I had more than an hour to wait at Philadelphia International Airport.
French became the language of diplomacy and international affairs.
Formalized agreements on conventions, measurements, borders, and international conduct.
In 2010, almost 700,000 international students were studying in America's colleges and universities.
The foreign policy of ViscontiVenosta may be said to have reinforced the international position of Italy without sacrifice of dignity, and without the vacillation and short-sightedness which was to characterize the ensuing administrations of the Left.
The stock of the Electric and International Company, the return on which had reached 10 per cent.
In international relations, is the will of the people also transferred to their conqueror?
Since by international agreement the wilful damage of a cable has been constituted a criminal offence, and the cable companies have avoided crossing the fishing banks, or have adopted the wise policy of refunding the value of anchors lost on their cables, the number of such fractures has greatly diminished.
14) introduced by Morse is still employed in the United States and Canada, and the international code in vogue in Europe differs only slightly from it.
6 " Geomorphologie als genetische Wissenschaft," in Report of Sixth International Geog.
The service is governed by the international telegraph regulations, but is subject to local inspection and interruption in times of political disorder.
International communication between Rome and Paris, and Italy and Switzerland also exists.
Admiral Canevaro, who had gained distinction as commander of the international forces in Foreign affairs.
Thurman was a member of the Electoral Commission of 1877, and was one of the American delegates to the international monetary conference at Paris in 1881.
It has a large number of landlocked nations without ports to access the international markets, both for imports and exports.
After that, most of Europe will be corresponding more or less to international borders, so I'll wait for further comment from Engels before going further.
International aid strategies have often worked against each other.
Our international relations with North Korea continue to to vex the government officials.
The acceptance by the powers of the Murzsteg programme and the appointment of Austrian and Russian financial agents in Macedonia was an advantage for Austria and a set-back for Italy; hut the latter scored a success in the appointment of General de Giorgis as commander of the international Macedonian gendarmerie; she also obtained, with the support of Great Britain, France and Russia, the assignment of the partly Albanian district of Monastir to the Italian officers of that corps.
The fact that small nations can adopt standard treaties, laws, currencies, and international practices of larger countries means that a small economic unit can be viable.
The telegraph lines of Argentina are subject to the national telegraph law of 1875, the international telegraph conventions, and special conventions with Brazil and Uruguay.
Besides these international lines the most important are those from Milan to Turin (via Vercelli and via Alessandria), to Genoa via Tortona, to Bologna via Parma and Modena, to V~rona, and the shorter lines to the district of the lakes of Lombardy; from Turin to Genoa via Savona and via Alessandria; from Genoa to Savona and Ventimiglia along the Riviera, and along the south-west coast of Italy, via Sarzana (whence a line runs to Parma) to Pisa (whence lines run to Pistoia and Florence) and Rome; from Verona to Modena, and to Venice via Padua; from Bologna to Padtia, to Rimini (and thence along the north-east coast via Ancona, Castellammare Adriatico and Foggia to Brindisi and Otranto), and to Florence and Rome; from Rome to Ancona, to Castellammare Adriatico and to Naples; from Naples to Foggia, via Metaponto (with a junction for Reggio di Calabria), to Brindisi and to Reggio di Calabria.
As an international force Russia had been, of course, all but completely crippled by the outcome of the Japanese War and the subsequent revolution.
As an international force Russia had been, of course, all but completely crippled by the outcome of the Japanese War and the subsequent revolution.
Since the early days of international telegraphy, conferences of representatives of government telegraph departments and companies have been held from time to time (Paris 1865, Vienna 1868, Rome 1871 and 1878, St Petersburg 1875, London 1879, Berlin 1885,1885, Paris 1891, Buda Pesth 1896, London 1903).
The ceremony of hoisting a flag and taking possession of the country in the name of the government of the Netherlands was actually performed, but the description of the wildness of the country, and of the fabulous giants by which Tasman's sailors believed it to be inhabited, deterred the Dutch from occupying the island, and by the international principle of " non-user " it passed from their hands.
