Invasions Sentence Examples
To these may be added numerous lesser invasions of India, China and Persia.
In historic times Asia has attempted to assert her influence over Europe by a series of invasions, most of which have been repulsed.
The English invasions of 1547, undertaken with a view to enforcing the English marriage, gave Mary the desired pretext for a French alliance.
The abbey suffered repeatedly in invasions.
The political changes involved in the Babylonian, Assyrian, Egyptian or Persian conquests surely affected it as little as the subsequent waves of Greek, Roman and other European invasions.Advertisement
It attained a certain dignity and unity under Abbas Shah (1585-1628), but in later times was distracted and disorganized by Afghan invasions.
These Gurjaras appear to have entered India in connexion with the Hunnish invasions.
With the destruction of the mainland cities by repeated barbarian invasions, and thanks to the gradual development of Venice as a centre of coasting trade in the northern Adriatic, the aspect of the city changed.
From 1350 onwards the Crusade assumes a new aspect; it becomes defensive, and it is directed against the Ottoman Turks, a tribe of Turcomans who had established themselves in the sultanate of Iconium at the end of the 13th century, during the confusion and displacement of peoples which attended the Mongol invasions.
Syria suffered severely from the Mongol invasions (1260), and it never recovered its former prosperity.Advertisement
The population is concentrated in a few small towns on the rivers and in some colonies, established by the national government to check Chilean invasions, in the fertile districts of the Andes.
It is true that, when the barbarian invasions began in the 3rd century, many captives were made, who, when not enrolled in the army, were employed in agriculture or domestic service; but the regular importation was increasingly diminished.
The purpose of this was doubtless to resist by a strong internal consolidation the shock of the invasions, to secure public order, to enforce industrious habits, and to guarantee the financial resources of the state.
The legal distinction between the coloni and the slave tenants continued to exist after the invasions; but the practical difference was greatly attenuated.
The influence of the Northern invasions on the change from slavery to serfdom was, in all probability, of little account.Advertisement
His estate seems to have suffered severely from the Persian invasions, for apparently he did not leave enough money to defray the expenses of his burial, and it is known that his descendants even in the 4th century received state pensions.
The cycle of twenty or more chansons which form the geste of Guillaume reposes on the traditions of the Arab invasions of the south of France, from the battle of Poitiers (732) under Charles Martel onwards, and on the French conquest of Catalonia from the Saracens.
Bavai was destroyed during the barbarian invasions and never recovered its old importance.
In 1453 hostilities against Florence were again resumed, on account of the invasions and ravages of Sienese territory committed by Florentine troops in their conflicts with Alphonso of Naples, who since 1447 had made Tuscany his battleground.
Thus the Kumanian colonists, mostly pagans, whom he settled in vast numbers on the waste lands, threatened to overwhelm the Christian population; while the numerous strongholds, which he encouraged his nobles to build as a protection against future Tatar invasions, subsequently became so many centres of disloyalty.Advertisement
On the other hand the treaty of Vasvar gave Hungary a respite from regular Turkish invasions for twenty years, though the border raiding continued uninterruptedly.
The year after his accession the Danish invasions, long unintermitted under Edgar the Peaceful, recommenced; though as yet their object was plunder only, not conquest, and the attacks were repeated in 981, 982 and 988.
Perceiving, however, that she was not able unaided to avert the invasions which threatened the eastern frontier of the empire, she revoked her oath, married Romanus, and with his assistance dispelled the impending danger.
The appearance of this book, which traces the development of the English constitution from the Teutonic invasions of Britain till 1485, marks a distinct step in the advance of English historical learning.
It was in the fullest sense a Uaaish g Invasions.Advertisement
The Scandinavian invasions brought in many northern legal customs, especially in the districts thickly populated with Danes.
The barbaric invasions of the 13th and 14th centuries fell with crushing force on the Nestorians.
