The article listed past instances of use, admitting on rare occasions the psychic proved helpful to police investigations.
It also inhibits investigations and makes for an early Christmas present for defense attorneys.
I didn't know the names of anyone at organization so I asked for the person in charge of investigations.
One of the results of these investigations was to extend the meaning of the word mechanism, and comprise under it all laws which obtain in the phenomenal world, not excepting the phenomena of life and mind.
Duclaux stated that the yeast question as regards low fermentation has been solved by Hansen's investigations.
His optical investigations are perhaps the subject in which he most contributed to the progress of science; and the lucidity of exposition which marks his Dioptrics stands conspicuous even amid the generally luminous style of his works.
The investigations of Lord Rayleigh and Sir William Ramsay had shown that indifference to chemical reagents did not sufficiently characterize an unknown gas as nitrogen, and it became necessary to reinvestigate other cases of the occurrence of "nitrogen" in nature.
Lucian's own close investigations into Alexander's methods of fraud led to a serious attempt on his life.
4, containing a history and bibliography of Black Hills investigations); also R.
He carried out a number of magnetic investigations which resulted in the discovery of many interesting phenomena, some of which have been rediscovered by others; they related among other things to the effect of mechanical strain on the magnetic properties of the magnetic metals, to the relation between the chemical composition of compound bodies and their magnetic properties, and to a curious parallelism between the laws of torsion and of magnetism.
From Stolze's investigations it appears that at least one of these, the castle built by Xerxes, bears evident traces of having been destroyed by fire.
His experimental investigations are carried out with plain and usually home-made apparatus, the accessories being crude and rough, but the essentials thoughtfully designed so as to compass in the simplest and most perfect manner the special end in view.
Lord Rayleigh had an interest in abnormal psychological investigations, and became a member and vice president of the Society for Psychical Research.
He was also the author of important papers in which he extended to complex quadratic forms many of Gauss's investigations relating to real quadratic forms. After 1864 he devoted himself chiefly to elliptic functions, and numerous papers on this subject were published by him in the Proc. Lond.
Lenard and Helmholtz, contain many biographical details, together with statements of the scope and significance of his investigations.
1861), who made important investigations concerning clouds, and attracted attention by his use of kites for obtaining meteorological data.
They number twenty, according to Japanese investigations, and have a coast-line of 174.65 m.
In spite of the investigations of Volkmar and Hilgenfeld, we are still somewhat in the dark as to the authorities he used.
There he began his investigations into the geography, history and antiquities of the district.
His writings include: Mathematical Investigations in the Theory of Value and Prices (1892); Elements of Geometry (with A.
For a long time the final result deduced by Joule by these varied and careful investigations was accepted as the standard value of the mechanical equivalent of heat.
All these older methods have, however, been thrown into the background and rendered antiquated by inventions which have grown out of Hertz's scientific investigations on the production of electric waves.
Their sense-organs require renewed investigations.
Another group of investigations that seems to play an important part in the future development of the theory of evolution relates to the study of what is known as organic symmetry.
The weakness of the NeoLamarckian view lies in its interpretation of heredity; its strength lies in its zealous study of the living world and the detection therein of proximate empirical laws, a strength shared by very many bionomical investigations, the authors of which would prefer to call themselves Darwinians, or to leave themselves without sectarian designation.
The results of these investigations show that in Ceylon from the 3rd century B.C. onwards there has been a continuous succession of teachers and scholars.
His first original paper (1799) was on the compounds of arsenic and antimony with oxygen and sulphur, and of his other separate investigations one of the most important was that on the compound ethers, begun in 1807.
Investigations carried out by Blackman, and by Brown and Escombe, have shown clearly that the view put forward by Boussingault, that such absorption of gases takes place through the cuticular covering of the younger parts of the plant, is erroneous and can no longer be supported.
Recent investigations have confirmed Baeyers view of the formation of formaldehyde, but a different explanation has been recently advanced.
Recently some investigations by Haberlandt, Noll, Darwin and others have suggested an explanation which has much to recomrtiend it.
The investigations of Dangeard, Harper, Blackman, Miss Fraser and many others have also c~-~r~ 1
Investigations of every kind which have been based on original sources of knowledge may be styled "research," and it may be said that without "research" no authoritative works have been written, no scientific discoveries or inventions made, no theories of any value propounded; but the word also has a somewhat restricted meaning attached to it in current usage.
Again, the practical engineers who are building aeroplanes, and those who are making practical tests by actual flight in those machines, cannot be called "researchers"; that term should be confined to the members, for example, of the scientific committee appointed by the British Government in 1909 to make investigations regarding aerial construction and navigation.
Recent investigations have recalled attention to the work of Lowthian Green, but the question is still in the controversial stage.'
This interval was diligently devoted to the pursuit of classical and historical studies, to preparing himself for ordination, and to searching investigations, under the stimulus of continual discussion with a band of talented and congenial associates, of the profoundest questions in theology, ecclesiastical polity and social philosophy.
