Mendelssohn owed his first introduction to the public to Lessing's admiration.
Beyond the introduction of the spider line it is unnecessary to mention the various steps by which the Gascoigne micrometer assumed the modern forms now in use, or to describe in detail the suggestions of Hooke, 4 Wren, Smeaton, Cassini, Bradley, Maskelyne, Herschel, Arago, Pearson, Bessel, Struve, Dawes, &c., or the successive productions of the great artists Ramsden, Troughton, Fraunhofer, Ertel, Simms, Cooke, Grubb, Clarke and Repsold.
- Jeremy Bentham, An Introduction to the Principles of Morality and Legislation; Henry Maine, Ancient Law; C. B.
Carmen refrained from looking at Alex or displaying the shock she felt at the introduction of two more siblings he had never mentioned - an entire family.
The earliest written record of the introduction of domesticated cats into Great Britain dates from about A.D.
After that introduction, my wife listened; for more than five minutes, while Howie apparently continued to ramble.
Such is oftenest the young man's introduction to the forest, and the most original part of himself.
Xander's introduction to her cousin made the reality of her situation starker.
He also wrote the introduction to the collected edition of Clifford's Mathematical.
Laschitzer wrote an introduction to Sir Teuerdank, Q.
The first book, after a short introduction upon the nature of theology as understood by Aquinas, proceeds in 119 questions to discuss the nature, attributes and relations of God; and this is not done as in a modern work on theology, but the questions raised in the physics of Aristotle find a place alongside of the statements of Scripture, while all subjects in any way related to the central theme are brought into the discourse.
A true introduction to Colorado mountain winters, the ones you read about in the books and think are the exaggeration of some faulty memory.
According to one story, Archimedes was puzzled till one day, as he was stepping into a bath and observed the water running over, it occurred to him that the excess of bulk occasioned by the introduction of alloy could be measured by putting the crown and an equal weight of gold separately into a vessel filled with water, and observing the difference of overflow.
She became the great protectress of the Jansenists; it was in her house that Arnauld, Nicole and De Lane were protected; and to her influence must be in great part attributed the release of Lemaistre De Sacy from the Bastille, the introduction of Pomponne into the ministry and of Arnauld to the king.
Mobius must be regarded as one of the leaders in the introduction of the powerful methods of modern projective geometry.
The man's stunned look didn't change at Hannah's quick introduction or when she left.
She greeted the room full of people with apprehension, her interaction with his sisters with pleasure, her introduction to the clan leaders and her position of master battle planner with both excitement and awe.
While still an undergraduate he formed a league with John Herschel and Charles Babbage, to conduct the famous struggle of "d-ism versus dot-age," which ended in the introduction into Cambridge of the continental notation in the infinitesimal calculus to the exclusion of the fluxional notation of Sir Isaac Newton.
von Kirchmann under the title Philosophische Werke (with biography, &c., Berlin, 1868; 2nd ed, 1882-1891), by Kuno Fischer, Die Hauptschriften zur Grundlegung seiner Philosophie (1863), with introduction by Ludwig Fischer (1892).
A still further facility was given to the use of the filar micrometer by the introduction of clockwork, which caused the telescope automatically to follow the diurnal motion of a star, and left the observer's hands entirely at liberty.'
436, the period of its introduction may certainly be dated some 500 years previous to the Welsh chronicle and even much earlier."
His chief innovation was the introduction of payment from the public treasury for state service.
The chief wheat lands are in Victoria, South Australia and New South Wales; the yield averages about 9 bushels to the acre; this low average is due to the endeavour of settlers on new lands to cultivate larger areas than their resources can effectively deal with; the introduction of scientific farming should almost double the yield.
Lord Palmerston's death in October 1865 was followed by the formation of the RussellGladstone ministry and the introduction of the Reform Bill of 1866.
The evidence for the rite among the Greeks is sufficient to warrant the conclusion of its introduction at a very early period and its persistence to a late day.
1543), being responsible for the introduction of the reformed teaching into the land.
The beds made partly of old mushroom-bed dung often contain sufficient spawn to yield a crop, without the introduction of brick or cake spawn, but it is advisable to spawn them in the regular way.
He carried it with him to the long, pointless Council meeting, to his afternoon sparring session with Jetr, to the banquet and introduction of his nishani to the clan leaders.
south-east of Fiume) by Matthias Corvinus and the introduction of Uskoks into Croatia.
The " minus pressure " steam system, sometimes termed " atmospheric " or " vacuum," is of more recent introduction than those just described.
Quekett in his Treatise on the Microscope ascribes to Ramsden the practical introduction of the spider web in micrometers.
The treatise occupies one hundred and sixty-two pages, and there is an introduction by Mark Napier of ninety-four pages.
He was so genuine and unsophisticated that no introduction would serve to introduce him, more than if you introduced a woodchuck to your neighbor.
Beginning in 1867 with the publication of Jacob ben Chajim's Introduction to the Rabbinic Bible, Hebrew and English, with notices, and the Massoreth HaMassoreth of Elias Levita, in Hebrew, with translation and commentary, Dr Ginsburg took rank as an eminent Hebrew scholar.
Aime-Martin (1838) and Ouvres morales et philosophiques by AimeMartin with an introduction on life and works by Amedee Prevost (Paris, 1855); CEuvres choisies (1850) by Jules Simon.
The care of his diocese and of his new foundation were not enough for his ardent charity, and in 1609 he published his famous introduction to a Devout Life, a work which was at once translated into the chief European languages and of which he himself published five editions.
This lowering tendency towards the low church pitch, and the final adoption of the latter as a general mean pitch throughout the 18th century, was no doubt influenced by the introduction of the violin, which would not bear the high tension to which the lutes and viols had been strained.
As to the introduction of domesticated cats into Europe, the opinion is very generally held that tame cats from Egypt were imported at a relatively early date into Etruria by Phoenician traders; and there is decisive evidence that these animals were established in Italy long before the Christian era.
Soon after the introduction of machinery, spinning factories were erected, and the first built in Bolton is said to have been set up in 1780.
It was believed that its object was the introduction of the dreaded form of the Inquisition established in Spain, and in any case more systematic and stringent measures for the stamping out of heresy.
An important effect of these books was the grecizing of Roman religion by the introduction of foreign deities and rites (worshipped and practised in the Troad) and the amalgamation of national Italian deities with the corresponding Greek ones (fully discussed in J.
Woolwich remained the chief dockyard of the English navy until the introduction of iron ship building, but the dockyard was closed in 1869.
with introduction by A.
"I'm bored," he said without introduction.
"Mr. Brennan asked me call you," I said by way of introduction.
"Shit!" said Dean but when Fred didn't answer, he mumbled an introduction.
Phillips, 1896); A Brief Introduction to the Infinitesimal Calculus (1897); The Nature of Capital and Income (1906); The Rate of Interest 0907); National Vitality (1909); The Purchasing Power of Money (1911); Elementary Principles of Economics (1913); Why is the Dollar Shrinking?
In 1616 appeared his Treatise on the Love of God, which teaches that perfection of the spiritual life to which the former work is meant to be the "Introduction."
In the southern districts, where the farmers are Europeans, the breed of cattle is being steadily improved by the introduction of Durham and Hereford bulls.
Before the introduction of the Metonic cycle, the Olympic year began sometimes with the full moon which followed, at other times with that which preceded the summer solstice, because the year sometimes contained 384 days instead of 354.
in its present form may be a compiler's introduction.
If AP =p, the element of volume is dx2xpdp, and the number A of particles to be found in it is deduced by the introduction of the factor n.
Among modern editions of separate plays with commentaries the following are probably the most useful: Amphitruo by Palmer, 1890,1890, and Havet, 1895; Asinaria by Gray, 1894; Aulularia by Wagner, 1866 and 1876; Captivi by Brix, 6th ed., revised by Niemeyer, 1910; an English edition of this work by Sonnenschein (with introduction on prosody), 1880; same play by Lindsay (with metrical introduction), 1900; Epidicus by Gray, 1893; Menaechmi by Brix, 4th ed., revised by Niemeyer, 1891; Miles gloriosus by Lorenz, 2nd ed., 1886; by Brix, 3rd ed., revised by Niemeyer, 1901; by Tyrrell, 3rd ed., 1894; Mostellaria by Lorenz, 2nd ed., 1883; by Sonnenschein, 2nd ed., 1907; Pseudolus by Lorenz, 1876; Rudens by Sonnenschein, 1891, editio minor (with a metrical appendix), 1901; Trinummus (with a metrical introduction) by Brix, 5th ed., revised by Niemeyer, 1907; by Gray, 1897; Truculentus by Spengel and Studemund, 1898.
The use of cranes is of great antiquity, but it is only since the great industrial development of the 19th century, and the introduction of other motive powers than hand labour, that the crane has acquired the important and indispensable position it now occupies.
