Intestine sentence example

intestine
  • Moreover, upon the intestine the coelomic cells are modified into chloragogen cells.
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  • above but below the intestine, e.g.
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  • intestine must find its way ", outwards probably acting in this region the part of a sphincter.
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  • The intestine has a pair of caeca or two or three pairs (but all lie in one segment) in the genus Pheretima and in one species of Rhinodrilus.
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  • The stomach, oesophagus and intestine are ciliated on their inner surface.
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  • There are no lacunar blood spaces with ill-defined or absent walls except for a sinus surrounding the intestine, which is at least frequently present.
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  • From 1844 Brazil was free from intestine commotions, and had resumed its activity.
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  • It must be pointed out that the presence or absence of such renal excretory tubes opening into the intestine appears to be a question FIG.
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  • (Lancoil of intestine and liver, a little to the kester.) left side.
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  • The "intestine movement of particles" in every body, or fermentation, was the explanation of many of the processes of life and disease.
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  • Subsequently Juan Manuel Rosas, dictator of Buenos Aires, interfered in the intestine quarrels of Uruguay; and Montevideo was besieged by his forces, allied with the native partisans of General Oribe, for nine years (1843-52).
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  • Internally, sulphur is a mild laxative, being converted in the intestine into sulphides.
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  • Simple fibrous narrowing of the gateway of the stomach or of the intestine is dealt with by dividing it longitudinally and then suturing the edges of the wound transversely.
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  • (Lankester.) q, Intestine in transverse section.
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  • There is some evidence that in this group the ectoderm of the oesophagus is chiefly concerned with digestion, whereas the endoderm of the intestine is limited to the absorption of the soluble products.
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  • In the case of pyloric obstruction a permanent opening may be established between the stomach and a neighbouring piece of intestine, so that the food may find its way along the alimentary canal greatly to the relief of the symptoms of gastric dilatation.
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  • Narrow process of the same running below the intestine and leading by k into the pericardium.
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  • With one exception, the intestine has a caecum, and the pouch is large and opens forwards.
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  • Close to this the small renal organ (i, mediad) and the larger renal organ (k, to the right and posteriorly) are seen, also the pericardium (1) and a coil of the intestine (int) embedded in the compact liver.
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  • This bilobed sac becomes entirely the liver in the adult; the intestine and stomach are formed from the pedicle of invagination, whilst the pharynx, oesophagus and crop form from the stomodaeal invagination ph.
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  • Superiorly the sheath either closely adheres to the muscular bodywall, with which it may even be partly interwoven, or it hangs freely in the connective tissue which fills the space between the intestine and the muscular body-wall.
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  • The stomach is simple, and there is no caecum to the intestine, although this is present in the opossums.
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  • Owing to more or less herbivorous habits, the intestine is exceedingly elongate and much convoluted, being several times larger and of a greater calibre than after the metamorphosis.
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  • Enteroxenos, no pseudo pallium and no intestine, hermaphrodite, larvae with operculum.
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  • The coelom is lined throughout by cells, which upon the intestine become large and loaded with excretory granules, and are known as chloragogen cells.
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  • echinodiscus lives in the intestine of ant-eaters: G.
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  • It is possible that this represents the syphon or supplementary intestine of Capitellidae, which has been shown to develop as a groving of the intestine ultimately cut off from it.
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  • In some early cases of pyloric cancer resection of the disease may be performed, the upper end of the intestine being afterwards joined to the middle of the stomach by a kind of short-circuiting operation.
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  • Internally they are found to consist of a lamina twisted upon itself, and externally they generally exhibit a tortuous structure, produced, before the cloaca was reached, by the spiral valve of a compressed small intestine (as in skates, sharks and dog-fishes); the surface shows also vascular impressions and corrugations due to the same cause.
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  • In the structure of the digestive system, beetles resemble most other mandibulate insects, the food-canal consisting of gullet, crop, gizzard, mid-gut or stomach, intestine and rectum.
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  • The intestine is lined by ciliated cells.
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  • Biisgen that the sweet secretion (honey-dew) of the aphids is not derived, as generally believed, from the paired cornicles on the fifth abdominal segment, but from the intestine, whence it exudes in drops and is swallowed by the ants.
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  • This subsequently closes up, and the newly-formed oesophagus and stomach open in the intestine above and behind it.
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  • In transverse sections the nephridia can be shown to be generally situated in the region limited by (I) the proboscidian sheath, (2) the upper wall of the intestine, (3) the muscular body-wall.
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  • Pretorius in 1863 resigned his Free State presidency and offering himself as mediator (not for the first time) succeeded at length in putting a period to the confused series of intestine quarrels.
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  • end of the intestine, which ??
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  • Almost exclusively parasitic in the intestine of Elasmobranch fish.
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  • A, Fasciola hepatica, from the ventral surface (X 2); the alimentary and nervous systems only shown on the left side of the figure, the excretory only on the right; a, right main branch of the intestine; c, a diverticulum; g, lateral ganglion; n, lateral nerve; o, mouth; p, pharynx; s, ventral sucker; cs, cirrus sac; d, left anterior dorsal excretory vessel; m, main vessel; v, left anterior ventral trunk; x, excretory pore.
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  • (c) Shell-glands; (d) ootype; (e) uterus; (g) median-vitello-duct; (i, i) intestine.
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  • intestine; sc; posterior suckers; yk, yolk-glands.
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  • The general structure of the Molluscan intestine has not been sufficiently investigated to render any comparison of this structure of Patella with that of other Mollusca possible.
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  • It can be traced back to the intestine i near the surface of the visceral hump, and it is found that the apex of the coil formed by the hump is occupied by the liver h and the stomach v.
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  • From this we pass to a stomach and a coil of intestine embedded in the lobes of a voluminous liver; a caecum of large size is given off near the commencement of the intestine.
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  • Metanemertini, in which the nervous system lies inside the dermal muscles in the parenchyma; the mouth lies in front of the level of the brain; the proboscis as a ru'e bears stylets; the intestine nearly always has a caecum.
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  • It can then at the same time be observed, too, that the compact mass of connective tissue (" reticulum," Barrois) which lies between the muscular bodywall and the intestine is directly continuous with that in which the muscular layers are embedded.
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  • The posterior portion of the intestine is specially characterized by the appearance of the intestinal diverticula horizontally and symmetrically placed right and left and opposite to each other.
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  • In the Metanemertini there is a curious diverticulum of the intestine which stretches forward in the median line, ventral to the socalled stomach.
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  • A buccal cavity, a pharynx, an oesophagus and an intestine are always distinguishable.
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  • In Carinella they are generally deficient and the intestine straight; in young specimens of this species, however, they occur, though less regular and more in the form of incipient foldings by which the digestive surface is, increased.
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  • Two pairs of invaginations of B the skin, which originally are called the prostomial and metastomial disks, grow round the intestine, finally fuse together, and form the skin and mus- cular body-wall of the future Nemertine, which afterwards becomes ciliated, frees itself from the pilidium investment and develops into the adult worm without further metamorphosis.
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  • Death usually supervenes before a numbing effect on the intestine can be observed.
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  • (Xioo.) reproductive system; C, Cirrus; H, hooks on the ventral sucker; I, small piece of the intestine to show its connexion with the reproductive organs by the narrow duct that passes from it to the union of the vaginae; M, mouth; 0, ovary; S, oral sucker; SC, sucker; SH, shell-gland; T, Testis; U, uterus; V, vaginal pore; Y, yolkgland.
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  • When young it is found in the intestine, but becomes mature in "Keber's organ" and the pericardium.
