Kelway invented an electrical log in 1876.
Perhaps you think you have invented a novelty?
Who invented Him, if He did not exist?
In 1902 Marconi invented two forms of magnetic detector, one of which he developed into an electric wave detector of extraordinary delicacy and utility.
We also can't hammer nails with our hands, so we invented hammers.
You have invented an elixir not of memory, but of reminding.
But I do not understand how he ever thought a blind and deaf child of eleven could have invented them.
He found it laughable that the living invented so many myths to create a false sense of security regarding the dark predators.
The only signs which I think she may have invented were her signs for SMALL and LARGE.
Yet Chretien does not claim to have invented the situation.
The difficulty was first satisfactorily overcome in the long-distance transmitter, invented by A.
Indeed, at one time it was believed that the best way for them to communicate was through systematized gestures, the sign language invented by the Abbe de l'Epee.
instrument invented by S.
A very ingenious call-bell or annunciator for use with inductive or conductive systems of wireless telegraphy was invented and described in 1898 by S.
In a world where only one tool is invented, a hoe, there will be no billionaires.
About clothes, and how robots will weave garments that never wear out from materials not yet invented that will cost very little.
In 1848 Airy invented the reflex zenith tube to replace the zenith sector previously employed.
Finally, I invented a new Adjustable Post-hole, which I thought would make my fortune.
Hughes invented the microphone, but did not apply for letters patent.
Were preserved meats invented to preserve meat merely?
Similar instruments to the single and double needle apparatus of Cooke and Wheatstone were about the same time invented by the Rev. H.
The screw or rotatory log of Edward Massey, invented in 1802, came into general use in 1836 and continued until 1861.
An electuary of opium, known as Mithradatum, was invented by Mithradates VI., king of Pontus, who lived in constant fear of being poisoned, and tested the effects of poisons on criminals, and is said to have taken poisons and their antidotes every day in the year.
In Helene's circle the war in general was regarded as a series of formal demonstrations which would very soon end in peace, and the view prevailed expressed by Bilibin--who now in Petersburg was quite at home in Helene's house, which every clever man was obliged to visit--that not by gunpowder but by those who invented it would matters be settled.
So, when the alarm shrilled its two cents' worth, Dean had cussed the sadist who invented it and figured it wasn't going to be a pleasant Wednesday.
1 3p6xcv-ros, shortest, and Xpovos, time), a term invented by John Bernoulli in 1694 to denote the curve along which a body passes from one fixed point to another in the shortest time.
Thus diachylon plaster was invented by Menecrates in A.D.
Houses will be built by robots using materials not yet invented that are cheaper and more energy efficient.
Or, if, as the Ritschlians maintain, it is a slander invented by their enemy, C. E.
The vision at Valarshapat was invented later by the Armenians when they broke with the Greeks, in order to give to their church the semblance, if not of apostolic, at least of divine origin.
The introduction in 1883 of the hard-drawn copper wire of high conductivity invented in 1877 by T.
At Eleusis also, Triptolemus, the son of Celeus, who was said to have invented the plough and to have been sent by Demeter round the world to diffuse the knowledge of agriculture, had a temple and threshing-floor.
Imagine a thousand new arts, none of which are even invented yet, each with a thousand new great masters.
She had in fact seen nothing then but had mentioned the first thing that came into her head, but what she had invented then seemed to her now as real as any other recollection.
These superbly invented and designed compositions, gorgeous with all splendour of subject-matter and accessory, and with the classical learning and enthusiasm of one of the master-spirits of the age, have always been accounted of the first rank among Mantegna's works.
In principle it had been invented by Sir Marc I.
He invented a religious system founded on the speculative mysticism of the Neoplatonists, and founded a sect, the members of which believed that the new creed would supersede all existing forms of belief.
The name "Liberia" was invented by the Rev. R.
Man has invented, not only houses, but clothes and cooked food; and possibly from the accidental discovery of the warmth of fire, and the consequent use of it, at first a luxury, arose the present necessity to sit by it.
He invented the wheel barometer, discussed the application of barometrical indications to meteorological forecasting, suggested a system of optical telegraphy, anticipated E.F.F.
excel in sports they once invented.
But the Liverpool & Manchester railway, opened in 1830, first impressed the national mind with the fact that a revolution in the methods of travelling had really taken place; and further, it was for it that the first high-speed locomotive of the modern type was invented and constructed.
In June 1905, in commemoration of the 1200th anniversary of "the town, the bishopric and the school," an historical pageant, invented and arranged by Louis N.
At first an eight years' cycle was adopted, but it was found to be faulty, then the Jewish cycle of 84 years was used, and remained in force at Rome till the year 457, when a more accurate calculation of a cycle of 532 years, invented by Victorius of Acquitaine, took its place.
The pursuit of such happiness is taught by the "utilitarian" philosophy, an expression used by Bentham himself in 1802, and therefore not invented by J.
"Back when you were in high school, they hadn't invented the movies," Harold offered, then asked, "Was she as pretty as that beauty Mr. Dean was parading around the park on Thursday morning?"
According to the legend, Athena, who had invented the flute, threw it away in disgust, because it distorted the features.
In 1836 Cooke, to whom the idea appears to have been suggested by Schilling's method, invented a telegraph in which an alphabet was worked out by the single and combined movement of three needles.
Fleming 5 invented special forms of the metallic contact or metallic filings sensitive tube.
Fleming invented in 1904 a detector called an oscillation valve or glow lamp detector made as follows: 1 A small carbon filament incandescent lamp has a platinum plate or cylinder placed in it surrounding or close to the filament.
Galen is said to have invented hiera-picra, which he employed as an anthelmintic; it is still used in England as a domestic remedy.
Mailer introduced the terms Polymyodi and Tracheophones, Huxley that of Oligomyodi; Mailer himself had, moreover, pointed out the more important characters of the mode of insertion, but it was Garrod who invented the corresponding terms of Acro- and Mesomyodi (= Tracheophones+Oligomyodi).
The following apparatus (invented originally by Michel of Marseilles and improved subsequently by others) enables the manufacturer to produce either of two forms of "refined" sulphur which commerce demands.
Small's swing plough and Andrew Meikle's threshing-machine, although invented some years before this, were now perfected and brought into general use, to the great furtherance of agriculture.
The methods applied to economics in the 18th and the early part of the 19th century were no more invented with a special view to that subject than the principles of early railway legislation, in the domain.
But it is not unlikely that this story was invented to supersede the account of the incestuous union of Conchobar with his sister, which seems to be hinted at on various occasions.
He also invented a heliometer, afterwards perfected by Fraunhofer.
The reaping-machine, invented in 1812 by John Common, improved upon by the Rev. Patrick Bell in England and by Cyrus H.
But about the time when it began to be supplanted by Arabic, two systems of vowel-signs were invented, one for the West Syrians, who borrowed the forms of Greek vowels, and the other more elaborate for the East Syrians, who used combinations of dots.
The use of mercuric fulminate as a detonator dates from about 1814, when the explosive cap was invented.
In order that only one motor may be used, and also that the load may be lifted by a single part of rope, various devices have been invented.
This form of electric wave detector proved itself to be far more certain in operation and sensitive than anything previously invented.
The Master Car Builders' Association, a great body of mechanical officers organized especially to being about improvement and uniformity in details of construction and operation, expressed its sense of the importance of " self-coupling " so far back as 1874, but no device of the kind that could be considered useful had then been invented.
The influence of Demeter, however, was not limited to corn, but extended to vegetation generally and all the fruits of the earth, with the curious exception of the bean, the use of which was forbidden at Eleusis, and for the protection of which a special patron was invented.
The regular form of her name in Greek was Persephone, but various other forms occur: Phersephone, Persephassa, Phersephassa, Pherrephatta, &c., to explain which different etymologies were invented.
Xnyviaicos, ribbon), a quartic curve invented by Jacques Bernoulli (Acta Eruditorum, 1694) and afterwards investigated by Giulio Carlo Fagnano, who gave its principal properties and applied it to effect the division of a quadrant into 2 2 m, 3.2 m and 5.2 m equal parts.
The Realists held that universals alone have substantial reality, existing ante res; the Nominalists that universals are mere names invented to express the qualities of particular things and existing post res; while the Conceptualists, mediating between the two extremes, held that universals are concepts which exist in our minds and express real similarities in things themselves.
The terms, therefore, were not invented by St Thomas Aquinas, and are not mere scholastic subtlety.