Electricity as a motive power for cranes is of more recent introduction.
ower This fact has led to the introduction of the " crane rated " required.
It is often very desirable to have the quay space as little obstructed by the cranes as possible, so as not to interfere with railway traffic; this has led to the introduction of cranes mounted on high trucks or gantries, sometimes also called " portal " cranes.
Nearly all recent advances in crane design are the result of the introduction of the electric motor.
This involves the introduction of machinery for measuring and controlling the speed at which it leaves the ship and for measuring the pull on the cable.
The heavier cores, with the consequent advance in speed of working attainable, have necessitated the introduction of automatic sending, the instruments adopted being in general a modification of the Wheatstone transmitter adapted to the form of cable signals, while the regularity of transmission thus secured has caused its introduction even on circuits where the speed cannot exceed that of the ordinary operator's hand signalling.
The following table shows the financial results of the business in the year immediately following the purchase of the telegraphs by the state, in the two years preceding and the two years following the introduction of the 6d.
The scientific study of electric wave telegraphy has necessitated the introduction of many new processes and methods of electrical measurement.
His collected works, with an introduction by C. F.
The instrument was described in over fifty publications 6 in various countries, and was well known to physicists previous to Bell's introduction of the electric telephone as a competitor with the electric telegraph.
A telephone transmitter and a receiver on a novel plan were patented in July 1877 by Edison, shortly after the introduction of Bell's instruments.
The next step of importance was the introduction of what was termed the " Standard board."
The introduction of electric tramways caused an enormous increase in disturbances of this class.
The difficulty was obviated by the introduction of the " multiple switchboard."
One of the greatest advances made in the development of the art of telephony was the introduction of the " common battery relay system."
With the adoption of relays the signalling between the subscribers and the exchange became automatic, and, with the introduction of the principle of double and automatic supervision on the cord circuits, it became possible for the operators to tell at any instant the state of a connexion.
An improvement was effected in this respect by the introduction of the " bridging " system, in which the bells possessing high inductance are placed in parallel between the two wires of the circuit.
The introduction in 1883 of the hard-drawn copper wire of high conductivity invented in 1877 by T.
The introduction of inductance coils into such circuits renders them more susceptible to trouble from atmospheric electricity and more sensitive to leakage variations.
The eucalyptus is of quite modern introduction; it has been extensively planted in malarious districts.
The other cereals, millet and panico sorgo (Panicum italicum), have lost much of their importance in consequence of the introduction of maize and rice.
(2) Raymond of Sabunde's Liber naturae sive creaturarum (1434-36) bears also the title Theologia Naturalis - but not from the author's own hand,3 though his introduction to the book in question, the Prologue, put upon the Index at Rome for its daring, describes the " book of nature " as " connatural to us," in contrast with the " supernatural" book, the Bible, which belongs to the clerics.
' See his Introduction.
In order to provide employment for his soldiers, Corbulo made them cut a canal from the Mosa (Meuse) to the northern branch of the Rhine, which still forms one of the chief drains between Leiden and Sluys, and before the introduction of railways was the ordinary traffic road between Leiden and Rotterdam.
In the introduction to his work Von der Weltseele, however, he argues in favour of the possibility of a transmutation of species in periods incommensurable with ours.
His list of such forms is much more complete than that given by Childers in the introduction to his Dictionary of the Pali Language.
Professor Rhys Davids has put forward similar views with respect to the Jatakas and the Sutta Nipata in his Buddhist India, and with respect to the Nikayas in general in the introduction to his Dialogues of the Buddha.
Calderini, Die Marcussdule (Munich, 1896), with historical introduction by Th.
Rendall (London, 1898, with valuable introduction) and J.
Jackson (Oxford, 1906, with introduction by Charles Bigg).
by Ewart; Reynolds Green, Introduction to Vegetable Physiology; The Soluble Ferments and Fermentation; Detmer, Practical Plant Physiology, trans.
is a flat disk, circular or elliptical in outline, had in the ideas time of Homer acquired a special definiteness by the introduction of the idea of the ocean river bounding the whole, an application of imperfectly understood observations.
The resulting " classification is based on the examination, mostly autoptic, of a far greater number of characters than any that had preceded it; moreover, they were chosen in a different way, discernment being exercised in sifting and weighing them, so as to determine, so far as possible, the relative value of each, according as that value may vary in different groups, and not to produce a mere mechanical ` key ' after the fashion become of late years so common " (Newton's Dictionary of Birds, Introduction, p. 103).
420) of a change of form in the Greenwich mural quadrant led to the introduction of astronomical circles at the Royal Observatory, and to his own appointment as its head.
Since the introduction of printing, the Talmud is always cited by the number of the leaf in the first edition (Venice, 1520, &c.), to which all subsequent editions conform.
1034), was a voluminous writer on law, translated the Pentateuch into Arabic, commented on much of the Bible, and composed an Arabic introduction to the Talmud, of which the existing Hebrew introduction (by Samuel the Nagid) is perhaps a translation.
Some of his poems are extant, and an Introduction to the Talmud mentioned above.
The introduction of printing (first dated Hebrew printed book, Rashi, Reggio, 1475) gave occasion for a number of scholarly compositors and proof-readers, some of whom were also authors, such as Jacob ben Ilayyim of Tunis Later waters.
Foremost among these was Ilayyim Vital, author of the 'Ez hayyim, and his son Samuel, who wrote an introduction to the Kabbalah, called Shemoneh She`arim.
Year by year the influence of the Mahommedan tribes on the north leads to the cutting down of the forest, the extension of both planting and pasture and the introduction of cattle and even horses.
But the introduction of the adjective " apologetic " and of the substantive " apologetics " is recent.
Not to dwell upon earlier continental " Deists " (mentioned by Viret as quoted first in Bayle's Dictionary and again in the introduction to Leland's View of the Deistical Writers), Lord Herbert of Cherbury (De Veritate, 1624; De Religione Gentilium,.
C. Trench's Introduction to Notes on the Miracles, and F.
An edition of the Dramatic Works of Massinger and Ford appeared in 1840, with an introduction by Hartley Coleridge.
The Best Plays of Ford were edited for the "Mermaid Series" in 1888, with an introduction by W.
English translation of Bywater's edition with introduction by G.
To the conservatives, known subsequently as Old Ritualists or Old Believers, this marked the beginning of the reign of Antichrist (was not 666 the number of the Beast?); but they continued the struggle, conservative opposition to the Westernizing policy of the tsars, which was held responsible for the introduction of Polish luxury and Latin heresy, giving it a political as well as a religious character.
The value of the fish has much increased owing to the introduction of cold storage; as a result of the employment of this method of packing, fish is now exported in a fresh state from the Black Sea to all parts of S.W.
In time it became a common practice to cover them with a thin sheathing or plating of iron, in order to add to their life; this expedient caused more wear on the wooden rollers of the wagons, and, apparently towards the middle of the 18th century, led to the introduction of iron wheels, the use of which is recorded on a wooden railway near Bath in 1734.
There was a waste of metal in these early rails owing to the excessive thickness of the vertical web, and subsequent improvements have consisted in adjusting the dimensions so as to combine strength with economy of metal, as well as in the substitution of steel for wrought iron (after the introduction of the Bessemer process) and in minute attention to the composition of the steel employed.
When the four cranks are placed with two pairs at 180°, the pairs being at 90°, the forces are balanced without the introduction of a hammer-blow, but there remain large unbalanced couples, which if balanced by means of revolving weights in the wheels again reintroduce the hammerblow, and if left unbalanced tend to make the engine oscillate in a horizontal plane at high speed.
The introduction of corridor carriages, enabling passengers to walk right through the trains, greatly increased their usefulness.
beneath the surface of the street - a depth not sufficient to warrant the introduction of lifts, but enough to be inconvenient.
iii.; Gee's Elizabethan Clergy; Birt's Elizabethan Religious Settlement; and Pierce's Introduction to the Marprelate Tracts (1909).
Dummler (1877), and a partial translation into German, with an introduction b y W.
In 1879 and 1880 as Rector Magnificus he fought against the introduction of Czech instead of German in the Prague University.
His Introduction to the Philosophy of Religion (1880) is an attempt to show the essential rationality of religion.
His first introduction to the historic scenes the study of which afterwards formed the passion of his life took place in 1751, when, while along with his father visiting a friend in Wiltshire, he discovered in the library " a common book, the continuation of Echard's Roman History."
In 1757 Voltaire came to reside at Lausanne; and although he took but little notice of the young Englishman of twenty, who eagerly sought and easily obtained an introduction, the establishment of the theatre at Monrepos, where the brilliant versifier himself declaimed before select audiences his own productions on the stage, had no small influence in fortifying Gibbon's taste for the French theatre, and in at the same time abating that "idolatry for the gigantic genius of Shakespeare which is inculcated from our infancy as the first duty of an Englishman."
