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investigation

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investigation

investigation Sentence Examples

  • An investigation proved that to be the case.

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  • We're not running 'Police Investigation 101,' so you can use it as a class­room to play detective.

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  • Further investigation revealed nothing.

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  • Closer investigation revealed a balcony that overlooked the driveway.

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  • The investigation had been anything but that.

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  • But the investigation by which he reaches them has the merit of first prominently publishing and establishing the law of the refraction of light.

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  • A quiet investigation revealed all upstairs doors closed and the sound of snoring from the Dame Turnbull's room.

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  • Cade launched into an investigation of the old truck while Cynthia and Mary caught up on the latest gossip.

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  • The investigation killed the entire afternoon and part of the evening before they finished checking the neighborhood.

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  • She questioned how the investigation was proceeding and her pointed questions forced him to admit he was the prime suspect.

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  • "We've closed the police investigation," Dean interjected.

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  • Our active investigation is closed, but the file stays open until there's a body or a judge's ruling.

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  • That would take some research by Fred and his stalwarts, if Dean could figure a way to distance that investigation from Fred's court-dictated jury duty restrictions.

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  • He says, the court of investigation before which I was brought consisted of eight people: four blind, four seeing persons.

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  • I was brought before a court of investigation composed of the teachers and officers of the Institution, and Miss Sullivan was asked to leave me.

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  • He then told her the Parkside Police Department would close the investigation from this end unless something new came to light.

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  • We will likely expedite the criminal investigation by adding a few more professionals to the case.

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  • No truths brought to light by biological investigation were better calculated to inspire distrust of the dogmas intruded upon science in the name of theology than those which relate to the distribution of animals and plants on the surface of the earth.

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  • A sidebar quoted the vocal congressman who continued to push for an investigation while an accompanying article contained the ever increasing rants of the defense bar.

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  • Moreover, Miss Sullivan does not see why Miss Keller should be subjected to the investigation of the scientist, and has not herself made many experiments.

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  • That's the Colorado Bureau of Investigation, the State cops.

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  • The whole of the writings of this time are dominated by a preoccupation with the functions of the different tissues, in itself an excellent standpoint for investigation, but frequently leading in the case of these early investigators to one-sided and distorted views of the facts of structure.

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  • In the Roman communion in England and the United States, there are commissions of investigation appointed to hear in first instance the criminal causes of clerks.

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  • My notes about Cleary and our investigation in Scranton were down here when those bozos broke in.

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  • He was no follower of their ideas, indeed often opposed to them; but he derived from Bacon an increasing stimulus towards the investigation of certain great problems of history and philosophy, while Grotius proved valuable in his study of philosophic jurisprudence.

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  • For a time Giolitti successfully opposed inquiry into the conditions of the state banks, but on the 21st of March was compelled to sanction an official investigation by a parliamentary commission composed of seven members.

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  • Before applying the solution to a mathematical investigation of the present question, it may be well to consider the matter for a few moments from a more general point of view.

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  • I'll tell Harrigan to stop the investigation but Arthur's actions are pretty strange.

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  • When a character is said to be favoured by natural selection, the biometricist demands investigation of the death-rate of individuals with or without the character.

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  • Instead of regarding living things as capable of arrangement in one series like the steps of a ladder, the results of modern investigation compel us to dispose them as if they were the twigs and branches of a tree.

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  • Scientific exploration began in 1849, and systematic geological investigation about 1875.

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  • The two books mentioned remained unnoticed by the reading public, and Lotze first became known to a larger circle through a series of works which aimed at establishing in the study of the physical and mental phenomena of the human organism in its normal and diseased states the same general principles which had been adopted in the investigation of inorganic phenomena.

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  • A code of instructions for the guidance of church courts when engaged in cases of discipline is in general use, and bears witness to the extreme care taken not only to have things done decently and in order, but also to prevent hasty, impulsive and illogical procedure in the investigation of charges of heresy or immorality.

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  • An administrative tribunal called the cour des corn ptes subjects the accounts of the states financial agents (trsorierspayeurs, receveurs of registration fees, of customs, of indirect taxes, &c.) and of the communesi to a close investigation, and a vote of definitive settlement is finally passed by parliament.

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  • Enough, however, has already been done to show the vast importance of the method in grouping and codifying the empirical facts of life, and in so preparing the way for the investigation of ultimate " causes."

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  • The full implications of the group of ideas require, and are likely to receive, much attention in the immediate future of biological investigation, but it is enough at present to point out that until the more obvious lines of inquiry have been opened out much more fully, we cannot be in a position to guess at the existence of a residuum, for which such a metaphysical conception as bathmism would serve even as a convenient disguise for ignorance.

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  • In 1875 Lord Rayleigh published an investigation on "the work which may be gained during the mixing of gases."

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  • Norfolk has closed their investigation too.

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  • Recent investigation has considerably extended the list of his numeri innumeri.

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  • It is a striking example of the difficulty of getting people to use their own powers of investigation accurately, that this form of the doctrine of evolution should have held its ground so long; for it was thoroughly and completely exploded, not long after its enunciation, by Caspar Frederick Wolff, who in his Theoria generationis, published in 1759, placed the opposite theory of epigenesis upon the secure foundation of fact, from which it has never been displaced.

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  • The so-called musical arc of Duddell has been the subject of considerable investigation, and physicists are not entirely in accordance as to the true explanation of the mode of production of the oscillations.

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  • An investigation was begun in March 1559, and as the result of a conviction for heresy the exhumed body of Jorisz was burned, together with his portrait, on the 13th of May 1559.

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  • To the former he owes his appreciation of exact investigation and a complete knowledge of the aims of science, to the latter an equal admiration for the great circle of ideas which had been diffused by the teaching of Fichte, Schelling and Hegel.

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  • The quality of the sounds was to some extent also reproduced; but, judging from the results of later telephone investigation, it is highly probable that this was due, not to the varying duration, but to the varying firmness of the contact.

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  • This connexion of isomerism with resistant linking, and of this with high valency, explains, in considerable measure, why inorganic compounds afforded, as a rule, no phenomena of this kind until the systematic investigation of metallic compounds by Werner brought to light many instances of isomerism in inorganic compounds.

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  • It was not till De Bary (1866) made known the true nature of parasitic Fungi, based on his researches between 1853-1863, that the vast domain of epidemic diseases of plants was opened up to fruitful investigation, and such modern treatises as those of Frank (1880 and L895), Sorauer (1886), Kirchner (1890), were gradually made possible.

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  • Good cytological evidence has been adduced in favor of both theories, but further investigation is necessary before any definite conclusion can be arrived at.

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  • The term morphology, which was introduced into science by Goethe (1817), designates, in the first place, the study of the form and composition of the body and of the parts of which the body may consist; secondly, the relations of the parts of the same body; thirdly, the comparison of the bodies or parts of the bodies of plants of different kinds; fourthly, the study of the development of the body and of its parts (ontogeny); fifthly, the investigation of the historical origin and descent of the body and its parts (phylogeny); and, lastly, the consideration of the relation of the parts of the body to their various functions, a study that is known as organography.

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  • In this, as in all morphological inquiries, two lines of investigation have to be followed, the phylogenetic and the ontogenetic. Beginning with its phylogeny, it appears, so far as present knowledge goes, that the differentiation of the shoot of the sporophyte into stem and leaf first occurred in the Pteridophyta; and, in accordance with the views of Bower (Origin of a Land..

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  • Casimir de Candolle has made an independent investigation, based on Hooker and Benthams Genera plantarum.

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  • The investigation of these may raise and solve interesting physiological problems, but throw no light on the facts and genetic relationship which a rational explanation of distribution requires.

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  • circare, to go round in a circle, to explore), the act of searching into a matter closely and carefully, inquiry directed to the discovery of truth, and in particular the trained scientific investigation of the principles and facts of any subject, based on original and first-hand study of authorities or experiment.

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  • These act as endowments for a specific period, and are conditional on the holder devoting his time to the investigation at first hand of some specified subject.

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  • Academy as part of an investigation with the object of ascertaining the length of the degree near the equator and near the pole respectively so as to determine the figure of the earth.

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  • Of his astronomical writings during this period the most important are his investigation of the mass of Jupiter, his report to the British Association on the progress of astronomy during the 19th century, and his memoir On an Inequality of Long Period in the Motions of the Earth and Venus.

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  • The investigation that brought about this result was probably the most laborious that had been made up to Airy's time in planetary theory, and represented the first specific improvement in the solar tables effected in England since the establishment of the theory of gravitation.

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  • After completing these reductions, Airy made inquiries, before engaging in any theoretical investigation in connexion with them, whether any other mathematician was pursuing the subject, and learning that Hansen had taken it in hand under the patronage of the king of Denmark, but that, owing to the death of the king and the consequent lack of funds, there was danger of his being compelled to abandon it, he applied to the admiralty on Hansen's behalf for the necessary sum.

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  • On arriving in Moscow he found that the mutiny had been suppressed and the ringleaders punished, but he considered it necessary to reopen the investigation and act with exemplary severity.

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  • Soloviev's history, from the earliest times to 1774, is based throughout on original investigation of sources, and therefore, though inferior to Karamzin's work as literature, is incomparably superior to it in authority.

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  • The inspector, after making his investigation, is required to make a report to the Board of Trade as to the causes of the accident and the circumstances attending the same, with any observations on the subject which he deems right, and the Board " shall cause every such report to be made public in such manner as they think expedient."

