Developed only in the anterior region of the body where it emerges from the peri-intestinal blood sinus.
If it be absorbed from a surgical dressing there are no irritant symptoms, but when the acid is swallowed in concentrated form, symptoms of gastro-intestinal irritation occur.
The white blood-corpuscles are produced in the follicles at the base of the intestinal villi.
Configuration of the palate, precoracoid, pelvis, intestinal convolutions, copulatory organ, &c. Loss of the keel is co-ordinated with the power of using the forelimbs for locomotion; although a " Ratite " character, it is not sufficient to turn a Notornis, Cnemiornis or Stringops, not even a Phororhacos into a member of the Ratitae.
The dorsal vessel also communicates with the ventral vessel indirectly by the intestinal sinus, which gives off branches to both the longitudinal trunks, and by tegementary vessels and capillaries which supply the skin and the nephridia.
On the other hand, additional longitudinal trunks are sometimes developed, the chief one of which is a supra-intestinal vessel lying below the dorsal vessel and closely adherent to the walls of the oesophagus in which region it appears.
Vezhdovsky has lately seen reasons for regarding the blood system as originating entirely from the hypoblast by the secretion of fluid, the blood, from particular intestinal cells and the consequent formation of spaces through pressure, which become lined with these cells.
The visceral commissure, while still surrounding the digestive tract, becomes looped; its right half, with its proper ganglion, passes to the left side over the dorsal face of the alimentary canal (whence the name supra-intestinal), while the left half passes below towards the right side, thus originating the name infra-intestinal given to this half and to its ganglion.
A, Unrotated ancestral condithe sub-intestinal) visceral tion.
Lvg, Primarily left (subsequently x, x', Pins fastening the elastic the sub-intestinal) visceral cord (representing the vis ganglion.
The right half of the commissure with its ganglion is supra-intestinal, the left half with its ganglion infra-intestinal.
P sp, Supra - intestinal visceral ganglion on the course of the right visceral cord.
Sb, S u b - intestinal ganglion on the course of the left visceral cord.
Actaeon is prosobranchiate, the visceral commissure is twisted in Actaeon and Chilina, and even slightly still in Bulla and Scaphander; in Actaeon and Limacina the osphradium is to the left, innervated by the supra-intestinal ganglion.
Sp, Abdominal ganglion which represents also the supra-intestinal ganglion of Streptoneura and gives off the nerve to the osphradium (olfactory organ) o, and another to an unlettered socalled " genital " ganglion.
Heteronemertini, in which the dermal musculature is in three layers, an external longitudinal, a middle circular, an internal longitudinal; the nervous system lies between the first and second of these layers; the outer layer of longitudinal muscles is a new development; there is no intestinal caecum; no stylets on the proboscis and the mouth is behind the level of the brain.
In addition to the musculature of the proboscis and proboscidian sheath, longitudinal muscular fibres are found in the walls of the oesophagus, whilst transverse ones are numerous and united into vertical dissepiments between the successive intestinal caeca, thus bringing about a very regular internal metamerization.
The posterior portion of the intestine is specially characterized by the appearance of the intestinal diverticula horizontally and symmetrically placed right and left and opposite to each other.
Cases of asymmetry or irregularity in the arrangement of the intestinal caeca, though sometimes occurring, are not normal.
A, Five specimens of Echinorhynchus acus, Rud., attached to a piece of intestinal wall, X 4.
There are the usual malarial, bilious and intermittent fevers, and liver, stomach and intestinal complaints prevalent in tropical countries; but unhygienic living is, in Cuba as elsewhere, mainly responsible for their existence.
The local authorities were divided among themselves by bitter feuds - the ecclesiastical against the civil, the ayuntamiento against the governors, the administrative officers among themselves; brigandage, mutinies and intestinal struggles disturbed the peace.
By the pulsation of the pericardial vesicle (best observed in the larva) the blood is driven into the glomerulus, from which it issues by efferent vessels which effect a junction with the ventral (sub-intestinal) vessel in the trunk.
From 1816 he published various papers in the Edinburgh Medical and Surgical Journal, which formed the basis of his Pathological and Practical Researches on Diseases of the Brain and Spinal Cord, and of his Researches on the Diseases of the Intestinal Canal, Liver and other Viscera of the Abdomen, both published in 1828.
The parasites, which cling to the intestinal mucous membrane, draw their nourishment from the blood-vessels of their host, and as they are found in hundreds in the body after death, the disorders of digestion, the increasing anaemia and the consequent dropsies and other cachectic symptoms are easily explained.
The toxic actions produced in continued fevers, in certain chronic diseases, and by intestinal parasites largely aid in producing degeneration, emaciation and atrophy.
In the physiological process of intestinal digestion, the precursors of such fats are split up into these two radicles.