A new form had therefore to be invented for the genuine b in Slavonic, to which there was, at the period when the alphabet was adopted, no corresponding sound in Greek.
Opposed to the various types of roller gins is the " saw gin," invented by Eli Whitney, an American, in 1792.
The rotary system of drilling which is in general use in the oilfields of the coastal plain of Texas is a modification of that invented Rotary by Fauvelle in 1845, and used in the early years of the R .
He was a man of high character and benevolent disposition, a fine flute-player, and a generous master to his slaves, for whose children he invented the rattle.
Another form of hot-wire ammeter is a modification of the electric thermometer originally invented by Sir W.
The art of writing also appears to have been independently invented by the Malayan races, since numerous alphabets are in use among the peoples of the archipelago, although for the writing of Malay itself the Arabic character has been adopted for some hundreds of years.
They first invented and named the alembic for the purposes of distillation, analyzed the substances of the three kingdoms of nature, tried the distinction and affinities of alkalis and acids, and converted the poisonous minerals into soft and salutary remedies.
At the same time Berzelius obtained the element, in an impure condition, by fusing silica with charcoal and iron in a blast furnace; its preparation in a pure condition he first accomplished in 1823, when he invented the method of heating double potassium fluorides with metallic potassium.
The medieval Arabians invented our system of numeration and developed algebra.
During this period logarithms were invented, trigonometry and algebra developed, analytical geometry invented, dynamics put upon a sound basis, and the period closed with the magnificent invention of (or at least the perfecting of) the differential calculus by Newton and Leibnitz and the discovery of gravitation.
Athena was said to have invented the plough, and to have taught men to tame horses and yoke oxen.
In 1833 Pattinson invented his process by means of which practically all the silver is concentrated in 13% of the original lead to be cupelled, while the rest becomes market lead.
Several pieces of apparatus have been invented for comparing the magnetic quality of a sample with that of a standard iron rod by a zero method, such as is employed in the comparison of electrical resistances by the Wheatstone bridge.
He invented magnets that could withstand the effects of percussion and ordinary temperature variations.
He studied ancient theories of music, and is said to have invented the thirteen-syllable verse known subsequently as versi martelliani.
On his farm Smith carried out his experiments in deep and thorough draining, and also invented a reaping machine, the subsoil plough and numerous other valuable appliances.
In the 16th century the latinized form Edina was invented and has been used chiefly by poets, once notably by Burns, whose " Address " begins " Edina!
But conversion, after all, was the chief aim of these devoted missionaries, and when some Venetian priests had invented a Latin alphabet for the Magyar language a great step had been taken towards its accomplishment.
the Varga Mozsar, or great mortar, which sixty horses could scarce move from its place, and a ballistic machine invented by Matthias which could hurl stones of 3 cwt.
Lavoisier he made an important series of experiments on specific heat (1782-1784), in the course of which the "ice calorimeter" was invented; and they contributed jointly to the Memoirs of the Academy (1781) a paper on the development of electricity by evaporation.
The questions raised by these considerations have attracted much public attention under the newly invented name of " eugenics," but they are of an exceedingly difficult and delicate nature.
At one time the Turkish script was altered, with the result that officers were unable to read their reports or orders; then the Enverie, a highly unpractical head-covering, reminiscent of a child's paper hat, was invented and introduced; in March 1914 he demanded and obtained the hand of Princess Nadjie, the Sultan's niece, made himself general of a division, and began, moreover, to take thought for his financial future.
of al-Ahwaz or Khuzistan), who came third in succession to Narsai as head of the school of Nisibis, was the first Syriac grammarian and invented various signs of interpunction.
Of such is the ophthalmoscope, invented by H.
By the laryngoscope, invented about 1850 by Manuel Garcia the celebrated singingmaster, and perfected by Johann Czermak (1828-1873) and others, the diseases of the larynx also have been brought into the general light which has been shed on all fields of disease; and many of them, previously known more or less empirically, submitted to precise definition and cure.
They have been regarded as a fiction invented later by the enemies of Epicureanism, with the view of discrediting the most powerful work ever produced by any disciple of that sect.
He was a strong advocate of the groupflashing system as a means of differentiating lights, and invented an arrangement for carrying it into effect optically, his plan being first adopted for the catoptric light of the Royal Sovereign lightship, in the English Channel off Beachy Head.
In acoustics he invented, about 1819, the improved siren which is known by his name, using it for ascertaining the number of vibrations corresponding to a sound of any particular pitch, and he also made experiments on the mechanism of voice-production.
The best-known pump of this type was invented in 1865 by H.
117 B.C.) and is credited with having invented an improved water-organ.
Avanturine glass, that in which numerous small particles of copper are diffused through a transparent yellowish or brownish mass, was not invented until about 1600.
One remarkable man, Giuseppe Briati, exerted himself, with much success, both in working in the old Venetian method and also in imitating the new fashions invented in Bohemia.
It is probable that flintglass was not invented, but gradually evolved, that potash-lead glasses were in use during the latter part of the 17th century, but that the mixture was not perfected until the middle of the following century.
In the Greek school at Alexandria, which flourished under the auspices of the Ptolemies, the first attempts were made at the construction of hydraulic machinery, and about 120 B.C. the fountain of compression, the siphon, and the forcing-pump were invented by Ctesibius and Hero.
The development of astronomy implies considerable progress in mathematics; it is not surprising, therefore, that the Babylonians should have invented an extremely simple method of ciphering or have discovered the convenience of the duodecimal system.
It was at this time too that the many-sided Alexius invented his famous "drops," or tinctura toniconervina Bestuschefi, the recipe of which was stolen by the French brigadier Lamotte, who made his fortune by introducing it at the French court, where it was known as Elixir d'Or.
Each gild numbered various classes of members, ranging from beginners, or Schiller (corresponding to trade-apprentices), and Schulfreunde (who were equivalent to Gesellen or journeymen), to Meister, a Meister being a poet who was not merely able to write new verses to existing melodies but had himself invented a new melody.
These attachments, first invented by Jeremiah Howard, and described in the United States Patent Journal in 1858, are simply hydraulic rams fitted into the side or top caps of the mill, and pressing against the side or top brasses in such a manner as to allow the side or top roll to move away from the other rolls, while an accumulator, weighted to any desired extent, keeps a constant pressure on each of the rams. An objection to the top cap arrangement is, that if the volume or feed is large enough to lift the top roll from the cane roll, it will simultaneously lift it from the megass roll, so that the megass will not be as well pressed as it ought to be;' and an objection to the side cap arrangement on the megass roll as well as to the top cap arrangement is, that in case more canes are fed in at one end of the rolls than at the other, the roll will be pushed out farther at one end than at the other; and though it may thus avoid a breakdown of the rolls, it is apt, in so doing, to break the ends off the teeth of the crown wheels by putting them out of line with one another.
The multiple-effect evaporator, originally invented and constructed by Norberto Rilleux in New Orleans in 1840, has under gone many changes in design and construction since Effect that year.
Watt, when he invented the steam engine, laid down the principles on which it is based, and they hold good to the present day.
The Krajewski crusher was invented some years ago by a Polish engineer resident in Cuba, who took out a patent for it and gave it his name.
Nahnsen's process, with an electrolyte containing alkali-metal sulphate and zinc sulphate, has been used in Germany, and a process invented by Dieffenbach has also been tried in that country.
In conjunction with Josiah Latimer Clark, with whom he entered into partnership in 1861, he invented improved methods of insulating submarine cables, and a paper on electrical standards read by them before the British Association in the same year led to the establishment of the British Association committee on that subject, whose work formed the foundations of the system still in use.
The earliest form, invented by C. B.
Chaplin's apparatus, which was invented and patented later, has also since 1865 been sanctioned for use on emigrant, troop and passenger vessels.
Lithography, which was invented at Munich at the end of the 18th century, is extensively practised here.
The citizens espoused the cause of Diether, but their city was captured by Adolph; it was then deprived of its privileges and was made subject to the archbishop. Many of the inhabitants were driven into exile, and these carried into other lands a knowledge of the art of printing, which had been invented at Mainz by Johann Gutenberg in 1450.
Convex spectacles were invented towards the end of the 13th century.
The first powerloom used in the United States was invented about 1812, and was set up at Peacedale, in 1814, for the manufacture of woollen saddlegirths and other webbing.
The metre, which by a curious naivete Tennyson long believed that he had invented, served by its happy peculiarity to bind the sections together, and even to give an illusion of connected movement to the thought.