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  • In 1869 Massachusetts had instituted a commission of more modern type, which was given only powers of investigation and recommendation, the force of public opinion being relied upon to make its orders effective.

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  • For its enforcement, it created an Interstate Commerce Commission of five members, with powers of investigation, and with authority to issue remedial orders upon complaint and after hearing.

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  • A majority of the states have railway commissions, but the investigation of railway accidents, with comparatively few exceptions, has not been done in such a way as to make the results useful in promoting improved practice.

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  • An investigation into the matter was thought to show that none of the Fox family was concerned in producing the rappings; but the evidence that they were not concerned is insufficient, although similar noises had been noticed occasionally in the house before they lived there.

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  • The investigation of Carpenter on unconscious cerebration and of Faraday on unconscious muscular action showed early in the movement that it was not necessary to look outside the medium's own personality for the explanation of even intelligent communications unconsciously conveyed through table-tilting, automatic writing and trance-speaking - provided the matter communicated was not beyond the range of the medium's own knowledge or powers.

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  • obtained from various persons automatic script affording important new material for investigation and which prima facie supports the spiritualistic hypothesis.

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  • It is with a full knowledge of these difficulties in the way of investigation that they maintain that unmistakably genuine phenomena are of constant occurrence.

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  • In the following pages we shall not attempt to do more than to sketch in very succinct outline the general results of investigation into the origins and growth of Hebrew religion.

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  • After a sleepless night, I trod with a lofty step the ruins of the forum; each memorable spot, where Romulus stood, or Tully spoke, or Caesar fell, was at once present to my eye; and several days of intoxication were lost or enjoyed before I could descend to a cool and minute investigation."

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  • The relative weights of the sources have been more nicely determined by critical investigation.

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  • Following up this line of investigation, Major Ronald Ross in 1895 found that if a mosquito sucked blood containing the parasites they soon began to throw out flagellae, which broke away and became free; and in 1897 he discovered peculiar pigmented cells, which afterwards turned out to be the parasites of aestivo-autumnal malaria in an early stage of development, within the stomachwall of mosquitoes which had been fed on malarial blood.

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  • All modern 1 It is useful to compare the critical study of the Koran, where, however, the investigation of its various " revelations " is simpler than that of the biblical " prophecies " on account of the greater wealth of independent historical tradition.

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  • histories of any value are necessarily compromises between the biblical traditions and the results of recent investigation, and those studies which appear to depart most widely from the biblical or canonical representation often do greater t justice to the evidence as a whole than the slighter or more conservative and apologetic reconstructions.

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  • The critical investigation of these records is the indispensable prelude to all serious biblical study, and hasty or sweeping deductions from monumental or archaeological evidence, or versions compiled promiscuously from materials of distinct origin, are alike hazardous.

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  • If, as seems probable, the continued methodical investigation, which is demanded by the advance of modern knowledge, becomes more drastic in its results, it will recognize ever more clearly that there were certain unique influences in the history of Palestine which cannot be explained by purely historical research.

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  • Meanwhile, in the Farther East so rapid has been the progress of geographical research since the first beginnings of investigation into the route connexion between Burma and China in 1874 (when the brave Augustus Margary lost his life), that a gradually increasing tide of exploration, setting from east to west and back again, has culminated in a flood of inquiring experts intent on economic and commercial development in China, essaying to unlock those doors to trade which are hereafter to be propped open for the benefit of humanity.

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  • The depression westward of the Caspian and Aral basins, and the original connexion of these seas, have also come under the close investigation of Russian scientists, with the result that the theory of an ancient connexion between the Oxus and the Caspian has been displaced by the more recent hypothesis of an extension of the Caspian Sea eastwards into Trans-Caspian territory within the postPleiocene age.

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  • Farther east no part of Asia has been brought under more careful investigation than the hydrography of the strange mountain wilderness that divides Tibet and Burma from China.

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  • The comparatively restricted area which still remains for close investigation includes the most easterly sources of the Brahmaputra, the most northerly sources of the Irrawaddy, and some 300 m.

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  • The claim of the Durani Afghan to be a true Ben-i-Israel is certainly in no way weakened by any recent investigation.

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  • The identification of existing peoples with the various Scythic, Persian and Arab races who have passed from High Asia into the Indian borderland, has opened up a vast field of ethnographical inquiry which has hardly yet found adequate workers for its investigation.

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  • Dumas, a native of the Alais district, where the disease was rampant, urged Pasteur to undertake its investigation.

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  • In this line of investigation the prime importance belongs to the discovery (1) of the connexion between the refractive index and the polarizing angle, (2) of biaxial crystals, and (3) of the production of double refraction by irregular heating.

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  • Because all accept the same methods of investigation, the same tests of truth.

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  • It was in 1837, on reading Whewell's Inductive Sciences and re-reading Herschel, that Mill at last saw his way clear both to formulating the methods of scientific investigation and joining on the new logic as a supplement to the old.

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  • In the fifth of his early essays he asserted that the method a priori is the only mode of investigation in the social sciences, and that the method a posteriori "is altogether inefficacious in those sciences as a means of arriving at any considerable body of valuable truth."

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  • At the root of all economic investigation lies the conception of the standard of life of the community.

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  • In a modern industrial community it is possible to express this standard fairly accurately for the purposes of economic investigation in terms of money.

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  • But it is doubtful whether the most complete investigation would ever enable us to include all the elements of the standard of life in a money estimate.

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  • In the investigation of past times, the incommensurate elements of well-being are so numerous that merely money estimates are frequently misleading.

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  • Some people are of opinion that the factors to be taken account of in economic investigation are so numerous that progress on these lines is impossible.

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  • Whatever " method " of economic investigation we employ, we must at every stage see how far our reasoning is borne out by the actual experience of life.

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  • There is no method of investigation which is peculiarly economic or of which economics has the monopoly.

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  • Every hypothesis must be tested by an appeal to the facts of life, and modified or abandoned if it will not bear examination, unless we are convinced on genuine evidence that it may for a time be employed as a useful approximation, without prejudice to the later stages of the investigation we are conducting.

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  • But these conclusions, after all, suggest more difficulties than they remove, for they show that our inquiry, instead of presenting certain well-marked features which can be readily dealt with, has to be split up into a number of highly specialized studies: the investigation of rates of wages, prices and the standard of comfort in different localities, bye-industries, regularity of employment, the organization of particular trades, the economic functions of local authorities, apprenticeship and a host of other subjects.

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  • These qualities are required all the more because, in order to make any further progress with such an inquiry as we have suggested, we have deliberately to make use of abstraction as an instrument of investigation.

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  • But at this stage in historical investigation it is generally the want of evidence of a sufficiently complete and continuous character, rather than difficulties of method, which forces us to leave the problem unsolved.

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  • But they supply the bases for that general theory which, as we have seen, is indispensable in economic investigation.

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  • It is useful and necessary, and plays somewhat the same part in economic investigation as ton-mile statistics do in the administration of a railway.

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  • There is another very important instrument of investigation which can be used in our own time, but cannot be employed in historical research.

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  • Again, the classification of an economic bibliography at once shows how varied has been the character of economic investigation, ranging from the most abstract speculation on the one hand to almost technical studies of particular trades on the other.

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  • But great as the achievements of this school have been, it has not developed any scientific machinery which can take the place of theory in economic investigation.

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  • On the principles we have explained, therefore, the Ricardian economics should supply just that body of general theory which is required in the investigation of modern economic problems, and the reputation of at any rate the leading writers should be as great as ever.

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  • It would be of immense advantage from a scientific point of view if this could be taken for granted, if for a time the work of the classical economists could be considered final so far as it goes, and for the purposes of investigation regarded as the theoretical counterpart of the modern industrial system.

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  • No one who is really experienced in economic investigation cares to emphasize the originality, still less the revolutionary character of his own work.

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  • The result will be that while the doctrines are apparently being brought into closer correspondence with the facts of life, they will in reality be made quite useless for practical purposes or economic investigation.

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  • In historical and statistical investigation, or in special studies of particular subjects, it is possible, given the pecuniary means, to organize a whole army of skilled assistants, and with ordinary care to combine the results of their separate efforts.

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  • We can only say that it requires investigation and restatement.

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  • That is, original investigation of special problems has to be carried out on a more gigantic scale than any economist of the historical school ever dreamt of or the world requires, with the certain knowledge that at the end of it all the general theory will not correspond with the facts of life.

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  • All the materials for investigation, all the facts and figures from which illustrations are drawn, all methods of keeping accounts in England, assume the ordinary English tongue.

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  • These books are generally regarded as typical of the best English work of recent years in economic investigation.

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  • But the spirit of investigation impelled him to devote himself to the highest studies, philosophy and the exegesis of the sacred Scriptures.

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  • A good deal of anthropometric investigation has been devoted to human remains of the Aegean epoch, especially to skulls and bones found in Crete in tombs of Period II.

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  • Carrying on the same analytical method into the special department of moral philosophy, Green held that ethics applies to the peculiar conditions of social life that investigation into man's nature which metaphysics began.

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  • The faculty employed in this further investigation is no "separate moral faculty," but that same reason which is the source of all our knowledge - ethical and other.

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  • As the result of this analysis, combined with an investigation into the surroundings man lives in, a "content" - a moral code - becomes gradually evolved.

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  • Turner - the latter (as his publications prove) a zoologist of much promise, who in 1851 died, a victim to his own zeal for investigation, of a wound received in dissecting.