Mongolian invasions and Mahommedan tyranny have, of course, long since swept away all traces of many of these.
In the epic of Firdousi Khazar is the representative name for all the northern foes of Persia, and legendary invasions long before the Christian era are vaguely attributed to them.
Little is known of the history of Pisa during the barbarian invasions, but it is an ascertained fact that it was one of the first towns to regain its independence.
The inhabitants of the Cape Bon Peninsula show evident signs of Greek blood arising from Greek invasions, which began in prehistoric times and finished with the downfall of the Byzantine Empire in North Africa.
In its best days the empire of the Hafsites extended from Tlemcen to Tripoli, and they received homage from the Merinids of Fez; they held their own against repeated Frankish invasions, of which the most notable were that which cost St Louis of France his life (1270), and that of the duke of Bourbon (1390), when English troops took part in the unsuccessful siege of Mandia.
At the time when invasions by the Assyrians drove out the Ethiopian Taracus again and again, the chief of the twenty princes to whom Esarhaddon and Assur-bani-pal successively entrusted the government was Niku, king of Sais and Memphis.
The town was walled by the time of Edward I., but was several times burnt during Welsh invasions.
The Persian invasions of Darius and Xerxes, with the consequent importance of maritime strength and the capacity for distant enterprise, as compared with that of purely military superiority in the Greek peninsula, caused a considerable loss of prestige which Sparta was unwilling to recognize.
Como suffered considerably from the early barbarian invasions, many of the inhabitants taking refuge on the Isola Comacina off Sala, but recovered in Lombard times.
When it became known that the accounts of these invasions formed a part of the records preserved in the Assyrian libraries, historian and theologian alike waited with breathless interest for the exact revelations in store; and this time expectation was not disappointed.
Three abortive Anglo-American invasions during the first few years of the century indicated the future trend of events.
Invasions followed by Chaldeans, Syrians, Moabites and Ammonites, per 1 2 Kings xxiv.
The district subsequently suffered under the successive invasions of Huns, Varangians (who captured the chief town Barda in the 10th century) and Mongols.
It is probable that after the Danish invasions of the 1 rth century the modern Southampton (Hantune, Suhampton) gradually superseded the Saxon Hantune as the latter did the Roman settlement, the site being chosen for its stronger position and greater facilities for trade.
His tenure of the bishopric was troubled not only by domestic bereavements but also by barbaric invasions of the country (in repelling which he proved himself a capable military organizer) and by conflicts with the prefect Andronicus, whom he excommunicated for interfering with the Church's right of asylum.
On the final fall of the Chalukyas in the 12th century, Berar came under the sway of the Yadavas of Deogiri, and remained in their possession till the Mussulman invasions at the end of the 13th century.
Her perpetual intrigues and her political incapacity made Naples a prey to anarchy and foreign invasions, destroying all sense of patriotism and loyalty both in the barons and the people.
This was the last of the great Arab invasions of Europe.
During the Lombard invasions in 592 Fundi was temporarily abandoned, but it seems to have come under the rule of the papacy by A.D.
His fame rests chiefly on his successful wars, in particular his numerous invasions of India.
It suffered much during the earlier Tamil invasions, and was finally deserted as a royal residence in A.D.
It suffered again from Tatar invasions; in 12 9 0 it was captured by Wenceslaus II.
The taking of Constantinople by the Latins in 1204 brought persecution and pillage on the monks; this reminded them of earlier Saracenic invasions, and led them to appeal for protection to Pope Innocent III., who gave them a favourable reply.
The Sikh invasions began in 1818, and from that date to the annexation by the British government the Sikhs were steadily making themselves masters of the country.
In the 15th and 16th centuries it suffered frequently from the invasions of Tatars, Moldavians and Turks; and in 1672 the hetman of the Cossacks, Doroshenko, assisted by Sultan Mahommed IV.
Real knowledge begins with two Celtic invasions, that of the Goidels in the later part of the Bronze Age, and that of the Brythons and Belgae in the Iron Age.
