Laplace alternately surpassed and supplemented each other in assigning limits of variation to the several elements of the planetary orbits.
By it his extraordinary analytical powers became strictly subordinated to physical investigations.
The commencement of anatomical investigations deserves notice here as influencing the general accuracy and minuteness with which zoological work was prosecuted, but it was not until a late date that their full influence was brought to bear upon systematic zoology by Georges Cuvier (1769-1832).Advertisement
It was the application of Fritz Miller's law of recapitulation which gave the chief stimulus to embryological investigations between 1865 and 1890; and, though it is now recognized that " recapitulation " is vastly and bewilderingly modified by special adaptations in every case, yet the principle has served, and still serves, as a guide of great value.
Later investigations by Fraunhofer, Airy and others have greatly widened the field, and under the head of " diffraction " are now usually treated all the effects dependent upon the limitation of a beam of light, as well as those which arise from irregularities of any kind at surfaces through which it is transmitted, or at which it is reflected.
The principle employed in these investigations is due to C. Huygens, and may be thus formulated.
In theoretical investigations these problems are usually treated as of two dimensions only, everything being referred to the plane passing through the luminous point and perpendicular to the diffracting edges, supposed to be straight and parallel.
Wellhausen made his name famous by his critical investigations into Old Testament history and the composition of the Hexateuch, the uncompromising scientific attitude he adopted in testing its problems bringing him into antagonism with the older school of biblical interpreters.Advertisement
Descartes strengthened these views, both by experiments and geometrical investigations, in his Meteors (Leiden, 1637).
The geometrical theory, which formed the basis of the investigations of Descartes and Newton, afforded no explanation of the supernumerary bows, and about a century elapsed before an explanation was forthcoming.
The later investigations of Richard Potter and especially of Sir George Biddell Airy have proved the correctness of Young's idea.
Recent investigations point to the conclusion that the immediate cause of the arrest of vitality, in the first place, and of its destruction, in the second, is the coagulation of certain substances in the protoplasm, and that the latter contains various coagulable matters, which solidify at different temperatures.
Although we have not reached a stage of certainty regarding their origin, function and destiny, recent investigations have brought forward evidence to elucidate the importance of the part played by the different cells in the various types of the inflammatory process.
Their investigations on cancers found in the lower animals, and the successful transplantation of such growths into a new host of the same species (mice and rats), have greatly advanced our knowledge of the etiology of this disease.
He held his prefecture for fourteen years; and it was during this period that he carried on his elaborate and fruitful investigations on the conduction of heat.
In 1872, Hoppe-Seyler (1825-1895) gave a new beginning to our knowledge of the chemistry of secretion and of excretion; and later students have increased the range of physiological and pathological chemistry by investigations not only into the several stages of albuminoid material and the transitions which all foodstuffs undergo in digestion, but even into the structure of protoplasm itself.
Among the revisions may be adduced some addition to our knowledge of dyspepsia, attained by analytic investigations into the contents of the stomach at various stages of digestion, and by examining the passage of opaque substances through the primae vine by the Rntgen rays.
The first two books enable us better than anything else in ancient literature to appreciate the boldness and, on the whole, the reasonableness of the ancient mind in forming hypotheses on great matters that still occupy the investigations of physical science.
Recent investigations have shown an alarming increase in mortality from miners' phthisis in Cornwall, South Africa and elsewhere.
In 1815 he had carried on historical investigations in Venice, and in the two following years he had travelled in Germany, Switzerland and Italy.
The structure of glass has been the subject of repeated investigations.
The investigations on magnetism led to the important practical discovery of a means of rectifying or compensating compass errors in ships.
At a time when the Cartesian system of vortices universally prevailed, he found it necessary to investigate that hypothesis, and in the course of his investigations he showed that the velocity of any stratum of the vortex is an arithmetical mean between the velocities of the strata which enclose it; and from this it evidently follows that the velocity of a filament of water moving in a pipe is an arithmetical mean between the velocities of the filaments which surround it.
Julius Weisbach (1806-1871) also made many experimental investigations on the discharge of fluids.
For the promulgation of these views, which were confessedly at variance with the doctrines of the standards of the national church of Scotland, he was summoned (1726) before his presbytery, where in the course of the investigations which followed he affirmed still more explicitly his belief that "every national church established by the laws of earthly kingdoms is antichristian in its constitution and persecuting in its spirit," and further declared opinions upon the subject of church government which amounted to a repudiation of Presbyterianism and an acceptance of the puritan type of Independency.
The knowledge of the cause, however, is due to modern investigations.
His contributions to inorganic chemistry were numerous, including investigations on the compounds of antimony, aluminium, silicon, &c., on the separation of nickel and cobalt, and on the analysis of mineral waters, but they are outweighed in importance by his work on organic substances.
About 1832 he began his investigations into the constitution of ether and alcohol and their derivatives.
For thirty years he laboured with ever-increasing success, due not to any attractions of manner or to the enunciation of novel or bizarre opinions, but to the soundness of his investigations, the impartiality of his judgments, and the clearness of his method.
His investigations show that the Dhahira contains many settlements, with an industrious agricultural population, and that the unexplored tract extending 250 m.
Having successfully completed his investigations and sent copies of inscriptions and drawings of the tombs to Renan in Paris, he determined to push on farther into the desert.
The scandals that resulted led to investigations and severe restrictions, and their employment now has become a matter of voluntary contract, usually for two years, in which fair dealing and good treatment are the rule.
Much of his work was concerned with specific volumes, the conception of which he set forth in a paper published when he was only twenty-two years of age; and the principles he established have formed the basis of subsequent investigations in that subject, although his results have in some cases undergone modification.
The action of lithontriptic medicines,, especially lime-water, was one of the questions of the day, and through his investigations of this subject Black was led to the chemical discoveries associated with his name.
For further details of his mathematical investigations see the articles Theory of groups, and Functions Of Complex Variables.
While a comparison of his expositions of the Pauline and Johannine Christologies with the earlier Unitarian exegesis in which he had been trained shows how wide is the interval, the work does not represent a mind that had throughout its history lived and worked in the delicate and judicial investigations he here tried to conduct.