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  • F intestine and so gets rid of the excess of yolk.
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  • These Trematodes live chiefly in the intestine of aquatic birds or reptiles.
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  • hg, Intestine.
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  • From the same cause arose the violent intestine contests which ended in the establishment of a rude and turbulent democracy.
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  • It hardly affects the small intestine, but markedly stimulates the muscular coat of the large intestine, causing purging in about fifteen hours.
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  • There is hardly any increase in the intestinal secretion, the drug being emphatically not a hydragogue cathartic. There is no doubt that its habitual use may be a factor in the formation of haemorrhoids; as in the case of all drugs that act powerfully on the lower part of the intestine, without simultaneously lowering the venous pressure by causing increase of secretion from the bowel.
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  • Behind the digestive stomach are situated, as usual, intestine and rectum, and the number of kidney (Malpighian) tubes varies from only six to over a hundred, being usually great.
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  • In 1336 it became subject to Florence for six years, and after intestine struggles, finally came under her rule in 1384.
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  • The salts of sodium resemble potassium in their action on the alimentary tract, but they are much more slowly absorbed, and much less diffusible; therefore considerable amounts may reach the small intestine and there act as saline purgatives.
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  • The possession of a variable number of excretory tubes (Malpighian tubes), which are developed as outgrowths of the hind-gut and pour their excretion into the intestine,is also a distinctive character of the Hexapoda.
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  • 2; in addition, cn, nerve cord; in, intestine; nf, parts of nephridium; on, external opening of nephridium; ov, ova; 1, testis.
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  • There, as above explained, Leach began the subdivision of Muller's too comprehensive genus, the result being that Lynceus belongs to the Phyllopoda, and Chydorus (Leach, 1816) properly gives its name to the present family, in which the doubly convoluted intestine is so remarkable.
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  • Further, he includes in it his own Enterognathus comatulae, not from an ascidian, but from the intestine of the beautiful starfish Antedon rosaceus.
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  • A slender ciliated gullet (e) leads into a large stomach (st) whose wall consists of large richly ciliated cells with usually a pair of simple secretory sacs opening into it: it may open through an intestine or rectum into the cloaca.
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  • Following upon the stomach there is a longer or shorter intestine, which ends in the cloaca.
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  • In forms living in a tube the intestine turns round and runs forward, the cloaca being placed so as to debouch over the margin of the tube.
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  • The essential part of the medicinal treatment of this condition is the administration of iodides, which are able to decompose the insoluble albuminates of lead which have become locked up in the tissues, rapidly causing their degeneration, and to cause the excretion of the poisonous metal by means of the intestine and the kidneys.
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  • Timur not only consolidated his rule at home by the subjection of intestine foes, but sought extension of territory by encroachments upon the lands of foreign potentates.
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  • Inflammation of the Liver (hepatitis) may also be caused by an attack of micro-organisms which have reached it through the veins coming from the large intestine, or through the main arteries.
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  • If an hepatic abscess is injudiciously left to itself it may eventually discharge into the chest, lungs or belly, or it may establish a communication with a piece of intestine.
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  • The embryo of the taenia echinococcus finds its way from the stomach or intestine into a vein passing to the liver, and, settling itself in the liver, causes so much disturbance there that a capsule of inflammatory material forms around it.
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  • In other cases gall-stones set up irritation in the gall-bladder which runs on to inflammation, and the gall-bladder being infected by septic germs from the intestine (bacilli coli) an abscess forms.
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  • If the abscess is allowed to take its course, adhesions may form around it and it may burst into the intestine or on to the surface of the abdomen, a biliary fistula remaining.
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  • Inasmuch as the stone is blocking the duct, the bile is unable to flow into the intestine; so, being absorbed by the blood-vessels, it gives rise to jaundice.
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  • If the stone happily finds its way into the intestine the distress suddenly ceases.
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  • Sometimes a gall-stone which has found its way into the intestine is large enough to block the bowel and give rise to intestinal obstruction which demands abdominal section.
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  • No reliance can be placed upon massage in producing the onward passage of a gall-stone from the gall-bladder towards the intestine.
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  • this suggestion has been i, Intestine.
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  • The coil of the intestine in Anodonta is similar to that of other Lamellibranchs.
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  • lar'andskeleto-trophictissues e, Intestine.
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  • -Vein -`Wolffian-duct -- Intestine of numerous tubules which open into the Wolffian duct.
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  • The alimentary tube consists of three regions: firstly, the anterior buccal mass with the oesophagus, of ectodermic origin, and therefore bearing cuticular structures, namely the jaws and radula; secondly, the mid-gut, of endodermic origin and including the stomach and liver; and, thirdly, the hind-gut or intestine.
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  • The heart is situated in the pericardium on the dorsal side of the intestine and at the posterior end of the animal.
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  • Pedal and pleural on each side are connected by a pleuro-pedal connective Each pleural ganglion gives off a long nerve which supplies the viscera, and the two unite posteriorly below the intestine.
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  • The Prorhipidoglossomorpha are distinguished by the separation of the genital coelom from the pericardium, and by the long visceral commissure passing ventral to the intestine.
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  • The intestine (except in the dormice or Gliridae) has a large caecum.
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  • Frequently also from this junction of the ovaria and the vitellaria a median tube is given off which either opens to the exterior or into the intestine, in the latter case it appears to serve as.
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  • The branched intestine (G) is drawn on one side of the animal only; it opens to the exterior by means of a pharynx (not shown).
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  • There is no armature, and no glands, and the whole tract can only be divided into an oesophagus and an intestine.
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  • It is, indeed, probable that it is formed in the intestine, as a result of some decomposition as yet unknown.
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  • Neighbouring states encroached upon its borders, and the nobles ignored the authority of the dukes, who, deprived of the electoral vote, were mainly occupied for fifty years with intestine strife.
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  • The recovery of the Upper Palatinate made Bavaria compact; the acquisition of the electoral vote made it influential; and the duchy was able to play a part in European politics which intestine strife had rendered impossible for the past four hundred years.
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  • As in other molluscs the coelom is represented by a large pericardial cavity, situated above the intestine posteriorly, and a generative sac which is single and median and situated in front of the pericardium, except in the Nuttalochiton hyadesi, where the gonads are in a similar position, but are paired.
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  • The gonad is transversely wrinkled and lies between the aorta and the intestine, extending from the pericardium to the anterior end of the body.
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  • The latter extends backwards on the ventral side of the intestine.
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  • The commercial and naval successes of the Genoese during the middle ages were the more remarkable because, unlike their rivals, the Venetians, they were the unceasing prey to intestine discord - the Genoese commons and nobles fighting against each other, rival factions amongst the nobles themselves striving to grasp the supreme power in the state, nobles and commons alike invoking the arbitration and rule of some foreign captain as the sole means of obtaining a temporary truce.
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  • e, Intestine.
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  • In some it is very marked, for example in some viscera, the spleen, the bladder, the ureter, the uterus, the intestine, and especially in the heart.
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  • In the intestine, for instance, are layers of muscle-fibre which are constantly being inhibited or kept under check by the splanchnic nerves.
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  • The mouth is terminal or subterminal; there is a weak sucking pharynx situated behind the brain, and a long intestine lying along the medio-ventral body-cavity; it ends in a cloaca which receives the vasa deferentia in the male.
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  • A curious duct with lateral branches termed the supra-intestinal organ lies above the intestine in the female.