The regulation that every five or six hides should supply a warrior was not a product of the Danish invasions, as is sometimes stated, but goes back at least to the beginning of the 9th century.
Bows and arrows were certainly in use for sporting purposes, but there is no reason for believing that they were much used in warfare before the Danish invasions.
He had next to repel the invasions of Patzinaks (Petchenegs) and Kumans in Thrace, with whom the Manichaean sects of the Paulicians and Bogomilians made common cause; and thirdly, he had to cope with the fast-growing power of the Turks in Asia Minor.
Nothing is heard of Iazyges or Sarmatae after the Hunnish invasions.
From the Mongol invasions of the 13th century western Asia has never recovered.
At the outbreak of this conflict in 1420 they gave ready support to their king Sigismund against the Bohemian rebels, whom they regarded as dangerous to their German nationality, but by this act they exposed themselves to a series of invasions (1425-1435) by which the country was severely devastated.
But during the course of the 8th, 9th and 10th centuries crowds of fugitives poured into southern Italy from Greece and Sicily, under stress of the Saracenic, Arab and other invasions; and from the middle of the 9th century Basilian monasteries, peopled by Greek-speaking monks, were established in great numbers in Calabria and spread northwards as far as Rome.
It is first mentioned in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle under the date 605.The ealdorman, or sheriff, of the shire was probably charged with the duty of calling out and leading the fyrd, which appears always to have retained a local character, as during the time of the Danish invasions we read of the fyrd of Kent, of Somerset and of Devon.
Slaving raids far into the Shan states brought on invasions from Burma, which, however, were not very successful.
Tatar, Mahommedan and Hindu invasions all preceded the Portuguese who brought Roman Catholicism, and the Dutch who brought Protestantism.
Though they succeeded in establishing a kind of imperium in imperio, and were allowed to drill the natives to the use of arms, the Jesuits never controlled the government of Paraguay; indeed they had nearly as often to defend themselves from the hostility of the governor and bishop at Asuncion as from the invasions of the Paulistas or Portuguese settlers of Sao Paulo.
The Turks besieged Vienna in 1530 and made several invasions of Hungary and Austria.
The days of French invasions of Germany had for the time ceased, and revenge for the attacks made by Louis XIV.
Under the firm and wise rule of Psammetichus, Egypt recovered its prosperity after the terrible losses inflicted by internal wars and the decade of Assyrian invasions.
The fertile low grounds on the east have offered facilities for the invasions of Romans, Norsemen and English, while the mountain fastnesses of the interior and the west have served as secure retreats for the older Celtic population.
He allies himself with Cymric Strathclyde, and by constant raids, and thanks to English weakness caused by Danish invasions, he extends his power over English Lothian.
To a certain extent they have passed under the same succession of influences; they have been subjected to the same invasions, and have received accessions to their populations from the same currents of migration or conquest.
Historical Value.-The book of Judges consists of a number of narratives collected by Deuteronomic editors; to the same circles are due accounts of the invasions of Palestine and settlement in Joshua, and of the foundation of the monarchy in I Samuel.
Alexander the Great, Tamerlane and Nadir Shah are believed to have successively crossed the Indus at or about this spot in their respective invasions of India.
During the middle ages Dover Castle was an object of contention both in civil wars and foreign invasions, and was considered the key to England; the constable of the castle, who from the reign of John was appointed by the crown, was also warden of the Cinque Ports.
The numerous invasions p g have naturally introduced a certain amount of foreign blood among the tribes fringing the Mediterranean, but those farther inland have preserved their racial purity to a surprising degree.
The most famous of Mahmud's invasions of India was that undertaken in1025-1026against Gujarat.
Foremost in this struggle stood the cities of Lombardy, most of which all through the barbarian invasions had kept their walls in repair and maintained some importance as economic centres, and whose popolo largely consisted of merchants of some standing.