Among other things Hales invented a "sea-gauge" for sounding, and processes for distilling fresh from sea water, for preserving corn from weevils by fumigation with brimstone, and for salting animals whole by passing brine into their arteries.
Iwleanwhile an inquirer is confronted by the strange fact that of three neighboring countries between which frequent communication existed, one (China) never deviated from an ideographic script; another (Korea) invented an alphabet, and the third (Japan) devised a syllabary.
It is commonly believed that the two Japanese syllabarieswhich, though distinct in form, have identical soundswere invented by Kukai (790) and Kibi Daijin (760) respectively.
Chinese has the widest capacity of any tongue ever invented.
A century later, the daimyo namako was invented, in which lines of dots alternated with lines of polished ground.
Mention must also be made of an extraordinarily elaborate and troublesome process invented by Kajinia Ippu, a great artist of the present day.
It is a golden yellow bronze, called seniokuthis being the Japanese pronunciation of Suen-t, the era of the Ming dynasty of China when this compound was invented.
He suggested the use of experimental tanks for testing the powers of ship models, invented an ear-trumpet for the deaf, improved the common house-stove of his native land, cured smoky chimneys, took a lively interest in machine-guns and even sketched a flying machine.
According to Roscher (in his Lexikon der Mythologie), who identifies the ciris with the heron, the story of Nisus and Scylla (like these of Acdon, Procne, Philomela and Tereus) was invented to give an aetiological explanation of the characteristics of certain birds.
The stories which Geoffrey preserved or invented were not infrequently a source of inspiration to literary artists.
Various special keys have been invented for performing the electrical operations expeditiously.
He invented a machine which so supported his hand that he could write legibly with closed eyes.
The maritime expansion of Corinth at this time is proved by the foundation of colonies at Syracuse and Corcyra, and the equipment of a fleet of triremes (the newly invented Greek men-of-war) to quell a revolt of the latter city.
Several cycles were formerly known in Europe; but most of them were invented for the purpose of adjusting the solar and lunar divisions of time, and were rather employed in the regulation of the calendar than as chronological eras.
The sceptics had declared that the new science of Assyriology was itself a myth: that the investigators, self-deceived, had in reality only invented a language and read into the Assyrian inscriptions something utterly alien to the minds of the Assyrians themselves.
Can we suppose that "the man who had read the letter" invented much of its contents, and told them to Moray, who told de Silva, and told Darnley's father, Lennox, then in or near London?
CAMERA LUCIDA, an optical instrument invented by Dr William Hyde Wollaston for drawing in perspective.
About the beginning of the 19th century Dr Wollaston invented a simple form of the camera lucida which gives bright and erect images.
Here, too, is Rhymer's glen, although the name was invented by Sir Walter Scott, who added the dell to his Abbotsford estate.
That Machiavelli invented it to express the irritation of his own domestic life is a myth without foundation.
It must be remembered, however, that when Dollond expressed preference for this third type he had not then invented the achromatic object-glass.
- Various micrometers have been invented besides the heliometer for measuring by double image.
The figure of the first beast presents many difficulties, owing to the fact that it is not freely invented but largely derived from traditional elements and is by the writer identified with the seventh wounded head.
Brooke, a midshipman of the U.S.N., invented the principle on the " Valdivia " in 1898-1899, and to those of the " Belgica " already foreshadowed by Nicolaus Cusanus in the 15th century in 1897-1898, the " Gauss " in 1902-1903, and the " Scotia " and by Robert Hooke in the 17th, of using a heavy weight so in 1903-1904.
These enabled him to elucidate the true nature of soap; he was also able to discover the composition of stearin and olein, and to isolate stearic and oleic acids, the names of which were invented by him.
Poncelet (1788-1867) invented a form of Prony brake which automatically adjusted its grip as µ changed, thereby maintaining F constant.
This form of brake was also invented independently by J.
In an effective water-brake invented by W.
The word appears to have been invented during the 17th century, and remained synonymous with " atom " (Gr.
According to Aristotle, Zeno of Elea "invented" dialectic, the art of disputation by question and answer, while Plato developed it metaphysically in connexion with his doctrine of "Ideas" as the art of analysing ideas in themselves and in relation to the ultimate idea of the Good (Repub.
Latinus was a shadowy personality, invented to explain the origin of Rome and its relations with Latium, and only obtained importance in later times through his legendary connexion with Aeneas and the foundation of Rome.
Recently, however, considerable doubt has been thrown upon the general occurrence of this latter condition in certain Myxosporidia (Microsporidia); and the present writer adopts as preferable, therefore, the terms Ectospora and Endospora (qq.v.), invented by E.
Vast water-power is developed on the Merrimac at Lawrence and Lowell, and on the Connecticut at South Hadley, and to a less extent at scores of other cities on many streams and artificial ponds; many of the machines that have revolutionized industrial conditions since the beginning of the factory system have been invented by Massachusetts men; and the state contains various technical schools of great importance.
The question of the utilization of water-power had engaged his attention even earlier, and in 1839 he invented an improved rotary water motor.
Those known to the older naturalists were for a long while referred to the genus Certhia (Tree-Creeper, q.v.) or some other group, but they are now fully recognized as forming a valid Passerine family Nectariniidae, from the name Neetarinia invented in 1881 by Illiger.
To supply their wants the Americans invented modifications in natural materials, the working of which was their industries.
The potter's wheel did not exist in the western world, but it was almost invented.
Many forms of oxyhydrogen lamps have been invented, but the explosive nature of the gaseous mixture rendered them all more or less dangerous.
At his first appearance in history Guido was a monk in the Benedictine monastery of Pomposa, and it was there that he taught singing and invented his educational method, by means of which, according to his own statement, a pupil might learn within five months what formerly it would have taken him ten years to acquire.
The documents discovered by Dom Germain Morin, the Belgian Benedictine, about 1888, point to the conclusion that Guido was a Frenchman and lived from his youth upwards in the Benedictine monastery of St Maur des Fosses where he invented his novel system of notation and taught the brothers to sing by it.
Einhard married Emma, or Imma, a sister of Bernharius, bishop of Worms, and a tradition of the 12th century represented this lady as a daughter of Charlemagne, and invented a romantic story with regard to the courtship which deserves to be noticed as it frequently appears in literature.
The legend was probably invented to account for the origin of the provocatio (right of appeal to the people), while at the same time it points to the close connexion and final struggle for supremacy between the older city on the mountain and the younger city on the plain.
Aristarchus is also said to have invented two sun-dials, one hemi spherical, the so-called scaphion, the other plane.
It exported iron from Elba, mosaics, pottery, manufactured locally with earth from Ischia (which was in considerable demand until 1883), sulphur (which indeed was extracted in the neighbourhood until the 18th century), probably alum (which is still worked), perfumes, pozzolana earth (taking its name from the place), cretaceous earth for mixing with grain (alica) from the Leucogaean hills, glass cups engraved with views of Puteoli, mineral dyes (the blue invented.
Boulton and Watt's screw press, invented in 1788 and used at the Royal Mint until 1881, was worked by atmospheric pressure applied to a piston.
The coining presses now used are all modifications of the lever press invented by Uhlhorn of Grevenbroich near Cologne in 1839.
He invented the loom for the weaving of wire-cloth.
Thus Nicomedes invented the conchoid; Diodes the cissoid; Dinostratus studied the quadratrix invented by Hippias; all these curves furnished solutions, as is also the case with the trisectrix, a special form of Pascal's limacon.
Montaigne is one of the few great writers who have not only perfected but have also invented a literary kind.
The phrase half sovereign states was invented by J.
At the age of nineteen he invented an electromagnetic engine, and in the course of examining its performance dissatisfaction with vague and arbitrary methods of specifying elec rical quantities caused him to adopt a convenient and scie tific unit, which he took to be the amount of electricity req ired to decompose nine grains of water in one hour.
Rousseau, however, never saw any of the alleged children; and Mrs Macdonald has shown good cause for believing that their existence was a myth, an imposition on Rousseau's credulity, invented by Therese and her mother to make the tie more binding.
The twenty-four tsieki or demi-tse were probably invented to mark the course of weather changes throughout the year.
The refined system of astrological prediction based upon the solar zodiac was invented in Chaldaea, obtained a second home and added elaborations in Egypt, and spread irresistibly westward about the beginning of the Christian era.