Among his numerous works may be mentioned Introduction a la philosophie d'Hegel (1855; 2nd ed., 1865); Probleme de la certitude (1845); Le Hegelianisme et la philosophie 0860; Mélanges philosophiques (1862); Essais de philosophie Hegelienne (1864); Strauss, l'ancienne et la nouvelle foi (1873), an attack upon Strauss's last "confession," written from the standpoint of an orthodox Hegelian; and a comprehensive work in Italian, Il Problema dell' Assoluto (Naples, 1872-82).
His English works are an Inquiry into Speculative and Experimental Science (London, 1856); Introduction to Speculative Logic and Philosophy (St Louis, 1875), and a translation of Bretschneider's History of Religion and of the Christian Church.
The first introduction of coined money is ascribed to Servius Tullius.
The origin of the parasite and its mode of introduction into the blood remained to be discovered.
For the history of the ancient Irish kings of the Hy Neill see: The Book of Leinster, edited with introduction by R.
After the decline of the medieval tradein cloth, lace and buttons were the only articles manufactured here until the introduction of silk-weaving in 1740.
The change from the dynasty of Omri to that of Jehu has been treated by several hands, and the writers, in their recognition of the introduction of a new tendency, have obscured the fact that the cult of Yahweh had flourished even under such a king as Ahab.
Its treatment of the monarchy is only part of a great and now highly complicated literary undertaking (traceable in the books Joshua to Kings), inspired with the thought and coloured by language characteristic of Deuteronomy (especially the secondary portions), which forms the necessary introduction.
The arguments of conservative writers involve concessions which, though often overlooked by their readers, are very detrimental to the position they endeavour to support, and the objections they bring against the theory of the introduction of new law-books (under a Josiah or an Ezra) apply with equal force to the promulgation of Mosaic teaching which had been admittedly ignored or forgotten.
What book Ezra really brought from Babylon is uncertain; the writer, it seems, is merely narrating the introduction of the Law ascribed to Moses, even as a predecessor has recounted the discovery of the Book of the Law, the Deuteronomic code subsequently included in the Pentateuch.
It thus appears that a highly developed system of writing existed in Minoan Crete some two thousand years earlier than the first introduction under Phoenician influence of Greek letters.
He early made his mark as a church leader, and took an active part in petitioning against the " five acts " and later against the introduction of a service-book and canons drawn up on the model of the English prayer-book.
The destruction of pine forests to meet the demands for naval stores, and the introduction and increased use of the refrigerator car, resulted in much attention to the growth of garden produce for Northern markets.
The state government, through its Department of Agriculture, takes an active interest in the introduction of modern agricultural methods, and in the promotion of diversified farming; in 1899 it established the Edgecombe and in 1902 the Iredell test farm.
The history of Indian civilization in Indo-China and the Archipelago is still obscure, in spite of the existence of gigantic ruins, but it would appear that in some parts at least twa periods must be distinguished, first the introduction of Hinduism (or mixed Hinduism and Buddhism), perhaps under Indian princes, and secondly a later and more purely ecclesiastical.
introduction of Sinhalese Buddhism, with its literature and art.
Thus they are mainly responsible for the introduction of Islam with its Arabic or Persian civilization into India and Europe, and in earlier times their movements facilitated the infiltration of Graeco-Bactrian civilization into India, besides maintaining communication between China and the West.
There, too, he acquired that skill in music which led to his first introduction to Saul (I Sam.
It is in David's history that the clans of the south first attained prominence, and some of them are known to have been staunch upholders of a purer worship of Yahweh, or to have been associated with the introduction of religious institutions among the Israelites.
Comparetti's Edipo and Jebb's introduction for the Oedipus of Dryden, Corneille and Voltaire; A.
Of the former class the most conspicuous was the Holy Roman Empire; but in Europe all monarchies were, within certain limits, originally elective; and, after the introduction of Christianity, the essential condition of the assumption of sovereign power was not so much kinship with the reigning family as the "sacring" by the divine authority of the Church.
But the annals of Kano distinctly record the introduction and describe the development of Mahommedanism at an early period of local history.
Since the introduction of British rule there has been no serious trouble in the province.
The occasion of this famous Webster-Hayne debate was the introduction by Senator Samuel A.
His first acquaintance with chemistry was gained as laboratory boy to an apothecary in Rouen (1777-1779), and after various vicissitudes he obtained an introduction to A.
(Munich, 1861); Ebert's Geschichte der Christlich-Lateinischen Literatur (Leipsic, 1874); Wattenbach's Deutschlands Geschichtsquellen im Mittelalter (Berlin, 1877); and the introduction of Mommsen to his edition.
As Heber says, "No part of the administration of Ireland by the English crown has been more extraordinary and more unfortunate than the system pursued for the introduction of the Reformed religion."
In addition to the various works of Brewster already noticed, the following may be mentioned: - Notes and Introduction to Carlyle's translation of Legendre's Elements of Geometry (1824); Treatise on Optics (1831); Letters on Natural Magic, addressed to Sir Walter Scott (1831); The Martyrs of Science, or the Lives of Galileo, Tycho Brake, and Kepler (1841); More Worlds than One (1854).
Caiman's introduction to Smith's Lectures on Justice, &c. (Clarendon Press, 1896); and H.
There are no limits to the good results of his introduction of a true method of reasoning into the moral and political sciences.
Bentham's Works, together with an Introduction by J.
Of his numerous publications the following are of special importance: - Assyrian Grammar for Comparative Purposes (1872); Principles of Comparative Philology (1874); Babylonian Literature (1877); Introduction to the Science of Language (1879); Monuments of the Hittites (1881); Herodotus i.-iii.
(1883); Ancient Empires of the East (1884); Introduction to Ezra, Nehemiah and Esther (1885); Assyria (1885); Hibbert Lectures on Babylonian Religion (1887); The Hittites (1889); Races of the Old Testament (1891); Higher Criticism and the Verdict of the Monuments (1894); Patriarchal Palestine (1895); The Egypt of the Hebrews and Herodotus (1895); Early History of the Hebrews (1897); Israel and the Surrounding Nations (1898); Babylonians and Assyrians (1900); Egyptian and Babylonian Religion (1903); Archaeology of the Cuneiform Inscr.
Canovas del Castillo (Madrid, 1889), and in the introduction, by Don F.
He was the author of two text-books on them - one an Elementary Treatise on Quaternions (1867), written with the advice of Hamilton, though not published till after his death, and the other an Introduction to Quaternions (1873), in which he was aided by Professor Philip Kelland (1808-1879), who had been one of his teachers at Edinburgh.
The introduction of new plants, which made it possible to dispense with the bare fallow, and still later the application to husbandry of scientific discoveries as to soils, plant constituents and manures, brought about a revolution in farming.
The quarter of a century immediately following 1760 is memorable for the introduction of various important improvements.
Previous to this period the husbandry of Scotland was still in a backward state as compared with the best districts of England, where many practices, only of recent introduction in the north, had been in general use for generations.
The years 1830-1833 are especially memorable for a disastrous outbreak of sheep-rot and for agrarian outrages, caused partly by the dislike of the labourers to the introduction of agricultural machines.
They are effected chiefly by some alteration in the description of the root-crop, and perhaps by the introduction of the potato crop; by growing a different cereal, or it may be more than one cereal consecutively; by the growth of some other leguminous crop than clover, since " clover-sickness " may result if that crop is grown at too short intervals, or the intermixture of grass seeds with the clover, and perhaps by the extension by one or more years of the period allotted to this member of the rotation.
The effect was to reduce to a minimum the risk of the introduction of disease amongst the herds and flocks of the country, and at the same time to confine the trade in store stock exclusively to the breeders of Great Britain and Ireland.
In reasserting and amplifying the empirical conclusions of his predecessors, especially in the sphere of ethics, Mill's chief function was the introduction of the humanist element.
So that no great amount of original work is required for a reliable account of those general features of the modern system which should form the introduction to economics.
From an equally loose application of the word "fir" by our older herbalists, it is difficult to decide upon the date of introduction of this tree into Britain; but it was commonly planted for ornamental purposes in the beginning of the 17th century.
On hearing of the death of the poet Dakiki, he conceived the ambitious design of himself carrying out the work which the latter had only just commenced; and, although he had not then any introduction to the court, he contrived, thanks to one of his friends, Mahommed Lashkari, to procure a copy of the Dihkan Danishwer's collection, and at the age of thirty-six commenced his great undertaking.
The size and number of the volumes, however, and their great expense, made them difficult of access, and Frau von Mohl published the French translation (1876-1878) with her illustrious husband's critical notes and introduction in a more convenient and cheaper form.
Warner (1905 foll.), with an introduction containing an account of Firdousi and the Shahnama; the version by A.
It closes with the introduction of incised, white-filled decoration on pottery, whose motives are presently found reproduced in monochrome pigment.