The investigations of Japanese botanists are adding constantly to the above number, and it is not likely that finality will be reached for some time.
He then spent some time in Holland, and the results of his investigations appeared at the Hague in 1766 in his Elenchus Zoophytorum and Miscellanea Zoologica, and in1767-1804in his Spicilegia Zoologica (Berlin).
The Phase Rule of Willard Gibbs, especially as developed by Bakhuis Roozeboom, is a most useful guide in such investigations.
This is only one of many cases where the investigations of the archaeologist have proved not iconoclastic but reconstructive, tending to restore confidence in classical traditions which the scientific historians of the age of Niebuhr and George Cornewall Lewis regarded with scepticism.
On his final return to Basel in 1682, he devoted himself to physical and mathematical investigations, and opened a public seminary for experimental physics.
In his investigations respecting cycloidal lines and various spiral curves, his attention was directed to the loxodromic and logarithmic spirals, in the last of which he took particular interest from its remarkable property of reproducing itself under a variety of conditions.
In one of his early investigations he gave an ingenious though indirect demonstration of the problem of the parallelogram of forces.
Several of his investigations are contained in the earlier volumes of the Comment.
The National Physical Laboratory, for making scientific investigations of industrial importance, and for mechanical testing, was opened in Bushey House in 1902.
Lord Rayleigh has made many investigations of the absolute densities of gases, one of which, namely on atmospheric and artificial nitrogen, undertaken in conjunction with Sir William Ramsay, culminated in the discovery of argon.
The pursuit of these isolated investigations where very important investigations have been made.
Maury, however, recognized that in great depths on the " Washington " and by the Austrians on the " Pola " the surest guarantee of bottom having been reached was to bring in 1890-1893, the latter carrying the investigations to the Red up a sample of the deposit.
According to the investigations of Svante Arrhenius the osmotic pressure in atmospheres may be obtained by simply multiplying the temp rature of freezing (r) by the factor -12.08, and it varies with temperature (t) according to the law which holds good for gaseous pressure.
The investigations of Aime in 1845 and Hensen in 1889 indicate that the amount of cloud has a great effect.
Such formations, termed toross by the Russians, may extend under water, according to Makaroff's investigations, to at least an equal depth.
Modern investigations have shown, however, that the relationship is by no means so simple as appears at first.
His investigations into the usages and customs of his native Attica were embodied in an Atthis, in seventeen books, a history of Athens from the earliest times to 262 B.C. Considerable fragments are preserved in the lexicographers, scholiasts, Athenaeus, and elsewhere.
His investigations had led him to see that a certain affinity or resemblance existed amongst many of the authorities for the Greek text - MSS., versions, and ecclesiastical writers; that if a peculiar reading, e.g., was found in one of these, it was generally found also in the other members of the same class; and this general relationship seemed to point ultimately to a common origin for all the authorities which presented such peculiarities.
The investigations of the most recent of Talleyrand's biographers tend to show that the charges made against him of trafficking with the envoys have been overdrawn; but all his apologists admit that irregularities occurred.
On his return he removed to Berlin, where he lived as a royal pensioner till his death, which occurred on the 18th of February 18 His investigations in elliptic functions, the theory of which he established upon quite a new basis, and more particularly his development of the theta-function, as given in his great treatise Fundamenta nova theoriae functionum ellipticarum (Konigsberg, 1829), and in later papers in Crelle's Journal, constitute his grandest analytical discoveries.
Subsequent psycho-physical investigations have all been in the spirit of his work; and although he consistently advocated the introspective method in psychological investigation, he was among the first to appreciate the help that may be given to it by animal and social and infant psychology.
Later investigations disclosed that the state actually owed him more than $90,000.
He made three investigations of the case in the three successive months, and brought it to trial in the fourth month.
The first competition in connexion with alcohol as a fuel for motor vehicles took place in France in 1901, followed in the next year by German investigations, but its employment for this purpose did not make much headway.
Investigations started in 1920 by the British Government, in connexion with the production of alcohol for power purposes, have shown, however, that there are large areas of suitable land in the British Empire where the cost of production would be comparatively low, and where it might be possible to grow vegetable substances in excess of food requirements, and in sufficient quantities to produce alcohol for local consumption to replace expensive petrol.
Other institutional investigations have been prosecuted, the result of all which will be an intelligent comprehension of the philology of a primitive race.
These investigations lead, in turn, to further formulae, which, though not obtainable by elementary methods, are nevertheless simple in themselves and of practical utility.
But in addition to these and numberless other investigations for which he was responsible the influence he exercised through his pupils must also be taken into account.
Smith, though recognizing the unpleasantness of beats, could not accept Sauveur's theory, and, indeed, it received no acceptance till it was rediscovered by Helmholtz, to whose investigations, recorded in his Sensations of Tone, we owe its satisfactory establishment.
Among more recent investigations are those of Howorth, Proc. Soc. of Bibl.
A new form of condenser was tested on the small engine employed, and the results it yielded formed the starting-point of a series of investigations which were aided by a special grant from the Royal Society, and were described in an elaborate memoir presented to it on the 13th of December 1860.
On the whole, however, he modified the positions of the founder of the Tubingen school, going beyond him only in his investigations into the Fourth Gospel.
He is, however, chiefly known by the statistical investigations which occupied him from 1823 onward.
Foucault, he engaged in a series of investigations on the interference of light and heat.
Recent investigations are described in the Reports of the Fishery Board for Scotland, and in the reports of the German Kommission zur Untersuchung der Deutschen Meere (published at Kiel).
The investigations which have been carried on in recent years by King, Tallquist and Zimmern, as well as by Briinnow and Craig, on the magic and ritual of Babylonia and Assyria have been fruitful of results.
Devoting his evenings to private investigations in a rough laboratory fitted up at his home, Perkin was fired by some remarks of Hofmann's to undertake the artificial production of quinine.
About the same time he also carried out a series of investigations into kindred substances, such as anthrapurpurin.
For this work he was in 1889 awarded a Davy medal by the Royal Society, which ten years previously had bestowed upon him a Royal medal in recognition of his investigations in the coal-tar colours.
In recent times many interesting geological and anthropological investigations have been carried on in Poland.