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  • Here the matter must be left; but it is undoubtedly a subject which demands further investigation, and naturally any future investigator of it should consult the abstract of L'Herminier's memoir and the criticisms upon it of the younger Geoffroy.

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  • Blyth " arrived at the same conclusion, however, by a different train of investigation," and this is beyond doubt.

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  • Looking on Miller's labours as we now can, we see that such errors as he committed are chiefly due to his want of special knowledge of ornithology, combined with the absence in several instances of sufficient materials for investigation.

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  • But, relieved as it may be by reflections of this kind - dreams some may perhaps still call them - the study of ornithology has unquestionably become harder and more serious; and a corresponding change in the style of investigation, followed in the works that remain to be considered, will be immediately perceptible.

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  • These different memoirs, being technically monographs, have strictly no right to be mentioned in this place; but there is scarcely one of them, if one indeed there be, that does not deal with the generalities of the study; and the influence they have had upon contemporary investigation is so strong that it is impossible to refrain from noticing them here, though want of space forbids us from enlarging on their contents.

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  • The investigation was carried out with scrupulous scientific rigour upon samples of water taken in every part of the city, at all states of the tide and under various atmospheric conditions.

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  • As an instance of his method, Bacon gives an investigation into the nature and cause of the rainbow, which is really a very fine specimen of inductive research.

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  • Through the 19th century, as knowledge increased, the work of investigation became necessarily more and more specialized.

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  • Graber turned their attention to the detailed investigation of some one species or to special points in the structure of some particular organs, using for the elucidation of their subject the ever-improving microscopical methods of research.

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  • Suggestions for its improvement, which if carried out would (it is estimated) result in a monetary saving of £r,000,000 annually, were made by the Lancashire Private Cotton Investigation Commission which visited the Southern States of America in 1906.

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  • The impulse communicated by Schleiermacher was confirmed by Planck, and he seems now to have realized that the original investigation of Christian history was to form the great work of his life.

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  • Jacob Joseph Winterl, in 1788, appears to have been the first to examine petroleum chemically, but the earliest systematic investigation was that carried out by Professor B.

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  • The subject deserves investigation.

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  • They were used, like the assizes of the high court, in Cyprus; and, like the other assizes, they were made the subject of investigation in 1531, with the object of discovering a good text.

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  • Whether in the Metanemertines, where the blood fluid is often provided with haemoglobiniferous disks, the chief functions of the side organs may not rather be a sensory one needs further investigation.

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  • Increasing attention was paid to the investigation of the properties of substances and of their effects on the human body, and chemistry profited by the fact that it passed into the hands of men who possessed the highest scientific culture of the time, Still, belief in the possibility of transmutation long remained orthodox, even among the most distinguished men of science.

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  • For the purposes of scientific topography observation of the natural features and outlines is followed by exact investigation of the architectural structures or remnants, a process demanding high technical competence, acute judgment and practical experience, as well as wide and accurate scholarship. The building material and the manner of its employment furnish evidence no less important than the character of the masonry, the design and the modes of ornamentation.

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  • Recent investigation has thrown a new and unexpected light on the art, the monuments and the topography of the ancient city.

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  • The attention of many students has naturally been concentrated on the ancient city, the birthplace of European art and literature, and a great development of investigation and discussion in the special domain of Athenian archaeology has given birth to a voluminous literature.

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  • Gowen (1836-1889), president of the Philadelphia and Reading Coal and Iron Company, sent James McParlan, an Irish Catholic and a Pinkerton detective (who some thirty years later attracted attention in the investigation of the assassination of Governor Steunenberg of Idaho), to the mining region in 1873; he joined the order, lived among the "Molly Maguires" for more than two years, and even became secretary of the Shenandoah division, one of the most notoriously criminal lodges of the order.

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  • ously studied by Sir Edward Frankland, who from the investigation, not of simple inorganic compounds, but of the organo-metallic derivatives, determined the kernel of the theory of valency.

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  • Priestley discovered oxygen independently at about the same time), and his investigation of molybdic and tungstic acids in the following year; metallic molybdenum was obtained by P. J.

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  • Vauquelin in 1797, and Klaproth's investigation of tellurium in 1798, the next important series of observations was concerned with platinum and the allied metals.

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  • Berzelius's investigation of the action of the electric current on salts clearly demonstrated the invaluable assistance that electrolysis could render to the isolator of elements; and the adoption of this method by Sir Humphry Davy for the analysis of the hydrates of the metals of the alkalis and alkaline earths, and the results which he thus achieved, established its potency.

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  • The chemical analogy of this substance to chlorine was quickly perceived, especially after its investigation by Davy and Gay Lussac. Cyanogen, a compound which in combination behaved very similarly to chlorine and iodine, was isolated in 1815 by Gay Lussac. This discovery of the first of the then-styled " compound radicals " exerted great influence on the prevailing views of chemical composition.

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  • In the same year Berzelius discovered selenium in a deposit from sulphuric acid chambers, his masterly investigation including a study of the hydride, oxides and other compounds.

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  • Clarke, Gay Lussac and Stromeyer, published his masterly investigation of the various phosphoric acids and their salts, obtaining results subsequently employed by J.

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  • Thorpe's investigation of the products of the slow combustion of phosphorus.

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  • Organic Chemistry While inorganic chemistry was primarily developed through the study of minerals - a connexion still shown by the French appellation chimie minerale - organic chemistry owes its origin to the investigation of substances occurring in the vegetable and animal organisms. The quest of the alchemists for the philosopher's stone, and the almost general adherence of the iatrochemists to the study of the medicinal characters and preparation of metallic compounds, stultified in some measure the investigation of vegetable and animal products.

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  • The classical investigation of Liebig and Friedrich Wihler on the radical of benzoic acid (" Uber das Radikal der Benzoesaure," Ann.

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  • von Hofmann continued the investigation, and established their recognition as ammonia in which one or more hydrogen atoms had been replaced by hydrocarbon radicals, thus formulating the " ammonia type."

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  • Orientation of Substituent Groups.-The determination of the relative positions of the substituents in a benzene derivative constitutes an important factor in the general investigation of such compounds.

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  • Having completed the dry analysis we may now pass on to the wet and more accurate investigation.

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  • Physical Chemistry We have seen how chemistry may be regarded as having for its province the investigation of the composition of matter, and the changes in composition which matter or energy may effect on matter, while physics is concerned with the general properties of matter.

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  • In the investigation of these relations, the physicist and chemist meet on common ground; this union has been attended by fruitful and far-reaching results, and the correlation of physical properties and chemical composition is one of the most important ramifications of physical chemistry.

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  • An important connexion between heats of combustion and constitution is found in the investigation of the effect of single, double and triple carbon linkages on the thermochemical constants.

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  • Fluorescence and Constitution.-The physical investigation of the phenomenon named fluorescence-the property of transforming incident light into light of different refrangibilityis treated in the article Fluorescence.

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  • He then resigned from the army and devoted the rest of his life to scientific investigation.

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  • His earlier work included an investigation of succinic acid, and the preparation of phenyl cyanide (benzonitrile), the simplest nitrile of the aromatic series; but later his time was mainly occupied with questions of technology and public health rather than with pure chemistry.

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  • 1629), echo devoted his life to the personal investigation of the catacombs, the results of which were given to the world in 1632 in a huge folio, entitled Roma sotterranea, profusely illustrated with rude but faithful plans and engravings.

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  • Investigation thus becomes more objective, and this is a distinct advantage from the biological point of view.

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  • A good example of the methods of recent investigation is to be found in Dr G.

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  • The proof of the six premisses requires an elaborate investigation into the general properties of classes and relations which can be deduced by the strictest reasoning from our ultimate logical principles.

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  • This was summarily considered by the council of ministers and then referred to the budget commission, which was to be composed not only of State functionaries, but of private persons " worthy of confidence, and well versed in financial matters, " and which was invested with the fullest powers of investigation and inquiry.

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  • A good deal of special investigation relating to naval and especially submarine warfare was carried on during 1914-8, but the results of this confidential work were not published.

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  • Its work is primarily that of the investigation of the fisheries of northern Europe, but its general methods are oceanographical, and its published results have formed an immense contribution to the science.

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  • Germany and Russia had, temporarily at all events, withdrawn from the cooperation, but France came in for the first time in 1920, and it was understood that the United States was likely to join in the scheme of investigation.

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  • Little change occurred subsequently to 1910 with regard to the methods of oceanographical investigation except a continual refinement and an increasing improvement in the apparatus used: in this direction the activities of the Central Bureau of the International Council were very noteworthy.

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  • Hydrodynamical methods received increased attention and the investigation of the movements of the ocean by means of physico-mathematical devices developed as a result of the older work of Bjerknes, continued chiefly by Helland-Hansen and Sandstrom.

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  • But detailed studies of the circulation of the water in any small area show deviations from the calculated results that are to be expected: thus Nansen's investigation of the Norwegian sea shows that the main directions of streaming of the water are broken up by numerous large and small vortices.

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  • As to the causes of the changes in the strength of the current from year to year much investigation has still to be made.

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  • The investigation of the microscopic pelagic life of the sea has also developed to a great extent.

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  • The second relation, as we have seen, is not a strict consequence of theory, and experiments to examine it must be treated as an investigation of the limits within which solutions are dilute within the thermodynamic sense of the word, rather than as a test of the soundness of the theory.

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  • The result of the investigation shows that the electrical work Ee is given by the_equation Ee =1 where v is the volume of the solution used and p its osmotic pressure.

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  • von Fehling's investigation.