These periods fill the whole Bronze Age, with whose close, by the introduction of the superior metal, iron, the Aegean Age is conventionally held to end.
If we fix its introduction to about loon B.C. and make it coincident with the incursion of northern tribes, remembered by the classical Greeks as the Dorian Invasion, we must allow that this incursion did not altogether stamp out Aegean civilization, at least in the southern part of its area.
Muller, in the Didot edition of Arrian, 1846), containing the genuine fragments and the text of the pseudo-Callisthenes, with notes and introduction; A.
These works were not published until after his death, but Green's views were previously known indirectly through the Introduction to the standard edition of Hume's works by Green and T.
In the 18th and early part of the 19th century Penrith manufactured checks, linen cloth and ginghams, but the introduction of machinery put an end to this industry, only the making of rag carpets surviving.
Gloger brought out at Breslau the first (and unfortunately the only) part of a Vollstandiges Handbuch der Natur- In th e Introduction to r t his?
Unfortunately none of these, however, can be compared for singularity with Archaeopteryx or with some American fossil forms next to be noticed, for their particular It is true that from the time of Buffon, though he scorned any regular classification, geographical distribution had been occasionally held to have something to do with systematic arrangement; but the way in which the two were related was never clearly put forth, though people who could read between the lines might have guessed the secret from Darwin's Journal of Researches, as well as from his introduction to the Zoology of the " Beagle" Voyage.
The almuce was originally a head-covering only, worn by the clergy, but adopted also by the laity, and the German word Miitze, " cap," is later than the introduction of the almuce in church, and is derived from it (M.
The introduction of the biretta in the 15th century tended to replace the use of the almuce as a head-covering, and the hood now became smaller, while the cape was enlarged till in some cases it fell below the elbows.
of the Histories of Tacitus (introduction); B.
The prosperity of the town began with the introduction of the cloth trade in the 15th century, when there are said to have been only thirteen houses, which before the end of the 16th century had increased to 520.
But it is in the domestic architecture of Venice that we find the most striking and characteristic examples of Gothic. The introduction of that style coincided with the consolidation of the Venetian constitution and the Gothic development of Venetian commerce both in the Levant and with England and Flanders.
Demaus, William Tyndale (London, 1871); also the Introduction to Mombert's critical reprint of Tyndale's Pentateuch (New York, 1884), where a bibliography is given.
Bacon and a Fragment of his Hebrew Grammar, edited with introduction and notes by E.
The controversy between nominalists and realists arose from a passage in Boethius' translation of Porphyry's Introduction to the Categories of Aristotle, which propounded the problem of genera and species, (1) as to whether they subsist in themselves or only in the mind; (2) whether, if subsistent, they are corporeal or incorporeal; and (3) whether separated from sensible things or placed in them.
von Hartmanns philosophisches System im Grundriss (1902), with biographical introduction; and for further authorities, J.
After staying for some time in Africa as the disciple of Augustine, he was sent by him in 415 to Palestine with a letter of introduction to Jerome, then at Bethlehem.
When Augustine proposed this task he had already planned and made some progress with his own De civitate Dei; it is the same argument that is elaborated by his disciple, namely, the evidence from history that the circumstances of the world had not really become worse since the introduction of Christianity.
Whatever may be its true botanical name it is the plant known in commerce as " Sea Island " cotton, owing to its introduction and successful cultivation in the Sea Islands and the coastal districts of South Carolina, Georgia and Florida.
(3) Desirable variations in the raw material might conceivably eventuate from the introduction of cotton to spots in the globe where its growth was previously unknown or little regarded.
Much the same had been the ultimate outcome of the spasmodic attempt of the British government to bring about the introduction of cotton to new districts, after it had been pressed to take some action a few years prior to the formation of the Cotton Supply Association.
See D'Arbois de Jubainville, Les Druides et les dieux celtiques a forme d'animaux (Paris, 1906), and Introduction a l'e'tude de la litterature celtique (Paris, 1883); P. W.
His first great work, an historico-critical introduction to the Old Testament, Historisch-kritisch onderzoek naar het onstaan en de verzameling van de boeken des Ouden Verbonds (3 vols., 1861-1865; 2nd ed., 1885-1893; German by T.
Bulk barges were soon introduced on the larger rivers, but the use of these was partially rendered unnecessary by the introduction of railways, when the oil was at first transported in barrels on freight cars, but later in tank-cars.
The improvements introduced in 1890 and 1891, whereby this state of affairs was put an end to, consisted in the introduction of the principle of supply by meter, and the adoption of a comprehensive system of reducing the initial pressure of the gas, so as to diminish loss by leakage.
The operation was, however, completely revolutionized in the United States by the introduction of the " cracking process," and by the division of the distillation into two parts, one consisting in the removal of the more volatile constituents of the oil, and the other in the distillation (which is usually conducted in separate stills) of the residues from the first distillation, for the production of lubricating oils and paraffin.
The stills were formerly completely bricked in, so that the vapours should be kept fully heated until they escaped to the condenser, but since the introduction of the " cracking process," the upper part has usually been left exposed to the air.
Paris, L'Estoire de la guerre sainte, Paris, 1897; Introduction).
The land is poor in minerals, including coal; water-power also is deficient, so that the introduction of European industries is attended with difficulties even apart from the insecurity of affairs, which forbids such experiments as the improvement of agriculture by means of European capital.
Improvements in the breed have been effected by the introduction of Arab stallions.
This he achieved by the introduction of a device which is called a metallic ligament.
Tobacco culture, which declined after 1860 on account of the competition of Cuba and Sumatra, has revived since 1885 through the introduction of Cuban and Sumatran seed; the product of 1907 (6,937,500 lb) was more than six times that of 1899, the product in 1899 (1,125,600 lb) being more than twice that of 1889 (470,443 lb), which in turn was more than twenty times that for 1880 (21,182 lb)-the smallest production recorded for many decades.
But the connexion with foreign parts led to the gradual introduction of a procedure resembling that coming into use on the continent and based on the Roman civil law.
Scott's introduction to his reprint (1880) of the original edition; articles in the Academy, May and June 1883, by Mr C. E.
The Solomonic authorship has long since been given up: the historical setting of the work and its atmosphere - the silent assumption of monotheism and monogamy, the nonnational tone, the attitude towards kings and people, the picture of a complicated social life, the strain of philosophic reflection - are wholly at variance with what is known of the 10th century B.C. and with the Hebrew literature down to the 5th or 4th century B.C. The introduction of Solomon, the ideal of wisdom, is a literary device of the later time, and probably deceived nobody.
By about the beginning of our era the Jews had given up Hebrew and wrote in Aramaic; the process of expulsion had been going on, doubtless, for some time; but comparison with the later extant literature (Chronicles, the Hebrew Ecclesiasticus or Ben-Sira, Esther) makes it improbable that such Hebrew as that of Koheleth would have been written earlier than the 2nd century B.C. (for details see Driver's Introduction).
By some it has been argued from this fact that the Malays possessed no kind of writing prior to the introduction of the Arabic alphabet (W.
It consists of three books, an introduction and an autobiography.
The introduction is an elaborate treatise on the science of history and the development of society, and the autobiography contains the history, not only of the author himself, but of his family and of the dynasties which ruled in Fez, Tunis and Tlemcen during his lifetime.
The fragments indicate the great 'variety of subjects discussed: the origin of the appeal to the people (provocatio); the use of elephants in the circus games; the wearing of gold rings; the introduction of the olive tree; the material for making the toga; the cultivation of the soil; certain details as to the lives of Cicero and Terence.
Berthelot, Les Origines de l'alchimie (1885); Collection des anciens alchimistes grecs (text and translation, 3 vols., 1887-1888); Introduction a l'etude de la chimie des anciens et du moyen age (1889); La Chimie au moyen age (text and translation of Syriac and Arabic treatises on alchemy, 3 vols., 1893).
The earliest certain reaction against Baalism is ascribed to the reign of Ahab, whose marriage with Jezebel gave the impulse to the introduction of a particular form of the cult.
The antagonism of Elijah was not against Baalism in general, but against the introduction of a rival deity.
pp. 9311 3 (against his theory of the introduction of Baal among the Arabs see, M.
Machen, with an introduction by Miss A.
The Memoires are contained in the collection of Michaud and Poujoulat, and have been published separately by Guessard (the best, 1842), Lalanne, Caboche, &c. An English translation with introduction by Violet Fane appeared in 1892.
The Thesean synoecism led to the introduction of new cults and the foundation of new shrines partly on the Acropolis, partly in the inhabited district at its base both within and without the wall of the Pelasgicum, Some of the shrines in this region are mentioned by Thucydides in a passage which is of capital importance for the topography of the city at this period (ii.
If this introduction of the director is essential to the end for which Ignatius framed his Exercises, in it we also find dangers.