Aethers were invented for the planets to swim in, to constitute electric atmospheres and magnetic effluvia, to convey sensations from one part of our bodies to another, and so on, till all space had been filled three or four times over with aethers.
The only aether which has survived is that which was invented by Huygens to explain the propagation of light.
Various types of elastic solid medium have thus been invented to represent the aether, without complete success in any case.
xxiv., from which it was copied and reprinted in the Ada Eruditorum (1707), and also in the Memoirs of the Academy of Sciences at Paris; General Laws of Nature and Motion (1705), a work which is commended by Wolfius as illustrating and rendering easy the writings of Galileo and Huygens, and the Principia of Newton; An Institution of Fluxions, containing the First Principles, Operations, and Applications of that admirable Method, as invented by Sir Isaac Newton (1706).
In 1788 the first woollen mill in New England was opened in Hartford; and here, too, about 1846, the Rogers process of electro-silver plating was invented.
But no formula has yet been invented, derived on theoretical principles from the physical data, which will assign by calculation a definite magnitude to 3.
88), with critical symbols resembling those invented by the Alexandrian scholars.
of Aeschylus and Sophocles, and the Ravenna MS. of Aristophanes) maintain the sound traditions of the Alexandrian and Roman ages, those of the times of the Palaeologi give proof of a frequent tampering with the metres of the ancient poets in order to bring them into conformity with theories recently invented by Moschopulus and Triclinius.
Poets of a later generation invented the story of the secret marriage of his sister Ximena with Sancho, count of Saldana, and the feats of their son Bernardo del Carpio.
The popular etymology of the name Tabriz from tab=fever, riz = pourer away (verb, rikhtan = pour away, flow; German rieseln?), hence "fever-destroying," is erroneous and was invented in modern times.
The symbol for infinity, o°, was invented by him.
When a distinction was made between the souls in the under world, Sisyphus was supposed to be rolling up the stone perpetually as a punishment for some offence committed on earth; and various reasons were invented to account for it.
He especially devoted himself to investigations of the radiation of heat from the sun and its absorption by the earth's atmosphere, and to that end devised various delicate methods and instruments, including his electric compensation pyrheliometer, invented in 1893, and apparatus for obtaining a photographic representation of the infra-red spectrum (1895).
He invented a method of printing, perhaps somewhat akin to stereotyping - though the details are not clearly known, - whereby the Institute could produce Bibles and Testaments in Luther's version at a very low cost, and sell them, in small size, at prices equivalent to 10d.
We cannot suppose that such a system would be invented and become general in face of the laws enforcing the 12 in.
X yos, word, ratio, and &pc0,u6s, number), in mathematics, a word invented by John Napier to denote a particular class of function discovered by him, and which may be defined as follows: if a, x, m are any three quantities satisfying the equation a^x = m, then a is called the base, and x is said to be the logarithm of m to the base a.
Logarithms were originally invented for the sake of abbreviating arithmetical calculations, as by their means the operations of multiplication and division may be replaced by those of addition and subtraction, and the operations of raising to powers and extraction of roots by those of multiplication and division.
The former translated the work into English; the latter was concerned with Napier in the change of the logarithms from those originally invented to decimal or common logarithms, and it is to him that the original calculation of the logarithmic tables now in use is mainly due.
There is a short " preface to the reader " by Briggs, and a description of a triangular diagram invented by Wright for finding the proportional parts.
It is important to notice that in the Constructio logarithms are called artificial numbers; and Robert Napier states that the work was composed several years (aliquot annos) before Napier had invented the name logarithm.
Passing now to the invention of common or decimal logarithms, that is, to the transition from the logarithms originally invented by Napier to logarithms to the base io, the first allusion to a change of system occurs in the "Admonitio " on the last page of the Descriptio (1614), the concluding paragraph of which is " Verum si huius inventi usum eruditis gratum fore intellexero, dabo fortasse brevi (Deo aspirante) rationem ac methodum aut hunc canonem emendandi, aut emendatiorem de novo condendi, ut ita plurium Logistarum diligentia,limatior tandem et accuratior, quam unius opera fieri potuit, in lucem prodeat.
In the same year (1620) Napier's Descriptio (1614) and Constructio (1619) were reprinted by Bartholomew Vincent at Lyons and issued together.5 Napier calculated no logarithms of numbers, and, as already stated, the logarithms invented by him were not to base e.
The analogy of this to the manner in which the Egyptian hieroglyphs passed into phonetic signs is remarkable, and writing might have been invented anew in Mexico had it not been for the Spanish conquest.
C. Lister (Lord Masham) introduced the silk and velvet manufacture, having invented a process of manipulating silk waste, whereby what was previously treated as refuse is made into goods that will compete with those manufactured from the perfect cocoon.
limax, a slug), a curve invented by Blaise Pascal and further investigated and named by Gilles Personne de Roberval.
According to the Fihrist, Mani made use of the Persian and Syriac languages; but, like the Oriental Marcionites before him, he invented an alphabet of his own, which the Fihrist has handed down to us.
The Cycle, Though Probably Not Invented Before The Time Of The Council Of Nicaea, Is Regarded As Having Commenced Nine Years Before The Era, So That The Year One Was The Tenth Of The Solar Cycle.
Such is the very complicated and artificial, though highly ingenious method, invented by Lilius, for the determination of Easter and the other movable feasts.
Appended to the London edition of the solar and lunar tables are two short tracts - the one on determining longitude by lunar distances, together with a description of the repeating circle (invented by Mayer in 1752), the other on a formula for atmospheric refraction, which applies a remarkably accurate correction for temperature.
Recently a new machine has been invented giving the same results as circular frame: the silk depends from boxes into combs, and at the same time has the gentle action of the flat frame.
Therefore, when gill drawing machinery was invented, the cutting of silk into short fibres ceased, and long silks are now prepared for spinning on what is known as " long spinning process."
The whole have now become blended by the adoption of a common language, but remain tribally distinct; all alike have accepted Islam, and have invented traditions of common descent which express their present association.
They were invented by Gauss to facilitate the computation of elliptic integrals.
The earliest African tradition, on the other hand, preserved by Tertullian l (De pudicitia, c. 20), but certainly not invented by him, ascribed the epistle to Barnabas.
He was president of the Chemical Society in 1897, and of the British Association in 1902, served on the Balfour Commission on London Water Supply (1893-1894), and as a member of the Committee on Explosives (1888-1891) invented cordite jointly with Sir Frederick Abel.
A museum containing compasses of various types invented during the 19th century is attached to the Compass Observatory at Deptford.
The first liquid compass used in England was invented by Francis Crow, of Faversham, in 1813.
Several kinds of deflector have been invented, that of Lord Kelvin (Sir William Thomson) being the simplest, but Dr Waghorn's is also very effective.
From this passage arose a legend, which took shape only in the 17th century, that the compass was invented in the year 1302 by a person to whom was given the fictitious name of Flavio Gioja, of Amalfi.
The former was probably the older word, and may be traced to 40tvos = " blood-red "; the Canaanite sailors were spoken of as the " red men " on account of their sunburnt skin; then the land from which they came was called after them; and then probably the original connexion between Ioivt and 40tvos was forgotten, and new forms and meanings were invented.
The ancients believed that the Phoenicians invented the use of the alphabet (e.g.
The Phoenicians cannot be said to have invented any of the arts or industries, as the ancient world imagined; but what they did was something hardly less meritorious: they developed them with singular skill, and disseminated the knowledge and use of them.
He invented various cakes and sauces, and is said to have written on cookery.
In order to avoid the uncertainty arising from the lack of vowels to distinguish forms consisting of the same consonants (for the vowel-points were not yet invented), the aramaising use of the reflexive conjugations (Hithpa`el, Nithpa`el) for the internal passives (Pu'al, Hoph`al) became common; particles were used to express the genitive and other relations, and in general there was an endeavour to avoid the obscurities of a purely consonantal writing.
Deville accordingly returned to pure chemistry and invented a practicable method of preparing sodium which, having a lower atomic weight than potassium, reduced a larger proportion.
Seeing that sodium was the only possible reducing agent, he set himself to cheapen its cost, and deliberately rejecting sodium carbonate for the more expensive sodium hydroxide (caustic soda), and replacing carbon by a mixture of iron and carbon - the so-called carbide of iron - he invented the highly scientific method of winning the alkali metal which has remained in existence almost to the present day.
FOLIUM, in mathematics, a curve invented and discussed by Rene Descartes.