In June 1835 Airy was appointed Astronomer Royal in succession to John Pond, and thus commenced that long career of wisely directed and vigorously sustained industry at the national observatory which, even more perhaps than his investigations in abstract science or theoretical astronomy, constitutes his chief title to fame.
The chloride SC1 2 according to the investigations of 0.
Recent investigations in the government of Moscow have revealed that 40% of the peasant households possessed no horses, and similar inquiries in 41 governments elicited the fact that 28% of the peasant households were without horses, although of the total number of horses in the country 82% belong to the peasantry.
Its investigations justified the law making the block system compulsory, thus removing the worst danger of railway travel.
Hare, Experimental Investigations of the Spirit Manifestations (New York, 1856); Allan Kardec, Livre des esprits (1st ed., 1853); Mrs De Morgan, From Matter to Spirit (London, 1863), with preface by Professor De Morgan; Alfred Russel Wallace, Miracles and Modern Spiritualism (1876); W.
He had no taste for historical investigations.
About the same time appeared his elaborate memoir, " On Faraday's Lines of Force," in which he gave the first indication of some of those extraordinary electrical investigations which culminated in the greatest work of his life.
demonstrated by a series of accurate investigations, contributed by many workers, that malaria is caused by a microscopic parasite in the blood, into which it is introduced by the bites of certain species of mosquito.
Davy, Count Rumford, all concerned themselves with thermochemical investigations of such processes.
After the investigations of Hess and Andrews, a great deal of excellent experimental work was performed by P. A.
Greatest among modern Asiatic explorers (if we except Prjevalsky) is the brave Swede, Professor Sven Hedin, whose travels through the deserts of Takla Makan and Tibet, and whose investigations in the glacial regions of the Sarikol mountains, occupied him from 1894 to 1896.
Miles made his adventurous journey through Oman, while Theodore Bent threw searchlights backwards into ancient Semitic history by his investigations in the Bahrein Islands in 1888 and in Hadramut in 1894 - 181n northern Asia it is impossible to follow in detail the results of the organized Russian surveys.
Later, the investigations of E.
It seems clear from the recent investigations of A.
The most interesting of Pasteur's investigations in preventive and curative medicine remains to be told.
The results of his investigations were communicated from time to time in papers to the Philosophical Transactions of London and other scientific journals, and were admirably and impartially summarized by James D.
The fact that other philosophers, notably Etienne Louis Malus and Augustin Fresnel, were pursuing the same investigations contemporaneously in France does not invalidate Brewster's claim to independent discovery, even though in one or two cases the priority must be assigned to others.
From 1879 to 1888 he was engaged on difficult experimental investigations, which began with an inquiry into the corrections required, owing to the great pressures to which the instruments had been subjected, in the readings of the thermometers employed by the "Challenger" expedition for observing deep-sea temperatures, and which were extended to include the compressibility of water, glass and mercury.
This society early began td hold a great show of live stock, implements, &c. In 1842 certain Midlothian tenant-farmers had the merit of originating an Agricultural Chemistry Association (the first of its kind), by which funds were raised for the purpose of conducting such investigations as the title of the society implies.
The benefits that accrue from the practice of rotation are well illustrated in the results obtained from the investigations at Rothamsted into the simple four-course system, which may fairly be regarded as a self-supporting system.
Slingerland, whose investigations are published by Cornell University.
In our own day we have had many illustrations of the manner in which special circumstances may at once bring an almost unnoticed series of scientific investigations into direct and vital relation with the business world.
The different threads of social activity are so closely interwoven that we cannot follow any one for very long without forming wrong impressions, and it becomes necessary to turn back and study others which seemed at first sight unrelated to the subject of our investigations.
There are very few questions of public or commercial importance upon which the best and most recent investigations are to be found amongst English works.
Subsequent connected by nerve investigations carried on under the directo the streptoneur tion of the same naturalist have shown ous visceral loop. that the larger as well as the smaller renal sac is in communication with the pericardium.
He commenced his great work on the textual criticism of the Scriptures; and at the instigation of his friend Ambrosius, who provided him with the necessary amanuenses, he published his commentaries on the Old Testament and his dogmatic investigations.
During all this time little had been done in studying the internal structure of birds; 3 but the foundations of the science of embryology had been laid by the investigations into the development of the chick by the great Harvey.
Moreover, it veiled the honest attempts that were making both in France and Germany to find real grounds for establishing an improved state of things, and consequently the labours of De Blainville, Etienne, Geoffroy St-Hilaire and L'Herminier, of Merrem, Johannes Muller and Nitzsch-to say nothing of others-were almost wholly unknown on this side of the Channel, and even the value of the investigations of British ornithotomists of high merit, such as Macartney and Pvlacgillivray, was almost completely overlooked.
34 find favour with his scientific superiors, and for the time things remained as though his investigations had never been carried on.
character of this kind is not to be despised as a practical mode of separating the birds which possess it; and, more than this, it would appear that the discovery thus announced was the immediate means of leading to a series of investigations of a much more important and lasting nature - those of Johannes Muller to be presently mentioned.
own country, there were few to notice seriously what is certainly one of the most remarkable works ever published on the science, much less to pursue the investigations that had been so laboriously begun.