With all the important work he accomplished in physics - the enunciation of Boyle's law, the discovery of the part taken by air in the propagation of sound, and investigations on the expansive force of freezing water, on specific gravities and refractive powers, on crystals, on electricity, on colour, on hydrostatics, &c. - chemistry was his peculiar and favourite study.
Their primary object is to gratify the pleasure most persons take in viewing at close range the curious and beautiful living products of nature, but they serve also as means of instruction in natural history, providing material for museums and for investigations in comparative anatomy and pathology, while they may have a commercial value as pleasure resorts, or as show grounds for the display of animals that have been imported or bred for sale.
The eldest, Lawrence Parsons, 4th earl of Rosse, and Baron Oxmantown, born on the 17th of November 1840, succeeded to the title on his father's death, and made many investigations on the heavenly bodies, particularly on the radiation of the moon and related physical questions; the youngest, the Hon.
The latter work contains elaborate investigations in regard to the centre of gravity, and it is remarkable also for the employment of the principle of virtual velocities.
The French government publication, Exploration scientifique de l'Algerie (20 vols., 1844-1853), gives the results of investigations made in 1840-1842.
Opinions differ as to the correctness of the results reached by WH, but there is scarcely room for doubt that as an example of method their work is quite unrivalled at present and is the necessary starting-point for all modern investigations.
More recent investigations have confirmed their view as to the relation of the Alexandrian to the Neutral text, but have thrown doubt on the age and widespread use of the latter.
Careful investigations have supported the theory that Micronesia was peopled largely from the Philippines or some portion of the Malay Archipelago at a much later period than the Polynesian migration.
He especially devoted himself to investigations of the radiation of heat from the sun and its absorption by the earth's atmosphere, and to that end devised various delicate methods and instruments, including his electric compensation pyrheliometer, invented in 1893, and apparatus for obtaining a photographic representation of the infra-red spectrum (1895).
In 1886 the widow of Henry Draper, one of the pioneers of stellar spectroscopy, made a liberal provision for carrying on spectroscopic investigations at Harvard College in memory of her husband.
All these investigations point clearly to the fact that Gnosticism belongs to the group of mystical religions.
The investigations made by Dr Walter Lehmann in Central America (1907-1909), prove that these Mexican elements were extended through Guatemala, Salvador, a small part of Nicaragua (the territory of the Nicaraos) and on several places in the peninsula of Nicoya (Costa Rica) amongst the autochthonous Chorotega or Mangue.
The mere immobility of the body was sufficient to show that its state was not identical with that of waking; when, in addition, the sleeper awoke to give an account of visits to distant lands, from which, as modern psychical investigations suggest, he may even have brought back veridical details, the conclusion must have been irresistible that in sleep something journeyed forth, which was not the body.
This comet has given rise to a longer series of investigations than any other, owing to Encke's result that the orbit was becoming smaller, and the revolutions therefore accelerated, by some unknown cause, of which the most plausible was a resisting medium surrounding the sun.
The committees on the expenditure of the various government departments conduct minute investigations into the administration of each.
The department of agriculture includes the weather bureau, the bureau of animal industry and other bureaus which conduct investigations and experiments.
Seeds are tested in the laboratory for purity and germination on behalf of farmers and seed merchants, and scientific investigations relating to seeds are conducted and reported upon.
Hence many of his investigations were first described by Faraday in his Friday evening discourses at the Royal Institution.
Wheatstone's physical investigations are described in more than thirty-six papers in various scientific journals, the more important being in the Philosophical Transactions, the Proceedings of the Royal Society, the Comptes rendus and the British Association Reports.
In acoustics his principal work was a research on the transmission of sound through solids, the explanation of Chladni's figures of vibrating solids, various investigations of the principles of acoustics and the mechanism of hearing, and the invention of new musical instruments, e.g.
Many times in the course of his investigations the critic will be confronted with problems which cannot be resolved by xxvi.
But the investigations are never so good.
The years1885-1888were given up to investigations in Asia Minor, his discoveries and conclusions being communicated to the Journal of Hellenic Studies and other magazines and reviews.
In 1699 he published some investigations on friction, and in 1702-1703 two noteworthy papers on thermometry.
From the point of view of structure, man is one of the animals; all investigations into anatomical structure must be comparative, and in this work the subject is so treated throughout.
The Copernican theory of the solar system - that the earth revolved annually about the sun - had received confirmation by the observations of Galileo and Tycho Brahe, and the mathematical investigations of Kepler and Newton.
In 1856 he was engaged under the United States government, and commenced a series of investigations of the Western Territories, one result of which was his Geological Report of the Exploration of the Yellowstone and Missouri Rivers in 1859-1860 (1869).
Though the experimental and theoretical developments were not necessarily dependent on each other, and by far the larger proportion of the subject which we now term " Spectroscopy " could stand irrespective of Gustav Kirchhoff's thermodynamical investigations, there is no doubt that the latter was, historically speaking, the immediate cause of the feeling of confidence with which the new branch of science was received, for nothing impresses the scientific world more strongly than just that little touch of mystery which attaches to a mathematical investigation which can only be understood by the few, and is taken on trust by the many, provided that the author is a man who commands general confidence.
The investigations both of Balfour Stewart and of Kirchhoff are based on the idea of an enclosure at uniform temperature and the general results of the reasoning centre in the conclusion that the introduction of any body at the same temperature as the enclosure can make no difference to the streams of radiant energy which we imagine to traverse the enclosure.
It may on the contrary be confidently asserted with regard to the first three Gospels that the local colouring in them is predominantly Palestinian, and that they 1 The character of Tatian's Diatessaron has been much disputed in the past, but there can no longer be any reasonable doubt on the subject after recent discoveries and investigations.
The results of investigations in prehistoric archaeology are treated in the articles Germany and Scandinavian Civiliza Tion.
Funeral Customs. - Icelandic writers of the 12th and 13th centuries distinguished between an earlier " age of burning " and a later " age of barrows," and the investigations of modern archaeologists have tended in general to confirm the distinction, though they have revealed also the burial-places of times antecedent to the age of burning.