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  • There are two series of ovaries extending through a large part of the body and accompanied by two uteri; the latter open by two oviducts which debouch into an atrium which also receives the intestine and a single receptaculum seminis, and is continued backward as the cloaca; this opens posteriorly.
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  • The paired testes extend through the greater part of the body and end in two vasa deferentia which unite with the intestine to form a cloaca.
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  • The maggots may pass no excrement from the intestine until they have eaten all their store of food.
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  • He did his best to remedy the misery caused by the intestine wars, repaired the ruined mosques and other public edifices, founded hospitals and libraries - his library in Shiraz was one of the wonders of the world - and improved irrigation.
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  • In the intestine tannic acid controls intestinal bleeding, acting as a powerful astringent and causing constipation; for this reason it has been recommended to check diarrhoea.
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  • The native princes, who claimed to be descended from Alexander the Great, were till 1868 practically independent, though their allegiance was claimed in an ineffective way by Khokand, but eventually Bokhara took advantage of their intestine feuds to secure their real submission in 1877.
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  • Intestine strife among the West Saxons followed.
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  • INTESTINE (Lat.
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  • In order to avoid the intestine strife so common in Italian civic life, it soon became the custom to select a stranger to fill this position.
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  • In Anodon and the majority of lamellibranchs the ventricle surrounds the intestine; in the oyster the two are quite independent, the intestine passing above the pericardium.
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  • Abagha was a peaceful ruler and endeavoured by wise administration to give order and prosperity to a country torn asunder by a long period of intestine war and the Mongol invasion.
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  • His kingdom was distracted by intestine divisions and rebellion, and the foe i Creasy says that Suliman led his armies against the Persians in several campaigns (1533, 1534, 1535, 1548, 1553, 1554), during which the Turks often suffered severely through the difficult nature of the countries traversed, as well as through the bravery and activity af the enemy.
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  • Similar procedures are used for the intestine, and one of the best methods of treating the diarrhoea consequent upon the presence of irritating substances in the intestinal canal is to give a dose of castor-oil together with a few drops of laudanum.
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  • By means of the castor-oil the irritating substances are removed, and the laudanum which is mixed with the purgative soothes the intestine.
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  • After the irritant has been removed either from the stomach or intestine, a feeling of irritation of the mucous membrane may remain, and sickness, diarrhoea or pain may continue in the stomach and intestine although the irritant is no longer present within them, just as the flow of tears and desire to rub may remain in the eye after the piece of grit which has occasioned it may have been removed.
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  • But it seems now probable that all glands which have what may be termed an external secretion like the pancreas, stomach, intestine, skin and kidneys have also an internal secretion, so that while they are pouring out one secretion from the ducts into the intestine or external air, they are also pouring into the lymphatics, and thus into the blood, an internal secretion.
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  • We do not know at present if any corresponding anti-toxin or antitrypsin, as we may term it, is returned into the lymphatics or blood from the gland, but the pancreas, which in addition to secreting trypsin secretes a diastatic ferment forming sugar from starch, pours this into the intestine and secretes at the same time a glycolytic ferment which breaks up sugar, and this latter passes into the blood by way of the lymphatics.
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  • Thus the gland not only breaks up starch into sugar in the intestine, but breaks up the sugar thus formed after it has been absorbed into the blood.
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  • The food thus reaches the stomach in large lumps which cannot be readily digested, and either remain there till they decompose and give rise to irritation in the stomach itself, or pass on to the intestine, where digestion is likewise incomplete, and the food is ejected without the proper amount of nourishment having been extracted from it; while at the same time the products of its decomposition may have been absorbed and acted as poisons, giving rise to lassitude, discomfort, headache, or perhaps even to irritability and sleeplessness.
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  • The reason for this is that farinaceous foods are digested in the intestine and not in the stomach, where they may undergo fermentation, whereas proteid foods are to a great extent digested in the stomach.
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  • Deficient nervous action also leads to defective secretion and movement in the intestine, sometimes with flatulent accumula tion and sometimes with constipation.
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  • By preventing fermentation in the intestine these also tend to prevent or check diarrhoea, and they may do good after the irritant has been removed by castor oil.
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  • In some cases of chronic inflammation of the kidneys, where the disease is not extensive, the patient may continue in fair health for a number of years, provided attention be paid to the following rules: - (i) The body must be kept warm, and chills must be scrupulously avoided; (2) the digestion must be attended to carefully, so that no excess of poisonous bodies is formed in the intestine or absorbed from it; (3) eliminating channels such as the skin and bowel must be kept active.
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  • Thus in cholera the bacteria are practically confined to the intestine, in diphtheria to the region of the false membrane, in tetanus to some wound.
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  • But thanks in some measure to the intestine troubles in Elam, the Babylonian army and its allies were defeated and driven into Babylon, Sippara, Borsippa and Cutha.
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  • The substance called "ambergris," formerly used in medicine and now in perfumery, is a concretion formed in the intestine of this whale, and found floating on the surface of the sea.
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  • Internally the nitrate has been used in the treatment of gastric ulcer, in ulcerative conditions of the intestine and in chronic dysentery.
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  • The intestine is short and forms several loops all situated close behind the foot.
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  • The liver is placed entirely behind the intestine in the middle of the body, and behind it the rest of the body is occupied by the unpaired gonad.
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  • in, Intestine.
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  • i, Intestine and its caeca.
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  • Though numerous ancient monuments at Prague have been destroyed in consequence of intestine strife and foreign warfare, the city still contains many of great value and may be considered one of the most interesting cities of central Europe.
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  • Its rapid neutralization in the intestine renders it equally devoid of any remote actions.
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  • Should the patient survive the first twenty-four hours death generally results later from stricture of the oesophagus or intestine, from destruction of the glands of the stomach or from exhaustion.
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  • The alimentary,or intestinal, canal varies greatly in relative length and capacity in different mammals, and also offers manifold peculiarities of form, being sometimes a simple cylindrical tube of nearly uniform calibre throughout, but more often subject to alterations of form and capacity in different portions of its course - the most characteristic and constant being the division into an upper and narrower and a lower and wider portion, called respectively the small and the large intestine; the former being arbitrarily divided into duodenum, jejunum and ileum, and the latter into colon and rectum.
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  • These caeca occur in birds (as in mammals) at the junction of the small with the large intestine; and while in ordinary perching-birds they are reduced to small nipplelike buds of no functional importance, in many other birds - owls for instance - they form quite long receptacles.
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  • In the intestine the ferric chloride becomes changed into an oxide of iron; the sub-chloride is converted into a ferrous carbonate, which is soluble.
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  • Iron in the intestine causes an astringent or constipating effect.
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  • The Russians have abolished slavery; and their rule has put an end to the interminable intestine struggles which had weakened and desolated the whole region.
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  • They created in East Turkestan the power of the khojas, or "theologians," who afterwards fomented the many intestine wars that were waged between the rival factions of the White and the Black Mountaineers.
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  • R, Intestine.
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  • prefix buo--, in the sense of "bad," and g vmpov, the intestine), also called "bloody flux," an infectious disease with a local lesion in the form of inflammation and ulceration of the lower portion of the bowels.
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  • The matters passed from the bowels, which at first resemble those of ordinary diarrhoea, soon change their character, becoming scanty, mucous or slimy, and subsequently mixed with, or consisting wholly of, blood, along with shreds of exudation thrown off from the mucous membrane of the intestine.
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  • The dysentery poison appears to exert its effects upon the glandular structures of the large intestine, particularly in its lower part.
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  • Commencing in and around the solitary glands of the large intestine in the form of exudations, these ulcers, small at first, enlarge and run into each other, till a large portion of the bowel may be implicated in the ulcerative process.