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  • The production of rubber by this tree merits further investigation, as it grows readily in nearly every district of W.

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  • During the next eight years he carried out a minute investigation of this metal and its properties.

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  • A later result of this method of investigation was the discovery of a new member of the rare earths, monium or victorium, the spectrum of which is characterized by an isolated group of lines, only to be detected photographically, high up in the ultra-violet; the existence of this body was announced in his presidential address to the British Association at Bristol in 1898.

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  • In addition to many other researches besides those here mentioned, he wrote or edited various books on chemistry and chemical technology, including Select Methods of Chemical Analysis, which went through a number of editions; and he also gave a certain amount of time to the investigation of psychic phenomena, endeavouring to effect some measure of correlation between them and ordinary physical laws.

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  • There is much keen analysis and original investigation in his two essays Der jiidische Stamm (1869) and Der jiidische Stamm in nicht jiidischen Spriich-wortern (1881-1882).

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  • The investigation of the properties of these functions, as well for a single form as for a simultaneous set of forms, and as well for one as for many series of variables, is included in the theory of invariants.

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  • xy 2 -4z 3 +g2x 2 y+g3x 3, and also the special form axz 2 -4by 3 of the cuspidal cubic. An investigation, by non-symbolic methods, is due to F.

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  • In Tunisia, Carthage early became the object of archaeological investigation.

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  • Apart altogether from the facts that this investigation is still in its infancy and that the conditions of experiment are insufficiently understood, its ultimate success is rendered highly problematical by the essential fact that real scientific results can be achieved only by data recorded in connexion with a perfectly nortnal subject; a conscious or interested subject introduces variable factors which are probably incalculable.

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  • Thomson (afterwards Lord Kelvin) in 1847, as the result of a mathematical investigation undertaken to explain Faraday's experimental observations.

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  • Effects Of Mechanical Stress Upon Magnetization The effects of traction, compression and torsion in relation to magnetism have formed the subject of much patient investigation, especially at the hands of J.

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  • The difficulties attending the experimental investigation of the forces acting between magnetic poles have already been referred to, and indeed a rigorously exact determination of the mutual action could only be made under conditions which are in practice unattainable.

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  • Ampere's experimental and theoretical investigation of the mutual action of electric currents, and of the equivalence of a closed circuit to a polar magnet, the latter suggesting his celebrated hypothesis that molecular currents were the cause of magnetism.

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  • Possibly, however, an investigation of the development of the median eyes of some Crustacea(Apus,Palaemon)may prove them to be diplostichous in origin.

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  • The fundamental method of research which Riemann employed has just been alluded to; the results will be best indicated in his own words: "The methods in use hitherto for treating functions of a complex variable always started from an expression for the function as its definition, whereby its value was given for every value of the argument; by our investigation it has been shown that, in consequence of the general character of a function of a complex variable, in a definition of this sort one part of the determining conditions is a consequence of the rest, and the extent of the determining conditions has been reduced to what is necessary to effect the determination.

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  • On the 19th of July 1866 he was working at his last unfinished investigation on the mechanism of the ear.

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  • The calculus of variations lay undeveloped in Euler's mode of treating isoperimetrical problems. The fruitful method, again, of the variation of elements was introduced by Euler, but adopted and perfected by Lagrange, who first recognized its supreme importance to the analytical investigation of the planetary movements.

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  • The final achievement of Lagrange in this direction was the extension of the method of the variation of arbitrary constants, successfully used by him in the investigation of periodical as well as of secular inequalities, to any system whatever of mutually interacting bodies.'

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  • Dupont, Report on a Visit of Investigation to ...

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  • In 1904 the British Archaeological school at Athens undertook a systematic investigation of the ancient and medieval remains in Laconia.

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  • The intercolonial commission had dealt with the native question as it affected South Africa as a whole; it was felt that Native a more local investigation was needed, and in August Affairs' 1906 a strong commission was appointed to inquire Corn- into the condition of the Natal natives.

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  • After a careful investigation of the official documents, Cobden became convinced that those were utterly unrighteous proceedings.

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  • As a masterly production based on extensive investigation, we note the Wesselenyi Ferencz.

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  • Delambre from the data there supplied marked the profit derived from the investigation by practical astronomy.

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  • The general working of the great machine was now laid bare, and it needed a further advance of knowledge to bring a fresh set of problems within reach of investigation.

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  • Investigation of the writings of Indian mathematicians has exhibited a fundamental distinction between the Greek and Indian mind, the former being pre-eminently geometrical and speculative, the latter arithmetical and mainly practical.

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  • His investigation of the properties of amicable numbers and of the problem of trisecting an angle, are of importance.

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  • Cuvier's morphological doctikne received its fullest development in the principle of the " correlation of parts," which he applied to palaeontological investigation, namely, that every animal is a definite whole, and that no part can be varied without entailing correlated and law-abiding variations in other parts, so that from a fragment it should be possible, had we a full knowledge of the laws of animal structure or morphology, to reconstruct the whole.

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  • The immediate result was, as pointed out above, a reconstruction of the classification of animals upon a genealogical basis, and an investigation of the individual development of animals in relation to the steps of their gradual building up by cell-division, with a view to obtaining evidence of their genetic relationships.

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  • Whatever value is to be attached to Mendel's observation of the breaking up of self-fertilized hybrids of cultivated varieties into the two original parent forms according to the formula " 'PP, 2PN, INN," it cannot be considered as more than a contribution to the extensive investigation of heredity which still remains to be carried out.

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  • - A very general problem in diffraction is the investigation of the distribution of light over a screen upon which impinge divergent or convergent spherical waves after passage through various diffracting apertures.

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  • Trans., 1834) in his original investigation of the diffraction of a circular object-glass, and readily obtained from (6), is z z 3 25 27 J1(z) = 2 2 2.4 + 2 2.4 2.6 2 2.4 2.6 2.8 + When z is great, we may employ the semi-convergent series Ji(s) = A/ (7, .- z)sin (z-17r) 1+3 8 1 ' 6 (z) 2 3.5.7.9.1.3.5 5 () 3 1 3.5.7.1 1 3 cos(z - ?r) 8 ' z (z) 3.5.7.9.11.1.3.5.7 1 5 + 8.16.24.32.40 (z

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  • Abbe published a somewhat more complete investigation, also founded upon the phenomena presented by gratings.

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  • For an investigation upon these lines the reader is referred to Airy's Tracts, to Verdet's Lerons, or to R.

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  • Rowland's investigation is contained in the paper already referred to; but the following account of the theory is in the form adopted by R.

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  • Trans., 1840, 225; 1841, 1), but we shall here follow the investigation of Sir G.

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  • The original investigation of Stokes, here briefly sketched, extends also to the case where the streams are of unequal width h, k, and are separated by an interval 2g.

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  • A very thorough investigation of this and other related questions, accompanied by fully worked-out tables of the functions concerned, will be found in a paper by E.

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  • In order to apply these ideas to the investigation of the secondary wave of light, we require the solution of a problem, first treated by Stokes, viz.

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  • We will now apply (18) to the investigation of a law of secondary disturbance, when a primary wave = sin (nt - kx) (19) is supposed to be broken up in passing the plane x = o.

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  • He also found time for philosophical speculations, and in 1830 he published his Inquiries concerning the Intellectual Powers of Man and the Investigation of Truth, which was followed in 1833 by a sequel, The Philosophy of the Moral Feelings.

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  • " After careful investigation Shepstone satisfied himself that annexation was the only possible salvation for the Transvaal.

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  • In Airy's investigation, and in the extensions by Boitel, J.

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  • In England an outbreak at the Dolcoath mine, Cornwall, in 1902, led to an investigation for the home office by Dr Haldane F.R.S.

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  • It was in this spirit that he worked; and his intellectual character was peculiarly fitted for his work, for he was largely endowed with the faculty of judgment and with a genius for minute and critical investigation.

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  • England followed tardily, and it was not until 1894 that an investigation of the methods used and results obtained was made by a special committee sent to Paris for the purpose.

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  • To the work carried on by the Imperial Cancer Research Fund in England, and to investigators in other countries, are due the present day scientific efforts made to systematize investigation and clear away many of the hypothetical speculations that have gathered round this most difficult subject.

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  • It will be sufficient to state briefly what appears to be the result of recent investigation.

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  • From the subtleties of rival systems it is a satisfaction to turn to two movements in the medicine of the 18th century which, though they did not extinguish the spirit of system-making, opened up paths of investigation by which the systems were ultimately superseded.

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  • Hence another generation had to pass away before Germany found herself on the level, in scientific investigation, of France and England.

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  • He professed to base medicine entirely on a knowledge of symptoms, regarding all investigation of the causes of symptoms as useless.

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  • The abdomen is still "full of surprises"; and he who has most experience of this deceptive region will have least confidence in expressing positive opinions in particular cases of disease without operative investigation.

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  • As by the discovery of stethoscopy by Laennec a new field of medical science and art was opened up, so, more recently, inventions of other new methods of investigation in medicine have opened to us other fields of little less interest and importance.

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  • To the value of stains in clinical diagnosis, especially in investigation of perversions of the blood in many maladies, we have already made some reference.

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  • In course of an investigation in 1822-1823 on the effects of heat and pressure on certain liquids he found that for each there was a certain temperature above which it refused to remain liquid but passedintothegaseous state, no matter what the amount of pressure to which it was subjected, and in the case of water he determined this critical temperature, with a remarkable approach to accuracy, to be 362° C. He also studied the nature of yeast and the influence of extreme cold upon its life.