His work included investigations of osmic acid, of the ferrates, stannates, plumbates, &c., and of ozone, attempts to obtain free fluorine by the electrolysis of fused fluorides, and the discovery of anhydrous hydrofluoric acid and of a series of acides sulphazotes, the precise nature of which long remained a matter of discussion.
Tyndall's investigations of the transparency and opacity of gases and vapours for radiant heat, which occupied him during many years (1859-1871), are frequently considered his chief scientific work.
His careful and detailed maps, lake soundings, hydrographic, geological, meteorological and other investigations gave him the highest rank among modern explorers.
He next investigated the sources of the Sutlej, made hydrographic investigations of the Manasarowar lakes, with the neighbouring underground waterways, and proceeded thence to Gartok.
Willard Gibbs, who considered the whole problem of physical and chemical equilibrium in papers published in 1877, though the application of his principles only began to make extensive progress about twenty years after the publication of his purely theoretical investigations.
Thus the results of our investigations based on ideal conceptions are applicable to the real phenomena of evaporation and freezing.
But the most important of all Dalton's investigations are those concerned with the Atomic Theory in chemistry, with which his name is inseparably associated.
Various dates - ranging from 625 B.C. to 583 B.C. - have been assigned by different chronologists to this eclipse; but, since the investigations of Airy,2 Hind, 3 and Zech, 4 the date determined by them (May 28, 585 B.C.) has been generally accepted (for later authorities see Eclipse and Astronomy).
In this case the carbonaceous beds-coal-seams-naturally appealed most strongly to the imagination, and the name is a good one, notwithstanding the fact that coal-seams occupy but a small fraction of the total thickness of the Carboniferous system; and although subsequent investigations have demonstrated the existence of coal in other geological formations, in none of these does it play so prominent a part.
Yonge, The Site of Old" James Towne," 1607-1698 (Richmond, 1904), embodying the results of the topographical investigations of the engineer in charge of the river-wall built in 1900-1901.
Although many fungi have been regarded as devoid of nuclei, and all have not as yet been proved to contain them, the numerous investigations of recent years have revealed them in the cells of all forms thoroughly examined, and we are justified in concluding that the nucleus is as essential to the cell of a fungus as to that of other organisms. The hyphae of many contain numerous, even hundreds of nuclei (Phycomycetes); those of others have several (Aspergillus) in each segment, or only two (Exoascus) or one (Erysiphe) in each cell.
The group has attained an importance of late even beyond that to which it was brought by Pasteur's researches on alcoholic fermentation, chiefly owing to the exact results of the investigations of Hansen, who first applied the methods of pure cultures to the study of these organisms, and showed that many of the inconsistencies hitherto existing in the literature were due to the coexistence in the cultures of several species or races of yeasts morphologically almost indistinguishable, but physiologically very different.
Concerning the second question, the recent investigations of Buchner ascogenous hyphae with their asci represent the sporophyte since they are derived from the fertilized ascogonium.
The careful investigations of recent years have shown that in several groups of fungi we cannot be content to distinguish as units morphologically different species, but we are compelled to go deeper and analyse further the species.
Certain investigations on isomerism which have become especially prominent in recent times bear on the possibility of the mutual transformation of isomers.
Pursuing the investigations of Laplace, he demonstrated with greater rigour the stability of the solar system, and calculated the limits within which the eccentricities and inclinations of the planetary orbits vary.
As Britain was then at war with France, only the northern countries of Europe were quite open to his research at that time; but during the brief Peace of Amiens Malthus continued his investigations in France and Switzerland.
The emissivity really depends on every variety of condition, such as the size, shape and position of the surface, as well as on its nature; it varies with the rate of cooling, as well as with the temperature excess, and it is generally so difficult to calculate, or to treat in any simple manner, that it forms the greatest source of uncertainty in all experimental investigations in which it occurs.
Recent investigations in regard to the vexed question of the position of the actors in the Greek theatre have as yet not led to any certain solution.'
For further information and investigations see Duchesne, Liber pontificalis; Lipsius, Die Apokr.
In the course of further investigations, however, he came to the conclusion that, besides the many false statements which Moses of Khor`ni makes about his authorities, he gives a false account of himself.
The investigations of Professor Orsi, director of the museum at Syracuse, have thrown much light on the primitive peoples of south-eastern Sicily.
Although this high degree of sensibility, and even a sensibility still higher, may be required in connexion with investigations respecting changes in the vertical, it is not necessary in ordinary seismometry.
The characteristic triliteral roots of all the Semitic languages seemed to separate them widely from others; but certain traits have caused the Egyptian, Berber and Cushite groups to be classed together as three subfamilies of a Hamitic group, remotely related to the Semitic. The biliteral character of Coptic, and the biliteralism which was believed to exist in Egyptian, led philologists to suspect that Egyptian might be a surviving witness to that far-off stage of the Semitic languages when triliteral roots had not yet been formed from presumed original biliterals; Sethes investigations, however, prove that the Coptic biliterals are themselves derived from Old Egyptian triliterals, and that the triliteral roots enormously preponderated in Egyptian of the earliest known form; that view is, therefore, no longer tenable.
Ferrier's investigations showed, motor reactions of the facial and sensori- limb muscles are regularly and easily evoked.
The 16th century was made the subject of the investigations of Troels Lund.
It is remarkably diathermanous, or capable of transmitting heat-rays, and has therefore been used in certain physical investigations.
As the result of recent investigations by two Swedish algologists, Bohlin and Luther, it has been proposed to make a re-classification of a far-reaching nature.
Latterly, however, as the result of the cytological investigations of Mottier and Lloyd Williams, great advance has been made in our knowledge of the conditions existing in Dictyota.
The investigations, however, were very partisan in character, and there is reason to doubt the constitutional power of the House to make it, except as the basis for an impeachment trial.
Pasteur prosecuted his investigations into the silkworm disease at Alais, and the town has dedicated a bust to his memory.
The two carried out some of the earliest thermochemical investigations, devised apparatus for measuring linear and cubical expansions, and employed a modification of Joseph Black's ice calorimeter in a series of determinations of specific heats.