The tale was probably invented by the annalists to excuse the cruel treatment of the Carthaginian prisoners by the Romans.
The pamphlet is supposed to have been written by Chrysostomus Dudulaeus of Westphalia and printed by one Christoff Crutzer, but as no such author or printer is known at this time - the latter name indeed refers directly to the legend - it has been conjectured that the whole story is a myth invented to support the Protestant contention of a continuous witness to the truth of Holy Writ in the person of this "eternal" Jew; he was to form, in his way, a counterpart to the apostolic tradition of the Catholic Church.
In 1856 Bessemer not only invented his extraordinary process of making the heat developed by the rapid oxidation of the impurities in pig iron raise the temperature above the exalted melting-point of the resultant purified steel, but also made it widely known that this steel was a very valuable substance.
This uniformity is now given by the use of the " mixer " invented by Captain W.
In the Bell-Krupp or "pig-washing" process, invented independently by the famous British iron-master, Sir Lowthian Bell, and Krupp of Essen, advantage is taken of the fact that, at a relatively low temperature, probably a little above 1200° C., the phosphorus and silicon of molten cast iron are quickly oxidized and removed by contact with molten iron oxide, though carbon is thus oxidized but slowly.
Sumerian presents a significant list of internal phonetic variations which would not have been possible in an arbitrarily invented language.
That authority cannot be implicitly relied on, though we need not conclude that the minstrel invented the stories he relates.
Probably the most successful one has been a rotary engine invented by Mr Arthur Rigg.1 In this engine the stroke, and therefore the amount of water used, can be varied either by hand or by a governor while it is running; the speed can also be varied, very high rates, as much as 600 revolutions a minute, being attainable without the question of shock or vibration becoming troublesome.
elective); (2) the statement that Solon invented sortition for the office is put as the basis of a comparison (89ev, ern ye ov) and, therefore, may fairly be regarded as a hypothesis; (3) there is no indication that the change made in 487 B.C. was a return to an obsolete method, and on the same argument it is odd that Solon's alleged system should not have been revived at the end of the Tyranny.
Gunpowder had not yet been invented.
Mechain in the attempt to determine an arc of the meridian, and the greater number of the instruments employed in the task were invented by him.
Her poems were arranged in nine books, on what principle is uncertain; she is said to have sung them to the Mixo-Lydian mode, which she herself invented.
Machinery was invented for disintegrating the leaves and freeing the fibre, and at the same time experiments were made with the view of obtaining it by water-retting, and by means of alkaline solutions and other chemical agencies.
Strabo states that he discovered that the solar year is longer than 365 days by 6 hours; Vitruvius that he invented a sun-dial.
The system has received considerable development in Germany, where the elaborate method invented by Petersen is recommended by many agricultural authorities.
He learned practical engineering at Middlesborough-on-Tees, and about 1850 invented a mechanical system for the drainage of land.
Jung invented or gave precision to many technical terms which Ray and others at once made use of in their descriptions, and which are now classical; and his notions of what constitutes a specific distinction and what characters are valueless as such seem to have been adopted with little change by Ray.
This was exactly the kind of effect that Mahomet desired, and to secure it he seems even to have invented a few odd vocables, as ghislin (lxix.
These gods were together known as the great Ennead or cycle of A second series of nine deities, with Horus as its first iber, was invented at the same time or not long afterwards, was called the Lesser Ennead.
A curious story about the sending of his statue to Mesopotamia to heal a daughter of the king of Bakhtan is related upon a stele that purports to date from the Ramesside period: it has been proved to be a pious fraud invented by the priests not earlier than the Greek period.
He appears to have invented the fiction which afterwards was repeatedly employed, by which the money spent on mosque-building was supposed to have been furnished by discoveries of buried treasure.
In the subject of law Egypt boasts that the Imm ShfiI, founder of one of the schools, resided at FostSt from 195 till his death in 204; his system, though displaced for a time by that invented by the Fatimites, and since the Turkish conquest by the Uanifite system, has always been popular in Egypt: in Ayyubite times it was dominant, whereas in Mameluke times all four systems were officially recognized.
Thus he invented nets for catching wolves and built innumerable water-mills, " for he would not let the waters run into the sea before they had been of use to the community."
As regards the history and bibliography of pragmatism, the term was first invented by C. S.
The art of printing had been invented in good time to help and hasten the new movement of men's minds.
VOLE, a book-name (invented by Dr J.
She invented and discussed the curve known as the "witch of Agnesi" (q.v.) or versiera.
is a fond thing mainly invented and grounded on no warranty of Scripture, but rather repugnant to the Word of God."
For the mainland cultures a new term " Helladic " has lately been invented, and three chronological divisions, Early, Middle and Late Helladic, are proposed to correspond with the parallel Cycladic and Minoan periods.
Meanwhile the Cavalier party invented a system of heavily fining men who had been their opponents in the troubles.
Cope put such a line of argument in the most cogent fashion; the course of evolution, both in the production of variations and their selection, seemed to him to imply the existence of an originative, conscious and directive force, for which he invented the term "bathmism" (Gr.
Some or all of them may also have been invented.
While Theseus was in Crete, Minos, 1 The story of Theseus is a strange mixture of (mostly fictitious) political tradition, of aetiological myths invented to explain misunderstood acts of ritual and of a cycle of tales of adventure analogous to the story of the labours of Heracles.
Lothian, May 26 1848 and was educated at University College school, London, passing on to University College, whence he subsequently graduated B.Sc. with honours in chemistry in 1868-9, but before doing so he entered his father's works and there invented a method of testing condensers, afterwards widely accepted.
In 1875 he invented the duplex plan for working Atlantic cables described in 26.518.
Budapest is actually one of the greatest milling centres in the world, possessing a number of magnificent establishments, fitted with machinery invented and manufactured in the city.
In creosoting, which was invented by J.
In the 18th century the ability of certain natives of the town greatly fostered its cotton industry; thus James Hargreaves here probably invented his spinning jenny about 1764, though the operatives, fearing a reduction of labour, would have none of it, and forced him to quit the town for Nottingham.
which he invented after years of laborious effort - lent themselves particularly well to the reproduction of designs based on the later phases of Greek art.
Foucault invented in 1857 the polarizer which bears his name, and in the succeeding year devised a method of giving to the speculum of reflecting telescopes the form of a spheroid or a paraboloid of revolution.
He fasted and scourged himself; he practised all the ordinary forms of maceration and invented new ones, all to no purpose.
Peaucellier's discovery of the straight line link motion associated with his name, and he also invented the skew pentagraph.
The first protestant missionaries (those under the London Society for the Promotion of Christianity among the Jews), settled in Jerusalem in 1823; to them is due the inception of the trade in olive-wood articles, invented for the support of their converts.
THE Leblanc Process The Leblanc process, which was invented by Nicolas Leblanc about 1790, begins with the decomposition of sodium chloride by sulphuric acid, by, which sodium sulphate and hydrochloric acid are produced.
As regards his military system, Akbar invented a sort of feudal organization, by which every tributary raja took his place by the side of his own Mogul nobles.
Further, on the 15th December of the same year they examined an instrument invented by Lippershey at their request to see with both eyes, and gave him orders to execute two similar instruments at goo florins each; but, as many other persons had knowledge of this new invention to see at a distance, they did not deem it expedient to grant him an exclusive privilege to sell such instruments.
The conclusion is that Lippershey was the first person who independently invented the telescope, and at the same time made the instrument known to the world.
Galileo, in his Nuncius Sidereus, states that, happening to be in Venice about the month of May 1609, he heard that a Belgian had invented a perspective instrument by means of which distant objects appeared nearer and larger,.
Galileo may thus claim to have invented the telescope independently, but not till he had heard that others had done so.
He also invented the dew-point hygrometer known by his name (Quar.
A lover of music, he invented the shepherd's pipe, said to have been made from the reed into which the nymph Syrinx was transformed when fleeing from his embraces (Ovid, Metam.
That a phrase of so wide and loose a nature should have been stereotyped in so narrow a sense is simply the outcome of the conditions under which it was invented.
The only merits, therefore, which can be claimed for Cicero are that he invented a philosophical terminology for the Romans, and that he produced a series of manuals which from their beauty of style have had enduring influence upon mankind.
It is, therefore, obvious that he invented the readings in order to strengthen his own corrections.
The style of Diphilus was simple and natural, and his language on the whole good Attic; he paid great attention to versification, and was supposed to have invented a peculiar kind of metre.