He suggested an international congress on the question; inspired a pamphlet, Le Pape el le Con grs, which proposed a reduction of the papal territory, and wrote to the pope advising him to cede Romagna in order to obtain better guarantees for the rest of his dominions.
Damme, although long neglected, preserves some remains of its former prosperity, thanks to its remoteness from the area of international strife in the Low Countries.
It was found to be peculiarly adapted for communication between ships at sea and between ship and shore, and a system of regular supermarine communication was put into operation by two limited companies, Marconi's Wireless Telegraph Company and the Marconi International Marine Communication Company.
Damme, although long neglected, preserves some remains of its former prosperity, thanks to its remoteness from the area of international strife in the Low Countries.
" National, " the Danish " Ingolf " expedition, and the minor expeditions of the " Michael Sars," " Jackal," " Research," &c., and since 1902 it has been periodically examined by the International Council for the Study of the Sea.
been made to arrive at a definite international agreement on this subject, and certain terms suggested by a committee were adopted by the Eighth International Geographical Congress at New York in 1904.4 The forms of the ocean floor include the " shelf," or shallow sea margin, the " depression," a general term applied to all submarine hollows, and the " elevation."
been made to arrive at a definite international agreement on this subject, and certain terms suggested by a committee were adopted by the Eighth International Geographical Congress at New York in 1904.4 The forms of the ocean floor include the " shelf," or shallow sea margin, the " depression," a general term applied to all submarine hollows, and the " elevation."
Rivers do not form effective international boundaries, although between dependent self-governing communities they are convenient lines of demarcation.
For this decision there were good reasons, for those turbulent sons of the steppe paid no taxes and were much given to brigandage, and their raiding propensities occasionally created international difficulties with the khan of the Crimea and the sultan of Turkey.
The international Conference which met at Constantinople towards the end of 1876 was, indeed, startled by the salvo of guns heralding the promulgation of a constitution, but the demands of the Conference were rejected, in spite of the solemn warnings addressed to the sultan by the Powers; Midhat Pasha, the author of the constitution, was exiled; and soon afterwards his work was suspended, though figuring to this day on the Statute-Book.
An important International Conference on radiotelegraphy was held in Berlin in 1906, and as a result of its deliberations international regulations have been adopted by the chief Powers of the world.
A variety of international beers and local microbrews complement the food.
The earliest successful form was " Bright's bell " sounder, which consisted of two bells of distinct tone or pitch, one of which was sounded when the current was sent in one [[International Code O]] --- 4 - 5 p-- - 6 R - 7 '...'
In 1868 the International Bureau of Telegraphic Administrations was constituted at Berne, and a convention was formulated by which a central office was appointed to collect and publish information and generally to promote the interests of international telegraphy.
Military School (1908) on " Submarine Cable Laying and Repairing," and articles in Quarterly Review (April 1903) on " Imperial Telegraphs," and in Edinburgh Review (April 1908) on " The International RadioTelegraphic Convention."
After being slightly modified, the plan was adopted in 1856 by an international commission of civil engineers to which it had been submitted.
Their pizza is enhanced by pizza sauce containing a secret mixture of spices, which has earned their recipes international acclaim.
Before departing on this international trip, you must sign a notarized attestation that you are in good health.
International service regulations have been drawn up which possess equal authority with the convention and constitute what may be regarded as the law relating to international telegraphy.
They have the perpetuity of conventions which contain no time limitation; but, like every human convention, they can be denounced, in the form in use for international treaties, and for good reasons, which are summed up in the exigencies of the general good of the country.
Locke had spent some years in Holland, the country of Grotius, who, with help from other great lawyers, and under a misapprehension as to the meaning of the Roman jus gentium, shaped modern concepts of international law by an appeal to law of nature.
In recent years, the city has received many new international residents that match the area's new growth.
Similarly in Europe they are often the property of the International Sleeping Car Company (Compagnie Internationale des Wagons-Lits), and the supplementary fares required from those who travel in them add materially to the cost of a journey.