A Board of Arbitration (1895) has authority to make and publish investigations of all facts relating to strikes and lock-outs, to issue subpoenas for the attendance and testifying of witnesses, and "to adjust strikes or lock-outs by mediation or conciliation, without a formal submission to arbitration."
His investigations show clearly that with candidates near the border-line of failure, which must necessarily be fixed at a given point (subject to certain allowances, where more than one subject is considered), the element of chance necessarily enters largely into the question of pass and failure.
Fizeau he carried on a series of investigations on the intensity of the light of the sun, as compared with that of carbon in the electric arc, and of lime in the flame of the oxyhydrogen blowpipe; on the interference of heat rays, and of light rays differing greatly in lengths of path; and on the chromatic polarization of light.
As one result of the subsequent investigations, Latin monks of other countries were assigned to the protection of the consuls of those countries.
But a really economical solution of the problem was first definitely found in 1872 by Ernest Solvay, as the result of investigations begun about ten years previously.
After the death of Alcubierre (1780) the last-named was appointed director-in-chief of the excavations; but from that time the investigations at Herculaneum were intermitted, and the researches at Pompeii were vigorously carried on.
And although it is recognized that the works had not been prosecuted with the caution that they required, yet in view of the serious difficulties that would attend the collection of the little that had been left by the first excavators, every proposal for new investigations has been abandoned.
All former descriptions are now superseded by the magnificent work of Brunnow and Domaszewski, Die Provincia Arabia (1904), who have minutely surveyed the whole site, classified the tombs, and compiled the accounts of earlier investigations; and by the independent researches of Dalman, Petra and seine Felsheiligtiimer (1908), and of Musil, Arabia Petraea (1907-1908).
The Experimental Evidence, However, Is Somewhat Conflicting, And Further Investigations Are Very Desirable On The Variation Of Specific Heat With Temperature.
About 10,000 stars altogether were dealt with in the above-mentioned investigations.
In all investigations into the distribution of the stars in space one fact stands out pre-eminently, viz.
One result of Kapteyn's investigations may be given here.
This move marked a turning-point in his life, for he was now able to set to work upon those investigations on which his reputation rests.
So far as we know, Aristotle had no one name for all these investigations.
In especial he showed clear understanding of the functions of hypothesis and verification in the investigations of the solitary worker, with his facts still in course of accumulation and needing to be lighted up by the scientific imagination.
Yet it is in the detail of his logical investigations, something too volatile to fix in summary, that Lotze's greatness as a logician more especially lies.
Finally, there is what may be termed psychological-voluntaryist logic. It is in the rapidity of development of logical investigations of the third and fourth types and the growing number of their exponents that the present shows most clearly the history of logic in the making.
Franklin in 1747 and 1748 made numerous investigations on the Leyden jar, and devised a method of charging jars in series as well as in parallel.
The course of his investigations is minutely described in the preface to his first great work (Lectures on Quaternions, 1833) on the subject.
Nevertheless theosophists by their investigations and expositions have undoubtedly been brought in touch with some of the most profund thought in both ancient and modern worlds; and this fact in itself has assuredly had an inspiring and ennobling influence upon their lives and work.
The state flew to arms. The legislature called for Federal intervention (May 1874), and Federal troops maintained neutrality while investigations were conducted by a committee sent out by Congress.
The results of these investigations show that they have little in common with the Swiss lake-dwellings, except that they are placed in lakes.
Convinced that only by proper scientific investigations could the wholesale destruction of Egyptian antiquities be avoided, she devoted herself to arousing public opinion on the subject, and ultimately, in 1882, was largely instrumental in founding the Egypt Exploration Fund, of which she became joint honorary secretary with Reginald Stuart Poole.
The mathematical properties of a twist or of a wrench have been the subject of many remarkable investigations, which are, however, of secondary importance from a physical point of view.
In the analytical investigations of line geometry, these six quantities, supposed subject to the relation (4), are used to specify a line, and are called the six co-ordinates of the line; they are of course equivalent to only four independent quantities.
For investigations relating to the equilibrium of a string in three dimensions we must refer to the textbooks.
In astronomical and other investigations relating to central forces it is often convenient to use polar co-ordinates with the centre of force as pole.
Balls highly original investigations in kinematics and dynamics were published in collected form under the title Theory of Screws (Cambridge, 1900).
In these tribes the bold and active habits, the striking colours, or the fantastic diversities of structure,have so long attracted remark that recent investigations, while adding a multitude of new species and supplying the specialist with an infinity of new details, have not materially altered the scientific standpoint.
Smith's investigations on the early stages of Hippa talpoida, Say, were published in 1877.
The results, of these investigations have, for the most part, appeared in the Astronomical Papers of the American Ephemeris, and have been more or less completely adopted for use in the nautical almanacs.
The results of these investigations were published in 1899, 5 and have been in use since the beginning of Igo'.
The birth of modern physical science on the other hand in the investigations of Bacon and Descartes obscured the metaphysical issue by the predominance of the mechanical principles of natural philosophy.
The cemetery was naturally associated with the legend of St Ursula; and, this identification once accepted, it is not unlikely that when more careful investigations revealed male skeletons and tombstones bearing the names of men, other and more definite epitaphs were invented to reconcile the old traditions with the facts of such a damaging discovery.
One of the most important of his investigations had to do with the manufacture of guncotton, and he developed a process, consisting essentially of reducing the nitrated cotton to fine pulp, which enabled it to be prepared with practically no danger and at the same time yielded the product in a form that increased its usefulness.
One of the most important investigations he made in this way was to find out, as he expressed it, " what power of the velocity the resistance is proportional to."
Another of his great investigations was the determination of the law according to which electric force varies with the distance.
Davy followed up his initial work with a long and brilliant series of electrochemical investigations described for the most part in the Phil.
Arago's previous investigations in the new science of electromagnetism, and crowned that labour by the announcement of his great discovery of the dynamical action between conductors conveying the electric currents.
These investigations led him to the announcement of the fundamental law of action between elements of current, or currents in infinitely short lengths of linear conductors, upon one another at a distance; summed up in compact expression this law states that the action is proportional to the product of the current strengths of the two elements, and the lengths of the two elements, and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between the two elements, and also directly proportional to a function of the angles which the line joining the elements makes with the directions of the two elements respectively.