It was not till the invasions of Hun and Langobard that fugitives from the Venetian mainland took refuge among the poor fishermen on the small islands in the lagoons and on the lido - the narrow stretch of coast-line which separates the lagoons from the Adriatic - some at Grado, some at Malamocco, others on Rialto.
But while he gives a lively account of external events - such as the death of Commodus and the assassination of Pertinaxthe barbarian invasions, the spread of Christianity, the extension of the franchise by Caracalla are unnoticed.
In the 14th century the district was subject to invasions of Rajput and Mongol clans who left permanent settlements in the country.
The Germanic tribes were still adjusting themselves and slowly learning to combine their primitive institutions with the remains of those of Rome; the premature union under Charlemagne gave way before new invasions, and anarchy became crystallized in feudalism.
The process was completed by the misery of the decaying empire, and by the Germanic invasions.
It was not in their external conditions, suffering as they were from invasions, enthralled by despots, to use the Reformation as a lever for political revolution.
By the 3rd century B.C. the Sarmatae appear to have supplanted the Scyths proper in the plains of south Russia, where they remained dominant until the Gothic and Hunnish invasions.
The first sign of revival from the catastrophe of the invasions is the reorganization of the Imperial household under Charlemagne with the intention of establishing a more exact collection of revenue.
Until 644 the island was exceedingly prosperous, but in that year began the period of Arab invasions, which continued intermittently until 975.
The first 20 poems were written at Nisibis between 350 and 363 during the Persian invasions; the remaining 52 at Edessa between 363 and 373.
The second book, from 397 to 511, deals with the invasions of the Franks, and is based on the histories of Sulpicius Alexander and Renatus Profuturus Frigeridus, now lost; on the catalogues of the bishops of Clermont and Tours; on some lives of saints, e.g.
The subsequent invasions of the Goths, in battle with whom Valens fell at Adrianople (375), definitely precluded Roman intervention; and the end of the Armenian troubles was that (c. 390) Bahram IV.
From the decadent state into which Glastonbury was brought by the Danish invasions it was recovered by Dunstan, who had been educated within its walls and was appointed its abbot about 946.
In the period of great invasions from the north Thebes received settlers of that stock which in historical times was homogeneously spread over Boeotia.
Antigonus' preoccupation during the Celtic invasions, Sparta's prostration after the Chremonidean campaigns, the wealth amassed by Achaean adventurers abroad and the subsidies of Egypt, the standing foe of Macedonia, all enhanced the league's importance.
It suffered severely from the invasions of the Northmen in 845 and the succeeding years, and of the English in the 12th and 15th centuries; the Huguenots took it in 1585, and the Vendean royalists were repulsed near it in 1793.
Cromwell in his charter of 1655 recognized Swansea as "an ancient port town and populous, situate on the sea coast towards France convenient for shipping and resisting foreign invasions."
The town was probably founded during the time of the Norman invasions, and was an important military post during the middle ages.
The end of the 9th century and the beginning of the 10th were remarkable for the invasions of the Northmen.
The annals, however, mention it chiefly in connexion with the invasions of the Tatars, who plundered it in the 13th, 14th and 17th centuries (1606), or in connexion with destructive conflagrations.
He is said also to have carried out six invasions of Northumbria, in the course of which he burnt Dunbar and took Melrose.
Within thirty years of the invasions, Authari took the imperial title of Flavius, even while his bands were leading Italian captives in leash like dogs under the walls of Rome, and under the eyes of Pope Gregory; and it was retained by his successors.
It was founded, like all the towns in the lagoons, by fugitives from the mainland cities at the time of the barbarian invasions.
From 1047 to the year of his death, Henry was almost constantly at war with William, who held his own against the king's formidable leagues and beat back two royal invasions, in 1055 and 1058.
During the time of the barbarian invasions much of the protective system was allowed to fall into decay; but the latter part of the middle ages saw the works resumed with great energy, so that the main features of the present arrangement were in existence by the close of the 15th century.