As the perfect accompaniment to your meal, choose a bottle of wine from the extensive international wine list.
Richmond offers an abundance of international cuisine.
According to Allan Goodman, president and CEO of the Institute of International Education, The United States continues to host more international students than any other country in the world.
The king of the Belgians having formed an International African Society, de Lesseps accepted the presidency of the French committee, facilitated M.
The king of the Belgians having formed an International African Society, de Lesseps accepted the presidency of the French committee, facilitated M.
He not only re-established the Prussian legation to the Vatican, suppressed since 1874, and omitted from the imperial message to the Reichstag (17th November 1881) all reference to King Humberts visit to Vienna, but took occasion on the n9th of November to refer to Italy as a country tottering on the verge of revolution, and opened in the German semi-official press ~ campaign in favor of an international guarantee for the independence of the papacy.
Gourmet food is apparently the norm here and international cuisine a given in this town.
These rules were borrowed almost word for word from the project drawn up at the Brussels international conference of 1874, which, though never ratified, was practically incorporated in the army regulations issued by the Russian government in connexion with the war of 18 77-7 8.
Among the measures and events distinguishing his term as president were the following: The meeting of the Pan-American Congress at Washington; the passage of the McKinley Tariff Bill and of the Sherman Silver Bill of 1890; the suppressing of the Louisiana Lottery; the enlargement of the navy; further advance in civil service reform; the convocation by the United States of an international monetary conference; the establishment of commercial reciprocity with many countries of America and Europe; the peaceful settlement of a controversy with Chile; the negotiation of a Hawaiian Annexation Treaty, which, however, before its ratification, his successor withdrew from the Senate; the settlement of difficulties with Germany concerning the Samoan Islands, and the adjustment by arbitration with Great Britain of the Bering Sea fur-seal question.
In this capacity he appeared before the international tribunal of arbitration at Paris in 1899, worthily maintaining the reputation of the American bar.
At the London International Exhibition of 1851 he had charge of the department of machinery, and wrote a report on the machinery and tools on view at that exhibition.
He was a member of the International Prime Meridian and Time Conference in 1884, and of the Board of Fortifications in 1885-1886; was superintendent of the Naval Academy from 1886 to 1890; and was promoted to captain and served as delegate at the International Maritime Conference at Washington in 1889.
(" International Theological Library," Edinburgh, 1903) is in many respects the most serviceable and complete study; a modern and more critical " Ewald " is a desideratum.
Before this date the Jews had been learning the rOle they afterwards filled, that of the chief promoters of international commerce.
But all attempts at an international union of Jews, even in view of such emergencies as these, have failed.
An international blockade of the island was proposed by Austria but rejected by England.
It soon became evident, however, that the Porte was endeavouring to obstruct the execution of the new reforms. Several months passed without any step being taken towards this realization; difficulties were raised with regard to the composition of the international commissions charged with the reorganization of the gendarmery and judicial system; intrigues were set on foot against the Christian governorgeneral; and the presence of a special imperial commissioner, who had no place under the constitution, proved so injurious to the restoration of tranquillity that the powers demanded his immediate recall.
The insurgents, however, continued to threaten the town, and their position was bombarded by the international fleet (21st February).
The forces of the powers shortly afterwards occupied Candia and the other maritime towns, while the international fleet blockaded the Cretan coast.
After the departure of the Greek troops the Cretan leaders, who had hitherto demanded annexation to Greece, readily acquiesced in the decision of the powers, and the insurgent Assembly, under its president Dr Sphakianakis, a man of good sense and moderation, co-operated with the international commanders in the maintenance of order.
On the 27th of April 1899 a new autonomous constitution was voted by a constituent assembly, and in the following June the local administration was handed over to Cretan officials by the international authorities.
The powers, however, reiterated their decision to maintain the status quo, and increased their military and naval forces; the Greek flag was hauled down at Canea and Candia, and some desultory engagements with the insurgents took place, the international troops co-operating with the native gendarmerie.