Ampere's investigations had led electricians to see that the force acting upon a magnetic pole due to a current in a neighbouring conductor was such as to tend to cause the pole to travel round the conductor.
In 1831 Faraday began the investigations on electromagnetic induction which proved more fertile in far-reaching practical consequences than any of those which even his genius gave to the world.
The whole of Faraday's investigations on this subject can be summed up in the single statement that if a conducting circuit is placed in a magnetic field, and if either by variation of the field or by movement or variation of the form of the circuit the total magnetic flux linked with the circuit is varied, an electromotive force is set up in that circuit which at any instant is measured by the rate at which the total flux linked with the circuit is changing.
Plana (1781-1846), and later Robert Murphy (1806-1843), made them the subject of their investigations on the mode in which electricity distributes itself on conductors when in equilibrium.
Furthermore his electrochemical investigations, and particularly his discovery of the important law of electrolysis, that the movement of a certain quantity of electricity through an electrolyte is always accompanied by the transfer of a certain definite quantity of matter from one electrode to another and the liberation at these electrodes of an equivalent weight of the ions, gave foundation for the idea of a definite atomic charge of electricity.
The final outcome of these investigations was the hypothesis that Thomson's corpuscles or particles composing the cathode discharge in a high vacuum tube must be looked upon as the ultimate constituent of what we call negative electricity; in other words, they are atoms of negative electricity, possessing, however, inertia, and these negative electrons are components at any rate of the chemical atom.
The first was intended to consist of types or examples of investigations conducted by the new method, serviceable for keeping the whole process vividly before the mind, or, as the title indicates, such that the mind could run rapidly up and down the several steps or grades in the process.
The first were the speculative or logical philosophers, who construe the universe ex analogia hominis, and not ex analogia mundi, who fashion nature according to preconceived ideas, and who employ in their investigations syllogism and abstract reasoning.
Physics inquires into the same qualities, but does not push its investigations into ultimate reality or reach the more general causes.
Even reason must be restrained from striving after ultimate truth; it is one of the errors of the human intellect that it will not rest in general principles, but must push its investigations deeper.
Thus, whereas the popular writer abounds in wide generalizations on the subject of primitive humanity, the expert has hitherto for the most part deliberately restricted himself to departmental investigations.
The anthropological expert, on the other hand, insists on making the primitive point of view itself the be-all and end-all of his investigations.
We have sought to render onl y the spirit of primitive religion, keeping clear both of technicalities and of departmental investigations.
Radiant heat first claimed his attention, and by 1858 he had completed his first investigations into the subject.
His investigations occupied almost the whole field of science, including physiology, physiological optics, physiological acoustics, chemistry, mathematics, electricity and magnetism, meteorology and theoretical mechanics.
This was with Goethe, who succeeded in securing his interest for those investigations on colours on which he was himself engaged.
This discovery he worked out very thoroughly in investigations of ethylene oxide and the polyethylene alcohols.
Even the revocation of the edict of Nantes and the dragonnades have been laid to her charge, but recent investigations have tended to show that in spite of ardent Catholicism, she at least opposed, if not very vigorously, the cruelties of the dragonnades, although she was pleased with the conversions they procured.
Police duties are carried out under the direction of the royal police presidency, the executive police force comprising a police colonel, with, besides commissaries of criminal investigations, captains, lieutenants, acting-lieutenants, sergeant-majors and a large body of constables (schutzmanner).
In 1870 he was appointed and ordained to the office of professor of Oriental languages and Old Testament exegesis at the Free Church College, Aberdeen, and here he began that series of theological investigations which, characterized as they were by learned research and the use of the most scientific methods, were destined to make his name famous.
Amongst his economic works may be mentioned Money and the Mechanism of Exchange (1875), written in a popular style, and descriptive rather than theoretical, but wonderfully fresh and original in treatment and full of suggestiveness, a Primer on Political Economy (1878), The State in Relation to Labour (1882), and two works published after his death, namely, Methods of Social Reform and Investigations in Currency and Finance, containing papers that had appeared separately during his lifetime.
His investigations led him to the conclusion that "most of the writings of the Hebrews have passed through several hands."
The general result of their investigations has been to prove that the o f India, Murtagh range, as it trends south-eastwards and finally forms a continuous mountain barrier together with the Karakoram, is the true water-divide west of the Tibetan plateau.
Neither immediately beyond this great bend, nor within it in the Himalayan regions lying north of Assam and east of Bhutan, have scientific investigations yet been systematically carried out; but it is known that the largest of the Himalayan affluents of the Brahmaputra west of the bend derive their sources from the Tibetan plateau, and break down through the containing bands of hills, carrying deposits of gold from their sources to the plains, as do all the rivers of Tibet.
Recent investigations show that all the chief rivers of Nepal flowing southwards to the Tarai take their rise north of the line of highest crests, the " main range " of the Himalaya; and that some of them drain long lateral high-level valleys enclosed between minor ridges whose strike is parallel to the axis of the Himalaya and, occasionally, almost at right angles to the course of the main drainage channels breaking down to the plains.
J Y Y explored from Lhasa to the sources of the Brahmaputra and Indus, at the conclusion of the Tibetan mission in 1904, conclusively prove that Mount Everest, which appears from the Tibetan plateau as a single dominating peak, has no rival amongst Himalayan altitudes, whilst the very remarkable investigations made by permission of the Nepal durbar from peaks near Kathmandu in 1903, by Captain Wood, R.E., not only place the Everest group apart from other peaks with which they have been confused by scientists, isolating them in the topographical system of Nepal, but clearly show that there is no one dominating and continuous range indicating a main Himalayan chain which includes both Everest and Kinchinjunga.
Investigations in this subject have rendered it very probable that the island of Nerthus was Sjaelland (Zealand), and it is further to be observed that the kings of Wessex traced their ancestry ultimately to a certain Scyld, who is clearly to be identified with Sk16ldr, the mythical founder of the Danish royal family (Skidldungar).
Yet in this area, according to the investigations of Mr Williamson (Report of the Scottish Fishery Board for 1898), nearly 500 millions of plaice eggs are naturally produced in one spawning season.
