before 64 B.C. There are many interpolations drawn mainly from the Book of Noah.
The original works of Rufinus are - (I) De Adulteratione Librorum Origenis - an appendix to his translation of the Apology of Pamphilus, and intended to show that many of the features in Origen's teaching which were then held to be objectionable arise from interpolations and falsifications of the genuine text; (2) De Benedictionibus XII Patriarcharum Libri II - an exposition of Gen.
collections formed by a certain nobleman who had travelled in Eastern Europe, Western Asia and Egypt - possible Breidenbach, an account of whose travels in the Levant was printed at Mentz in 1486 - it is really a medical treatise, and its zoological portion is mainly an abbreviation of the writings of Albertus Magnus, with a few interpolations from Isidorus of Seville (who flourished in the beginning of the 7th century, and was the author of many works highly esteemed in the middle ages) and a work known as Physiologus.
7), are simple and plain, but the bearing of the last is obscured by interpolations.
For several centuries it was wholly lost sight of, and it was not till the 13th century that it was rediscovered through the agency of Robert Grosseteste, bishop of Lincoln, who translated it into Latin, under the misconception that it was a genuine work of the twelve sons of Jacob, and that the Christian interpolations were a genuine product of Jewish prophecy.
To Grabe, Schnapp and Conybeare belongs the credit of showing that the Christian elements were interpolations - to Conybeare especially of the three, since, whereas the two others showed the high probability of their contention on internal evidence, Conybeare proved by means of the Armenian Version that when it was made many of the interpolations had not yet found their way into the text.
This book was published with, and as an introduction to, the three principal works of Joachim, in which the Spirituals had made some interpolations.'
Thrasher, with interpolations, New York, 1856), are indispensable.
than the 12th century, and even the earliest ones (especially those of the Venedotia recension) contain many interpolations.
Even the most ancient text, that in 65 chapters, contains passages which a comparison with the later texts shows to be interpolations.
Till a few years ago, owing to Christian interpolations, it was taken to be a Christian apocryph, written originally in Greek in the 2nd century A.D.
Kohler (Kohut Memorial Volume, 18 97, pp. 264-338) has given good grounds for regarding the whole work, with the exception of some interpolations, as "one of the most remarkable productions of the pre-Christian era, explicable only when viewed in the light of Hasidean practice."
The general opinion of scholars is that the latter part, which represents the poet as having received his vocation in a dream, is by a later hand, and that the sentences in the earlier part which refer to the dream are interpolations by this second author.
On the other hand, some interpolations took place, one in the 1 For details see the introduction to Noldeke's translation of Tabari's Geschichte der Perser and Araber zur Zeit der Sasaniden (aeiden, 1879).
(with a few interpolations), On Airs, Waters, and Places, On Injuries of the Head (" insigne fragmentum libri Hippocratei "), the former portion of the treatise On Regimen in Acute Diseases, and the " obviously Hippocratic " fragments of the Coon Prognostics.
The area of the grant may have been enlarged by later interpolations; or it may have dealt with property rather than with sovereignty, and have only referred to estates claimed by the pope in the territories named; or it is possible that Charles may have actually intended to establish an extensive papal kingdom in Italy, but was released from his promise by Adrian when the pope saw no chance of its fulfilment.
36) quotes extracts from the epistle, and some of the extracts contain the very passages which the critics have marked as interpolations, and Jerome (De Vir.
Lightfoot, 8 Harnack,' Kruger)'° is unanimous in regarding it as an authentic document, though it recognizes that here and there a few slight interpolations have been inserted."Besides these we have no other sources for the life of Polycarp; the Vita S.
His work is known to us through thirty manuscripts; but the earliest of these cannot be dated much earlier than the year 1000; and all are defaced by interpolations which give to the work so confused a character that critics were long disposed to treat it as an unskilful forgery.
The recent recovery of the Latin version is of singular interest, as showing that, even without the distinctively Christian additions and interpolations which our full form of the Teaching presents, it was circulating under the title Doctrina apostolorum?