There had been a very marked diminution in crime, attributable it was supposed to this system, which was in almost all respects the same as the English, although the Irish authorities had invented an "intermediate stage" in which convicts worked in a state of semi-freedom and thus practised the self-reliance which in many produced reform.
Prison labour has found an outlet, therefore, in such work as service blanket making, hammock making, mail-bag making, the manufacture of cartridge cases, flags, chopping firewood for barracks and so on, having been diverted almost entirely from mat-making, once an exclusive prison trade originally invented indeed by prison task-masters.
The evidence is quite conclusive; yet the fire has been imputed to the Syrians, and a tale was invented about ballistas which hurled against the House of God enormous stones and vessels full of bitumen.
If, contrary to usage, we choose to call the latter a judgment of existence, there is no use in quarrelling about words; but we must insist that new terms must in that case be invented to express so fundamental a difference as that between judgments about real men and judgments about ideal centaurs.
Aristotle himself invented an inductive syllogism in which the major (P) is to be referred to the middle (M) by means of the minor (S), thus: A, B, C magnets (S) attract iron (P).
Erdmann, again, has invented an induction from particular predicates to a totality of predicates which he calls " erganzende Induction, " giving as an example, " This body has the colour, extensibility and specific gravity of magnesium; therefore it is magnesium."
A form of air-engine which was invented in 1816 by the Rev. R.
Grassmann made in 1854 a somewhat savage onslaught on Cauchy and De St Venant, the former of whom had invented, while the latter had exemplified in application, the system of " clefs algebriques," which is almost precisely 1 Die Ausdehnungslehre, Leipsic, 1844; 2nd ed., vollstandig and in strenger Form bearbeitet, Berlin, 1862.1862.
Here a false report was received, or invented, of the death of Constantine, at that time absent on the Rhine.
The modern theory of the relations between the sovereign and the parties, by which the former identifies himself with the faction for the time in power while maintaining his detachment from all, had not then been invented; and Anne, like her Hanoverian successors, maintained the struggle, though without success, to rule independently, finding support in Harley.
According to Bacon he was a recluse who devoted himself to the study of nature, was able to work metals, invented armour and assisted St Louis in one of his expeditions more than his whole army.
On the west of the Aegean a new symbol was invented for the aspirate value, and this spread over the mainland and was carried by emigrants to Rhodes, Sicily and Italy.
In Oscan, which had an o-sound, but no symbol for it, a new sign was invented by placing a dot between the legs of the symbol for u - V.
The symbol Iwas invented for the open i-sound and close e-sound.'
Trans., 1 7 8 7, 77, p. 26) invented the modern form of gold-leaf electroscope.
1778), a carpenter of Blackburn, Lancashire, in 1770, though he had invented it some years earlier, gave the means of spinning twenty or thirty threads at once with no more labour than had previously been required to spin a single thread.
787, and was invented by hostile Greeks for the Syrian Monophysite Church as founded, or rather restored, by Jacob or James Baradaeus, who was ordained its bishop A.D.
g To facilitate the application of this rule, Willis published tables of pc and pc, and invented an in- FIG.
Hooke invented the making of the fronts of teeth in a series of steps with a view to increase the smoothness of action.
He also invented, with the same object, teeth whose fronts, instead of being parallel to the line of contact of the pitch-circles, cross it obliquely, so as to be of a screw-like or helical form.
A coupling (~ for parallel shafts which acts by sliding c contact was invented by Oldham and is represented in fig.
Schiele has invented a pivot which preserves its original figure by wearing equally at all points in a direction parallel to its axis.
Statuary is later; it appears to have come into existence in the 7th century, about the time when casting in metal was invented by Rhoecus of Samos.
The cemetery was naturally associated with the legend of St Ursula; and, this identification once accepted, it is not unlikely that when more careful investigations revealed male skeletons and tombstones bearing the names of men, other and more definite epitaphs were invented to reconcile the old traditions with the facts of such a damaging discovery.
In Sicyon also the art of painting was supposed to have been "invented."
He had resolved some time before never to obtain another slave, and "wished from his soul" that Virginia could be persuaded to abolish slavery; "it might prevent much future mischief"; but the unprecedented profitableness of the cotton industry, under the impetus of the recently invented cotton gin, had already begun to change public sentiment regarding slavery, and Washington was too old to attempt further innovations.
In his brazen bull, invented, it is said, by Perillus of Athens, the tyrant's victims were shut up and, a fire being kindled beneath, were roasted alive, while their shrieks represented the bellowing of the bull.
From the mention in the letters of towns (Phintia, Alaesa and Tauromenium) which did not exist in the time of Phalaris, from the imitations of authors (Herodotus, Democritus, Euripides, Callimachus) who wrote long after he was dead, from the reference to tragedies, though tragedy was not yet invented in the lifetime of Phalaris, from the dialect, which is not Dorian but Attic, nay, New or Late Attic, as well as from absurdities in the matter, and the entire absence of any reference to them by any writer before Stobaeus (c. A.D.
This work to an important extent prepared the way for the "smokeless powders" which came into general use towards the end of the 19th century; cordite, the particular form adopted by the British government in 1891, was invented jointly by him and Professor James Dewar.
A scheme of " proportional representation," the votes being counted in accordance with the system invented by G.
cap. 2.2 He invented the versorium or 1 Gilbert's work, On the Magnet, Magnetic Bodies and the Great Magnet, the Earth, has been translated from the rare folio Latin edition of 1600, but otherwise reproduced in its original form by the chief members of the Gilbert Club of England, with a series of valuable notes by Prof. S.
He invented the term " electrotonic state " to signify the total magnetic flux due to a conductor conveying a current, which was linked with any secondary circuit in the field or even with itself.
In addition to this he provided the means for studying the phenomena not only qualitatively, but also quantitatively, by the profoundly ingenious instruments he invented for that purpose.
It has been already mentioned that Schweigger invented in 1820 the " multiplier," and Nobili in 1825 the astatic galvanometer.
He invented the rheostat and improved the resistance balance, invented by S.
In 1867 he invented his beautiful siphon-recorder for receiving and recording the signals through long cables.
Pixii, who invented the split tube commutator for converting the alternating current so produced into a continuous current in the external circuit, was followed by J.
In 1860 Dr Antonio Pacinotti invented what is now called the toothed ring winding for armatures and described it in an Italian journal, but it attracted little notice until reinvented in 1870 by Gramme.
In 1876, Paul Jablochkov (1847-1894), a Russian officer, passing through Paris, invented his famous electric candle, consisting of two rods of carbon placed side by side and separated from one another by an insulating material.
Plante (1834-1889) had invented in 1859, and storage batteries then began to be developed as commercial appliances by Faure, Swan, J.
Alexander Graham Bell in 1876 invented the speaking telephone, and Edison and Elisha Gray in the United States followed almost immediately with other telephonic inventions for electrically transmitting speech.
Hughes in England invented the microphone.
He invented for this purpose a radiator consisting of two metal rods placed in one line, their inner ends being provided with poles nearly touching and their outer ends with metal plates.
Rutherford invented a magnetic detector depending on the power of electric oscillations to demagnetize iron or steel.
It was first invented, he believes, before the Trojan war, by a Sidonian thinker named Moschus or Mochus, who is identical with the Moses of the Old Testament.
In the early part of the 9th century much attention was bestowed, especially in Ireland, on a process invented by Mr James Lee.
It is a good specimen of the religious novel, a form of literature invented by the Jews.
He invented a system of shorthand (2nd ed., with a copy of verses by Joseph Priestley) .
To supply it with recruits he invented his famous system of classes, by which each seaman, according to the class in which he was placed, gave six months' service every three or four or five years.
He also invented a device which allowed the bed on which the type pages were placed to run in and out more readily, thus reducing the great labour involved in that part of the work of the older form of press, and he also used a new kind of iron lever or handle to turn the screw which applied the necessary pressure.
2) invented by Charles, 3rd earl Stanhope (1753-1816), at the end of the 18th century was a decided advance on those made of wood.
The most successful of these were the Albion and Columbian presses, the former of English manufacture, and the latter invented (1816) by an American, George Clymer (1754-1834), of Philadelphia.
Bullock (1813-1867) of Philadelphia who in 1865 invented the first machine to print from a continuous web of paper.
The machines invented during the second half of the 19th century and still in general use, are best classified as follows: - I.
But many automatic feeders have been invented from time to time, which for the many purposes for which they are suitable must be reckoned part of a modern printing establishment.