Broussais's chief aim was to find an anatomical basis for all diseases, but he is especially known for his attempt to explain all fevers as a consequence of irritation or inflammation of the intestinal canal (gastroenterite).
In our conceptions of the later stages of assimilation and of excretion, with the generation of poisons (auto-intoxication) in the intestinal tract, there is still much obscurity and much guess-work; yet in some directions positive knowledge has been gained, partly by the physiologist, partly by the physician himself.
The body, or " strobila," consists of a usually minute organ of attachment (scolex or its representative) which is imbedded in the intestinal membrane, and of a series of segments that arise from the base of the scolex and increase in size distally.
This elaborate type of scolex appears to be an adaptation to grasp the spiral intestinal valve of sharks and rays.
8, D) capable of living freely in water for at least a week (Bothriocephalus), which then, if eaten by a stickleback, throws off its ciliated envelope, and creeps by the aid of the hooks through the intestinal wall into the body-cavity of the fish.
We therefore regard the body of a Cestode as a single organism within which the gonads have become segmented, and the segmentation of the body as a secondary phenomenon associated with diffuse osmotic feeding in the narrow intestinal canal.
For twelve hours previously to its administration no food should be given, in order that the intestinal tract should be empty so as to expose the tapeworm to the full action of the drug.
The stimulation of the liver is said to depend upon the solution of the resin by the intestinal secretion.
A, Dorsal view showing the nervous system and digestive system; a, mouth; b, pharynx; c, d, e, gut; E, post-genital union of two limbs of gut; f, excretory pore; g, vaginal pore; h, j, k, brain and nerves; 1, dorsal nerves; m, ventral nerves; n, adoral sucker; o, posterior sucker; p, hooks on posterior sucker; r, vitello-intestinal duct.
The intestinal sac has become bifid and is usually devoid of branches.
Haematemesis is vomiting of blood, the colour of which may be altered by digestion, as is also the case in melaena, or passage of blood with the faeces, in which the blood becomes dark and tarrylooking from the action of the intestinal fluids.
There is hardly any increase in the intestinal secretion, the drug being emphatically not a hydragogue cathartic. There is no doubt that its habitual use may be a factor in the formation of haemorrhoids; as in the case of all drugs that act powerfully on the lower part of the intestine, without simultaneously lowering the venous pressure by causing increase of secretion from the bowel.
Behind this point there is a muscular pharynx or gizzard, which communicates with the wide intestinal tract.
Though ammonium chloride has certain irritant properties which may disorder the stomach, yet if its mucous membrane be depressed and atonic the drug may improve its condition, and it has been used with success in gastric and intestinal catarrhs of a subacute type and is given in doses of io grains half an hour before meals in painful dyspepsia due to hyperacidity.
It is also an intestinal and hepatic stimulant and a feeble diuretic and diaphoretic, and has been considered a specific in some forms of neuralgia.
Sometimes a gall-stone which has found its way into the intestine is large enough to block the bowel and give rise to intestinal obstruction which demands abdominal section.
Flacherie is an intestinal disease of the cholera species and therefore contagious.
The intestinal canal is long, and has, in addition to the ordinary short, but capacious and sacculated caecum at the commencement of the colon, lower down, a pair of large, conical, pointed caeca.
Internally strychnine acts as a bitter, increasing the secretion of gastric juice and the intestinal peristalsis, being a direct stimulant to the muscular coat; in this manner it has a purgative action.
Death occurs from collapse or from secondary destructive changes in the intestinal canal.
Owen's description showed this view to be groundless, and he attributed the extraordinary development of the toucan's beak to the need of compensating, by the additional power of mastication thus given, for the absence of any of the grinding structures that are so characteristic of the intestinal tract of vegetable-eating birds - its digestive organs possessing a general simplicity of formation.
These symptoms with more or less gastro-intestinal irritation and decrease in the quantity of urine passed indicate digitalis poisoning.
In some cases the branchial respiration a p pears to be insufficient, and the intestinal tract acts as an accessory breathing organ.
These are paralysed by atropine, and intestinal peristalsis is consequently made more active, the muscles being released from nervous control.
Internally hydrogen peroxide is used in various diseased conditions of the gastro-intestinal tract, such as dyspepsia, diarrhoea and enteric fever.
A curious duct with lateral branches termed the supra-intestinal organ lies above the intestine in the female.
He had enough men, though a number of his units were below strength, while others were battle-worn and others again had suffered much from an intestinal disease that had been prevalent in the valleys of the Natisone and the Judrio; and he had enough guns, in spite of the withdrawal of the Allied artillery, though he would doubtless have been glad of a larger reserve.
Taken internally in any but minute doses, the drug causes the most severe gastro-intestinal irritation, the vomited and evacuated matters containing blood, and the patient suffering agonizing pain and extreme depression.
In the intestine tannic acid controls intestinal bleeding, acting as a powerful astringent and causing constipation; for this reason it has been recommended to check diarrhoea.