Those who hold (2) have to suppose that original references to the Scythians were retouched under the impression of Chaldean invasions.
They consist largely of the original inhabitants of the country, who were proselytized by the successive Pathan and Mogul invasions.
Mahratta invasions from central India, piratical devastations on the sea-board, banditti who marched about the interior in bodies of 50,000 men, floods which drowned the harvests of whole districts, and droughts in which a third of the population starved to death, kept alive a sense of human powerlessness in the presence of an omnipotent fate.
Severely harassed during the barbarian invasions and by the Saracens, it was, in later times, attached successively to the kingdoms of Burgundy and of Arles and to the domains of the counts of Provence and of Toulouse and of Forcalquier.
It suffered repeatedly in English invasions and was destroyed in 1570.
It commands all the passes which here debouch from the north through the Hindu Kush, and from the west through Kandahar; and through it passed successive invasions of India by Alexander the Great, Mahmud of Ghazni, Jenghiz Khan, Baber, Nadir Shah and Ahmad Shah.
On the continentthe main effect of the viking invasions was to dash the empire of Charles the Great into fragments, and to aid in producing the numberless petty states of feudal Europe.
It was untroubled by rebellion or by foreign invasions, so that the king won the honorable title of Rex Pacificus.
There was a precarious interval of peace for three years after, but in 997 began a series of invasions led by Sweyn which lasted for seventeen years, and at last ended in the complete subjection of England and the flight of Aithelred to Normandy.
Down to this moment Williams position had been somewhat precarious; with the Norman war generally on hand, feudal rebellion always imminent, and Scottish invasions occasionally to be repelled, he had no easy life.
The early enthusiasm of the disfranchised classes for French principles had cooled with the later developments of the Revolution; the attempted invasions had roused the national spirit; and in the public imagination the sinister figure of Bonaparte, the rapacious conqueror, was beginning to loom large to the exclusion of lesser issues.
The British who fled before the Teutonic and Scandinavian invasions of the 6th and 8th centuries, had carried with them to Armorica, and fondly cherished, the remembrance of Arthur and his deeds, which in time had become interwoven with traditions of purely Breton origin.
He created in those highlands a strongly fortified frontier, which, if his successors had been capable, should have proved an effective barrier against the invasions of the Seljuk Turks.
The Chinese supremacy was not shaken by these invasions.
But the more or less successful invasions of the Turkish empire in Europe by the Austrian armies in the course of the 18th century - invasions in which thousands of Serbs always participated as volunteers - prepared the way for a new state of things.
It was probably from Marseilles that he wrote his first letter - presumably to Lerinsbegging the community there to receive his kinsman, the son of a widow of Cologne, who had been reduced to poverty by the barbarian invasions.
He succeeded John III., and occupied the papal chair during the incursions of the Lombards, and during the series of plagues and famines which followed these invasions.
They are also embodied in the Leabhar Gabhala or Book of Invasions, the earliest copy of which is contained in the Book of Leinster, a 12th-century MS., Geoffrey Keating's History, Dugald MacFirbis's Genealogies and various collections of annals such as those by the Four Masters.
These stories naturally become amplified as times goes on, and in what we may regard as the classical or standard versions to be found in Keating, the Four Masters, Dugald MacFirbis and elsewhere, no fewer than five successive invasions are enumerated.
The stories of the Fomorians were doubtless suggested in part by the Viking invasions, but the origin of the Partholan legend has not been discovered.
The Irish Annals state that there were no fresh invasions of the Northmen for about forty years dating from 877.
Whatever co-ordination may have existed in the church of the 8th century was doubtless destroyed during the troubled period of the Viking invasions.
He protected the missionaries who paved the way for his militant invasions.
His subjects remained faithful to him for a good while, as he put an end to the Norman invasions which had desolated the kingdom for two centuries, and cowed those barbarians, much to the benefit of France.