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  • The Russo-Afghan Boundary Commission of 1884 and the Chitral expedition of 1895 opened up a vast area for geographical investigation, and the information collected is to be found in the reports and gazetteers of the Indian government.

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  • Fraunhofer further initiated the specification of refraction and dispersion in terms of certain lines of the spectrum, and even attempted an investigation of the effect of chemical composition on the relative dispersion produced by glasses in different parts of the spectrum.

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  • (2) Care of provisions: investigation of the quality of the articles supplied and the correctness of weights and measures; the purchase of corn for disposal at a low price in case of necessity.

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  • Francis (Lowell Hydraulic Experiments, Boston, Mass., 1855) led him to propose variations in the accepted formulae for the discharge over weirs, and a generation later a very complete investigation of this subject was carried out by H.

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  • the precedin investigation, the liquid stops dead when the body is brought to rest and when the body is in motion the surrounding liquid moves in uniform manner with respect to axes fixed in the body, and the force experienced by the body from the pressure of the liquid on it surface is the opposite of that required to change the motion of the liquid; this has been expressed by the dynamical equations give above.

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  • In 1779 he published an important investigation of the laws of friction (Theorie des machines simples, en ayant regard au frottement de leurs parties et a la roideur des cordages), which was followed twenty years later by a memoir on fluid resistance.

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  • In 1785 appeared his Recherches theoriques et experimentales sur la force de torsion et sur l'elasticite des fils de metal, &c. This memoir contained a description of different forms of his torsion balance, an instrument used by him with great success for the experimental investigation of the distribution of electricity on surfaces and of the laws of electrical and magnetic action, of the mathematical theory of which he may also be regarded as the founder.

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  • As an exegete he exercised a powerful, and on the whole a beneficial, influence on theological investigation.

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  • - Recent science has made much progress in the investigation of the micro-organisms of the soil.

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  • He made a thorough investigation of the affairs of his see, and regulated the disordered chapter of Southwell.

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  • These articles attracted much attention, and were distinguished by those qualities of solid learning, thorough investigation and candour of judgment which characterized all his writings.

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  • In many places longitudinal dunes are found exceeding a day's journey in length, the valleys between which take three or four hours to cross; but the most striking feature of the Nafud are the high crescent-shaped sand-hills, known locally as falk or falj, described by Blunt and Huber, who devoted some time to their investigation.

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  • The difficulties in the way of travelling in Arabia with a view to scientific investigation are such that little or nothing is being done, and the systematic work which has given such good results in Egypt, Palestine and Babylonia-Assyria is unknown in Arabia.

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  • His industry was great and the various important offices he held afforded him ample opportunities for historical investigation.

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  • From an investigation of all the observations upon Mercury and the other three interior planets, Simon Newcomb found it almost out of the question that any such mass of matter could exist without changing either the figure of the sun itself or the motion of the planes of the orbits of either Mercury or Venus.

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  • Taylor gave (Methodus Incrementorum, p. 108) the first satisfactory investigation of astronomical refraction.

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  • This investigation was first published in 1824 and in abstruse and difficult form, and afterwards (1826) more elaborately in the first volume of Crelle's Journal.

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  • But Rabbi Jonah saw the true vocation of his life in the scientific investigation of te Hebrew language and in a rational biblical exegesis based upon sound linguistic knowledge.

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  • Jonah is the Kitab al Tank (" Book of Exact Investigation"), which consists of two parts, regarded as two distinct books - the Kitab alLuma ("Book of Many-coloured Flower-beds") and the Kitab alusul ("Book of Roots").

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  • Next, as all investigation proceeds from that which is known best to that which is unknown or less well known, and as, in social states, it is the collective phenomenon that is more easy of access to the observer than its parts, therefore we must consider and pursue all the elements of a given social state together and in common.

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  • However crude and hasty this critical investigation, it helped to direct philosophic reflection to the unity of mind, and so to develop the post-Kantian line of speculation.

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  • If the calculation be carried farther backas has been done by the seismic disaster investigation committee of Japan, a body of scientists constantly engaged in studying these phenomena under government auspices,it is found that, since the countrys history began to be written in the 8th century AD,, there have been 2006 major disturbances; but inasmuch as 1489 of these occurred before the beginning of the Tokugawa administration (early in the 17th century, and therefore in an era when methods of recording were comparatively defective), exact details are naturally lacking.

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  • This special feature has been attributed to the Japanese habit of kneeling instead of sitting, but investigation shows that it is equally marked in the working classes who pass most of their time standing.

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  • In 1761 he went to England, where for a year he devoted himself to a thorough study of the collections and to a geological investigation of part of the coast; and at the age of twenty-three he was elected a foreign member of the Royal Society.

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  • In 1864 the discovery of the six letters stirred up William Lee to a new investigation, and the results of this were published (London, 1869) in three large volumes.

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  • maintained their existence into modern times, and in these only (except at Locri) have archaeological investigations of any importance been carried on; so that there still remains a considerable field for investigation.

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  • This view, which was specially supported by Gay-Lussac and Leopold Gmelin and accepted by Berzelius, necessitated that all acids were monobasic. The untenability of this theory was proved by Thomas Graham's investigation of the phosphoric acids; for he then showed that the ortho- (ordinary), pyroand metaphosphoric acids contained respectively 3, 2 and I molecules of " basic water " (which were replaceable by metallic oxides) and one molecule of phosphoric oxide, P2 05.

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  • The higher eutectic D may correspond to a complex of solid thallium and the compound; but the possible existence of solid solutions makes further investigation necessary here.

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  • The investigation of the mutual relations of partially miscible liquids, due to P. Alexejew, D.

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  • The value of the work consists not in any power of critical investigation or weighing of historical evidence but in the intense sympathy of the writer with the national ideal, and the vivid imagination with which under the influence of this sympathy he gives life to the events and personages, the wars and political struggles, of times remote from his own.

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  • An irreversible process which permits a more complete experimental investigation is the steady flow of a fluid in a tube already referred to in section to.

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  • The superstitious associations of crystal-gazing, as of hypnotism, appear to bar the way to official scientific investigation, and the fluctuating proficiency of the seers, who cannot command success, or determine the causes and conditions of success and failure, tends in the same direction.

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  • It is evidently impossible to arrive at a final decision until much more spade work has been done in the investigation of early Eastern creeds.

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  • and commentaries, and after a searching investigation concluded that the creed was written in Gaul between 420 and 430, probably by Hilary of Arles.

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  • In 1870 the controversy on the use of the creed in the Book of Common Prayer led to fresh investigation of the MSS., and a theory known as the " Two-portion theory " was started by C. A.

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  • It also leaked out during the investigation that he had received in 1868, as a campaign contribution, a gift of $4000 from a contractor who had supplied the government with envelopes while Colfax was chairman of the post office committee of the House.

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  • Jerome was called to Rome in 382 to give help in the matter, and was made secretary during the investigation.

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  • Andersson, a Swede, spent nearly a quarter of a century in their investigation, and ultimately published a monograph which is the standard authority on the subject.

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  • There was reason to suppose that the inscriptions were identical in meaning; and fortunately it proved, when the inscriptions were made accessible to investigation through the efforts of Sir Henry Rawlinson, that the Persian inscription contained a large number of proper names.

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  • But when a committee of the Royal Asiatic Society, with George Grote at its head, decided that the translations of an Assyrian text made independently by the scholars just named were at once perfectly intelligible and closely in accord with one another, scepticism was silenced, and the new science was admitted to have made good its claims. Naturally the early investigators did not fathom all the niceties of the language, and the work of grammatical investigation has gone on continuously under the auspices of a constantly growing band of workers.

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  • The labour devoted to an investigation is with Hallam no excuse for dwelling on the result, unless that is in itself important.

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  • Reynolds, in his investigation, introducing no new form of law of distribution of velocities, uses a linear quantity, proportional to the mean free path of the gaseous molecules, which he takes to represent (somewhat roughly) the average distance from which molecules directly affect, by their convection, the state of the medium; the gas not being uniform on account of the gradient of temperature, the change going on at each point is calculated from the elements contributed by the parts at this particular distance in all directions.

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  • Morley determined the densities of hydrogen and oxygen in the course of his classical investigation of the composition of water.

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  • Here we can only summarize the points of the investigation.

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  • There is only one practical published investigation of Airy's micrometer that is worthy of mention, viz.

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  • 12, 1895) opened up new lines of investigation.

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  • His investigation tends to show that in the course of tradition cosmological myths are transformed into eschatological dogmas.

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  • The efforts of individual scientific workers cannot as a rule produce such results in oceanography as in other sciences, but exceptions are found in the very special services rendered by the prince of Monaco, who founded the Oceanographical Institute in Paris and the Oceanographical Museum in Monaco; and by Professor Alexander Agassiz in the investigation of the Pacific.

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  • Greater depths These preliminary trips of scientific marine investigation were than those usually sounded by a hand-line may possibly not have followed by the greatest purely scientific expedition ever underbeen beyond the reach of the earlier navigators, for Strabo taken, the voyage of H.M.S.

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  • A closer investigation of the numerous long, narrow banks which lie off the Flemish coast and the Thames estuary shows that they are composed of fragments of rock abraded and transported by tidal currents and storms in the same way that the chalk and limestone worn off from the eastern continuation of the island of Heligoland during the last two centuries has been reduced to the coarse gravel of the off-lying Dune.

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  • The whole subject still requires investigation.