The then Provisional Government at Petrograd favoured an international Labour and Socialist Conference, which was being promoted by the International Socialist Bureau and was to meet at Stockholm.
He strongly promoted the League of Nations in the early part of that year; he attended the International Socialist Conference at Berne; and in Dec. 1920 he paid an informal visit to Ireland in the hope of promoting peace.
1864), was prominent also as an owner and manager of railways, and became president of the Little Rock & Fort Smith railway (1888), the St Louis, Iron Mountain & Southern railway (1893), the International & Great Northern railway (1893), the Missouri Pacific railway (1893), the Texas & Pacific railway (1893), and the Manhattan Railway Company (1892); he was also vice-president and director of the Western Union Telegraph Company.
It is served by the International & Great Northern and the Missouri, Kansas & Texas railways.
In the city are machine and car shops of the International & Great Northern railway, and cottoncompresses, and there are manufactures of cotton-seed oil, &c. Taylor, named in honour of Gen.
Many of Bentham's phrases, such as "international," "utilitarian," "codification," are valuable additions to our language; but the majority of them, especially those of Greek derivation, have taken no root in it.
Four out of the five essays are elaborate and powerful solutions of perplexing technical problems - the distribution of the gains of international commerce, the influence of consumption on production, the definition of productive and unproductive labour, the precise relations between profits and wages.
We cannot suppose that the policy of the Merchant Adventurers' Company had nothing to do with the woollen industry; that the export trade in woollen cloth was quite independent of the foreign exchanges and international trade relations in those times; that the effect on wages of the state of the currency, the influx of new silver, the character of the harvests, and many other influences can be conveniently ignored.
Bastable's works on International Trade and Public Finance; George Clare on the Money Market and the Foreign Exchanges; and A.
The matter was of international importance; for by the treaty of Luneville (February 1801) he had bound himself to respect the independence of the two republics of North Italy, the Cisalpine and the Ligurian.
In point of fact, the sword alone could decide his fate, both in internal and international affairs.
The reorganization of the Archaeological and Artistic Museum and of the Royal Gallery of Ancient Art coincided with the inauguration in April 1895 of a series of biennial International Art Exhibitions, arranged in order to celebrate the silver wedding of the king and queen of Italy.
The selection of works was made by an international jury from which Venetian artists were excluded.
The present library (antedated by several circulating, social and professional collections) may justly be said to have had its origin in the efforts of the Parisian, Alexandre Vattemare (1796-1864), from 1830 on, to foster international exchanges.
The general movement for the extension of cotton cultivation wa.s welcomed by the International Congress of representatives of master cotton spinners and manufacturers' associations at the meeting at Zurich in May 1904.
But he retained the political support of many who were opposed, like Senators Borah and Johnson, to any sort of international association.
The most important step taken by President Harding during the first year of his administration was the calling of an international conference on the limitation of armaments.
The President made it clear that he regarded the conference merely as a step in securing international understanding and good will; he advocated the convening of succeeding conferences as a possible means of securing an international association for the promotion of peace, and he approved the principle of substituting an understanding between the United States, Great Britain, France and Japan regarding Far-Eastern problems, for the existing Anglo-Japanese Treaty.
A blockade of Egypt by an international fleet, an alliance with the Mongols, the union of the two great orders - these are the three staple heads of these proposals.
The plan of an international fleet to coerce the Mahommedan is even to this day ineffective; but the Hospitallers, who acquired a new basis by the conquest of Rhodes in 1310, used their fleet to enforce a partial and, on the whole, ineffective blockade of the coast of the Levant.
g g 7 Y g maritime wars of the 18th century gave scope to the exercise of its prize jurisdiction; and its international importance as a prize court in the latter half of the 18th and the first part of the 19th centuries is a matter of common historical knowledge.
The king's advocate also represented the crown in the ecclesiastical courts, and was its standing adviser in matters of international and foreign law.