It will now be clear that indications of the locality and date of our present Teaching must be sought for only in the second part, and in the Christian interpolations in the first part.
Passages in the books of Samuel and Kings which might appear to point to the contrary require careful examination; they prove to be glosses or interpolations, or are relatively late as a whole.
- The cyclical meaning of the succession of zodiacal signs, though now obscured by interpolations and substitutions, was probably once clear and entire.
The Rig-Veda contains only one allusion to them, where it is said that " Soma is placed in the lap of the nakshatras "; and this is in a part including later interpolations.
From this manuscript an edition was printed in 1574 under the direction of Matthew Parker, archbishop of Canterbury; but this contained many interpolations and alterations which were copied by subsequent editors.
Their reason was that omission seems to be contrary to the genius of the Western text, and that it is therefore probable that these passages represent interpolations made in the text on the Neutral side after the division between it and the Western.
They might be called Neutral interpolations, but WH preferred the rather clumsy expression " Western non-interpolations."
The Old Latin, if we take the African form as the oldest, as compared with the Neutral text has a series of interpolations and a series of omissions.
The Old Syriac, if we take the Sinaitic MS. as the purest form, compared in the same way, has a similar double series of interpolations and omissions, but neither the omissions nor the interpolations are the same in the Old Latin as in the Old Syriac. Such a line of research suggests that instead of being able, as WH thought, to set the Western against the Neutral text (the Alexandrian being merely a development of the latter), we must consider the problem as the comparison of at least three texts, a Western (geographically), an Eastern and the Neutral.
It is evident that Wittich's prosthaphaeresis could not be a good method of practically effecting multiplications unless the quantities to be multiplied were sines, on account of the labour of the interpolations.
The Lollards, for instance, did not hesitate to introduce into certain copies of the pious and orthodox Commentary on the Psalms by the hermit of Hampole interpolations of their own of the most virulently controversial kind (MSS.
The characteristic of scribes' emendations or interpolations is that they are superficial.
They also appear to contain displacements, interpolations, prefaces such as that to the Meteorologica, and appendices such as that to the Sophistical Elenchi, which may have been added.
of the Gospels have marginal marks, and sometimes actual interpolations, which can only be accounted for as indicating the beginnings and endings of liturgical lessons.
Indjidjean 5 that these are interpolations, which are not found in better manuscripts.
A criterion is thus given us for the reconstruction of the Apology, where the Greek which we have has been abbreviated, and we are enabled to claim with certainty some passages of the Syriac which might otherwise be suspected as interpolations.
All efforts of European scholars to prove the existence of later interpolations in the Koran have failed.
At some subsequent time it was transferred bodily to Canterbury, where it received numerous interpolations in the earlier part, and a few later local entries which finally tail off into the Latin acts of Lanfranc. A may therefore be dismissed.
In the case of entries in the earlier part of the chronicles, which are peculiar to D, we cannot exclude the possibility that they may be late interpolations.
The earlier part is full of Peterborough interpolations, to which place many of the later entries also refer.
But (apart from the interpolations) it is only the entries after 11 21, where the first hand in the MS. ends, which were actually composed at Peterborough.
Of Britain there is no mention; and though there are some distinctly Christian passages, they are so incongruous in tone with the rest of the poem that they must be regarded as interpolations.
It is chiefly interesting as a proof of the confusion in which the text must have been before the Alexandrian times; for it is impossible to understand the readiness of Aristarchus to suspect the genuineness of verses unless the state of the copies had pointed to the existence of numerous interpolations.
In this way there arose a conservative school who admitted more or less freely the absorption of pre-existing lays in the formation of the Iliad and Odyssey, and also the existence of considerable interpolations, but assigned the main work of formation to prehistoric times, and to the genius of a great poet.