He of course knew the investigations of L'Herminier and De Blainville on sternal formation, and he also seems to have been aware of some pterylological differences exhibited by birds - whether those of Nitzsch or those of Jacquemin is not stated.
That Dr Cornay was on the brink of making a discovery of considerable merit will by and by appear; but, with every disposition to regard his investigations favourably, it cannot be said that he accomplished it.
This observation was also hailed as the discovery of a fact of extraordinary importance; and, from the results of these investigations,.
The investigations of both authors must have been proceeding simultaneously, and it matters little which actually appeared first.
Blanchard's investigations, if completed, would obviously have taken extraordinarily high rank among the highest contributions to ornithology.
3 Perhaps this may be partially explained by the fact that the Museum of the College of Surgeons, in which these investigations were chiefly carried on, like most other museums of the time, contained a much larger series of the heads of birds than of their entire skeletons, or of any other portion of the skeleton.
Sclater published in the Ibis a classification which was mainly a revision of the system of Huxley, modified by the investigations of Garrod and Forbes and by his own large acquaintance with museum specimens.
His optical investigations led him to adopt in an imperfect form the undulatory theory of light, to anticipate the doctrine of interference, and to observe, independently of though subsequently to F.
Special interest attaches to the investigations made by Mr O.
Even prior to the discovery of petroleum in commercial quantities, a number of chemists had made determinations of the chemical composition of several different varieties, and these investigations, supplemented by those of a later date, show that petroleum consists of about 84% by weight of carbon with 12% of hydrogen, and varying proportions of sulphur, nitrogen and oxygen.
The high degree of civilization then prevailing in the country is proved by its architectural remains dating from the early Christian centuries; the investigations of De Vogue, Butler and others, have shown that from the 1st to the 7th century there prevailed in north Syria and the Hauran a special style of architecture - partly, no doubt, following Graeco-Roman models, but also showing a great deal of originality in details.
The theory of proportion, and the study of acoustics and music were considerably advanced by his investigations.
All this, however, must necessarily be of the nature of the purest speculation, and the only facts which we are able to deduce in the present state of our knowledge of the subject may be summed up as follows: (a) That the Malays ethnologically belong to a race which is allied to the Polynesians; (b) that the theory formerly current to the effect that the Sakai and other similar races of the peninsula and archipelago belonged to the Malayan stock cannot be maintained, since recent investigations tend to identify them with the Mon-Annam or Mon-Khmer family of races; (c) that the Malays are, comparatively speaking, newcomers in the lands which they now inhabit; (d) that it is almost certain that their emigration took place from the south; (e) and that, at some remote period of their history, they came into close contact with the Polynesian race, probably before its dispersion over the extensive area which it now occupies.
The processes and extent of the manufacture were revolutionized at about the beginning of the 19th century by Chevreul's classical investigations on the fats and oils, and by Leblanc's process for the manufacture of caustic soda from common salt.
Papers on "The Levirate and Polyandry," following up the line of his previous investigations (Fortnightly Review, 1877), were the last work he was able to publish.
Arago, with whom he had already carried out investigations on the refractive properties of different gases, in the measurement of an arc of the meridian in Spain, and in subsequent years he was engaged in various other geodetic determinations.
The fact that spring water is not now found in this locality is by no means fatal to the theory; recent engineering investigations have shown that much of the surface water of the Attic plain has sunk to a lower level.
Important researches at Epidaurus, Eleusis, Mycenae, Amyclae and Rhamnus may be numbered among its principal undertakings, in addition to the complete exploration of the Acropolis and a series of investigations in Athens and Attica.
The monuments of the Byzantine epoch have latterly occupied a prominent place in its investigations.
First and foremost, he demanded that the balance must be used in all investigations into chemical changes.
At all times the air had received attention, especially since van Helmont made his far-reaching investigations on gases.
By his insistence upon the use of the balance as a quantitative check upon the masses involved in all chemical reactions, Lavoisier was enabled to establish by his own investigations and the results achieved by others the principle now known as the " conservation of mass."
Investigations proceeded in two directions: - (I) the nature of chemical affinity, (2) the laws of chemical combination.
This may be due in some measure to the small number of gaseous and easily volatile substances then known, to the attention which the study of the organic compounds received, and especially to the energetic investigations of J.
The great number and striking character of the compounds of this group of metals have formed the subject of many investigations, and already there is a most voluminous literature.
More recent and elaborate investigations in this direction by A.
By his own investigations and those of Sir Edward Frankland it was proved that the radical methyl existed in acetic acid; and by the electrolysis of sodium acetate, Kolbe concluded that he had isolated this radical; in this, however, he was wrong, for he really obtained ethane, C 2 H 6, and not methyl, CH 3.
From similar investigations of valerianic acid he was led to conclude that fatty acids were oxygen compounds of the radicals hydrogen, methyl, ethyl, &c., combined with the double carbon equivalent C2.
The next advance was made by Joseph Louis Proust, whose investigations led to a clear grasp of the law of constant proportions.