About 1870 an English rotary machine called the " Victory " was invented by Messrs Duncan & Wilson.
This attitude, no doubt, explains his hatred for Chilperic. But if Gregory's historical judgments are suspect, he at least concealed nothing and invented nothing; and we can correct his judgments by his own narrative.
He taught, if he did not discover, the obliquity of the ecliptic, is said to have introduced into Greece the gnomon (for determining the solstices) and the sundial, and to have invented some kind of geographical map. But his reputation is due mainly to his work on nature, few words of which remain.
The more important picric powders are melinite, believed to be a mixture of fused picric acid and gun-cotton; lyddite, the British service explosive, and shimose, the Japanese powder, both supposed to be identical with the original melinite; Brugere's powder, a mixture of 54 parts of ammonium picrate and 45 parts of saltpetre; Designolle's powder, composed of potassium picrate, saltpetre and charcoal; and emmensite, invented by Stephen Emmens, of the United States.
The orders of the court were issued in a very simple form of the cuneiform script, probably invented by the Medes.
ghazal or ode (a love-ditty, wine-song or religious hymn), the rubai or quatrain (our epigram, for which the Persians invented a new metre in addition to those adopted from the Arabs), and the mathnawi or double-rhymed poem (the legitimate form for epic and didactic poetry).
After the insurrection of 1865, he created a special bulwark for his defence, and invented that secret police which grew into the notorious "Third Section" of the emperor's own chancery, and while it lasted, was the most dreaded power in the empire.
Under his hand the most trifling subjects gained a new importance; yet he treated the gravest with a touch so light that he seemed to have invented the sciences rather than learnt them, for he was always a creator, always original, and himself was imitable of none."
He also invented an improved form of hygrometer, a description of which, together with accounts of various observations and experiments made by him, was published in the Phil.
His Corinthian descent, invented by the Greeks to establish a close connexion with Rome, is impossible for chronological reasons; further, according to the genuine Roman tradition, the Tarquinii were of Etruscan, not Greek, origin.
Probably Pitt did say something of the kind attributed to him, though even this is by no means certain in view of Johnson's repentant admission that he had often invented not merely the form, but the substance of entire debates.
He dwells much more pronouncedly than Herbert on the view, afterwards regarded as a special characteristic of all deists, that much or most error in religion has been invented or knowingly maintained by sagacious men for the easier maintenance of good government, or in the interests of themselves and their class.
Thumi Sambhota accordingly invented an alphabet for the Tibetan language on the model of the Indian alphabets then in use.
Pedigrees were invented, imaginary consulships and fictitious triumphs inserted, and family traditions and family honours were formally incorporated with the history of the state.
All these texts are written in a special character, which is said to have been invented by Wulfila.
The machinery of research, invented by the genius of men like Mabillon, was perfected and set going in all the archives of Europe.
Wenham, thinking to improve upon Henson, invented in 1866 what he designated his aeroplanes.'
" But the liar was enamoured of this wench, whose name was Helen, and had bought her and had her to wife, and it was out of respect for his disciples that he invented this fairy-tale" (Ref.
DIALOGUE, properly the conversation between two or more persons, reported in writing, a form of literature invented by the Greeks for purposes of rhetorical entertainment and instruction, and scarcely modified since the days of its invention.
But in its technical sense the word is used to describe what the Greek philosophers invented, and what the noblest of them lifted to the extreme refinement of an art.
96) have thrown doubt upon the story, regarding some of the details as invented to suit the prophecy in Isa.
This book, in the writing which Zartusht invented and which the Magi called the writing of religion, was written on 12,000 cowhides, bound together by golden bands.
The ill-chosen name of Caucasian, invented by Blumenbach in allusion to a South Caucasian skull of specially typical proportions, and applied by him to the so-called white races, is still current; it brings into one race peoples such as the Arabs and Swedes, although these are scarcely less different than the Americans and Malays, who are set down as two distinct races.
The same races who were found making thread by the laborious process of twisting with the hand, would hardly have disused, if they had ever possessed, so simple a labour-saving device as the spindle, which consists merely of a small stick weighted at one end; the spindle may, accordingly, be regarded as an instrument invented somewhere between the lowest and highest savage levels (Tylor, Early Hist.
Here, too, are the plants of the Westinghouse Company for the manufacture of electrical apparatus, of air brakes invented by George Westinghouse (born 1846), and of devices for railway signals which he also invented.
To the odd terminology of Donne's poetic philosophy Dryden gave the name of "metaphysics," and Johnson, borrowing the suggestion, invented the title of the "metaphysical school" to describe, not Donne only, but all the amorous and philosophical poets who succeeded him, and who employed a similarly fantastic language, and who affected odd figurative inversions.
The pope, indeed, is said to have been delighted with Leonardo's minor experiments and ingenuities in science, and especially by a kind of zoological toys which he had invented by way of pastime, as well as mechanical tricks played upon living animals.
The spinning of flax by machinery was introduced early in the 19th century by 1VIr John Marshall, a Holbeck manufacturer, who was one of the first to apply Sir Richard Arkwright's water frame, invented for cotton manufacture, to the spinning of linen yarn.
In time, however, it was realized that iron by itself is not fire-proof, but requires to be protected by means of fire-resisting coverings; but as soon as satisfactory forms of these were invented their development progressed hand in hand with that of iron and steel forms and combinations.
He is said to have invented, or at least to have emphasized, the tripartition of philosophy under the heads of physic, dialectic and ethic.
He invented the spectroheliograph first used in 1892 for photographing solar prominences and won an international reputation for his solar and stellar spectroscopic work.
P. Langley in 18 93 at Mount Whitney in California (14,000 ft.), with the bolometer, an exceedingly sensitive instrument which he invented, and which enabled him to feel his way thermally over the whole spectrum, noting all the Constant.
From the labours of his pupil Miotto sprang that branch of the glass trade which is concerned with the imitation of gems. In the 15th century the first crystals were made, and in the 17th the various gradations of coloured and iridescent glass were invented, together with the composition called " aventurine "; the manufacture of beads is now a main branch of the trade.
At the commencement of his new career he enriched the academical collection with many memoirs, which excited a noble emulation between him and the Bernoullis, though this did not in any way affect their friendship. It was at this time that he carried the integral calculus to a higher degree of perfection, invented the calculation of sines, reduced analytical operations to a greater simplicity, and threw new light on nearly all parts of pure mathematics.
Tarpeia herself is a local divinity, the manner of whose death was suggested by the tumulus or shields on the spot devoted to her cult, a crime being invented to account for the supposed punishment.
It is most probable that she was invented at the time of the introduction of Asclepius, after the sufferings caused by the plague had directed special attention to sanitary matters.
It is to meet such cases that the greater number of automatic weigh - ing machines have been invented.
Formerly all such acid was made by boiling down the dilute acid, for which purpose a great variety of apparatus was invented.
He made windmills, water-clocks, kites and dials, and he is said to have invented a four-wheeled carriage which was to be moved by the rider.
At the meeting at which Newton was elected a description of a reflecting telescope which he had invented was read, and " it was ordered that a letter should be written by the secretary to Mr Newton to acquaint him of his election into the Society, and to thank him for the communication of his telescope, and to assure him that the Society would take care that all right should be done him with respect to this invention."
He also invented a reflecting sextant for observing the distance between the moon and the fixed stars, - the same in every essential as the instrument which is still in everyday use at sea under the name of Hadley's quadrant.
Up to the time of the publication of the Principia in 1687 the method of fluxions which had been invented by Newton, and had been of great assistance to him in his mathematical investigations, was still, except to Newton and his friends, a secret.
These are clearly aetiological, and invented to explain an existing custom, which the church had adopted from its pagan medium.
WITCH OF AGNESI, in geometry, a cubic curve invented by Maria Gaetana Agnesi.
This arrangement was not invented by Sir Charles Wheatstone - although it bears his name and is commonly attributed to him, and was employed by him in some of his electrical researches - but by S.
Johns Hopkins I Sometimes called "Echinodermata," a Greek name meaning "sea-urchin-skins," which was invented by J.
Penitentials or codes defined (even invented) different degrees of guilt, and assessed the liability involved much as if a sin gave rise to an action to recover damages.
Henry developed as far as he was able the system of scutage (q.v.) which his grandfather had apparently invented; by this the vassal compounded for his forty days personal service by paying money, with which the king could hire professional soldiers.