The introduction of trades-union representatives on the Supreme Labour Council, the organization of local labour councils, and the instructions to factory inspectors to put themselves in communication with the councils of the trades-unions, were valuable concessions to labour, and he further secured the rigorous application of earlier laws devised for the protection of the working-classes.
He was one of the first to perceive the vast changes which must ensue from the introduction of steam into the navy, which would necessitate a new system of signals and a new method of tactics.
The Revolution of 1868 in Spain promised such salutary changes for the Antilles as the introduction of political parties, the restoration of representation in the Spanish Cortes, and the enfranchisement of the slaves; but the imprudent "Insurrection of Lares," and other outbreaks of 1867-68, delayed these anticipated reforms. The reactionaries feared separation from the mother country.
Besides being a contributor to the magazines and encyclopedias on educational and philosophical subjects, he wrote An Introduction to the Study of Philosophy (1889); The Spiritual Sense of Dante's Divina Commedia (1889); Hegel's Logic (1890); and Psychologic Foundations of Education (1898); and edited Appleton's International Education Series and 'Webster's International Dictionary.
His family was known among judicial circles in the 16th century, and maintained the Roman Catholic faith after the official introduction of the Reformed religion into Navarre.
M`Keon (1830), and a biographical introduction by Bishop Ryle to the Christian in Complete Armour (1865).
Among other matters reference is made to the introduction of Christianity in the reign of Tiberius; the persecution under Diocletian; the spread of the Arian heresy; the election of Maximus as emperor by the legions in Britain, and his subsequent death at Aquileia; the incursions of the Picts and Scots into the southern part of the island; the temporary assistance rendered to the harassed Britons by the Romans; the final abandonment of the island by the latter; the coming of the Saxons and their reception by Guortigern (Vortigern); and, finally, the conflicts between the Britons, led by a noble Roman, Ambrosius Aurelianus, and the new invaders.
All the arches are pointed and slightly horseshoe, preceding therefore by about two and a half centuries the introduction of the pointed arch into Europe.
It is intended to provide an introduction, necessarily brief, to the terminology and machinery of the chemist.
von Hofmann, who materially helped the acceptance of the doctrine by the lucid exposition in his Introduction to Modern Chemistry, 1865.
Of recent years the introduction of various organic compounds as precipitants or reagents has reduced the labour of the process; and advantage has also been taken of the fairly complex double salts which these metals form with compounds.
The introduction of hydroxyl groups into the benzene nucleus gives rise to compounds generically named phenols, which, although resembling the aliphatic alcohols in their origin, differ from these substances in their increased chemical activity and acid nature.
Moreover, while methylamine, dimethylamine, and trimethylamine increase in basicity corresponding to the introduction of successive methyl groups, phenylamine or aniline, diphenylamine, and triphenylamine are in decreasing order of basicity, the salts of diphenylamine being decomposed by water.
Thus ortho-phenylene diamine yields the following products: N H N ./`N; Xn NZ In some cases oxidation of condensed benzenoid-heterocyclic nuclei results in the rupture of the heterocyclic ring with the formation of a benzene dicarboxylic acid; but if the aromatic nucleus be weakened by the introduction of an amino group, then it is the benzenoid nucleus which is destroyed and a dicarboxylic acid of the heterocyclic ring system obtained.
Thus furfurane yields the following rings by the introduction of one and two nitrogen atoms: CH=N N=CH..
From the pyrone ring the following series of compounds are derived (for brevity, the hydrogen atoms are not printed): Penthiophene gives, by a similar introduction of nitrogen atoms, penthiazoline, corresponding to meta-oxazine, and para-thiazine, CH 2 CH 2o CH CO „ .„0 C ?
The importance of ascertaining the proximate composition of bodies was clearly realized by Otto Tachenius; but the first systematic investigator was Robert Boyle, to whom we owe the introduction of the term analysis.
Of great importance is his introduction of vegetable juices (the so-called indicators, q.v.) to detect acids and bases.
The introduction of the blowpipe into dry qualitative analysis by Axel Fredrik Cronstedt marks an important innovation.
In the aromatic compounds there is no regularity between the increments due to the introduction of methyl groups into the benzene nucleus or side chains; the normal value of 20 0 -21° is exhibited, however, by pyridine and its derivatives.
The same increase accompanies the introduction of the amino group into aromatic nuclei.
The introduction of negative groups into a molecule alters the boiling-point according to the number of negative groups already present.
This is shown in the case of the chloracetic acids: According to van 't Hoff the substitution of chlorine atoms into a methyl group occasions the following increments: The introduction of chlorine, however, may involve a fall in the boiling-point, as is recorded by Henry in the case of the chlorinated acetonitriles: NC CH 3.
The same difference attends the introduction of the methyl group into many classes of compounds, for example, the paraffins, olefines, acetylenes, aromatic hydrocarbons, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones and esters, while a slightly lower value (157.1) is found in the case of the halogen compounds, nitriles, amines, acids, ethers, sulphides and nitro compounds.
A more complex chromophoric group is the triple ethylenic grouping: C > C =, the introduction of which was rendered necessary by the discovery of certain coloured hydrocarbons.
According to the modern theory of auxochromic action, the introduction of a group into the molecule is accompanied by some strain, and the alteration in colour produced is connected with the magnitude of the strain.
This theory explains the fluorescence of anthranilic acid (o-aminobenzoic acid), by regarding the aniline residue as the luminophore, and the carboxyl group as the fluorogen, since, apparently, the introduction of the latter into the non-fluorescent aniline molecule involves the production of a fluorescent substance.
From supersaturated solutions the form unstable at the temperature of the experiment is, as a rule, separated, especially on the introduction of a crystal of the unstable form; and, in some cases, similar inoculation of the fused substance is attended by the same result.
The measure of the loss of symmetry associated with the introduction of alkyl groups depends upon the relative magnitudes of the substituent group and the rest of the molecule; and the larger the molecule, the less would be the morphotropic effect of any particular substituent.
Walker, Introduction to Physical Chemistry (4th ed., 1907); H.
The true version can be recovered from the published score as follows: In act t skip from the last bar but four to the 41st bar of the introduction.
Redhouse in the preface to his English metrical version of The Mesnevi, Book the First (London, 1881); there is also an abridged translation of the Mathnawi, with introduction on Sufism, by E.
3 Now as these beads are admittedly worked metallic iron and must date before 4000 B.C., it is obvious that they are a remarkable confirmation of those who, like the present writer, have in opposition to Prof. Montelius always maintained that iron was known to and occasionally used in a worked state by the Egyptians at a period long anteridr to its general introduction and replacing of bronze for weapons and tools.
Not only should the names be carefully selected with special reference to the objects which the map is intended to serve, and to prevent overcrowding by the introduction of names which can serve no useful object, but they should also be arranged in such a manner as to be read easily by a person consulting the map. It is an accepted rule now that the spelling of names in countries using the Roman alphabet should be retained, with such exceptions as have been familiarized by long usage.
The introduction of additional diacritical marks, such as - and used to express quantity, and the diaeresis, as in ai, to express consecutive vowels, which are to be pronounced separately, may prove of service, as also such letters as a, o and ii, to be pronounced as in German, and in lieu of the French ai, eu or u.
Carla, compiled a contoured map of France (1791), and it only needed the introduction of graduated tints between these contours to secure a graphic picture of the features of the ground.
Originally the maps were engraved on copper, and the progress of publication was slow; but since the introduction of modern processes, such as electrotyping (in 1840), photography (in 1855) and zincography (in 1859), it has been rapid.
See the orations of Cicero De lege agraria, with the introduction in G.
The introduction of an ordered system and discipline was, naturally, viewed with some suspicion by people taught to believe that the inward light of each individual man was the only true guide for his conduct.
In 1656, 1657 and 1658 laws were passed to prevent the introduction of Quakers into Massachusetts, and it was enacted that on the first conviction one ear should be cut off, on the second the remaining ear, and that on the third conviction the tongue should be bored with a hot iron.
Here 1 From § 1 of the Introduction to R.
a From § 1 of the Introduction to R.
See Introduction to R.
For the considerable body of evidence supporting this conclusion see the Introduction to R.
At length, on the 18th of April of the latter year, a motion was made for the introduction of a bill to prevent the further importation of slaves into the British colonies in the West Indies.
It is a monument of learning and scholarship. The most recent edition is that with notes and introduction by the present writer, u.s. It includes also the History of the Abbots, and the Epistle to Egbert.
The commentary by Saumaise in his Plinianae exercitationes (1689) is indispensable; best edition by Mommsen (1895), with valuable introduction on the MSS., the authorities used by Solinus, and subsequent compilers.
This book was published with, and as an introduction to, the three principal works of Joachim, in which the Spirituals had made some interpolations.'
58) to its introduction among the Ionian Greeks, who gave it the name of 8 4%pac, " skins," the material to which they had already been accustomed.