The conjectures of Hermann, in which the Wolfian theory found a modified and tentative application, were presently thrown into the shade by the more trenchant method of Lachmann, who (in two papers read to the Berlin Academy in 1837 and 1841) sought to show that the Iliad was made up of sixteen independent " lays," with various enlargements and interpolations, all finally reduced to order by Peisistratus.
In the third book the scenes in which Helen and Priam take part (including the making of the truce) are pronounced to be interpolations; and so on.
It does not indeed follow that the Odyssey is free from interpolations.
There are numerous haggadic interpolations, some of considerable interest.
Marc. 2-4) removed what he judged to be some interpolations, but van Manen's attempt to prove that Marcion's text is more original than the canonical (Theolog.
This he did by setting aside the spurious gospels, purging the real gospel (the Gospel of Luke) from supposed judaizing interpolations, and restoring the true text of 2 On the relation of matter to the Creator, Marcion himself seems not to have speculated, though his followers may have done so.
His successors carried still farther the practice of dressing up the rather bald chronicles of earlier writers with all the ornaments of rhetoric. The old traditions were altered, almost beyond the possibility of recognition, by exaggerations, interpolations and additions.
xxv., omitting the most obvious interpolations.
His work has suffered disarrangements and interpolations at the hands of the editor of the whole work.
There are many interpolations - lx., lxv.
His works have been several times reproduced in whole or in part, though with many spurious interpolations.
It is generally agreed, however, that there is a large number of interpolations in the work, which are referred to the reign of Theodosius; and that the documents inserted in the lives are almost all forgeries.
With regard to the prayers, they are based upon forms common to this and other Church orders, but have many lengthy interpolations of an inflated and rhapsodic kind.
Then come interpolations to make this ascription more probable, and the prefixing of a title, then or subsequently, which states it as a fact.
To be classed also under the head of early history are certain interpolations in the MSS.
Such manipulation could not but lead to interpolations or confusions in the original text.
Not only is this manuscript nearly free from interpolations, but it is the sole voucher for many excellent readings.
608), we detect the hand of later interpolators, but the extent of such interpolations can hardly perhaps be determined even by a collation of all copies.
Was it from the first - whatever additions and interpolations may have 1 The Eddas were first written down, as is commonly assumed, by Bishop Saemund Sigfusson (1056-1133).
The poem was first written down by a wandering minstrel about 971 to 991, was remodelled about 1140 by Konrad,' who introduced interpolations in the spirit of chivalry and was perhaps responsible for the metre; during the wars and miseries of the next fifty years manners and taste became barbarized and the fine traditions of the old popular poetry were obscured, and it was under this influence that, about 1190, a jongleur (Spielmann) revised the poem, this recension being represented by group B.
After 1190, during the Golden Age of the art poetry (Kunstdichtung) of the Minnesingers, a professional poet (Rudolf von Ems?) again remodelled the poem, introducing further interpolations, and changing the title from Der Nibelunge Not into Das Nibelungenliet, this version being the basis of the group C. The MS. A, as proved by its partial excellence, is based directly on Konrad's work, with additions borrowed from B.
use square brackets for interpolations; use three spaced dots to indicate the omission of material within a quotation.
square brackets for interpolations; use three spaced dots to indicate the omission of material within a quotation.
Possibly this fact points to his Marcan document having been briefer than our Mark, and to its having afterwards received interpolations (see Mark, Gospel Of St).
Lightfoot, 8 Harnack,' Kruger)'Ã‚° is unanimous in regarding it as an authentic document, though it recognizes that here and there a few slight interpolations have been inserted."Besides these we have no other sources for the life of Polycarp; the Vita S.
It may be discerned in the interpolations in the prayers; possibly in the reference to the chief deacon, for elsewhere no single deacon is distinguished by name until the close of the 4th century; in the reference to the Epiphany, which is first heard of elsewhere at the beginning of the 4th century.
The ordinary bazar copies of the poem, repeatedly reproduced by lithography, teem with interpolations and variations from the poet's language.
Use square brackets for interpolations; use three spaced dots to indicate the omission of material within a quotation.
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