This subject has occupied a dominant position in physico-chemical research since the investigations of van't Hoff and Arrhenius.
The specific heats of carbon, boron and silicon subsequently formed the subject of elaborate investigations by H.
Mendeleeff endeavoured to obtain a connexion between surface energy and constitution; more successful were the investigations of Schiff, who found that the " molecular surface tension," which he defined as the surface tension divided by the weight.
Ramsay and Shields found from investigations of the temperature coefficient of the surface energy that Tin the equation y(Mv) 3 = KT must be counted downwards from the critical temperature T less about 6°.
Other substituent groups exercise morphotropic effects similar to those exhibited by the alkyl radicles; investigations have been made on halogen-, hydroxy-, and nitro-derivatives of benzene and substituted benzenes.
1900); and in the thorough investigations of H.
Philological investigations show that it is probable that the progenitors I From the enlistment of Kabyles speaking the Zouave dialect the Zouave regiments of the French army came to be so called.
But as a matter of fact no small part of the interest and value of investigations in this field of inquiry lies in the relationships which may thereby be established between biological and psychological interpretations.
by the end of the 5th century B.C.; it became the object of study, and thus arose a class of scholars, among whom were some who, under the influence of the general culture of the time, native and foreign, pushed their investigations beyond the limits of the national law and became students and critics of life.
All these views have, however, been cast in the shade by more recent investigations based on minute literary analysis of the Pentateuch, begun by Graf, continued by Kuenen, and culminating in the work of Wellhausen and Robertson Smith.
He also pushed his investigations into the great temple of Edfu, visited Elephantine and Philae, cleared the great temple at Abu Simbel of sand (1817), made excavations at Karnak, and opened up the sepulchre of Seti I.
In 1823 extensive explorations of the Minnesota and Red River valleys were conducted by Major Stephen Harriman Long (1784-1864), and subsequently (1834-1836) knowledge of the region was extended by the investigations of the artist George Catlin (1796-1872), the topographer George William Featherstonhaugh (1780-1866), and the geologist Jean Nicholas Nicollett (1786-1843).
The empirical data on which the hydrodynamical investigations are based are: (I) observed velocities and directions of oceanic currents and drifts; (2) salinity; (3) density; (4) temperature of the sea water in situ; (5) oceanic soundings.
Similar investigations applied to the general case of chemical equilibrium lead to an expression of exactly the same form as that given by C. M.
Orthodox in practice and feeling, his critical treatment of the rabbinic literature prepared the way for the scientific investigations of the 19th century.
These investigations, together with his discovery of the "wonderful phenomenon" of polarization, are recorded in his Traite de la lumiere, published at Leiden in 1690, but composed in 1678.
A volume entitled Opera posthuma (Leiden, 1703) contained his "Dioptrica," in which the ratio between the respective focal lengths of object-glass and eye-glass is given as the measure of magnifying power, together with the shorter essays De vitris figurandis, De corona et parheliis, &c. An early tract De ratiociniis tin ludo aleae, printed in 16J7 with Schooten's Exercitationes mathematicae, is notable as one of the first formal treatises on the theory of probabilities; nor should his investigations of the properties of the cissoid, logarithmic and catenary curves be left unnoticed.
But it was the occupation of Tunisia by the French in 1881 which really gave the impetus to modern investigations in this district of ruined cities.
This, and allied alkaloids, have formed the subject of many investigations by Wyndham Dunstan and his pupils in England, and by Martin Freund and Paul Beck in Berlin.
The factor of proportionality will be I-41r, so that ' The principal theoretical investigations are summarized in Mascart and Joubert's Electricity and Magnetism, i.
Then the results of a large number of investigations may be briefly summarized as follows: (W) =weakly magnetized.
According to the most recent investigations we may conclude that the Gospel according to the Hebrews was current among the Nazarenes and Ebionites as early as 100-125, since Ignatius was familiar with the phrase " I am no bodiless demon " - a phrase which, according to Jerome (Comm.
He began his experimental work in 1841 with investigations of oil of turpentine and tolu balsam, in the course of which he discovered toluene.
He first took up the subject about 1857, and it was in the course of his investigations on it that he devised the apparatus known as the " Deville hot and cold tube."
Joao Barbosa Rodrigues has done some good work in botany, especially in the study of the palms of the Amazon, and Joao Baptista de Lacerda has made important biological investigations at the national museum of Rio de Janeiro.
Its investigations pointed to the loosening of tribal ties and to the corresponding growth of a spirit of individual independence.
Beyond appearing at the meetings of learned societies he took little part in public affairs; he lived alone, conducting his investigations in a deliberate and exhaustive manner, but in the most rigid seclusion, no person being admitted to his laboratory on any pretext.
Astronomy was also enriched by his investigations, and he was led to several remarkable theorems on conics which bear his name.
It was followed by a series of profound investigations, in which Lagrange and Laplace alternately surpassed and supplemented each other in assigning limits of variation to the several elements of the planetary orbits.
By it his extraordinary analytical powers became strictly subordinated to physical investigations.