Even after the introduction of vellum as the ordinary vehicle for literature papyrus still continued to some extent in use outside Egypt, and was not entirely superseded until a late date.
(London, 1901; a useful introduction to the subject); H.
The introduction of English law, and the changes made in the judicial and legal systems of Louisiana after 1804 have already been described.
Practically nothing has yet been done in the study of native grasses and the introduction of exotic species.
Their introduction began in 1847 and ended in 1871.
For the introduction of improvements something, however, was done by the creation in 1892 of a special ministry of agriculture, to which is attached the department of mines and forests, formerly under the minister of finance.
The European style, on its introduction, encountered the most violent opposition, but now it alone is used by living authors of repute.
On the other hand, the absence of leaven may recall primitive practice before its introduction as a domestic luxury; sacral rites generally keep alive primitive custom.
18), in Spain at least as early as the 7th, and in Ireland also in the 7th; in Italy, so far as the available evidence shows, its introduction was comparatively late.
The first three form together a progressive introduction to Christianity corresponding to the stages through which the Aim7ns passed at Eleusis - purification, initiation, revelation.
It bears the notice that the author wrote it in 1225, and in the introduction Leonardo tells us the occasion of its being written.
Besides those already mentioned the more important are: Cours d'economie politique (1842-1850); Essais de politique industrielle (1843); De la baisse probable d'or (1859, translated into English by Cobden, On the Probable Fall of the Value of Gold, Manchester, 1859); L'Expedition du Mexique (1862); Introduction aux rapports du jury international (1868).
While the peach has been cultivated in China for thousands of years, the almond does not grow wild in that country and its introduction is supposed not to go back farther than the Christian era.
The wonderful development of Minnesota as a flour-producing state began with the introduction of improved roller processes after 1870.
In 1762 a quarrel with Miller placed him in a position of some difficulty from which he was delivered by an introduction to Count Rasumovski, who procured his appointment as adjunct to the Academy.
Under the long peace which followed the close of the Napoleonic wars, its trade gradually revived, fostered by the declaration of independence of South and Central America, with both of which it energetically opened close commercial relations, and by the introduction of steam navigation.
P. d'Avezac's Introduction to Carpini, PP 4 0 4-4 0 5, 433-434, 4 6 4-4 6 5, of vol.
Thus so-called coloured-gold deposits may be produced by the judicious introduction of suitable impurities.
Her connexion with the trial of Orestes, the introduction of a milder form of punishment for justifiable homicide, and the institution of the court TO HaXXa54, show the important part played by her in the development of legal ideas.
The results of Omars research werea revised edition of the Zif or astronomical tables, and the introduction of the Tarikh-i-Malikshahi or JalalI, that is, the so-called Jalalian or SeljUk era, which commences in A.H.
The introduction of the quantity p converts the symmetric function 1 2 3 into (XiX2X3+...) -Hu Al (X 2 A 3 .-) +/l02(X1X3.ï¿½.) +/103(A1X2.ï¿½.) +....
1 exp(Adlo + vdol) = (1+/oD10+ v Doi +..ï¿½+ VQ +.ï¿½.)f; now, since the introduction of the new quantities 1.1., v results in the addition to the function (plglp2g2p3g3...) of the new terms A PI Pg1 (p 2q2 p 3g3ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½) +/ AP2Pg2 (p 1 g 1P343 ...)+/ Z3vg3 (p l g i p 2 g 2 ...)+ ï¿½, we find DP141(plqip2q2p3q3ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½) = (p 2 q 2 p 3 q 3ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½), and thence D P141 D P242 D P343 ï¿½ï¿½.
An incisive introduction discusses the ecclesiastical tradition, modern criticism; the second, the first and the third Gospels; the evangelical tradition; the career and the teaching of Jesus; and the literary form, the tradition of the text and the previous commentaries.
Lacey's Harnack and Loisy, with introduction by Viscount Halifax (London, 1904); "The Encyclical and M.
In Cumberland, Northumberland, Durham and latterly the United States, the reverberatory furnace is used only for roasting the ore, and the oxidized ore is then reduced by fusion in a low, square blastfurnace (a "Scottish hearth furnace") lined with cast iron, as is also the inclined sole-plate which is made to project beyond the furnace, the outside portion (the "work-stone") being provided with grooves guiding any molten metal that may be placed on the "stone" into a cast iron pot; the "tuyere" for the introduction of the wind was, in the earlier types, about half way down the furnace.
But he favoured the introduction of Nestorianism, in opposition to the orthodox creed of Byzantium.
His Chartes des libertes anglaises (1892) has an introduction upon the history of Magna Carta, &c., and his History of Europe from 395 to 1270, in collaboration with G.
==Toxicology== In a few minutes after the introduction of a poisonous dose of aconite, marked symptoms supervene.
His Belle Dame sans merci was translated into English by Sir Richard Ros about 1640, with an introduction of his own; and Clement Marot and Octavien de Saint-Gelais, writing fifty years after his death, find many fair words for the old poet, their master and predecessor.
Besides those already mentioned it is sufficient to refer to his New Testament Introduction (the first edition, 1750, preceded the full development of his powers, and is a very different book from the later editions), his reprint of Robert Lowth's Praelectiones with important additions (1758-1762), his German translation of the Bible with notes (1773-1792), his Orientalische and exegetische Bibliothek (1775-1785) and Neue 0.
The Introduction to the Science of Medicine (V.
It seems that confusion and trouble will be best avoided by abstaining from the introduction of the non-evident somites, the ocular and the praegenital, into the numerical nomenclature of the component somites of the three great body regions.
The organization of the Protestant Church was formerly connected with the corporation of the nobles of Livonia and Courland, but the rights of presentation pertaining to the manorial estates of the knights and to the Government estates have been abolished by the introduction of a democratic free church.
The ocean currents, the trade-winds blowing from the Australian mainland, and north-westerly storms from the Malayan islands, are no doubt responsible for the introduction of many, but not all, of these Malayan and Australasian species.
The best modern editions are the Chronique de Robert de Torigni, &c., edited by Leopold Delisle for the Soc. de l'histoire de Normandie (Rouen, 1872-1873), and Chronicle of Robert of Torigni, edited, with an introduction, by Richard Howlett (Rolls Series, No.
He not only freed it from all trammels of geometrical construction, but by the introduction of the symbol b gave it the efficacy of a new calculus.
2 10, 612 and Introduction § 17).
The introduction of African slaves followed closely upon the development of agricultural industries, and continued nominally until.
The introduction of European immigrants dates from 1818 when a Swiss colony was located at Nova Friburgo, near Rio de Janeiro, and it was continued under the direction and with the aid of the imperial government down to the creation of the republic. Since then the state governments have assumed charge of immigration, and some of them are spending large sums in the acquisition of labourers.
The territories of the state were enlarged; a friendly alliance was maintained with Florence; trade flourished; in 1321 the university was founded, or rather revived, by the introduction of Bolognese scholars; the principal buildings now adorning the town were begun; and the charitable institutions, which are the pride of modern Siena, increased and prospered.
Weary with this work, he took a post at Borch College in 1710, where he wrote, and printed in 1711, his first work, An Introduction to the History of the Nations of Europe, and was permitted to present to King Frederick IV.
He spent the next two years in extreme poverty, and published his Introduction to Natural and Popular Law.
Boetius ends by declining to adjudicate between Plato and Aristotle, remarking in a semi-apologetic style that, if he has expounded Aristotle's opinion by preference, his course is justified by the fact that he is commenting upon an introduction to Aristotle.
According to these men, even though rationality did not exist in any individual, its existence in nature would still remain intact " (Cousin, Introduction, &c., p. cxx.).
It has suffered considerably in modern times from the competition of other towns in this industry, especially since the introduction of the breech-loading rifle.
When the growth is at the cardiac end of the stomach, blocking the gullet and causing slow starvation, the abdomen may advisedly be opened, and, the stomach having been fixed to the surface-wound, a permanent opening may be arranged for the introduction of an adequate amount of food.
The introduction of hyperbolic functions into trigonometry was also due to him.
1902) once more brought up the question of the common army, the parliament refusing to pass the bill, except in return for the introduction of the Hungarian national flag into the Hungarian regiments and the substitution of Magyar for German in the words of command.
The two main items in the published programme of the new government were the introduction of universal suffrage and - even more revolutionary from the Magyar point of view - the substitution of state-appointed for elected officials in the counties.
Szekely wrote in prose, with verse introduction, a " Chronicle of the World " under the title of Cronica ez vildgnac yeles dolgairol (Cracow, 1559).
"You," said d'Alembert to him, "needed no introduction; you have recommended yourself; my support is your due."
des probabilites, to which the more popular Essai philosophique forms an introduction.
They are preceded by two sections dealing with the introduction to algebra from4the arithmetical and the graphical sides, and are followed by a section dealing briefly with the developments mentioned in ï¿½ï¿½ 9 and 1 o above.