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  • They made alliances with the strangers to aid them in their intestine wars, and the annalist writing in later years (Annals of Lough Ce) describes with pathetic brevity the change wrought in Ireland:" Earl Strongbow came into Erin with Dermod MacMurrough to avenge his expulsion by Roderick, son of Turlough O'Connor; and Dermod gave 1 The whole question is discussed by Mr J.
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  • For Sparta the long era of war and intestine struggle had ceased and one of peace and a revived prosperity took its place, as is witnessed by the numerous extant inscriptions belonging to this period.
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  • The most common human parasite is the Ascaris lumbricoides or round worm, found chiefly in children and occupying the upper portion of the intestine.
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  • A refuge of Italian pauperism in the time of the Gracchi, after the triumph of the oligarchy the Narbonnaise became a field for shameless exploitation, besides providing, under the proconsulate of Caesar, an excellent point of observation whence to watch the intestine quarrels between the different nations of Gaul.
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  • For more than two centuries they had remained prudently entrenched behind the earthworks that extended from Cologne to Ratisbon (Regensburg); but the intestine feuds which prevailed among the barbarians and were fostered by Rome, the organizatipn under bold and turbulent chiefs of the bands greedy for booty, the pressing forward on populations already settled of tribes in their rear; all this caused the Germanic invasion to filter by degrees across the frontier.
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  • The cabinet seemed stronger than it really was, for it was divided by intestine quarrels, and the earl of Chatham refused to have anything to do with it.
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  • The small intestine is of great length (80 to 90 ft.), its mucous membrane being covered with numerous fine villi.
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  • The colon is about one-third the length of the small intestine, and very capacious in the greater part of its course.
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  • (lightly shaded) As regards the alimentary organs, it will extends as far suffice to state, in this very brief sketch, that as the bifurcaall batrachians being carnivorous in their tion of the perfect condition, the intestine is never very synangium.
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  • In the intestine they combine with ammonia and other alkalis present, and are absorbed into the blood as neutral salts, being excreted chiefly in the urine.
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  • They therefore remain for the most part in the intestine, and as they attract and retain large quantities of water, and at the same time slightly stimulate the mucous membrane, they come to have a purgative action and form the well-known group of saline cathartics.
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  • Zuni, against, iXµcvs, EX,u vBos, a worm) are drugs which kill parasites inhabiting the intestine.
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  • The most important facts in the internal history of Brandenburg during the 16th century were the increase in the power of the estates, owing chiefly to the continuous pecuniary needs of the electors; the gradual decline in the political importance of the towns, due mainly to intestine feuds; and the lapse of the peasantry into servitude.
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  • She had pernicious anemia, in which vitamin B12 is not absorbed from the intestine.
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  • absorbed in the intestine is usually carefully regulated.
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  • absorbed from the intestine.
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  • acid reflux, these squamous cells can be replaced by mucus-secreting cells similar to those found in the intestine.
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  • alkaline phosphatase, the GGT tends not to be elevated in diseases of bone, placenta, or intestine.
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  • Some people have a medical problem called pernicious anemia in which vitamin B 12 is not absorbed from the intestine.
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  • Diagnosis is usually made with barium X-rays (taken after the patient swallows barium liquid to show up the inside of the intestine ).
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  • If autonomic neuropathy occurs in the stomach or intestine, symptoms may include altered bowel movements, such as intermittent diarrhea or constipation.
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  • In pigs adult worms burrow into the mucosa of the small intestine where the female produces larvae.
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  • caecumexample, many fish have pyloric caeca connected with the intestine - structures that aid the digestion and absorption of food.
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  • detoxify heavy metals in the intestine, reducing the strain on the liver.
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  • diverticulumto pass hard feces can stretch the wall of the large intestine, forming small pouches called diverticula.
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  • The common bile duct then empties into a part of the small intestine called the duodenum.
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  • elastin fibers in the image below (from loose connective tissue around the intestine) are the thin black ones.
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  • Vitamin B 12 is absorbed by cells in the upper part of the human small intestine, via receptor-mediated endocytosis.
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  • epithelium of the intestine.
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  • The GI tract organs include the esophagus, stomach, small and large intestine.
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  • fermented by bacteria in the large intestine, which leads to a build up of gas.
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  • The elastin fibers in the image below (from loose connective tissue around the intestine) are the thin black ones.
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  • malignant gists arising in the small intestine have a significantly poorer prognosis than those arising in the stomach.
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  • eating gluten causes the lining of the small intestine to become damaged thus reducing the coeliac's ability to absorb certain foods.
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  • hatch in the intestine, and develop into the adult worms.
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  • Black, tarry stools may indicate a hemorrhage from an ulcer of the stomach or the intestine.
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  • hemorrhage from an ulcer of the stomach or the intestine.
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  • Its expression is especially high in the Paneth cells in the small intestine, which play a major role in the mucosal immunity.
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  • A severely inflamed small intestine cannot absorb vitamins and minerals efficiently, which can result in a deficiency.
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  • Modification of the numbers or types of microorganism colonizing the intestine can have a profound effect on normal gastrointestinal function.
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  • The goal is to have Colostrum reach the small intestine intact where it does its best work.
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  • Crohn's disease commonly affects the small intestine, a part of the bowel that is exceptionally rarely the site of cancer.
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  • As soon as food enters the small intestine from the stomach, your brain receives a message saying ' Stop Eating!
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  • The enzymes come from the pancreas and from cells lining the intestine.
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  • Eating gluten causes the lining of the small intestine to become damaged thus reducing the coeliac's ability to absorb certain foods.
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  • The second group have a problem in their large intestine.
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  • The organism also has the ability to adhere to the upper small intestine, an area with no normal resident flora.
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  • The pH and high oxygen content of the healthy small intestine do not support growth of the organisms.
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  • intestine wall.
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  • intestine for absorption to occur.
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  • jejunostomy tube, is inserted through the skin on your abdomen into the small intestine.
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  • large intestine of the ship.
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  • When the fat reaches the large intestine, it is partially broken down by the bacteria in the colon.
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  • This is because the symptoms are similar to other illnesses that affect the large intestine.
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  • There may be pain in the right lower quadrant where the contents from the small intestine enter the large intestine (caecum ).
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  • To better understand the impact of diet upon microbial activity and health in the human large intestine.
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  • Small Intestine: normal large intestine: Normal Kidneys: Normal Pancreas: Normal Spleen: Normal Lymph Nodes: Normal.
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  • Effect of diets containing genetically modified potatoes expressing Galanthus nivalis lectin on rat small intestine.
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  • lining of the small intestine to become damaged thus reducing the coeliac's ability to absorb certain foods.
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  • lipase activity more fat passes through the intestine and is not absorbed.
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  • lumen of the small intestine.
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  • Interpretation Low serum folate suggests malabsorption in the proximal small intestine.
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  • An affected baby may have intestinal obstruction from thick meconium filling the intestine.
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  • obstruction of the intestine.
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  • No poet would ever write an ode to the intestine.
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  • A spoonful of extra virgin olive oil a day on an empty stomach helps the intestine to function properly and treats constipation.
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  • pancreatic juice in the intestine for optimal absorption.
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  • The food is moved along the small intestine by rhythmic movement of muscles called peristalsis.
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  • In contrast to the alkaline phosphatase, the GGT tends not to be elevated in diseases of bone, placenta, or intestine.
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  • purines from the small intestine between the two species of animals.