The commencement of anatomical investigations deserves notice here as influencing the general accuracy and minuteness with which zoological work was prosecuted, but it was not until a late date that their full influence was brought to bear upon systematic zoology by Georges Cuvier (1769-1832).
It was the application of Fritz Miller's law of recapitulation which gave the chief stimulus to embryological investigations between 1865 and 1890; and, though it is now recognized that " recapitulation " is vastly and bewilderingly modified by special adaptations in every case, yet the principle has served, and still serves, as a guide of great value.
Later investigations by Fraunhofer, Airy and others have greatly widened the field, and under the head of " diffraction " are now usually treated all the effects dependent upon the limitation of a beam of light, as well as those which arise from irregularities of any kind at surfaces through which it is transmitted, or at which it is reflected.
The principle employed in these investigations is due to C. Huygens, and may be thus formulated.
In investigations extending over a long series of years, the advantage of a large aperture in separating the components of close double stars was fully examined by W.
In theoretical investigations these problems are usually treated as of two dimensions only, everything being referred to the plane passing through the luminous point and perpendicular to the diffracting edges, supposed to be straight and parallel.
Wellhausen made his name famous by his critical investigations into Old Testament history and the composition of the Hexateuch, the uncompromising scientific attitude he adopted in testing its problems bringing him into antagonism with the older school of biblical interpreters.
Descartes strengthened these views, both by experiments and geometrical investigations, in his Meteors (Leiden, 1637).
The geometrical theory, which formed the basis of the investigations of Descartes and Newton, afforded no explanation of the supernumerary bows, and about a century elapsed before an explanation was forthcoming.
The later investigations of Richard Potter and especially of Sir George Biddell Airy have proved the correctness of Young's idea.
Recent investigations point to the conclusion that the immediate cause of the arrest of vitality, in the first place, and of its destruction, in the second, is the coagulation of certain substances in the protoplasm, and that the latter contains various coagulable matters, which solidify at different temperatures.
, 3 1, p. 7), and this was shortly after followed by investigations by R.
Although we have not reached a stage of certainty regarding their origin, function and destiny, recent investigations have brought forward evidence to elucidate the importance of the part played by the different cells in the various types of the inflammatory process.
Their investigations on cancers found in the lower animals, and the successful transplantation of such growths into a new host of the same species (mice and rats), have greatly advanced our knowledge of the etiology of this disease.
He held his prefecture for fourteen years; and it was during this period that he carried on his elaborate and fruitful investigations on the conduction of heat.
In 1872, Hoppe-Seyler (1825-1895) gave a new beginning to our knowledge of the chemistry of secretion and of excretion; and later students have increased the range of physiological and pathological chemistry by investigations not only into the several stages of albuminoid material and the transitions which all foodstuffs undergo in digestion, but even into the structure of protoplasm itself.
Among the revisions may be adduced some addition to our knowledge of dyspepsia, attained by analytic investigations into the contents of the stomach at various stages of digestion, and by examining the passage of opaque substances through the primae vine by the Rntgen rays.
The first two books enable us better than anything else in ancient literature to appreciate the boldness and, on the whole, the reasonableness of the ancient mind in forming hypotheses on great matters that still occupy the investigations of physical science.
Recent investigations have shown an alarming increase in mortality from miners' phthisis in Cornwall, South Africa and elsewhere.
In 1815 he had carried on historical investigations in Venice, and in the two following years he had travelled in Germany, Switzerland and Italy.
The structure of glass has been the subject of repeated investigations.
The investigations on magnetism led to the important practical discovery of a means of rectifying or compensating compass errors in ships.
At a time when the Cartesian system of vortices universally prevailed, he found it necessary to investigate that hypothesis, and in the course of his investigations he showed that the velocity of any stratum of the vortex is an arithmetical mean between the velocities of the strata which enclose it; and from this it evidently follows that the velocity of a filament of water moving in a pipe is an arithmetical mean between the velocities of the filaments which surround it.
Julius Weisbach (1806-1871) also made many experimental investigations on the discharge of fluids.
For the promulgation of these views, which were confessedly at variance with the doctrines of the standards of the national church of Scotland, he was summoned (1726) before his presbytery, where in the course of the investigations which followed he affirmed still more explicitly his belief that "every national church established by the laws of earthly kingdoms is antichristian in its constitution and persecuting in its spirit," and further declared opinions upon the subject of church government which amounted to a repudiation of Presbyterianism and an acceptance of the puritan type of Independency.
The knowledge of the cause, however, is due to modern investigations.
von Humboldt, to that of Gay-Lussac, where in 1824 he concluded his investigations on the composition of the fulminates.
His contributions to inorganic chemistry were numerous, including investigations on the compounds of antimony, aluminium, silicon, &c., on the separation of nickel and cobalt, and on the analysis of mineral waters, but they are outweighed in importance by his work on organic substances.
About 1832 he began his investigations into the constitution of ether and alcohol and their derivatives.
from the university of Oxford, Layard returned to Constantinople as attache to the British embassy, and, in August 1849, started on a second expedition, in the course of which he extended his investigations to the ruins of Babylon and the mounds of southern Mesopotamia.