Arithmetical Introduction to Algebra.
(2) The first step towards arithmetical reasoning in such a case is the introduction of the sign of equality.
are supposed to be obtained successively by introduction of new factors, so that r!=r.
and iii., forms a good introduction to algebra.
Chrystal, Introduction to Algebra (1898); H.
Bromwich, Introduction to the Theory of Infinite Series (1908); H.
Carslaw, Introduction to the Theory of Fourier's Series (1906); H.
Drach, Introduction a l'etude de la theorie des nombres et de l'algebre superieure (1895); C. de Comberousse, Cours de mathematiques, vols.
Tannery, Introduction a la theorie des fonctions d'une variable (1st ed.
Michael Stifel and Johann Scheubelius (Scheybl) (1494-1570) flourished in Germany, and although unacquainted with the work of Cardan and Tartalea, their writings are noteworthy for their perspicuity and the introduction of a more complete symbolism for quantities and operations.
Abroad the new King's position was prejudiced by the hideous crime which led to his accession, but among his own people this was from the first atoned for by the introduction of a real constitutional regime and increased political stability.
lishing the doctrine of organic evolution by the introduction into the web of the zoological and botanical sciences of a new science.
Darwin's introduction of thremmatology into the domain of scientific biology was accompanied by a new and special development of a branch of study which had previously been known as teleology, the study of the adaptation of organic structures to the service of the organisms in which they occur.
By the introduction of a method of classification which was due to the superficial Pliny - depending, not on structure, but on the medium inhabited by an animal, whether earth, air or waterWotton is led to associate Fishes and Whales as aquatic animals.
Apart from his special discoveries in the anatomy of plants and animals, and his descriptions of new species, the great merit of Linnaeus was his introduction of a method of enumeration and classification which may be said to have created systematic zoology and botany in their present form, and establishes his name for ever as the great organizer, the man who recognized a great practical want in the use of language and supplied it.
Von Baer, however, has another place in the history of zoology, being the first and most striking figure in the introduction of embryology into the consideration of the relations of animals to one another.
Owen not only occupied himself with the dissection of rare animals, such as the Pearly Nautilus, Lingula, Limulus, Protopterus, Apteryx, &c., and with the description and reconstruction of extinct reptiles, birds and mammals - following the Cuvierian tradition - but gave precision and currency to the morphological doctrines which had taken their rise in the beginning of the century by the introduction of two terms, " homology " and " analogy," which were defined so as to express two different kinds of agreement in animal structures, which, owing to the want of such " counters of thought," had been hitherto continually confused.
It is not easy to exaggerate the service rendered by Owen to the study of zoology by the introduction of this apparently small piece of verbal mechanism; it takes place with the classificatory terms of Linnaeus.
It is this introduction of the consideration of cell-structure and cell-development which, subsequently to the establishment of Darwinism, has most profoundly modified the views of systematists, and led in conjunction with the genealogical doctrine to the greatest activity in research - an activity which culminated in the work (1873-1882) of F.
The introduction of this conception necessarily has had a most important effect in the attempt to unravel the genealogical affinities of animals.
One result of the introduction of the new conceptions dating from Darwin was a healthy reaction from that attitude of mind which led to the regarding of the classes and orders recognized by authoritative zoologists as sacred institutions which were beyond the criticism of ordinary men.
The middle element alone contributes without deduction; the effect of every other must be found by introduction of a resolving factor, equal to cos 0, if 0 represent the difference of phase between this element and the resultant.
Previously to the introduction of the plate we have an effect corresponding to wave-lengths closely grouped around the principal wave-length, viz.
Civil marriages have been permissible in Hamburg since 1866, and since the introduction of the imperial law in January 1876 the number of such marriages has greatly increased.
of the Greek text, with copious introduction, by W.
Making friends with Alityrus, a Jewish actor, who was a favourite of Nero, Josephus obtained an introduction to the empress Poppaea and effected his purpose by her help. His visit to Rome enabled him to speak from personal experience of the power of the Empire, when he expostulated with the revolutionary Jews on his return to Palestine.
By the introduction of the Chinese the gold output from the mines was greatly increased, with the result that the Transvaal suffered less than any other part of South Africa from the restriction of commerce, which lasted for several years.
The introduction of the idea that the phenomenon was caused by refraction is to be assigned to Vitellio.
2 The date of L and Z is given as the end of the 15th century in the introduction to Wyse's edition.
Hallier (Leipzig, 1892) with a translation, introduction and abundant notes, and thirdly by Guidi with a Latin version (in Chronica minora, Paris, 1903).
His translation, which was edited by Bickell with an introduction by Benfey, must be distinguished from the much later Syriac translation made from the secondary Arabic version and edited by Wright in 1884.2 Ilannana of I.Iedhaiyabh, who nearly produced a disruption of the Nestorian Church by his attempt to bridge over the interval which separated the Nestorians from Catholic orthodoxy, was the author of many commentaries and other writings, in some of which he attacked the teaching of Theodore of Mopsuestia.
The controversial introduction is later than the Crusades; but the rituals, as far as Regarding Paulician beliefs we have little except hostile evidence, which needs sifting.
Secondly, the application of extraneous matter to the body, as painting and tattooing, and the raising of ornamental scars often by the introduction of foreign matter into flesh-wounds (this practice belongs partly to the first category also).
In the Greek and Roman period foreign influence shows itself very strongly in the introduction of novelties of costume and of classical terms, and the subject belongs rather to the Greek and Roman dress of the age.
To the Jesuit missionaries is due the introduction of an ingenious though very complicated system, which has caused remarkable progress to be made in the employment of phonetic characters.
"Bertillonage," as it was called, became widely popular, and after its introduction into France in 1883, where it was soon credited with highly gratifying results, was applied to the administration of justice in most civilized countries.
Both overlooked the changes brought by the introduction of the longrange rifle (muzzleand breech-loading alike), which had rendered impossible the "case shot preparation" which had formed the basis of Napoleon's tactical system.
Progress in the study of pathology has been greatly facilitated by the introduction of improved methods of technique.
He took an important part in the preparation of the famous Description de l'Egypte and wrote the historical introduction.
In the description of surgical operations the vagueness of the language seems sometimes to show that the author had not performed such himself; but in other parts, and especially in his historical introduction, he speaks with more confidence; and everywhere he compares and criticizes with learning and judgment.
The reputation of the school was great till the 12th or 13th century, when the introduction of the Arab medicine was gradually fatal to it.
After this time the foreign influence predominated; and by the time that the Aristotelian dialectic, in the introduction of which the Arabs had so large a share, prevailed in the schools of Europe, the Arabian version of Greek medicine reigned supreme in the medical world.
The chief immediate result we can trace is the introduction of certain mineral remedies, especially antimony, the use of which became a kind of badge of the disciples of Paracelsus.
In France the introduction of antimony gave rise to a bitter controversy which lasted into the 17th century, and led to the expulsion of some men of mark from the Paris faculty.
In another direction the foundations of modern medicine were being laid during the 16th century - namely, by the introduction of clinical instruction in hospitals.
In another respect also he aided in establishing an exact science of medicine by the introduction of the numerical or statistical method.
A condition of this reform was the need of a preliminary training of the mind of the pupil in pure science, even in physics and chemistry; that is to say, before introduction into his professional studies.
Procuring an introduction he discovered her to be a protegee of Madame de Sillery, comtesse de Geniis.
The introduction of steam has greatly increased the shipping on the Rhine; and small steamers ply also on the Main, the Neckar, the Maas and the Mosel.
Before the introduction of railways there were no permanent bridges across the Rhine below Basel; but now trains cross it at about a dozen different points in Germany and Holland.
The failure of the government in Ireland (where the only success was Mr Birrell's introduction of the Universities Bill in April 1908), their internal divisions as regards socialistic legislation, their variance from the views of the selfgoverning colonies on Imperial administration, the admission after the general election that the alleged "slavery" of the Chinese in the Transvaal was, in Mr Winston Churchill's phrase, a "terminological inexactitude," and the introduction of extreme measures such as the Licensing Bill of 1908, offered excellent opportunities of electioneering attack.
The subject appears indeed to have been fully treated in accordance with the plan sketched out in the introduction to the first book.
For the earlier editions it is sufficient to refer to the account in Munro's Introduction, vol.
She pretty certainly was the chief cause of his early introduction to good society, the abbe de Chateauneuf (his sponsor in more ways than one) having been her friend.
70 sqq., who from philological and other data infers the late date of the introduction of incense into the Jewish ritual.
With their advantages of greater speed and carrying capacity over the horsed vehicles, their introduction was a most important development, though their working at first imposed a severe financial strain on many companies.