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  • Wally was rushed in for emergency surgery which necessitated the removal of a section of damaged intestine.
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  • The adult roundworms live in the small intestine where they lay eggs which are then shed into the environment via the cat's feces.
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  • In the case of intestinal schistosomiasis, the worms reside in the blood vessels lining the intestine.
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  • silkworm intestine.
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  • small intestine of dogs Toxocara canis worms taken from one dog Breed Occurrence There are no specific breed predispositions.
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  • small intestine of rats.
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  • small intestine of cats Electron Microscope Image Breed Occurrence There are no specific breed predispositions.
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  • Giardiasis is caused by the protozoan Giardia lamblia which infects the small intestine.
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  • Cells lining the small intestine These are knocked off as food passes through the intestine and so they need constantly replacing.
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  • Crohn's Disease usually causes inflammation in the lower small intestine, known as the ileum.
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  • small intestine into the bloodstream.
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  • subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) is a bug which is a specific cause of chronic inflammation of the intestine in many animals.
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  • Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) is a bug which is a specific cause of chronic inflammation of the intestine in many animals.
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  • terminal ileum: The last part of the ileum, where the small intestine joins the large intestine.
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  • Blood full of just digested nutrients from the intestine and the stomach enter the liver via the hepatic portal vein.
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  • villusTechie bit: The lining of the small intestine is covered with small finger like projections called villi.
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  • villusre 2: Damaged villi of the small intestine.
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  • villusre 1: healthy villi of the small intestine (as seen under the microscope ).
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  • villusderstand that the small intestine is folded into villi in order to enhance absorption.
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  • worms burrow into the mucosa of the small intestine where the female produces larvae.
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  • 2, ph.), oesophagus (oes.), stomach (st.) and intestine (int.) may be distinguished.
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  • (After Masterman.) Intestine.
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  • The name "cololites" (from the Greek K Xov, the large intestine, XLBos, stone) was given by Agassiz to fossil wormlike bodies, found in the lithographic slate of Solenhofen, which he determined to be either the petrified intestines or contents of the intestines of fishes.
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  • The intestine is provided with numerous branched caeca in Aphrodite.
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  • The intestine is usually in the higher forms provided with a typhlosole, in which, in Pontoscolex, runs a ciliated canal or canals communicating with the intestine.
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  • canal sometimes with protrusible proboscis; never with gizzard or oesophageal glands; intestine with caeca as a rule.
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  • A crop-like dilatation of the gut and a recurved intestine, embedded in the compact yellowish-brown liver, the ducts of which open into it, form the rest of the digestive tract and occupy a large bulk of the visceral hump. The buccal region presents a pair of shelly jaws placed laterally upon the lips, and a wide range of variation in the form of the denticles of the lingual ribbon or radula.
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  • At its hinder end it is continuous with the hind-gut, which is usually differentiated into a tubular coiled intestine (fig.
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  • Hence the first intestine war among the Macedonians, in which Antipater, Antigonus, the satrap of Phrygia, and Ptolemy, the satrap of Egypt, were allied against Perdiccas, who was ultimately murdered in 321 on the Egyptian frontier (see [[Perdiccas [4], Eumenes).
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  • The function of alimentation is closely associated with that of locomotion, somewhat as in the burrowing earthworm; in the excavation of its burrows the sand is passed through the body, and any nutrient matter that may adhere to it is extracted during its passage through the intestine, the exhausted sand being finally ejected through the vent at the orifice of the burrow and appearing at low tide as a worm casting.
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  • They obtain food entirely by osmosis through the striated cuticle, and this food consists not of blood, as in flukes, but of chyle, by which they are bathed in their favourite site, the small intestine.
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  • The migration of the Cestode-larvae through the walls of the intestine into the blood of their host is the cause of grave disturbances, due largely to the perforation of the tissues, inflammation of the vessels and peritoneum, and other effects of these immigrants.
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  • Selected forms: Taenia solium, intestine of man (fig.
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  • These Trematodes occur in the alimentary canal and adjacent organs of Mollusca, the gall-bladder of Chimaera, and the intestine of Chelonia and of certain fish.
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  • This latter organ is pigmented in all Polyzoa, and is produced, in the Ectoprocta, beyond the point where the intestine leaves it into a conspicuous caecum (fig.
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  • The commonest form of malignant tumour is the result of the growth of cancerous elements which have been brought to the liver by the veins coming up from a primary focus of the large intestine.
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  • Stones in the gall-bladder should be removed by operation, as, if left, there is a great risk of their trying to escape with the bile into the intestine and thus causing a blockage of the common bile-duct, and perhaps a fatal leakage of bile into the peritoneum through a perforating ulcer of the duct.
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  • In the meanwhile relief may be afforded by fomentations, and by morphia or chloroform, but if no prospect of the stone escaping into the intestine appears likely, the surgeon will be called upon to remove it by an incision through the gall-bladder, or the bile-duct, or through the intestine at the spot where it is trying to make its escape.
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  • There are two pairs of longitudinal cords, a pedal pair situated ventrally and united beneath the intestine by numerous commissures, and a pallial pair situated laterally and continuous with one another above the rectum (fig.
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  • As he adopted an entirely different policy with the nobles from that of his father, and, moreover, showed great affability towards the lower class of his subjects, among whom he delighted to wander incognito, few if any of the kings of Scotland have won such general popularity, or passed a reign so untroubled by intestine strife.
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  • In general structure they all closely resemble human beings, as in the absence of tails; in their semi-erect position (resting on finger-tips or knuckles); in the shape of vertebral column, sternum and pelvis; in the adaptation of the arms for turning the palm uppermost at will; in the possession of a long vermiform appendix to the short caecum of the intestine; in the size of the cerebral hemispheres and the complexity of their convolutions.
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  • alimentary canal; in man and mammals divided into the smaller intestine, from the pylorus to the iliocaecal valve, and the larger, reaching from the caecum and colon to the end of the rectum.
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  • For example, the trypsin of the pancreas (see Nutrition) digests albuminous bodies in neutral or alcoholic solution, and if the whole of that which is secreted in the pancreas for the digestion of meat in the intestine were absorbed unchanged into the circulation, it would digest the body itself and quickly cause death.
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  • Both sleeplessness and pain are sometimes due to the action of toxins absorbed from the intestine, and both of them may High sometimes be relieved more efficiently by thorough purgation than by narcotics.
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  • - Diagrammatic the canal is the frequent presence of a blind Plan of the general pouch, " caecum," situated at the junction arrangement of the of the large and the small intestine.
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  • (1905) of the Transactions of the Zoological Society of London, Dr P. Chalmers Mitchell has identified the paired caeca, or blind appendages, of the intestine of birds with the usually single caecum of mammals.
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  • Among mammals, o, oesophagus; st, stomach; p, pylorus; ss, small intestine breviated); c, caecum; ll, large intestine colon, ending in r, the rectum.
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  • In mammals both caecum and colon are often sacculated, a disposition caused by the arrangement of the longitudinal bands of muscular tissue in their walls; but the small intestine is always smooth and simple-walled externally, though its lining membrane often exhibits contrivances for increasing the absorbing surface without adding to the general bulk of the organ, such as the numerous small tags, or " villi," by which it is everywhere beset, and the more obvious transverse, longitudinal, or reticulating folds projecting into the interior, met with in many animals, of which the " valvulae conniventes " of man form well-known examples.