For thirty years he laboured with ever-increasing success, due not to any attractions of manner or to the enunciation of novel or bizarre opinions, but to the soundness of his investigations, the impartiality of his judgments, and the clearness of his method.
His investigations show that the Dhahira contains many settlements, with an industrious agricultural population, and that the unexplored tract extending 250 m.
Having successfully completed his investigations and sent copies of inscriptions and drawings of the tombs to Renan in Paris, he determined to push on farther into the desert.
The scandals that resulted led to investigations and severe restrictions, and their employment now has become a matter of voluntary contract, usually for two years, in which fair dealing and good treatment are the rule.
Much of his work was concerned with specific volumes, the conception of which he set forth in a paper published when he was only twenty-two years of age; and the principles he established have formed the basis of subsequent investigations in that subject, although his results have in some cases undergone modification.
The action of lithontriptic medicines,, especially lime-water, was one of the questions of the day, and through his investigations of this subject Black was led to the chemical discoveries associated with his name.
For further details of his mathematical investigations see the articles Theory of groups, and Functions Of Complex Variables.
These two tractates, with which `Ilayyuj had laid the foundations of scientific Hebrew grammar, were recognized by Abulwalid as the basis of his own grammatical investigations, and Abraham Ibn Daud, when enumerating the great Spanish Jews in his history, sums up the significance of R.
While a comparison of his expositions of the Pauline and Johannine Christologies with the earlier Unitarian exegesis in which he had been trained shows how wide is the interval, the work does not represent a mind that had throughout its history lived and worked in the delicate and judicial investigations he here tried to conduct.
The investigations of Japanese botanists are adding constantly to the above number, and it is not likely that finality will be reached for some time.
He then spent some time in Holland, and the results of his investigations appeared at the Hague in 1766 in his Elenchus Zoophytorum and Miscellanea Zoologica, and in1767-1804in his Spicilegia Zoologica (Berlin).
2 3 4 The binomial theorem was thus discovered as a development of John Wallis's investigations in the method of interpolation.
maintained their existence into modern times, and in these only (except at Locri) have archaeological investigations of any importance been carried on; so that there still remains a considerable field for investigation.
The Phase Rule of Willard Gibbs, especially as developed by Bakhuis Roozeboom, is a most useful guide in such investigations.
- Ritsthl's investigations,referred to above,supersede the older works of Tillemont, Wernsdorf, Mosheim, Walch, Neander, Baur and A.
This is only one of many cases where the investigations of the archaeologist have proved not iconoclastic but reconstructive, tending to restore confidence in classical traditions which the scientific historians of the age of Niebuhr and George Cornewall Lewis regarded with scepticism.
ologyand A fair proportion of the workers who have delved so enthusiastically in the fields of Egyptian and Assyrian exploration would never have taken up the work at all but for the hope that their investigations might substantiate the Hebrew records.
On his final return to Basel in 1682, he devoted himself to physical and mathematical investigations, and opened a public seminary for experimental physics.
In his investigations respecting cycloidal lines and various spiral curves, his attention was directed to the loxodromic and logarithmic spirals, in the last of which he took particular interest from its remarkable property of reproducing itself under a variety of conditions.
In one of his early investigations he gave an ingenious though indirect demonstration of the problem of the parallelogram of forces.
Several of his investigations are contained in the earlier volumes of the Comment.
The National Physical Laboratory, for making scientific investigations of industrial importance, and for mechanical testing, was opened in Bushey House in 1902.
Lord Rayleigh has made many investigations of the absolute densities of gases, one of which, namely on atmospheric and artificial nitrogen, undertaken in conjunction with Sir William Ramsay, culminated in the discovery of argon.
Before discussing the methods now used in detail, a summary of the conclusions reached by Victor Meyer in his classical investigations in this field as to the applicability of the different methods will be given: (I) For substances which do not boil higher than 260° and have vapours stable for 30° above the boiling-point and which do not react on mercury, use Victor Meyer's "mercury expulsion method."
An oxychloride of tellurium has been described, but the investigations of V.
Recent investigations of the atomic weight are due to G.
2 It is somewhat surprising that, after Kaiser's investigations, observers should continue, as many have done, to discuss their observations with this instrument as if the screw-value were constant for all angles.
The pursuit of these isolated investigations where very important investigations have been made.
Maury, however, recognized that in great depths on the " Washington " and by the Austrians on the " Pola " the surest guarantee of bottom having been reached was to bring in 1890-1893, the latter carrying the investigations to the Red up a sample of the deposit.
According to the investigations of Svante Arrhenius the osmotic pressure in atmospheres may be obtained by simply multiplying the temp rature of freezing (r) by the factor -12.08, and it varies with temperature (t) according to the law which holds good for gaseous pressure.
The investigations of Aime in 1845 and Hensen in 1889 indicate that the amount of cloud has a great effect.