A long-standing cause of complaint on the part of the public has been the common refusal of cab-drivers to accept their legal fares, but, on the other hand, several attempts to introduce cabs with an automatic taximeter failed, until the introduction of motor cabs, of which a few had already been plying for some time when in 1907 a large number, provided with taximeters, were put into service.
Bishop Stubbs in his Introduction to the Historical Works of Ralph de Diceto writes: " St Paul's stood at the head of the religious life of London, and by its side, at some considerable interval, however, St Martin's le Grand (1056), St Bartholomew's, Smithfield (1123) and the great and ancient foundation of Trinity, Aldgate " (1 r08).
Stubbs, in his introduction to the"'Chronicle of Roger de Hoveden, writes: " This done, oaths were largely taken: John, the Justiciar and the Barons swore to maintain the Communa of London; the oath of fealty to Richard was then sworn, John taking it first, then the two archbishops, the bishops, the barons, and last the burghers with the express understanding that should the king die without issue they would receive John as his successor."
-The earliest description of London is that written by the monk Fitzstephen in 1174 as an introduction to his life of Archbishop Thomas a Becket.
the king at Umgungindhlovu, the royal kraal on the White Umfolosi, " surrounded by a large number of chiefs and about 8000 or 9000 armed men, observing a state and ceremony in our introduction little expected."
Russia had in consequence been virtually cut off from intercourse by water with the outer world, seeing that the Baltic likewise was closed owing to action of the German navy; no adequate outlet for the Russian Empire's produce remained available; the most promising avenue for the introduction of warlike stores into the Tsar's dominions from without had been effectually barred.
In Berlin he had been intimate with the Austrian ambassador, Count Stadion, whose good offices procured him an introduction to the emperor Francis.
Since the introduction of iron ships teak has supplanted oak, because it contains an essential oil which preserves iron and steel, instead of corroding them like the tannic acid contained in oak.
There is no certainty as to the date or method of their introduction.
Glasses possessing special qualities have been required, and have been supplied by the introduction of new combinations of materials.
They have a hooded opening on one side near the top. This opening serves for the introduction of the glass-mixture, for the removal of the melted glass and as a source of heat for the processes of manipulation.
They, moreover, suggested the introduction for the manufacture of table-glass of a material similar in texture to that used by the Venetians, both colourless and tinted.
Optical Society (London, 1903), " Possible Directions of Progress in Optical Glass," Proc. Optical Convention (London, 1905) and Glass Manufacture (London, 1908); Introduction to section 1, Catalogue of the Optical Convention (London, 1905).
Oxides of iron and manganese can only be used in glass manufacture in comparatively small quantities for the purpose of colouring or neutralizing colour in glass, and their introduction would not be a matter of sufficient importance to be specially recorded.
To the last is credited the first introduction of covered crucibles to protect the molten glass from the products of burning coal.
Stubbs' Introduction, II.
In his later years he published an address read before the members of the Edinburgh Philosophical Institution (1868), one on Design in Nature, for the Christian Evidence Society, which reached a fifth edition, various charges and pastoral addresses, and he was one of the projectors of The Speaker's Commentary, for which he wrote the "Introduction to the Synoptic Gospels."
At Cairo he became thoroughly imbued with Shi'a doctrines, and their introduction into his native country was henceforth the sole object of his life.
It may have been written as an appendix to 4 Ezra, as it has no proper introduction.
He speaks more favourably of the introduction of food into the stomach by a silver tube; and he strongly recommends the use of nutritive enemata.
His Opera have been edited with an introduction by O.
Alphonse de Candolle (Origin of Cultivated Plants, p. 158) points out that the epoch of its introduction into different countries agrees with the idea that its origin was in India, Cochin-China or the Malay Archipelago, and regards it as most probable that its primitive range extended from Bengal to Cochin-China.
On the introduction of Bismarck's plan for the acquisition of the railways by the state, Delbriick resigned office, nominally on the ground of ill-health (June 1, 1876).
See Lewis's Introduction (1877); Calendars of Irish, Foreign and Spanish State Papers, and of the Carew MSS.; Knox's Letters of Cardinal Allen; T.
He soon became the most popular teacher of Hebrew and of Old Testament introduction and exegesis in Germany; during his later years his lectures were attended by nearly five hundred students.
In 1898, however, the introduction of convicts into the island ceased.
Its dissolution was due especially to the introduction of new industries, organized on a more modern basis, and to the extension of the domestic system of manufacture.
The medieval form of association was incompatible with the new ideas of individual liberty and free competition, with the greater separation of capital and industry, employers and workmen, and with the introduction of the factory system.
Ashley, Introduction to English Economic History (2 vols., London, 188818 93; 3rd ed.
tabacum, and an introduction from America.
The chief improvements in the plant of these processes are concerned with the manufacture of the retorts or muffles, and especially with the introduction of gas-firing.
In Silesia the introduction of gas-firing has led to the use of furnaces containing eighty muffles.
plough was known as early as the 17th century, but, till the introduction of the latter device by Ransome in 1873, cannot be said to have been in successful use.
In regard to methods and apparatus, mention should be made of his improvements in the technique of organic analysis, his plan for determining the natural alkaloids and for ascertaining the molecular weights of organic bases b y means of their chloroplatinates, his process for determining the quantity of urea in a solution - the first step towards the introduction of precise chemical methods into practical medicine - and his invention of the simple form of condenser known in every laboratory.
Scholars are not yet agreed as to what would have been their result if their natural development had not been cut off by the violent introduction of Frankish feudalism with the Norman conquest, whether the historical feudal system, or a feudal system in the general sense.
He wrote also an introduction to Miss Ffoulkes's translation of Morelli's Italian Painters (1892-1893), and edited that part of Murray's Handbook of Rome (1894) which deals with pictures.
At the age of fifteen he decided on a military career, and having obtained an introduction to Napoleon Bonaparte, then first consul, was admitted to the Military.
After his death were published: - (1) His Introduction to the Old Testament (Einleitung in das Alte Testament), (3rd ed., 1869); Eng.
Wellhausen, who made extensive alterations and additions; (2) his Introduction to the New Testament (3rd ed., W.
T.) History Introduction.
The next step was the introduction of metre into the body of the sentence and the restriction of the passages to a definite length.
The gasida still required the long introduction (see above), which was entirely occupied with the affairs of the desert.
On the other hand, some interpolations took place, one in the 1 For details see the introduction to Noldeke's translation of Tabari's Geschichte der Perser and Araber zur Zeit der Sasaniden (aeiden, 1879).
It commemorates "the introduction and propagation of the noble law of Ta t'sin in the Middle Kingdom," and beneath an incised cross sets out in Chinese and Syriac an abstract of Christian doctrine and the course of a Syrian mission in China beginning with the favourable reception of Olopan, who came from Judaea in 636.
But whereas, from its construction, the Siemens furnace was intermittent in operation, necessitating stoppage of the current while the contents of the crucible were poured out, many of the newer forms are specially designed either to minimize the time required in effecting the withdrawal of one charge and the introduction of the next, or to ensure absolute continuity of action, raw material being constantly charged in at the top and the finished substance and by-products (slag, &c.) withdrawn either continuously or at intervals, as sufficient quantity shall have accumulated.
Still later another element was added to the population in the introduction by the Turkish masters of Egypt of a number of Bosnians.
The baptistery was completed only in 1278, and marred in the 14th century by the introduction of Gothic details.
The presence of the Romans, and the constant introduction of the Italians, first as slaves, and quite recently as colonists, has also added an Italian element to the north Tunisian population.
' Of recent introduction for the most part, consisting (census of 1906) of 81,156 Italians, 34,610 French, 10,330 Maltese, about moo Greeks and the remainder British, German, Austrian, &c. The French army of occupation (20,360 men) is not included in these figures.
In the following year appeared his Introduction to the Atomic Theory, which was succeeded by a supplement in 1840, and in 1850 by a second edition.
(Tubingen, 1901), and in an English trans., with Introduction and occasional notes, by Dr C. Taylor (S.P.C.K., 2 vols., 1903 - 1906).
2nd Image Object Mirror Image without Lens camera obscura, which was extensively used in sketching from nature before the introduction of photography, although it is now scarcely to be seen except as an interesting side-show at places of popular resort.
In modern times the laboratory practice of distillation was greatly facilitated by the introduction of the condenser named after Justus von Liebig; A.
Moyen age (1896); C. Squire, The Mythology of the British Isles: an Introduction to Celtic Myth and Romance (1905); J.
a See the Introduction to the Century Bible, " Deuteronomy and Joshua," by H.
For a review of recent criticism see Cheyne, introduction to W.
He gives an introduction, in which the adventures of the father, here a prince of Anjou, are related; a conclusion, in which the Swan-Knight, Lohengrin, is made Parzival's son; he represents the inhabitants of the Grail castle as Templars (Templeisen); and makes the Grail itself a stone.
With the introduction of Western civilization in modern times, however, the theatre ceased to be ta4ooed by the aristocracy.