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  • Sorensen and Martin Knudsen after a careful investigation decided to abandon the old definition of salinity as the sum of all the dissolved solids in sea-water and to substitute for it the weight of the dissolved solids in 1000 parts by weight of sea-water on the assumption that all the bromine is replaced by its equivalent of chlorine, all the carbonate converted into oxide and the organic matter burnt.

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  • Sorensen, carried out a careful investigation of the relation between the amount of chlorine, the total salinity and the specific gravity of sea-water of different strengths including an entirely new determination of the thermal expansion of sea-water.

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  • The differences of salinity support this method, and, especially in the northern European seas, often prove a sharper criterion of the boundaries than temperature itself; this is especially the case at the entrance to the Baltic. Evidence drawn from drift-wood, wrecks or special drift bottles is less distinct but still interesting and often useful; this method of investigation includes the use of icebergs as indicators of the trend of currents and also of plankton, the minute swimming or drifting organisms so abundant at the surface of the sea.

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  • Reports of many minor expeditions and researches have appeared in the Reports of the Fishery Board for Scotland; the Marine Biological Association at Plymouth; the Kiel Commission for the Investigation of the Baltic; the Berlin Institut fur Meereskunde; the bluebooks of the Hydrographic Department; the various official reports to the British, German, Russian, Finnish, Norwegian, Swedish, Danish, Belgian and Dutch governments on the respective work of these countries in connexion with the international cooperation in the North Sea; the Bulletin du musee oceanographique de Monaco (1903 seq.); the Scottish Geographical Magazine; the Geographical Journal; Petermanns Mitteilungen; Wagner's Geogi'aphisches Jahrbuch; the Proceedings and Transactions of the Royal Societies of London and Edinburgh; the Annalen der Hydrographie; and the publications of the Swedish Academy of Sciences.

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  • It is opaque, except in exceedingly thin slices, such as made for microscopic investigation, which are imperfectly transparent, and of a dark brown colour by transmitted light.

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  • A later investigation, by J.

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  • Harnack, however, after careful investigation, prefers 155.

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  • A critical investigation of the conditions under which religious belief was possible was still wanting.

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  • The direct result of this investigation is not known, but it is impossible to disconnect from it the promulgation by Pope Alexander V., on the 20th of December 1409, of a bull which ordered the abjuration of all Wycliffite heresies and the surrender of all his books, while at the same time - a measure specially levelled at the pulpit of Bethlehem chapel - all preaching was prohibited except in localities which had been by long usage set apart for that use.

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  • He modestly entitled his work a Gnomon or index, his object being rather to guide the reader to ascertain the meaning for himself, than to save him from the trouble of personal investigation.

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  • Subsequent psycho-physical investigations have all been in the spirit of his work; and although he consistently advocated the introspective method in psychological investigation, he was among the first to appreciate the help that may be given to it by animal and social and infant psychology.

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  • The king of Prussia had some reason to complain of the sudden desertion of his ally, but there is no evidence whatever to substantiate his accusation that Bute had endeavoured to divert the tsar later from his alliance with Prussia, or that he had treacherously in his negotiations with Vienna held out to that court hopes of territorial compensation in Silesia as the price of the abandonment of France; while the charge brought against Bute in 1765 of having taken bribes to conclude the peace, subsequently after investigation pronounced frivolous by parliament, may safely be ignored.

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  • This subject he was led to study by the experience of a colliery engineman, who noticed that he received a sharp shock on exposing one hand to a jet of steam issuing from a boiler with which his other hand was in contact, and the inquiry was followed by the invention of the "hydro-electric" machine, a powerful generator of electricity, which was thought worthy of careful investigation by Faraday.

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  • but their relations to the last require further investigation.

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  • The religion of the American aborigines, so far as it can be made a subject of investigation, consisted (1) in what the tribes believed.

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  • The necessity for sights follows directly on investigation of the forces acting on a projectile during flight.

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  • Thus a reforming movement became heresy through disobedience to authority, and after being condemned embarked on a course of polemical investigation how to justify its own position.

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  • The treatment of an angle as generated by rotation, the investigation of the relations between trigonometrical ratios and circular measure, the application of interpolation to trigonometrical tables, and the general use of graphical methods to represent continuous variation, all imply an analytical onlook, and must therefore be deferred to this stage.

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  • His first research, carried out in Liebig's laboratory at Giessen, was on coal-tar, and his investigation of the organic bases in coal-gas naphtha established the nature of aniline.

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  • He had already made himself known by critical studies on the history of the middle ages, of which the most important was his Geschichte des ersten Kreuzzuges (Dusseldorf, 1841; new ed., Leipzig, 1881), a work which, besides its merit as a valuable piece of historical investigation, according to the critical methods which he had learnt from Ranke, was also of some significance as a protest against the vaguely enthusiastic attitude towards the middle ages encouraged by the Romantic school.

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  • The work was in fact the first attempt to substitute for the popular representations of Thiers and Lamartine the critical investigation which has been carried on with such brilliance by Taine and Sorel.

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  • We can only conclude that it depends on wave form, a conclusion fully borne out by investigation.

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  • If, however, we put on external forces of the required type X it is obvious that any wave can be propagated with any velocity, and our investigation shows that when U has the value in (6) then and only then X is zero everywhere, and the wave will be propagated with that velocity when once set going.

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  • This investigation is obviously not exact, for it assumes that the form is unchanged, i.e.

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  • io) represents the displacement curve of a train of waves, will represent the pressure excess and particle velocity, and from (II) we see that while the nodal conditions of b, with Co' and u=o, travel with velocity 1/(E/p), the crests exceed that velocity by 1(7 + i)u, and the hollows fall short of it by 1(7 + I)u, with the result that the fronts of the pressure waves become steeper and steeper, and the train b changes into something like c. If the steepness gets very great our investigation ceases to apply, and neither experiment nor theory has yet shown what happens.

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  • The theoretical investigation given above shows that if U is the velocity in air at 1° C. then the velocity U ° at o° C. in the same air is independent of the barometric pressure and that Uo = U /(1 +o o01841), whence U 0 =332 met./sec.

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  • Another important result of the investigation was that the phase of vibration of the fork was not altered by bowing it, the amplitude alone changing.

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  • The mathematical investigation of forced vibrations (Rayleigh,Sound, i.

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  • As a preliminary to the investigation of the modes of vibration of certain sources of sound we shall consider the formation of " stationary waves."

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  • We might make this investigation more general by introducing a force X as in the investigation for air, but it hardly appears necessary.

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  • This investigation is subject to the limitation that the diameter of the cross-section must be small compared with the wave-length.

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  • But our investigation entirely leaves this out of account, and is therefore faulty.

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  • Helmholtz's double siren is well calculated for the investigation of the laws of interference of sound.

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  • The conditions assumed in this investigation are probably nearly realized in a harmonium and in a double siren of the form used by Helmholtz, and in these cases there can be no doubt that actual objective tones are produced, for they may be detected by the aid of resonators of the frequency of the tone sought for.

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  • While he was criticized by the friends of Civil Service Reform for not going far enough during his presidency to protect the encroachments of those who desire to have the offices distributed as political rewards or for partisan ends, such specific acts as his transference to the classified service of all fourth-class postmasters east of the Mississippi and north of the Ohio rivers, his insistence upon a thorough investigation of the scandals in the Post Office department, and his order forbidding federal employes to use their offices for political purposes in the campaign of 1908 are typical of his vigorous support of the merit system.

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  • - The materials for the investigation of this singular phase of prehistoric life were first collected and systematized by Dr Ferdinand Keller (1800-1881), of Zurich, and printed in Mittheilungen der Antiquarischen Gesellschaft in Zurich, vols.

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  • More careful investigation, moreover, throws very considerable doubt on the possibility of the derivation of the priest's stole from the ancient neck-cloth (orarium) and of the diaconal stole from a napkin used in the liturgy.

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  • This function is named the "power" of the two spheres, and it is important in the investigation of systems of spheres.

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  • The investigation of triangles and other figures drawn upon the surface of a sphere is all-important in the sciences of astronomy, geodesy and geography.

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  • That science must be left free to determine the aims of her investigation, to select and apply her own methods, and to publish the results of her researches without restraint, is a postulate which Ultramontanism either cannot understand or treats with indifference, for it regards as strange and incredible the fundamental law governing all scientific research - that there is for it no higher aim than the discovery of the truth.

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  • He was the founder of what has been termed the "science of Judaism," the critical investigation of Jewish literature, hymnology and ritual.

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  • It lays down principles for the investigation of the Rabbinic exegesis (Midrash, q.v.) and of the prayer-book of the synagogue.

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  • A perusal of these books will show with how wide a range of investigation and with what care Lord Selborne prepared himself for the discussion of these ecclesiastical questions which deeply stirred him.

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  • He worked diligently at original manuscript authorities at Simancas, the Record Office and Hatfield House; but he used his materials carelessly, and evidently brought to his investigation of them a mind already made up as to their significance.

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  • In addition to being a forest the Ardennes is a plateau, and it offers to the geologist a most interesting field of investigation.

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  • In width of view, thoroughness of investigation and honesty of purpose he is unsurpassed by any historian.

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  • The convection of a medium thus polarized involves electric disturbance, and therefore must contribute to the true electric current; the determination of this constituent of the current is the most delicate point in the investigation.

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  • It is implied, moreover, that this doubt is not merely a stage in the road to true knowledge, but rather the last result of investigation, the conclusion that truth or real knowledge is unattainable by man.