Schott's investigations show that the annual range of surface temperature in the open ocean is greatest in 40° N., with 18.4° F., and in 30 S., with 9.2° F.; on the contrary, near the equator it is less, only 4° F.
In small nearly land-locked basins shut off from one another by bars rising to within a short distance of the surface and affected both by strong tidal currents and by a considerable admixture of land water, the contrasts of vertical distribution of temperature with the seasons are strongly marked, and there are also great unperiodic changes effected mainly by wind, as is shown by the investigations of H.
Such formations, termed toross by the Russians, may extend under water, according to Makaroff's investigations, to at least an equal depth.
Modern investigations have shown, however, that the relationship is by no means so simple as appears at first.
His investigations into the usages and customs of his native Attica were embodied in an Atthis, in seventeen books, a history of Athens from the earliest times to 262 B.C. Considerable fragments are preserved in the lexicographers, scholiasts, Athenaeus, and elsewhere.
His investigations had led him to see that a certain affinity or resemblance existed amongst many of the authorities for the Greek text - MSS., versions, and ecclesiastical writers; that if a peculiar reading, e.g., was found in one of these, it was generally found also in the other members of the same class; and this general relationship seemed to point ultimately to a common origin for all the authorities which presented such peculiarities.
The investigations of the most recent of Talleyrand's biographers tend to show that the charges made against him of trafficking with the envoys have been overdrawn; but all his apologists admit that irregularities occurred.
On his return he removed to Berlin, where he lived as a royal pensioner till his death, which occurred on the 18th of February 18 His investigations in elliptic functions, the theory of which he established upon quite a new basis, and more particularly his development of the theta-function, as given in his great treatise Fundamenta nova theoriae functionum ellipticarum (Konigsberg, 1829), and in later papers in Crelle's Journal, constitute his grandest analytical discoveries.
Valuable also are his papers on Abelian transcendents, and his investigations in the theory of numbers, in which latter department he mainly supplements the labours of K.
Subsequent psycho-physical investigations have all been in the spirit of his work; and although he consistently advocated the introspective method in psychological investigation, he was among the first to appreciate the help that may be given to it by animal and social and infant psychology.
Later investigations disclosed that the state actually owed him more than $90,000.
Only recent books are mentioned, since the older works have been largely superseded owing to modern critical investigations: Thomas A.
He made three investigations of the case in the three successive months, and brought it to trial in the fourth month.
The first competition in connexion with alcohol as a fuel for motor vehicles took place in France in 1901, followed in the next year by German investigations, but its employment for this purpose did not make much headway.
Investigations started in 1920 by the British Government, in connexion with the production of alcohol for power purposes, have shown, however, that there are large areas of suitable land in the British Empire where the cost of production would be comparatively low, and where it might be possible to grow vegetable substances in excess of food requirements, and in sufficient quantities to produce alcohol for local consumption to replace expensive petrol.
Other institutional investigations have been prosecuted, the result of all which will be an intelligent comprehension of the philology of a primitive race.
These investigations lead, in turn, to further formulae, which, though not obtainable by elementary methods, are nevertheless simple in themselves and of practical utility.
But in addition to these and numberless other investigations for which he was responsible the influence he exercised through his pupils must also be taken into account.
Smith, though recognizing the unpleasantness of beats, could not accept Sauveur's theory, and, indeed, it received no acceptance till it was rediscovered by Helmholtz, to whose investigations, recorded in his Sensations of Tone, we owe its satisfactory establishment.
p. 332) attaches much importance to his geographical investigations, and praises him for being the first to separate the historical from the merely geographical element.
His chief work was in microscopic petrology, to the study of which he was attracted by the investigations of Dr H.
Among more recent investigations are those of Howorth, Proc. Soc. of Bibl.
The earliest published theoretical investigations of the stresses in bracing bars were perhaps those in the paper by W.
A new form of condenser was tested on the small engine employed, and the results it yielded formed the starting-point of a series of investigations which were aided by a special grant from the Royal Society, and were described in an elaborate memoir presented to it on the 13th of December 1860.
On the whole, however, he modified the positions of the founder of the Tubingen school, going beyond him only in his investigations into the Fourth Gospel.
But modern investigations seem to show that M.
He is, however, chiefly known by the statistical investigations which occupied him from 1823 onward.
Foucault, he engaged in a series of investigations on the interference of light and heat.
Recent investigations are described in the Reports of the Fishery Board for Scotland, and in the reports of the German Kommission zur Untersuchung der Deutschen Meere (published at Kiel).
von Nageli's investigations on molecular structure and the growth of the cell membrane we recognize the origin of modern methods of the study of cellstructure included under cytology.
But though von Richthofen's general conception of the Kuen-lun system was broadly sound and in accordance with facts, the details both of his description and of that of his pupil Wegener' require now very considerable revision, and need even to be in part recast, as a consequence of explorations and investigations made since they wrote by, amongst others, the Russian explorers N.
According to the investigations of F.
The investigations which have been carried on in recent years by King, Tallquist and Zimmern, as well as by Briinnow and Craig, on the magic and ritual of Babylonia and Assyria have been fruitful of results.