It is served by the International & Great Northern, the National of Mexico, the Texas Mexican and the Rio Grande & Eagle Pass railways, and is connected by bridges with Nuevo Laredo.
Owing to the numbers and activity of its institutions, both native and foreign, for the prosecution of research and the encouragement of classical studies, Athens has become Scientific once more an international seat of learning.
For an international commission of lawyers he prepared Draft Outlines of an International Code (1872), the submission of which resulted in the organization of the international Association for the Reform and Codification of the Laws of Nations, of which he became president.
His programme included the collective ownership of the means of production and the international association of labour, but when in June 1899 he entered Waldeck-Rousseau's cabinet of "republican defence" as minister of commerce he limited himself to practical reforms, devoting his attention to the improvement of the mercantile marine, to the development of trade, of technical education, of the postal system, and to the amelioration of the conditions of labour.
He represented the United States Bureau of Education at the International Congress of Educators at Brussels in 1880.
Besides being a contributor to the magazines and encyclopedias on educational and philosophical subjects, he wrote An Introduction to the Study of Philosophy (1889); The Spiritual Sense of Dante's Divina Commedia (1889); Hegel's Logic (1890); and Psychologic Foundations of Education (1898); and edited Appleton's International Education Series and 'Webster's International Dictionary.
The principal parks are: the Piedmont (189 acres), the site of the Piedmont Exposition of 1887 and of the Cotton States and International Exposition of 1895; the Grant, given to the city by L.
In 1881 an International Cotton Exposition was held in Atlanta.
The Cotton States and International Exposition, also held at Atlanta, in 1895, attracted widespread attention, and had exhibits from thirty-seven states and thirteen foreign countries.
Elements.-The following table gives the names, symbols and atomic weights of the perfectly characterized elements: International Atomic Weights, 1910.
The new conditions in Palestine should be very favourable to archaeological work there, and it is to be hoped that in Syria the French will give every facility for international work.
The former method, usually called the " natural scale," may be described as " international," for it is quite independent of local measures of length, and depends exclusively upon the size and figure of the earth.
On the international map of the world, planned by Professor A.
In Africa nearly all the international boundaries have been carefully surveyed and marked on the ground, since 1880, and yield a good basis as a guide for the map compiler.
Most of the leading breeds have clubs or societies, which have been founded by admirers with a view to furthering the interests of their favourites; and such combinations as the Bulldog Club (incorporated), the London Bulldog Society, the British Bulldog Club, the Fox Terrier Club, the Association of Bloodhound Breeders - under whose management the first man-hunting trials were held, - the Bloodhound Hunt Club, the Collie Club, the Dachshund Club, the Dandie Dinmont Terrier Club, the English Setter Club, the Gamekeepers' Association of the United Kingdom, the International Gun Dog League, the Irish Terrier Club, the Irish Wolfhound Club, the St Bernard Club, the National Terrier Club, the Pomeranian Club, the Spaniel Club, the Scottish Terrier Club and the Toy Bulldog Club have done good work in keeping the claims of the breeds they represent before the dogowning public and encouraging the breeding of dogs to type.
Rising from numerous valleys on the Alberta declivity of the Rocky Mountains between the international boundary line and 52° N.
The international interests thus created, and others that sprang from them, heavily burdened the diplomacy, and even threatened the safety of the United States after they were placed in possession of the eastern bank of the Mississippi down to 31° in 1783.
The chief interest of the Spanish period lies in the advance of settlement in the western territories of the United States, the international intrigues - British, French and Spanish - involving the future of the valley, the demand of the United States for free navigation on the Mississippi, and the growing consciousness of the supreme importance of the river and New Orleans to the Union.
A Cuban international question had arisen before 1820.
The status thus created is very exceptional in the history of international relations.
For the history of the Cuban international problem consult Jose Ignacio Rodriguez, Idea de la anexion de la isla de Cuba a los Estados Unidos de America (Havana, 1900), and J.
Callahan, Cuba and International Relations (Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, 1898), which supplement each other.