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  • (For the pathology see Digestive Organs.) Recently considerable advance has been made in our knowledge of dysentery, and it appears that there are two distinct types of the disease: (1) amoebic dysentery, which is due to the presence of the amoeba histolytica (of Schaudinn) in the intestine; (2) bacillary dysentery, which has as causative agent two separate bacteria, (a) that discovered by Shiga in Japan, (b) that discovered by Flexner in the Philippine Islands.
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  • However, there was no difference in the absorption rate of purines from the small intestine between the two species of animals.
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  • The adult roundworms live in the small intestine where they lay eggs which are then shed into the environment via the cat 's feces.
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  • It is isolated from the micro-organism, Serratia E15, an enzyme that is naturally present in the silkworm intestine.
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  • These worms live in the small intestine of dogs Toxocara canis worms taken from one dog Breed Occurrence There are no specific breed predispositions.
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  • The parasitic generation consists solely of adult parasitic females which lie embedded in the mucosa of the small intestine of rats.
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  • These worms live in the small intestine of cats Electron Microscope Image Breed Occurrence There are no specific breed predispositions.
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  • Crohn 's Disease usually causes inflammation in the lower small intestine, known as the ileum.
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  • When this happens, they are absorbed by the small intestine into the bloodstream.
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  • Terminal ileum: The last part of the ileum, where the small intestine joins the large intestine.
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  • The Techie bit: The lining of the small intestine is covered with small finger like projections called villi.
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  • Figure 2: Damaged villi of the small intestine.
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  • Figure 1: Healthy villi of the small intestine (as seen under the microscope).
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  • H Understand that the small intestine is folded into villi in order to enhance absorption.
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  • If you use a real Christmas tree, not only is the pine tar toxic to your cats, but the needles are a danger for felines because they could puncture your cat's intestine if swallowed.
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  • Bloody diarrhea: The disease causes shedding of the epithelial cells in the intestine, so the cat will have frequent bouts of bloody diarrhea.
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  • People with gastrointestinal disorders should also be mindful of their iron intake, as their condition may cause iron to be absorbed into the small intestine, thus taking away the amount available for hemoglobin.
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  • A bacteria in the human intestine synthesizes vitamin K.
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  • Probiotics work mainly in the large intestine, where they finish the process of digesting any foods not digested in the small intestine.
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  • Biliary atresia is the congenital failure of a fetus to develop an adequate pathway for bile to drain from the liver to the intestine.
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  • Bile is a liquid mixture of cholesterol, bile salts, and waste products, including bilirubin, which the liver excretes through thousands of tiny biliary ducts to the intestine, where the bile aids in the digestive process of dietary fats.
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  • These ducts merge into larger and larger channels, like streams flowing into rivers, until they all pour into a single duct that empties into the duodenum (first part of the small intestine).
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  • Scarring of the liver can cause portal hypertension (high blood pressure in the portal vein, which is the main vein carrying blood from the intestine to the liver).
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  • The surgeon must create an adequate pathway for bile to escape the liver into the intestine.
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  • If the obstruction is only between the gall bladder and the intestine, it is possible to attach a piece of intestine directly to the gall bladder.
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  • If the upper biliary system is also inadequate, the surgeon will attach a piece of intestine directly to the liver using the Kasai procedure, named after Morio Kasai, the Japanese surgeon who developed the procedure.
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  • The tiny bile ducts in that part of the liver where the surgery is performed discharge their bile directly into the intestine, and the channels will gradually enlarge.
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  • Duodenum-The first of the three segments of the small intestine.
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  • The enzyme lactase, which is normally produced by cells lining the small intestine, breaks down lactose into substances that can be absorbed into the bloodstream.
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  • Lactose intolerance can be caused by some diseases of the digestive system (for example, celiac sprue and gastroenteritis) and by injuries to the small intestine that result in a decreased production of lactase.
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  • Lactase-The enzyme produced by cells that line the small intestine that allows the body to break down lactose.
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  • Hereditary fructose intolerance is a metabolic disorder in which the small intestine cannot process fructose (fruit sugar) into a source of energy because of an enzyme deficiency that prevents fructose absorption.
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  • Simple sugars can be absorbed by the small intestine.
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  • Digestion of food begins in the mouth, moves to the stomach, and then into the small intestine.
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  • The undigested fructose accumulates in the liver, kidneys, and small intestine, progressively causing damage that can lead to liver and kidney failure.
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  • Early recognition and treatment of the disorder is important to avoid damage to the liver, kidneys, and small intestine.
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  • The bile travels through the bile ducts to the intestine and is excreted in the stool.
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  • About 40-50 percent of infants with biliary atresia are candidates for replacement bile ducts leading from the liver into the intestine.
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  • Bile breaks down fats in the small intestine so that they can be used by the body.
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  • It is stored in the gallbladder and passes from the gall-bladder through the common bile duct to the top of the small intestine (duodenum) as needed to digest fat.
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  • Stimulant and irritant laxatives increase the peristaltic movement of the intestine.
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  • The hyperosmotic laxatives are glycerin and lactulose (Chronulac, Duphalac), both of which act by holding water within the intestine.
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  • Lactulose may also increase peristaltic action of the intestine.
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  • Obstructive-failure of the muscles in the intestine to open, or presence of a mass that's blocking passage of the feces through the intestine.
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  • Colon-The part of the large intestine that extends from the cecum to the rectum.
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  • The sigmoid colon is the area of the intestine just above the rectum; linking the descending colon with the rectum.
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  • Diverticulitis-Inflammation of the diverticula (small outpouchings) along the wall of the colon, the large intestine.
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  • Persons with this condition sometimes vomit after meals because the blood supply to the intestine is blocked.
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  • Superior mesenteric artery syndrome-A condition in which a person vomits after meals due to blockage of the blood supply to the intestine.
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  • Gastroenteritis (inflammation of the stomach and the intestine) is the second most common illness in the United States, after the common cold.
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  • In the pancreas, clogged passageways prevent secretion of digestive enzymes into the intestine, causing serious impairment of digestion-especially of fat-which may lead to malnutrition.
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  • Other abdominal symptoms are caused by the inability of the pancreas to supply digestive enzymes to the intestine.
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  • During normal digestion, as food passes from the stomach into the small intestine, it is mixed with pancreatic secretions that help to break down the nutrients for absorption.
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  • Without pancreatic enzymes, large amounts of undigested food pass into the large intestine.
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  • A jejunostomy tube, inserted into the small intestine, is also an option.
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  • This procedure involves inserting a thin tube through the nose and carefully guiding it along the throat until it reaches the stomach or small intestine.
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  • If long-term tube feeding is necessary, the tube may be placed directly into the stomach or small intestine through an incision in the abdomen.
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  • When ingested by another person, the eggs hatch in the small intestine.
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  • These same stimuli would not generate much of a response in the intestine.
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  • Sometimes, the body tries to protect the esophagus by growing a thicker lining, made up of cells like those in the stomach and intestine.
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  • The upper GI series looks at the esophagus, the stomach, and the duodenum, or the first section of the small intestine.
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  • Endoscope-A medical instrument that can be passed into an area of the body (the bladder or intestine, for example) to allow visual examination of that area.
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  • Diarrhea occurs because more fluid passes through the large intestine (colon) than that organ can absorb.
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  • Antimotility drug-A medication, such as loperamide (Imodium), dephenoxylate (Lomotil), or medications containing codeine or narcotics that decrease the ability of the intestine to contract.
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  • Colitis-Inflammation of the colon (large intestine).
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  • Inflammation of the liver, appendix, intestine, or lymph nodes within the abdomen may cause other complications.
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  • If the patient is nauseated and vomiting, the infection is more likely to be located in the small intestine.