Still his last years were not peaceful; for besides civil wars there were two Hungarian invasions of France (951 and 954).
During the French revolutionary wars Ferdinand tried to maintain neutrality so as to avoid foreign invasions, but in 1 799 a French force entered Florence and was welcomed by a small number of republicans.
Probably some Frisians took part with the Angles and Saxons in their sea-roving expeditions, and assisted their neighbours in their invasions and subsequent conquest of England and the Scottish lowlands.
But they lived on, suffering with their orthodox brethren in the Vandal invasions of the 5th century, and like them finally disappearing before the Saracen onslaught two centuries later.
The prostration of the empire in the East by Avar and Persian invasions enabled them to drive the imperial officers from the coast towns.
With that host he made fifty invasions into the Christian territory.
After the Arab and Seljuk invasions, there was a large emigration of Aryan and Semitic Armenians to Constantinople and Cilicia; and all that remained of the aristocracy was swept away by the Mongols and Tatars.
Throughout the decline of the Roman empire, the barbarian invasions, the Mahommedan conquest and the middle ages, mere piracy always existed by the side of the great strife of peoples and religions.
Until a scientific collection of the local and personal names of this district has been made, and until the archaeological evidence is clearly interpreted, it is impossible to go beyond the region of conjecture as to the tribe or tribes occupying the valley of the Po before the two invasions.
The mainland invasions which produced these great ethnic changes in Crete are marked archaeologically by signs of widespread destruction and by a considerable break in The dark the continuity of the insular civilization.
Boyd Dawkins and Brinton, that the French cave man came hither by way of Iceland; or with Keane, that two subvarieties, the long-headed Eskimo-Botocudo type and the Mexican roundheaded type, prior to all cultural developments, reached the New World, one by Iceland, the other by Bering Sea; or that Malayoid wanderers were stranded on the coast of South America; or that no breach of continuity has occurred since first the march of tribes began this way - ethnologists agree that the aborigines of the western came from the eastern hemisphere,and there is lacking any biological evidence of Caucasoid or Negroid blood flowing in the veins of Americans before the invasions of historic times.
The industry, seriously crippled by invasions of British troops during the War of American Independence - especially by a force which landed at Holmes's Hole (Vineyard Haven) in September 1778 - and again during the War of 1812, revived and was at its height in 1840-1850, only to receive another setback during the Civil War.
He secured its frontiers by inviting Slavonic settlers into the depopulated districts and by restoring the army to efficiency; when the Arabs renewed their invasions in 726 and 739 they were decisively beaten.
The kingdom of Dongola had already been reduced to a condition of anarchy by Moslem invasions from the north.
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Their physical bodies simply do not have the needed energy to fend off invasions and combat the effects.
The three succeeding years were mainly occupied with quarrels with the diet, with two invasions of France, and a war in Gelderland against Charles, count of Egmont, who claimed that duchy, and was supported by French troops.
Latin will be counted the language of the earlier plebeian stratum of the population of Rome and Latium, probably once spread over a large area of the peninsula, and akin in sijme degree to the language or languages spoken in north Italy before either the Etruscan or the Gallic invasions began.
The whole country, indeed, continued Roman and fairly safe from barbarian invasions till after 400.
The American rebellion, the French Revolution and the British invasions of Montevideo and Buenos Aires (1806-7), under GeneralsAuchmuty(i 756-1 822)andJohnWhitelocke (1757-1833), all contributed to the extinction of the Spanish power on the Rio de la Plata.
These invasions were fortunately not frequent, but when they occurred they caused an incalculable amount of devastation and suffering.
On the other hand, the khans of the Crimea were able, partly from their geographical position and partly from having placed themselves under the protection of the sultans of Turkey, to resist annexation for more than two centuries and to give the Muscovites a great deal of trouble, not only by frequent raids and occasional invasions, but also by allying themselves with the Western enemies of the tsars.