The Greek geometers invented other curves; in particular, the conchoid, which is the locus of a point such that its distance from a given line, measured along the line drawn through it to a fixed point, is constant; and the cissoid, which is the locus of a point such that its distance from a fixed point is always equal to the intercept (on the line through the fixed point) between a circle passing through the fixed point and the tangent to the circle at the point opposite to the fixed point.
The word "gas" was invented by J.
He found that charcoal on burning yielded a "spirit," which he named spiritus sylvestris on account of its supposed untamable nature ("Gas sylvestre sive incoercibile, quod in corpus cogi non potest visibile"); and he invented the word "gas" in the expression: "...
calor, heat), a term invented by John Tyndall to describe an optical phenomenon, the essential feature of which is the conversion of rays belonging to the dark infra-red portion of the spectrum into the more refrangible visible rays, i.e.
In 1764 the introductory study of theology as a whole, which Hyperius invented, had been given by S.
So I took thought, and invented what I conceived to be the appropriate title of ' agnostic.'
Occasionally he too mis-stated the meaning of the word he had invented, and described agnosticism as meaning "that a man shall not say he knows or believes what he has no scientific ground for professing to know or believe."
Among the innovations of this poet we may note a predilection for new metres, sometimes adopted from foreign languages, sometimes invented by himself, a thing practised rarely and generally with small success by the Icelandic poets.
He invented, or improved armillary spheres, the chief implements of ancient astrometry, determined the obliquity of the ecliptic at 23° 51' (a value 5' too great), and introduced an effective mode of arc-measurement.
By persistent research, powerfully aided by the photographic camera and by the concave gratings invented by H.
An aetiological myth is one which is regarded as having been invented ex post facto to explain some fact, name or coincidence, the true account or origin of which has been forgotten.
The comparison of the will unable to act between two equally balanced motives to an ass dying of hunger between two equal and equidistant bundles of hay is not found in his works, and may have been invented by his opponents to ridicule his determinism.
Hence it is useful to speak of them merely as " Dalradian," a convenient term invented by Sir A.
The term was also given (1880) to an instrument invented by S.
Having invented four arguments all immeasurably subtle and profound, the grossness of subsequent philosophers pronounced him to be a mere ingenious juggler, and his arguments to be one and all sophisms. After two thousand years of continual refutation, these sophisms were reinstated, and made the foundation of a mathematical renaissance, by a German professor, who probably never dreamed of any connexion between himself and Zeno.
The Malagasy had never invented for themselves a written character, and had consequently no manuscripts, inscriptions or books, until their language was reduced to writing, and its orthography settled by English missionaries.
Of this class an example is "Babbitt's metal," invented by Isaac Babbitt (1799-1862); it originally consisted of 24 parts of tin, 8 parts of antimony and 4 parts of copper, but in later compositions for the same purpose the proportion of tin is often considerably higher.
The Altenburg peasants are industrious and prosperous; they are said to be avaricious, but to love pleasure, and to gamble for high stakes, especially at the card game of Skat, which many believe to have been invented here.
The Egyptians invented an explanation - itself a myth - that in some moment of danger the gods concealed themselves from their foes in the shapes of animals.'
Maui slew monsters, invented barbs for fish-hooks, frequently adopted the form of various birds, acted as Prometheus Purphoros the fire-stealer, drew a whole island up from the bottom of the deep; he was a great sorcerer and magician.
They therefore invented or adapted the " swallow-myth " so familiar to Bushmen and Australians.
As a soldier Tarnowski invented a new system of tactics which greatly increased the mobility and the security of the armed camps within which the Poles had so often to encounter the Tatars.
Another group of polyhedra are termed the " Archimedean solids," named after Archimedes, who, according to Pappus, invented them.
He seems, in addition, to have compromised his position with the grandducal family by the imprudent candour with which he condemned a machine for clearing the port of Leghorn, invented by Giovanni de' Medici, an illegitimate son of Cosmo I.
His researches with the telescope had been rewarded 1 The word telescope, from riiXe, far, to view, was invented by Demiscianus, an eminent Greek scholar, at the request of Prince Cesi, president of the Lyncean Academy.
This method, on which he laid great stress, and for the facilitation of which he invented a binocular glass, and devised some skilful mechanical contrivances, was offered by him in 1616 to the Spanish government, and afterwards to that of Tuscany, but in each case unsuccessfully; and the close of his life was occupied with prolonged but fruitless negotiations on the same subject with the states-general of Holland.
It was invented by Auguste Comte and adopted by the English positivists as a convenient antithesis to egoism.
Seebeck (1822), employing a galvanometer then recently invented, which was more suited for the detection of small electromotive forces, found that a current was produced if the junctions of the two metals were at different temperatures.
The forged letters are not, for the most part, entirely composed of fresh material; the author draws his inspiration from the notices on each of the popes given in the Liber Pontificalis; he inserts whole passages from ecclesiastical writers; and he antedates the evidences of a discipline which actually existed; so it is by no means all invented.
In later times Christian ecclesiastical writers, finding it difficult to justify the unbroken prosperity of the wicked to an age which believed in the judgment of God and trial by combat, invented a final defeat for Mansur at Calatanaxor.
18) invented by Major Hruschka, an officer in the Italian army, who in later life became an enthusiastic apicul turist.
He invented, and, with the assistance of his sons, Philo (1816-1889), Samuel and Eliphalet, improved the famous Remington rifle, which was adopted by several European governments, and was supplied in large numbers to the United States army.
Reichstag were often very unsatisfactory, and at no time did he resort so freely to prosecutions in the law-courts in order to injure his opponents, so that the expression Bismarck-Beleidigung was invented.
Gunpowder, too, was invented; and now that the weight of the cavalry soldier was diminished by the substitution of lighter armour, a quicker and better bred horse was thought desirable for military service.
Convex glass lenses were first generally used to assist ordinary vision as " spectacles "; and not only were spectacle-makers the first to produce glass magnifiers (or simple microscopes), but by them also the telescope and the compound microscope were first invented.
The most perfect microscope objective was invented by E.
Much more easily manipulated is the parabolic side-illuminator invented by R.
Ross's " spot lens," invented in 1855, and J.
About 2500 guests were received in the university buildings, the library of which was devoted to an exhibition of the instruments invented by Lord Kelvin, together with his certificates, diplomas and medals.
As early as the 8th century Ionic Greek had invented a separate symbol for the long o-sound, viz.
The Dutch or stamper press, invented in Holland in the 17th century, was up to the early years of the 19th century almost exclusively employed in Europe for pressing oil-seeds.
Since then the hydraulic press has practically completely superseded all other appliances used for expression, and in consequence of this epoch-making invention, assisted as it was later on by the accumulator - invented by William George (later Lord) Armstrong in 1843 - the seed-crushing industry reached a perfection of mechanical detail which soon secured its supremacy for England.
In many cases the purification by means of sulphuric acid, invented and patented by Charles Gower in 1792 (frequently ascribed to Thenard), is still usefully applied.
The air machine invented by Dr. A.
The hand apparatus invented by H.
Wilson developed the sewing machine; that Charles Goodyear discovered the process of vulcanising rubber; that Samuel Colt began the manufacture of the Colt fire-arms; and it was from near New Haven that Eli Whitney went to Georgia where he invented the cotton gin.
He invented an electric torpedo for harbour defence, and in 1862 was ordered to England to purchase torpedo material, &c. Here he took active part in organizing a petition for peace to the American people, which was unsuccessful.
The first binocular microscope was invented by the previously mentioned Father.
I invented a tale on the fly about writing a magazine article about some of the more humorous entries.
It was the antithesis of accountable parliamentary democracy invented by the British over 700 years ago.
The first method invented was a chemical solvent method using either methylene chloride or ethyl acetate.
They also invented another acronym (VED) (Extraterrestrial Manned Vehicle) and the typist obliged.
aeroplanen beings just used our brains, And cleverly invented the airplane.
Jacques Cousteau 1997: Jacques Cousteau, French oceanographer who invented the aqualung, dies in Paris, France (87 ).
Sharaf al-Din al-Tusi (born 1201) invented the linear astrolabe.
He invented the coin lock as used in pay toilets, several proportionally spaced typewriters and he built numerous automata.
It is named after the Italian physicist who invented the mercury barometer in 1643.
Between 1725 and 1750, a London optician designed the first temple spectacles, while Ben Franklin invented bifocals.
He was cashiered after one year when his wife bragged on the Internet that David invented the " axis-of-evil " phrase.