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  • Necrotizing enterocolitis-A serious bacterial infection of the intestine that occurs primarily in sick or premature newborn infants.
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  • Cholera-An infection of the small intestine caused by a type of bacterium.
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    0
  • Duodenal obstruction is a partial or complete obstruction of the duodenum, the first part of the small intestine.
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  • The duodenum is the first part of the small intestine, extending from the valve at the bottom of the stomach that regulates stomach emptying (pylorus valve) to the second part of the small intestine (jejunum).
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  • When obstruction occurs, regardless of cause, food, gas, and secretions from within the intestine will accumulate above the point of obstruction, bloating (distending) the affected portion of intestine.
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  • As the distention increases, fluids continue to increase, and the intestine absorbs less.
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  • In malrotation, the duodenum is usually coiled to the right, causing obstruction of the duodenum and failure of the stomach contents to pass through to the next portion of small intestine.
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    0
  • It involves opening the duodenum channel along its length from the stomach to the next portion of intestine, correcting the duodenal lumen end to end (gastrojejunal anastomosis) so that it is a fully open channel.
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  • The abdomen is opened and the large intestine is placed to the left side in order for the doctor to perform the surgery.
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  • If malrotation or duodenal volvulus has caused the blood supply to be cut off in a portion of the intestine before surgery, death of intestinal tissue can result and life-threatening gangrene can develop.
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  • The colon (the large intestine) absorbs water while forming waste products (the stool) from digested food.
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  • Dietary fiber-Mostly indigestible material in food that stimulates the intestine to peristalsis.
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  • This condition can be found in those who do not produce adequate amounts of a chemical secreted by the stomach lining that combines with B12 to help its absorption in the small intestine.
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    0
  • Erythromycin is available as enteric-coated tablets, which are released in the intestine rather than the stomach; as a liquid; and as bead-filled capsules.
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  • Enteric coating-A coating or shell placed on a tablet that breaks up and releases the medicine into the intestine rather than the stomach.
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  • Diverticula are present most often in the colon (large intestine), but are also found in the bladder.
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  • Intestinal obstructions are a partial or complete blockage of the small or large intestine, resulting in failure of the contents of the intestine to pass through the bowel normally.
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  • Mechanical obstruction is the physical blockage of the intestine by a tumor, scar tissue, or another type of blockage that prevents intestinal contents from getting past the point of obstruction.
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  • Children diagnosed with Hirschsprung's disease lack nerve cells (ganglia) in the large intestine, severely affecting the wavelike movements that propel material through the colon.
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  • Duodenal volvulus occurs when the duodenum, the portion of small intestine that connects the stomach and jejunum, is twisted.
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  • Hernias are weaknesses in the abdominal wall that can trap a portion of intestine (incarceration) and cut off the passage of food and waste through the digestive tract.
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    0
  • The causes of small bowel obstruction in children are most often volvulus, intussusception, adhesions, or abdominal hernia, a weakness in the abdominal wall that traps a portion of intestine.
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  • Vomiting follows shortly after the pain if the obstruction is in the small intestine, but is delayed if it is in the large intestine.
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  • Dysmotility-Abnormally slow or fast rhythmic movement of the stomach or intestine.
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  • Intussusception-The slipping or telescoping of one part of the intestine into the section next to it.
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  • Sigmoid colon-The final portion of the large intestine that empties into the rectum.
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  • Strangulated obstruction-An obstruction in which a loop of the intestine has its blood supply cut off.
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  • Volvulus-A twisting of the intestine that causes an obstruction.
    0
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  • Shigella are very resistant to the acid produced by the stomach, and this allows them to easily pass through the gastrointestinal tract and infect the colon (large intestine).
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  • Celiac disease is a disease of the digestive system in which the inside lining of the small intestine (mucosa) is damaged after eating wheat, rye, oats, or barley, resulting in interference with the absorption of nutrients from food.
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  • When food containing gluten reaches the small intestine, the immune system begins to attack a substance called gliadin, which is found in the gluten.
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  • The resulting inflammation causes damage to the delicate finger-like structures in the intestine, called villi, where food absorption actually takes place.
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  • If these tests are suspicious for celiac disease, the next step is a biopsy (surgical removal of a tiny piece of tissue) of the small intestine.
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  • A narrow tube, called an endoscope, is passed through the mouth, down through the stomach, and into the small intestine.
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  • After several months, the small intestine is biopsied again.
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  • If the diagnosis of celiac disease was correct (and the child followed the rigorous diet), healing of the intestine will be apparent.
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  • Disorders other than celiac disease can cause a similar type of villus atrophy, especially in children under two years of age, so rechecking the intestine is especially important for very young children.
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  • Villi-Tiny, finger-like projections that enable the small intestine to absorb nutrients from food.
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  • Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a serious bacterial infection in the intestine, primarily affecting sick or premature newborn infants.
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  • Necrotizing enterocolitis is a serious infection that can produce complications in the intestine itself such as ulcers, perforations or holes in the intestinal wall, and tissue necrosis.
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  • Necrotizing enterocolitis most commonly affects the ileum, the lower portion of the small intestine.
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  • About 10 to 35 percent of all survivors eventually develop a stricture, or narrowing, of the intestine that occurs with healing.
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  • This is an external opening for the intestinal contents to exit the body while the affected part of the intestine heals.
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  • Additionally, many of these infants have a condition called short-gut syndrome, which results from the removal of a large part of the small intestine.
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  • If the bowel perforates, or develops a hole in it, emergency surgery is required to repair the intestine and prevent infection.
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  • Strangulated hernia-A hernia that is so tightly incarcerated outside the abdominal wall that the intestine is blocked and the blood supply to that part of the intestine is cut off.
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  • In this condition, part of the baby's intestine is destroyed as a result of bacterial infection.
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  • Because E. coli toxins are produced in the large intestine rather than higher up in the digestive system, symptoms typically occur from one to three days after eating contaminated food.
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  • The bacterial toxins affect the small intestine.
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  • Contamination from any of the sources results in growth of the bacteria in the infant's intestine and production of the neurotoxin.
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  • Lactobacillus acidophilus-Commonly known as acidophilus, a bacteria found in yogurt that changes the balance of the bacteria in the intestine in a beneficial way.
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  • Carbohydrate intolerance is the inability of the small intestine to completely process the nutrient carbohydrate (a classification that includes sugars and starches) into a source of energy for the body.
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  • These simple sugars are important because they can be absorbed by the small intestine.
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  • These disaccharides must be broken down by enzymes into two simple sugars so that they can be absorbed by the intestine.
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  • Digestion of food begins in the mouth, moves on to the stomach, and then into the small intestine.
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  • Enzymes play an important role in breaking down carbohydrates into forms that can pass through the intestine and be used by the body.
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  • Digestive diseases such as celiac disease and tropical sprue (which affect absorption in the intestine), as well as intestinal infections and injuries, can reduce the amount of enzymes produced.
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  • In cancer patients, treatment with radiation therapy or chemotherapy may affect the cells in the intestine that normally secrete lactase, leading to intolerance.
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  • In the case of a lactase deficiency, undigested milk sugar remains in the intestine, which is then fermented by the normal intestinal bacteria.
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  • The diarrhea may sweep other nutrients out of the intestine before they can be absorbed, causing malnutrition.
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  • If undigested lactose in the large intestine (colon) is fermented by bacteria, various gases are produced.
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  • It results in chronic inflammation and shrinkage of the lining of the small intestine.