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  • The differences asserted by later writers are not borne out on investigation.

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  • 1 Thus the Sapiehas, who had been living on rapine for years, dissolved the diet of 1688 by means of the veto of one of their hirelings, for fear of an investigation into their conduct.

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  • Among recent publications are: Rambaud's La Russie epique (Paris, 1876); Avenarius, Kniga o Kievskikh Bogatuiryakh (St Petersburg, 1876), dealing with the early Kiev heroes; Zakrevski, Opisanie Kieva (1868); the materials issued by the commission for the investigation of the ancient records of the city; Taranovskiy, Gorod Kiev (Kiev, 1881); De Baye, Kiev, la mere des villes cusses (Paris, 1896) Goetz, Das Kiewer Hohlenkloster als Kulturzentrum des Vormongolischen Russlands (Passau, 1904).

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  • Interior Ballistics The investigation of the relations connecting the pressure, volume and temperature of the powder-gas inside the bore of the gun, of the work realized by the expansion of the powder, of the V FIG.

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  • The aim of that association is " to promote the development, and maintain the well-being, of classical studies, and in particular (a) to impress upon public opinion the claim of such studies to an eminent place in the national scheme of education; (b) to improve the practice of classical teaching by free discussion of its scope and methods; (c) to encourage investigation and call attention to new discoveries; (d) to create opportunities of friendly intercourse and co-operation between all lovers of classical learning in this country."

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  • He also devoted much attention to the study of obscure morbid conditions like hysteria, especially in relation to hypnotism; indeed, it is in connexion with his investigation into the phenomena and results of the latter that his name is popularly known.

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  • These functions are named after Friedrich Wilhelm Bessel, who in 1817 introduced them in an investigation on Kepler's Problem.

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  • In 1764 Leonhard Euler employed the functions of both zero and integral orders in an analysis into the vibrations of a stretched membrane; an investigation which has been considerably developed by Lord Rayleigh, who has also shown (1878) that Bessel's functions are particular cases of Laplace's functions.

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  • Of the many applications we may notice: - Joseph Fourier's (1824) investigation of the motion of heat in a solid cylinder, a problem which, with the related one of the flow of electricity, has been developed by W.

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  • For the mathematical investigation see Spherical Harmonics and for tables see Table, Mathematical.

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  • That the standard edition was not the result of the critical investigation of existing materials may be assumed with some certainty.

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  • No less rapid has been the change in America during the same period, nor less numerous the scholars well equipped to pursue the detailed investigation involved in critical study or those who have shown ability in popular presentations of the critical standpoint.'

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  • The importance of both the Stephanus and Elzevir editions is that they formed a definite text for the purposes of comparison, and so prepared the way for the next stage, in which scholars busied themselves with the investigation and collation of other MSS.

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  • On the evidence which they had WH were undoubtedly justified, but discoveries and investigation have gone far to make it impossible to hold this view any longer.

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  • This line of investigation has been specially followed by Professor G.

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  • But any such result would be difficult to reconcile with the results yielded by other lines of investigation in this article; among alternative views the choice seems to lie between the following: - (i.) The years of Tiberius are here reckoned from some earlier starting-point than the death of his predecessor - probably from the grant to him of co-ordinate authority with Augustus over the provinces made in A.D.

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  • Investigation, then, of that part of the bookof Acts which follows the death of Agrippa, recorded in chap. xii.

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  • The isothermal lines, in fact, suggest that in the vast area of the Pacific something corresponding to the " planetary circulation " is established, further investigation of which may be of extreme value in relation to current inquiries concerning the upper air.

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  • " Midrash " which may be quite useless for historical investigation maybe appreciated for the light it throws upon forms of thought.

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  • Accordingly, when Seymour's other misbehaviour led to his arrest, his relations with Elizabeth were made the subject of a very trying investigation, which gave Elizabeth her first lessons in the feminine arts of self-defence.

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  • In the meantime Chalmers applied himself with great diligence and assiduity to the investigation of the history and establishment of the English colonies in North America; and enjoying free access to the state papers and other documents preserved among what were then termed the plantation records, he became possessed of much important information.

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  • Unfortunately the chapters on the Roman period are entirely marred by the author's having accepted as genuine Bertram's forgery De Situ Britanniae; but otherwise his opinions on controverted topics are worthy of much respect, being founded on a laborious investigation of all the original authorities that were accessible to him.

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  • P. blainvillei of California, have the power of squirting a blood-red fluid from the corner of the eye, still requires renewed investigation.

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  • The investigation of all new applications for relief was committed to the deacon of the district, and every effort was made to enable the poor to help themselves.

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  • Hutton's suggestions are all the more to be regretted as they occur as a history which is the result of a good deal of investigation and which for years was referred to as an authority by many writers.

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  • Palaeontology both borrows from and sheds light upon geology and other branches of the physical history of the earth, each of which, such as palaeogeography or palaeometeorology, is the more fascinating because of the large element of the unknown, the need for constructive imagination, the appeal to other branches of biological and physical investigation for supplementary evidence, and the necessity of constant comparison with the present aspects of nature.

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  • The concurrence of botanical (Hooker, 1847), zoological, and finally of palaeontological evidence for the reconstruction of the continent of Antarctica, is one of the greatest triumphs of biological investigation.

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  • An investigation by the U.S. Geological Survey in 1909 finds that the crude Mexican oils are of low grade, but that while not equal to those found in the upper Mississippi basin for refining purposes, they furnish an excellent fuel for railway engines and other industrial purposes.

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  • and in Salvador, furnish important material for the investigation of the obscure problems of the Toltecs and Olmecs, and of the extension of Maya peoples on the Atlantic coast of the Mexican Gulf from Campeche as far as Tabasco and Vera Cruz.

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  • The charter of that colony was drafted under the impression that the Merrimac flowed east for its entire course, but now an investigation was in progress which was to show that its source in Lake Winnepesaukee was several miles north of any of the four settlements in New Hampshire.

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  • This method was employed by Sir Isaac Newton, whose experiments constitute the earliest systematic investigation of the phenomenon.

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  • Christiansen found, in an investigation of this kind, that the refractivity of the liquid could only be got to match that of the powder for mono-chromatic light, and that, if white light were used, brilliant colour effects were obtained, which varied in a remarkable manner when small changes occurred in the refractive index of the liquid.

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  • Physically incapable of rising to passionate heights of oratory, Cotta's successes were chiefly due to his searching investigation of facts; he kept strictly to the essentials of the case and avoided all irrelevant digressions.

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  • His investigation of the Saturnian system was crowned by the Royal Astronomical Society of London in 1903.

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  • From the time of his first introduction to Tycho he had devoted himself to the investigation of the orbit of Mars, which, on account of its relatively large eccentricity, had always been especially recalcitrant to theory, and the results appeared in Astronomia nova ainoXayrgrii, seu Physica coelestis tradita commentariis de motibus stellae Martis (Prague, 1609).

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  • The storm of protest of the other religious denominations caused the colonial office to undertake an investigation of the whole question, the result of which was presented in the report of 1828.

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  • 14a master-general, Congress, in June 1778, ordered an investigation; but before this inquiry had proceeded far, Congress granted him $1,000,000 to settle all claims against the office during his administration.

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  • It does not follow, however, that a custom which has ceased to exist is of necessity forbidden, nor even that what was rejected by the authorities of the English Church in the 16th century is so explicitly forbidden as to be unlawful under its existing system; and not a few facts have to be taken into account in any investigation of the question.

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  • Again, in several cases he ventured to question the correctness of the "accepted atomic weights," on the ground that they did not correspond with the Periodic Law, and here also he was justified by subsequent investigation.

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  • 2 It is then in connexion with the history of inheritance and adoption, and of the gradual evolution from societies held together only by blood-kinship to societies consolidated on other bases, especially on that of local contiguity, that ancestor-worship chiefly calls for investigation.

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  • Religionssystem (1831; in this work Manichaean speculation is exhibited from a speculative standpoint); Fliigel, Mani (1862; a very careful investigation on the basis of the Fihrist); Kessler, Untersuchung zur Genesis des manich.

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  • The various researches which have been made regarding Parsism, the ancient Semitic religions, Gnosticism, &c., are of the greatest importance for the investigation of Manichaeism.

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  • The strata are the deposits of an ancient sea, which in the earlier stage of geological investigation was thought to be part of the primeval ocean, while the Laurentian highlands were taken to be the first land that rose from the primeval waters.

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  • An investigation was made in 1908 for the National Conservation Commission of the ore reserves of the country.

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  • In the event of a determination in favour of Great Britain the arbitrators were to determine what concurrent regulations were necessary for the preservation of the seals, and a joint commission was to be appointed by the two powers to assist them in the investigation of the facts of seal life.

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  • This begins with the investigation of its traditional or transmitted form.

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  • It should, however, be here observed, that whoever takes a reading without investigation, on the authority either of a manuscript or of a great scholar, or of a number of scholars, ceases for the time being to be a textual critic.

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  • After an investigation by a committee of the House, which recommended the expulsion of Ames, a resolution was passed on the 28th of February 1873, "that the House absolutely condemns the conduct of Oakes Ames ...

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  • init.), was, avoiding the generalities of Plato, to prepare his audience by explaining the subject of investigation and its nature.

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  • Moreover, it is clear that Aristotle addressed himself to readers as well as hearers, as in concluding his whole theory of syllogisms he says, " There would remain for all of you or for our hearers (763,7 co y uµWV rt T&?v ipcpoapEVwv) a duty of according to the defects of the investigation consideration, to its discoveries much gratitude " (Sophistical Elenchi, 34, 184 b 6).