The most exact investigations bearing upon this problem are those which have been recently undertaken in Norway in connexion with the cod-hatching operations at Arendal under Captain Dannevig.
For a summary of these investigations see papers on "Artificial Fish-hatching in Norway," by Captain Dannevig and Mr Dahl, in the Report of the Lancashire Sea Fisheries Laboratory for 1906 (Liverpool, 1907).
These explorations led the way for the famous voyages of Baron Nordenskidld (1875-1878), which included investigations in Novaya Zemlya.
The consular attaches divide their time between special investigations abroad, and visits to manufacturing districts in the United Kingdom.
Winogradsky's investigations resulted in the discovery that two kinds of bacteria are concerned in.
Much as the decade from 1880 to 1890 abounded with investigations on the reactions of bacteria to heat, so the following decade was remarkable for discoveries regarding the effects of other forms of radiant energy.
The methods used in the investigations were, however, open to objection, and it is now recognized that although organic bases may sometimes be formed, and may be toxic, the important toxins are not of that nature.
These researches procured him the office of inspector of mines in the recently established kingdom of Italy, and enabled him to extend his investigations over great part of the country.
He travelled through several of the countries of Europe, examining different systems of machinery; and some of the results of his investigations were published in the admirable little work, Economy of Machines and Manufactures (1834).
He then turned to meteorology, the result of his investigations appearing in Meteorographica, published in 1863.
In 1838 he made important investigations in regard to the conditions and range of induction from electrical currents - showing that induced currents, although merely momentary, produce still other or tertiary currents, and thus on through successive orders of induction, with alternating signs, and with reversed initial and terminal signs.
His diligent investigations into the efficiency of various illuminants in differing circumstances, and into the best conditions for developing their several maximum powers of brilliancy, while greatly improving the usefulness of the line of beacons along the extensive coast of the United States, effected at the same time a great economy of administration.
He devoted himself mainly to investigations in organic chemistry, and in particular to synthetical studies by the aid of "condensation" reactions.
In 1821 he was busy with electrical experiments and in 1822 with investigations of the fluids contained in the cavities of crystals in rocks.
The investigations of the Society for Psychical Research show that premonitions, though rare in our own day, are not absolutely unknown.
The determination of the area was the subject of many investigations and much controversy.
Having established his priority, Pascal published his investigations, which occasioned a great sensation among his contemporaries, and Wallis was enabled to correct his methods.
Native explorers from India first began to be busy in the Pamirs about 1860, and continued their investigations for the following fifteen years.
Further investigations were then made, and overlooked results of older ones reviewed.
The brothers Antoine and Arnaud d'Abbadie spent ten years (1838-1848) in the country, making scientific investigations of great value, and also involving themselves in the stormy politics of the country.
The accusation of heresy has usually been dismissed as a slander; but recent investigations make it probable, though not quite certain, that Boniface privately held certain Averroistic tenets, such as the denial of the immortality of the soul.
The investigations of Haug, Spiegel and Windischmann show that this was a real Zoroastrian doctrine.
They are subjects for a scientific psychology employing the historical method with the conceptions of heredity and development, and calling to its aid, as such a psychology will do, the investigations of all the sociological sciences.
Adam Smith was thus not altogether badly advised in not carrying his investigations into the equality of taxation farther than he did.
His son, Lucien De La Rive, born at Geneva on the 3rd of April 1834, published papers on various mathematical and physical subjects, and with Edouard Sarasin carried out investigations on the propagation of electric waves.
His investigations were carried on without any intermission of his work as a schoolmaster.
The earliest colonists were for the most part people of low station or indifferent character, but as the result of the investigations of a commissioner sent out in 1685 a better class of immigrants was introduced.
The recent investigations already referred to indicate the desirability of curving dams in plan in order to reduce the possibility of tension and infiltration of water at the upstream face.
And it must be said that his time was better employed in original investigations than it would have been had he spent it in observations made even with the best of instruments, infinitely better than if he had spent it on those of the observatory, which, however good originally, were then totally unfit for the delicate requirements of modern astronomy.
Of his extensive investigations into the solution (especially by numerical approximation) of certain classes of differential equations which constantly occur in the treatment of physical questions, only a few items have been published, at intervals, in the Philosophical Magazine.
He was excessively precise and hard to please with reference to the final polish of his own works for publication; and it was probably for this reason that he published so little compared with the extent of his investigations.
This work, apart from its value to artists and psychologists, is of interest historically, as there is no doubt the investigations of the author into the nervous supply of the muscles of expression induced him to prosecute inquiries which led to his great discoveries in the physiology of the nervous system.
He subsequently published many papers in the Philosophical Transactions on various parts of the science of optics, and, although some of his views have been found to be erroneous, and are now almost universally rejected, his investigations led to discoveries which are of permanent value.
Up to the time of the publication of the Principia in 1687 the method of fluxions which had been invented by Newton, and had been of great assistance to him in his mathematical investigations, was still, except to Newton and his friends, a secret.
He dedicated no small portion of his time to the study of pure mathematics, to investigations in physics and chemistry, and even to anatomy and architecture; and there can be no doubt that this varied learning enhanced considerably the value of many of his judicial decisions.
Having been impressed by the failure of historians to allow for the influence of sea power in struggles between nations, he was led to make prolonged investigations of this general theme (see SEA Power).
C. Webb's Republican Election Methods in Kansas, General Election of 1892, and Legislative Investigations (Topeka, 1893) may also be mentioned.
The principle in its original form as applying to a right line was used throughout by Chasles in the investigations on the number of the conics which satisfy given conditions, and on the number of solutions of very many other geometrical problems.
It serves as a means of research, more particularly in mathematical investigations, the simple laws thus deduced being subsequently modified by introducing assumptions in order to co-ordinate actual experiences.
Until the end of the 18th century the word "air," qualified by certain adjectives, was in common use for most of the gases known - a custom due in considerable measure to the important part which common air played in chemical and physical investigations.
Analytical investigations revealed the existence of series or sequences which had no limit to the number of terms, as for example the fraction 1/(1 - x) which on division gives the series.