As a precaution against Tatar invasions he founded fortified towns on his southern frontiers - Tambov, Kozlov, Penza and Simbirsk; but when the Don Cossacks offered him Azov, which they had captured from the Turks, and a National Assembly, convoked for the purpose of considering the question, were in favour of accepting it as a means of increasing Russian influence on the Black Sea, he decided that the town should be restored to the sultan, much to the disappointment of its captors.
The author designates the story of the later empire at Constantinople (after Heraclius) as " a uniform tale of weakness and misery," a judgment which is entirely false; and in accordance with this doctrine, he makes the empire, which is his proper subject, merely a string for connecting great movements which affected it, such as the Saracen conquests, the Crusades, the Mongol invasions, the Turkish conquests.
The invasion of France by the German armies during the war of 1870-71 attracted his attention to the Germanic invasions under the Roman Empire.
Dubos, but singularly transforming it, he maintained that those invasions were not marked by the violent and destructive character usually attributed to them; that the penetration of the German barbarians into Gaul was a slow process; that the Germans submitted to the imperial administration; that the political institutions of theMerovingians had their origins in the Roman laws at least as much as, if not more than, in German usages; and, consequently, that there was no conquest of Gaul by the Germans.
Later most of the historic invasions of India from central Asia followed the route which leads directly from Kabul to Peshawar and Delhi.
In prehistoric times they were spread over the whole of India, but were driven to the centre and south of the peninsula by the third stratum of Aryans, and perhaps also by invasions of so-called Mongolian races from the north-west.
Owing to the absence of dated records, the chronology of these invasions has not yet been set beyond dispute, but the most important was that of the Kushans, whose king Kanishka founded a state which comprised northern India and Kashmir.
Then follows a long period in which eastern Europe was mainly occupied in combating Asiatic invasions, and had little opportunity of Europeanizing the East.
Southwark witnessed various episodes during the invasions of the Norsemen, and was fortified by the Danes against the City in the reign of Ethelred the Unready.
During the earlier Moslem invasions in 1100 and in subsequent years, the Mahrattas do not seem to have made much resistance.
This conjoint valley of the Rion-Kura was in remote antiquity the site of several Greek colonial settlements, later the seat of successive kingdoms of the Georgians, and for centuries it has formed a bulwark against hostile invasions from the south and east.
Their invasions shook Indian society and institutions to the foundations, but, unlike the earlier Kushans, they do not seem to have introduced new ideas into India or have acted as other than a destructive force, although they may perhaps have kept up some communication between India and Persia.
It is usually affirmed that the state of Venice owes its origin to the barbarian invasions of north Italy; that it was founded by refugees from the mainland cities who sought asylum from the Huns in the impregnable shallows and mud banks of the lagoons; and that the year 452, the year when Attila sacked Aquileia, may be taken as the birth-year of Venice.
This prospect, however, was dissipated by the invasions of the Magyar hordes in the 10th century, the brunt of which was borne by Moravia.
Alexander was not the only person responsible for the general unrest in Italy and the foreign invasions, but he was ever ready to profit by them.
Towards 431 he crossed the great Roman road from Bavay to Cologne, which was protected by numerous forts and had long arrested the invasions of the barbarians.
The attempts of the Habsburgs to conquer Transylvania drew down upon them two fresh Turkish invasions, the first in 1552, when the sultan's generals captured Temesvar and fifty-four lesser forts or fortresses, and the second in 1566, memorable as Suleiman's last descent upon Hungary, and also for the heroic defence of Szigetvar by Miklos Zrinyi, one of the classical sieges of history.
Lost to Rome by the invasion of the Vandals, who took Carthage in 439, the province was recovered by Belisarius a century later (533-34), and remained Roman till the Arab invasions of 648-69.
Thus endowed, the blood, unless overwhelmed by extraordinary invasions, does not fail in stability and self-purification.