Devoting his evenings to private investigations in a rough laboratory fitted up at his home, Perkin was fired by some remarks of Hofmann's to undertake the artificial production of quinine.
About the same time he also carried out a series of investigations into kindred substances, such as anthrapurpurin.
For this work he was in 1889 awarded a Davy medal by the Royal Society, which ten years previously had bestowed upon him a Royal medal in recognition of his investigations in the coal-tar colours.
- The best general history of Poland is still Jozef Szujski's monumental History of Poland according to the latest investigations (4 vols., Pol., Lemberg, 1865-1866), a work which has all the authority of careful criticism and easy scholarship. It adopts, throughout, the conservative-monarchical standpoint.
In recent times many interesting geological and anthropological investigations have been carried on in Poland.
With all the important work he accomplished in physics - the enunciation of Boyle's law, the discovery of the part taken by air in the propagation of sound, and investigations on the expansive force of freezing water, on specific gravities and refractive powers, on crystals, on electricity, on colour, on hydrostatics, &c. - chemistry was his peculiar and favourite study.
Their primary object is to gratify the pleasure most persons take in viewing at close range the curious and beautiful living products of nature, but they serve also as means of instruction in natural history, providing material for museums and for investigations in comparative anatomy and pathology, while they may have a commercial value as pleasure resorts, or as show grounds for the display of animals that have been imported or bred for sale.
The eldest, Lawrence Parsons, 4th earl of Rosse, and Baron Oxmantown, born on the 17th of November 1840, succeeded to the title on his father's death, and made many investigations on the heavenly bodies, particularly on the radiation of the moon and related physical questions; the youngest, the Hon.
The latter work contains elaborate investigations in regard to the centre of gravity, and it is remarkable also for the employment of the principle of virtual velocities.
The French government publication, Exploration scientifique de l'Algerie (20 vols., 1844-1853), gives the results of investigations made in 1840-1842.
Opinions differ as to the correctness of the results reached by WH, but there is scarcely room for doubt that as an example of method their work is quite unrivalled at present and is the necessary starting-point for all modern investigations.
- Two investigations, which attracted much notice when they were published, tried to explain the phenomena of the Western text as due to retranslation from early versions into Greek.
More recent investigations have confirmed their view as to the relation of the Alexandrian to the Neutral text, but have thrown doubt on the age and widespread use of the latter.
Careful investigations have supported the theory that Micronesia was peopled largely from the Philippines or some portion of the Malay Archipelago at a much later period than the Polynesian migration.
He especially devoted himself to investigations of the radiation of heat from the sun and its absorption by the earth's atmosphere, and to that end devised various delicate methods and instruments, including his electric compensation pyrheliometer, invented in 1893, and apparatus for obtaining a photographic representation of the infra-red spectrum (1895).
In 1886 the widow of Henry Draper, one of the pioneers of stellar spectroscopy, made a liberal provision for carrying on spectroscopic investigations at Harvard College in memory of her husband.
These investigations have yielded many important discoveries, not only of new stars, and of large numbers of variable stars, but also of a wholly new class of double stars whose binary character is only revealed by peculiarities in their spectra.
The logarithm is also a function of frequent occurrence in analysis, being regarded as a known and recognized function like sin x or tan x; but in mathematical investigations the base generally employed is not 10, but a certain quantity usually denoted by the letter e, of value 2.71828 18284 ...
All these investigations point clearly to the fact that Gnosticism belongs to the group of mystical religions.
The investigations made by Dr Walter Lehmann in Central America (1907-1909), prove that these Mexican elements were extended through Guatemala, Salvador, a small part of Nicaragua (the territory of the Nicaraos) and on several places in the peninsula of Nicoya (Costa Rica) amongst the autochthonous Chorotega or Mangue.
More important, from the standpoint of protozoology, than these interesting medical discoveries have been the investigations by A.
The recent investigations of Schaudinn and Prowazek (II.
As a result of his more recent investigations on S.
The mere immobility of the body was sufficient to show that its state was not identical with that of waking; when, in addition, the sleeper awoke to give an account of visits to distant lands, from which, as modern psychical investigations suggest, he may even have brought back veridical details, the conclusion must have been irresistible that in sleep something journeyed forth, which was not the body.
This comet has given rise to a longer series of investigations than any other, owing to Encke's result that the orbit was becoming smaller, and the revolutions therefore accelerated, by some unknown cause, of which the most plausible was a resisting medium surrounding the sun.
Recent investigations of this subject have been made at the Pulkova Observatory, first by F.
The committees on the expenditure of the various government departments conduct minute investigations into the administration of each.
The department of agriculture includes the weather bureau, the bureau of animal industry and other bureaus which conduct investigations and experiments.
formed an epoch in the history of mathematics generally, and had, of course, a marked influence on after investigations regarding circle-quadrature.
contain the essential principles; the rest are specialized investigations in particular directions.
Seeds are tested in the laboratory for purity and germination on behalf of farmers and seed merchants, and scientific investigations relating to seeds are conducted and reported upon.
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