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  • In order to refer back to the Physics, the De Coelo, and the De Generatione, this work begins by stating that the first causes of all nature and all natural motion, the stars ordered according to celestial motion and the bodily elements with their transmutations, and generation and corruption have all been discussed; and by adding that there remains to complete this investigation, what previous investigators called meteorology.

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  • Then follows the treatment of oligarchy, democracy, commonwealth and tyranny, and of the various powers of government (0), and independent investigation of revolution, and of the means of preserving states (E), and a further treatment of democracy and oligarchy, and of the different offices of the state (Z), and finally a return to the discussion of the right form of constitution (II, 0).

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  • But two corollaries follow from our present investigation of his extant writings; the first, that it was the long continuance of the Peripatetic school which gradually caused the publication, and in some cases the forgery, of the separate writings; and the second, that his Peripatetic successors arranged and edited some of Aristotle's writings, and gradually arrived by the time of Andronicus, the eleventh from Aristotle, at an order of the whole body of writings forming the system.

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  • Beyond philosophy, not beyond science, there is art; and beyond philosophy and science there is history, the description of facts preparatory to philosophy, the investigation of causes (cf.

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  • Aristotle was the founder of Logic; because, though others, and especially Plato, had made occasional remarks about reason (X yos), Aristotle was the first to conceive it as a definite subject of investigation.

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  • Aristotle, who made this great discovery, must have had great difficulty in developing the new investigation of reasoning processes out of dialectic, rhetoric, poetics, grammar, metaphysics, mathematics, physics and ethics; and in disengaging it from other kinds of learning.

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  • 22, 84 a 7-8) he distinguishes two modes of investigation, analytically (avaXurtK&r) and logically (Xo'yu&,·).

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  • But the general discussion of opinions, signified by both words, is only a subordinate part of Aristotle's profound investigation of the whole process of reasoning.

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  • On the other hand, it does not follow that Aristotle would have regarded the Topics, which he calls " the investigation " and " the investigation of dialectic " (7) Jrpayyareta, Top, i.

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  • then Aristotle himself regarded rhetoric as partly science and partly dialectic, perhaps he would have said that his works on reasoning are some science and others not, and that, while the investigation of syllogism with a view to scientific syllogism in the Analytics is analytic science, the investigation of dialectical syllogism, in the Topics, with its abuse, eristical syllogism, in the Sophistici Elenchi, is dialectic. At any rate, these miscellaneous works on reasoning have no right to stand first in Aristotle's writings under any one name, logic or Organon.

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  • They contain however many relics of dialectic. The Rhetoric is declared by him to be partly dialectic. The Topics is at least an investigation of dialectic, which has had an immense influence on the method of argument.

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  • His first important astronomical work was a careful investigation of the libration of the moon (Kosmographische Nachrichten, Nuremberg, 1750), and his chart of the full moon (published in 1775) was unsurpassed for half a century.

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  • Reports of abuses under this system caused the legislature in 1901 to order a special investigation, the results of which led in 1903 to a new system of leasing to contractors, whereby the prisoners are kept under the direct supervision of state officials.

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  • In September 1908, after an investigation which showed that many wardens had been in the pay of convict lessees and that terrible cruelty had been practised in convict camps, an extra session of the legislature practically put an end to the convict lease or contract system; the act then passed provided that after the 31st of March 1909, the date of expiration of leases in force, no convicts may be leased for more than twelve months and none may be leased at all unless there are enough convicts to supply all demands for convict labour on roads made by counties, each county to receive its pro rata share on a population basis, and to satisfy all demands made by municipalities which thus secure labour for $100 per annum (per man) paid into the state treasury, and all demands made by the state prison farm and factory established by this law.

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  • The necessity and universality of the judgments of causality and substantiality are taken for granted; and there is no investigation of the place held by these notions in the mental constitution.

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  • The principles which are explained in Hort's introduction to the text had been arrived at after years of elaborate investigation and continual correspondence and discussion between the two friends.

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  • After an expedition in 1890 to Cilicia Trachea, where he obtained a valuable collection of inscriptions, Bent spent a year in South Africa, with the object, by investigation of some of the ruins in Mashonaland, of throwing light on the vexed question of their origin and on the early history of East Africa.

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  • Investigation has shown that the change is due to the splitting off of sulphuric acid during the process, and that green-coloured chromsulphuric acids are formed thus - ii?

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  • l * An independent anatomical investigation of the Mollusca had been carried on by the remarkable Neapolitan naturalist Poli (1791), whose researches 2 were not published until after his death (1817), and were followed by the beautiful works of another Neapolitan zoologist, the illustrious Delle Chiaje.3 The embranchement or sub-kingdom Mollusca, as defined by Cuvier, included the following classes of shellfish: (1) the cuttles or poulps, under the name Cephalopoda; (2) the snails, whelks and slugs, both terrestrial and marine, under the name Gastropoda; (3) the sea-butterflies or winged-snails, under the name Pteropoda; (4) the clams, mussels and oysters, under the name Acephala; (5) the lamp-shells, under the name Brachiopoda; (6) the seasquirts or ascidians, under the name Nuda; and (7) the barnacles and sea-acorns, under the name Cirrhopoda.

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  • Attention has been especially directed to the investigation of the most primitive forms in each group, and accordingly we can now form much more definite conceptions of the phylogeny and evolution of the various classes.

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  • In 1865 Pasteur undertook a Government commission for the investigation of the malady.

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  • Fourthly, the convention recommends that in disputes of an international nature, involving neither national honour nor vital interests, and arising from a difference of opinion on points of fact, the parties who have not been able to come to an agreement by means of diplomacy should institute an international commission of inquiry to facilitate a solution of these disputes by an investigation of the facts.

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  • o-KovEiv, to see), that branch of physical science which has for its province the investigation of spectra, which may, for our present purpose, be regarded as the product of the resolution of composite luminous radiations into more homogeneous components.

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  • The extension of the investigation to wide slits was first made by the present writer in the article " Spectroscopy " in the 9th edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica.

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  • 2 Basing the investigation on the same criterion of resolution as in the case of narrow slits, we postulate for both narrow and wide slits that two lines are resolved when the intensity of the combined image falls to a value of o 8ro in the centre between the lines, the intensity at the maxima being unity.

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  • Bolometric methods may be used with facility and advantage in the investigation of the distribution of intensities in continuous or semi-continuous spectra but difficulties are met with in the case of line spectra.

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  • For the investigation of the spectra of gases at reduced pressures the so-called Plucker tubes (more generally but incorrectly called Geissler tubes) are in common use.

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  • Though the experimental and theoretical developments were not necessarily dependent on each other, and by far the larger proportion of the subject which we now term " Spectroscopy " could stand irrespective of Gustav Kirchhoff's thermodynamical investigations, there is no doubt that the latter was, historically speaking, the immediate cause of the feeling of confidence with which the new branch of science was received, for nothing impresses the scientific world more strongly than just that little touch of mystery which attaches to a mathematical investigation which can only be understood by the few, and is taken on trust by the many, provided that the author is a man who commands general confidence.

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  • We might probably with advantage find some definition of what may be called " radiation temperature " based on the relation between radiation and absorption in Kirchhoff's sense, but further information based on experimental investigation is required.

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  • Two methods of investigation are available.

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  • 4 If it should be confirmed that the period called N in the above investigation is the same for all elements, it must be intimately connected with the structure of the electron.

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  • Experimentally we should be confined to a strict investigation of absorption spectra, because in the electric discharge temperature has no definite meaning, and variations of pressure and density are not easily measured.

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  • He concludes an interesting and important investigation by' giving reasons for believing that the centre of a widened line radiates with smaller energy than the adjacent parts.

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  • The subject wants further investigation, especially with a view to deciding the connexion between the molecular rush and the discharge.

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  • The subject, however, required further experimental investigation, which was supplied by Paschen.

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  • Nevertheless, the subject is well worth further investigation.

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  • Previous to Stark's investigation P. Lenard 2 had concluded that the carriers of certain of the lines of the flame spectra of the alkali metals are positively charged.

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  • Wood remarks, the careful investigation of these phenomena is.

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  • Kundt,' who initiated this line of investigation, came to the conclusion that the absorption spectra of certain organic substances like cyanin and fuchsin were displaced towards the red by the solvent, and that the displacement was the greater the greater the dispersive power of the solvent.

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  • investigation, and arrived at the conclusion that the spectra are sufficiently characteristic to " offer a ready and valuable means of ascertaining the purity of the alkaloids and particularly of establishing their identity."

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  • We can only briefly refer to an important investigation of Sir William Abney and Colonel E.

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  • Whilst at Rome he issued several bulls to the archbishop of Canterbury, the king of England, and the university of Oxford, commanding an investigation of Wycliffe's doctrines.

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  • It was first isolated in 1803 and was the subject of an important investigation by v.Liebig in 1837 (Annalen,1837,22, p.1).

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  • Mr Chamberlain rested his case largely on the alleged diminution in British trade, and the statistics therefore required investigation before the government could adopt any such programme.

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  • Fleming, of University College, London, in the investigation of the electrical behaviour of substances cooled to very low temperatures.

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  • The only result of anthropological investigation which so far can be regarded as definitely established is that the old Teutonic lands in northern Germany, Denmark and southern Sweden have been inhabited by people of the same type since the neolithic age, if not earlier.

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