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  • Certain tumors in the pancreas, lungs, adrenal glands, thyroid, and intestine can produce GHRH, which in turn triggers production of an abnormal quantity of GH.
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  • This increase in skin tags is also associated with the development of growths, called polyps, within the large intestine that may eventually become cancerous.
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  • Without treatment, patients with acromegaly are likely to die early because of the disease's effects on the heart, lungs, brain, or due to the development of cancer in the large intestine.
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  • Ileus is a partial or complete non-mechanical blockage of the small and/or large intestine.
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  • Infants with cystic fibrosis are more likely to experience meconium ileus (obstruction of a dark green material in the intestine in newborns).
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  • When a doctor listens with a stethoscope to the abdomen of a child suffering from ileus, there will be few or no bowel sounds, indicating that the intestine has stopped functioning.
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  • Also, in cases of suspected mechanical obstruction involving the gastrointestinal tract (from the small intestine downward) use of barium x rays are contraindicated, since they may contribute to the obstruction.
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  • A similar tube can be inserted in the intestine.
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  • Drug therapies that promote intestinal motility (ability of the intestine to move spontaneously), such as cisapride and vasopressin (Pitressin), are sometimes prescribed.
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  • IBS is considered a functional disorder because it is thought to result from changes in the activity of the major part of the large intestine (the colon).
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  • After food is digested by the stomach and small intestine, the undigested material passes in liquid form into the colon, which absorbs water, nutrients and salts.
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  • Crohn's disease-A chronic, inflammatory disease, primarily involving the small and large intestine, but which can affect other parts of the digestive system as well.
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  • Sigmoidoscopy-A procedure in which a thin, flexible, lighted instrument, called a sigmoidoscope, is used to visually examine the lower part of the large intestine.
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  • Colonoscopy examines the entire large intestine using the same techniques.
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  • Pressing the small intestine 17 (just below the earlobes in the indentations behind the jawbone) may also help in the functioning of the ear's balancing mechanism.
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  • Microflora-The bacterial population in the intestine.
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  • These illnesses include pneumonia and inflammations of the liver (hepatitis), brain (encephalitis), esophagus (esophagitis), large intestine (colitis), and retina of the eye (retinitis).
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  • It is more commonly seen in the stomach (gastric antrum) but may also affect the small intestine or colon.
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  • Whipple's disease: This rare digestive disease of unknown origin affects the lining of the small intestine and results in malabsorption of nutrients.
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  • For the upper endoscopy procedure, the throat is sprayed with an anesthetic (numbin) medicine and a long, flexible tube is passed through the esophagus, stomach, and small intestine.
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  • For the lower endoscopy procedure, the tube is passed through the rectum into the large intestine.
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  • It includes the stomach, small intestine, and large intestine.
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  • A Meckel's diverticulum increases the risk that a foreign object in the digestive tract will get trapped or stuck in the small intestine and cause problems.
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  • Unlike adults, infants younger than 12 months are vulnerable to C. botulinum colonizing the intestine.
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  • The spores germinate in the large intestine and, once colonized, toxin is produced and absorbed into the infant's body from the entire intestinal tract.
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  • If the two ends of the esophagus are too far apart to be reattached, a piece of tissue from the large intestine is used to join the parts.
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  • Air in the stomach may confirm the presence of fistula; gas in the large intestine rules out intestinal (duodenal) atresia.
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  • If the two ends of the esophagus are too far apart to be reattached, tissue from the large intestine is used to join them.
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  • It is performed over the chest to determine the presence of normal air content in the lungs, and over the abdomen to evaluate air in the loops of the intestine.
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  • Hirschsprung's disease is caused when certain nerve cells (called parasympathetic ganglion cells) in the wall of the large intestine (colon) do not develop before birth.
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  • In up to 10 percent of children, however, the entire colon and part of the small intestine are involved.
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  • Colostomy-A surgical procedure in which an opening is made in the wall of the abdomen to allow a part of the large intestine (the colon) to empty outside the body.
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  • Colostomies are usually required because portions of the intestine have been removed or an intestinal obstruction exists.
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  • Appendicitis is an inflammation of the appendix, which is the small, finger-shaped pouch attached to the beginning of the large intestine on the lower-right side of the abdomen.
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  • Appendix-The worm-shaped pouch attached to the cecum, the beginning of the large intestine.
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  • The most common malformation is a narrowed, obstructed duodenum (the part of the intestine into which the stomach empties).
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  • This disorder, called duodenal atresia, interferes with the baby's milk or formula leaving the stomach and entering the intestine for digestion.
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  • As a waste product, bilirubin is filtered out of blood (cleared) by the liver and excreted in bile, eliminated normally in stool produced by the large intestine.
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  • Sulfasalazine (Azulfadine) is used to treat infections of the colon and intestine.
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  • Possible complications include anesthesia problems, infections, injury to the intestine, and pulmonary embolism.
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  • Painful Bowel Movements or Urination - For women who have endometriosis involving the small or large intestine, bowel movements can become painful.
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  • Vitamin K is manufactured by a range of intestinal bacteria, principally in the lower intestine.
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  • Damage to the intestine prevents the body from absorbing vitamins.
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  • Lactobacillus rhamnosus forms a line of defense on the lining of your intestine, creating a barrier for harmful bacteria.
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  • Biotin is produced by bacteria in the intestine, so deficiency of this vitamin is rare, and thus, biotin is not one of the nutrients mentioned very often.
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  • Tablets must pass into the stomach, where stomach acids begin breaking them down, mixing them with other foods or liquids ingested before passing into the small intestine, where the vitamins are absorbed and used.
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  • Soluble fiber is fiber that is somewhat broken down by fluids; therefore, it forms a gel-like substance in the large intestine.
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  • Insoluble fiber does not disperse as it moves through the large intestine.
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  • Coated capsules such as this one release the bacteria closer to where they can do good; into the small intestine.
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  • However, if you have more than one of these symptoms on a chronic basis, it may be symptoms of celiac disease, which leads to significant damage to the small intestine and over time can be life threatening.
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  • When your body's immune system attacks the gluten you have consumed, it damages the small intestine walls, making it difficult for the small intestine to absorb nutrients.
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  • Over time, a gluten allergy can worsen since the damage to the small intestine worsens.
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  • The immune system attacks the gluten consumed, which in turn causes inflammation in the small intestine.
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  • However, what this does is cause the small intestine to be nearly unable to absorb nutrients it needs to function properly.
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  • That may involve the doctor obtaining a sample of the tissues of the small intestine and through blood tests.
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  • The immune system attacks the gluten and in the process damages the villi of the small intestine.
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  • The villi are small, hair like projections that come off the walls of the small intestine.
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  • Because of this, the small intestine receives damage.
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  • That leads to further complications including the inability for the small intestine to absorb nutrients from food consumed.
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  • The doctor may use an endoscopy to help examine the small intestine closer and may take a small tissue sample of the small intestine to diagnose the condition.
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  • At that time, the small intestine is likely to have healed.
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  • It could take up to six months for the villi (or small tissues) of the small intestine to totally heal.
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  • However, in its attack, it also damages the lining of the small intestine.
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  • Once gluten is ingested, the body triggers an immune response within the small intestine, generating antibodies to counteract the gluten.
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  • During this process, small hair-like structures within the small intestine called villi, which are responsible for the absorption of digested nutrients, become damaged.
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  • In the advanced stages of celiac disease the small intestine is so damaged that vital nutrients cannot be absorbed into the bloodstream.
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  • This rash can be crucial to the diagnosis of celiac disease and can help the individual avoid a small intestine biopsy.
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