In1906-1908Dr Stein made a second and more important journey, principally for the purpose of antiquarian research, though he also carried out important geographical investigations, with the assistance of a native surveyor, in the Eastern Pamirs (about Mustagh-ata), in the Nissa valley south of Khotan, and elsewhere.
In order to gain a practical knowledge of the language and complete his investigations into it, he visited the Basque country itself, the result of his visit being the valuable "Researches into the Early Inhabitants of Spain by the help of the Basque language" (Priifung der Untersuchungen fiber die Urbewohner Hispaniens vermittelst der vaskischen Sprache), published in 1821.
But modifica tions in the order of placing the natural groups are of importance in expressing the results of such investigations.
The spores, when liberated by the dehiscence of the sporangium, give rise to the prothallus, which is now, owing mainly to the investigations of Treub and Bruchmann, known in a number of tropical and temperate species.
In 1801 Gauss published his Disquisitiones arithmeticae, which, although written in an obscure form, gave a new impetus to investigations on this and kindred subjects.
According to newer investigations, Heraclius only made peace with them, confirming them in the possession of the provinces which they already had occupied, and obtaining from them at the same time the recognition of his suzerainty.
As a physicist he is best known for his investigations in electricity, more especially as to the so-called Lichtenberg figures, which are fully described in two memoirs Super nova methodo motum ac naturam fluidi electrici investigandi (GÃ¶ttingen, 1777-1778).
In the Principia Newton made several investigations to determine the effects of these actions; but the geometrical method which he employed could lead only to rude approximations.
Newton's investigations, however, were very far from being exhaustive.
Nor were these abstract investigations unaccompanied by concrete results.
Their upshot, however, had lost its essential importance; for a fresh series of investigations based on a variety of principles had already been started.
Forbes's and Guppy's investigations go to show that, contrary to Darwin's belief, there is no evidence of upheaval or of subsidence in either of the Keeling groups.
His investigations on Perkin's reaction led him to an explanation of its mechanism which appeared to be more in accordance with the facts.
The special investigations carried out by the department naturally vary from year to year, but one of the duties of each instructor in agriculture is to conduct a number of field experiments, mainly on the influence of manures and seeds in the yield of crops.
He published Solar Investigations (New York, 1875) and Contributions to the Centennial Exhibition (New York, 1877).
Subsequent investigations naturally modified the numerical values upon which this nomenclature was based, but without altering the order of the periods.
This explanation is incomplete, as it leaves out of account the action of the polarizer and analyser, and it was with the purpose of removing this defect that Fresnel and Arago undertook the investigations mentioned above and thus supplied what was wanting in Young's explanation.
The divergence of these views has led to a large number of experimental investigations, instituted with the idea of deciding between them.
In the main such investigations have only an academic interest, as, whatever theory of light be adopted, we have to deal with two vectors that are parallel and perpendicular respectively to the plane of polarization.
With the sure instinct of genius, he seized the characteristic features of the phenomena presented to his attention, and his inferences, except when distorted by polemical exigencies, have been strikingly confirmed by modern investigations.
We are told that some of these ancient scientists passed years of their lives studying the wonders of bee-life, and left accurate records of their observations, which on many points agree with the investigations of later observers.
He also gathered that the abnormal conditions forced upon the bees by a ready-built single comb might so turn aside their natural instincts as to render his investigations less trustworthy than if conducted under perfectly natural conditions; so, in order to remove all doubt, he decided to have a series of wooden frames made, measuring 12 in.
Two forms of foul brood have been long known, one foul smelling, the other odourless; and investigations made during 1906 and 1907 showed that the etiology of the disease is not by FIG.
By adapting to this instrument various ingenious devices he was enabled to employ it in a great variety of investigations, connected especially with photometry, hygroscopy and the temperature of space.
Eagles, Constructive Geometry of Plane Curves (1886); geometric investigations primarily based on the relation of the conic sections to a cone are given in Hugo Hamilton's De Sectionibus Conicis (1758); this method of treatment has been largely replaced by considering the curves from their definition in piano, and then passing to their derivation from the cone and cylinder.
Later investigations, whilst confirming the general validity of Huxley's conclusions, have slightly altered the limits and definitions of his groups.
There was then no complete catalogue of these sections, and Bradshaw soon showed a rare faculty for investigations respecting old books and curious MSS.
Chandler's investigations are found in a series of papers published in the Astronomical Journal, vols.
The most vivid account of Hamilton is in Mrs Gertrude Atherton's historical romance, The Conqueror (New York, 1902), for the writing of which the author made new investigations into the biographical details, and elucidated some points previously obscure; see also her A Few of Hamilton's Letters (1903).
His treatises and contributions to scientific journals (to the number of 789) contain investigations on the theory of series (where he developed with perspicuous skill the notion of convergency), on the theory of numbers and complex quantities, the theory of groups and substitutions, the theory of functions, differential equations and determinants.
His investigations must embrace not only the comparative morphology and anatomy of fossil plants, but also their distribution over the earth's surface at different periods - a part of the subject which, besides its direct biological interest, has obvious bearings on ancient climatology and geography.
The investigations of Nathorst, Williamson and others have shown that a very large proportion of the casts and impressions attributed to Algae had in all probability a totally different origin.
The anatomy of Lepidodendron and its immediate allies is now well known in a number of species; the Carboniferous rocks of Great Britain are especially rich in petrified specimens, which formed the subject of Williamson's extensive investigations.
The investigations of the last quarter of the 10th century established that these ' Endlicher's name Dadoxylon is conveniently used for Palaeozoic specimens of the kind in question when nothing beyond the woodstructure is known.
When, in 146, his public life closed, he completed his preparation of himself for his great work by laborious investigations of archives and monuments, and by a careful personal examination of historical sites and scenes.
Other important investigations relate to maxima and minima.
The researches of his pupil, Claude Bernard, on curare, were equally exact and logical, and have served as the model for many subsequent investigations.
At the present time the method adopted by Buchheim, or some modification of it, is the most scientific. As the result of painstaking investigations he grouped together all those substances having similar actions, giving to each group the name of its best-known or most thoroughly investigated member.
This second inquiry is specifically me