He continued to play a prominent part in International Socialist politics, striving to arrange concerted action of the working classes to make wars impossible by means of general strikes.
A complete classification of mathematical sciences, as they at present exist, is to be found in the International Catalogue of Scientific Literature promoted by the Royal Society.
The classification in question was drawn up by an international committee of eminent mathematicians, and thus has the highest authority.
Section B of the International Catalogue deals with mechanics.
1914, in his organ published at Geneva, " it is impossible, from the point of view of the international proletariat, to say which would be the lesser evil for Socialism, an Austro-German defeat or a Franco-Russo-English defeat.
It is thought better here, for the sake of clearness, to reserve observations on revenues specially assigned to the international administration of the Ottoman Public Debt, and on the expenditure of that administration, and to deal with that subject separately, while, however, including the total figures of both in the general figures in order to reproduce exactly the totals shown in the budget of the empire.
was the every direction; the finances and the army were reorganized, military instructors being procured from Europe; the administration was gradually centralized, and good relations were cultivated with the powers, the only serious international controversy arising in1848-1849over the refusal.
An international conference convoked in London early in 1871 laid down the principle that treaty.
Turkey now made a show of going even beyond the demands formulated by Europe, and the international conference which met at Constantinople during See Mr Baring's reports in Pall.
The decisions of the conference, moderate though they were, in the end requiring merely the nomination of an international commission to investigate the state of the European provinces of Turkey, and the appointment by the sultan, with the approval of the powers, of governors-general for five years, were rejected by the Porte.
Measures of reform in Armenia were also provided for, as also the convocation of an international commission for drawing up a reform scheme for the European provinces left to Turkey.
The Porte opposed the project, and an international naval demonstration and the occupation of Mytilene by the powers became necessary before Turkey gave way in December 1905.
On the 13th of September 1909 the Macedonian international commission of finance met for the last time; its members were reappointed to a higher finance board for the whole empire, under the presidency of Djavid Bey.
In J u d y 1909, however, the Greek flag was hoisted in Canea and Candia, and it was only lowered again after the war-ships of the protecting powefs had been reinforced and had landed an international force.
In 1903 there was considerable discussion as to the placing of the line under international control, and the question aroused special interest in England in view of the short route which the line would provide to India, in connexion with fast steamship services in the Mediterranean and the Persian Gulf.
Besides those already mentioned the more important are: Cours d'economie politique (1842-1850); Essais de politique industrielle (1843); De la baisse probable d'or (1859, translated into English by Cobden, On the Probable Fall of the Value of Gold, Manchester, 1859); L'Expedition du Mexique (1862); Introduction aux rapports du jury international (1868).
For the revision of the constitution it is necessary that two-thirds of the members elected to each house of the legislature vote for the call of a constitutional convention, that a majority of all electors voting at the next general election approve the call for the convention, and that the convention consist of as many members as the house of representatives, who shall be chosen in the same manner, and shall meet within three months after the general 1 At International Falls on Rainy River and at Duluth on the St Louis immense water-power is utilized for manufacturing.
The very important activities of the Conseil Permanent International pour l'Exploration de la Mer were suspended during the war except in a few local seas.
An entirely new project was an international survey of the Mediterranean and adjacent seas, from the fishery and oceanographical standpoints, by France, Italy, Spain and Portugal, but in 1921 no definite programme had been put in operation.
The International Research Council formed just after the war constituted a section for Physical Oceanography, which held its first meeting in Paris in 1921.
Little change occurred subsequently to 1910 with regard to the methods of oceanographical investigation except a continual refinement and an increasing improvement in the apparatus used: in this direction the activities of the Central Bureau of the International Council were very noteworthy.
The city is served by the International & Great Northern, and the Missouri, Kansas & Texas railways.
But Charles's insatiable lust for conquest, and his ineradicable suspicion of Denmark, induced him, on the 17th of July, without any reasonable cause, without a declaration of war, in defiance of all international equity, to endeavour to despatch an inconvenient neighbour.
In this office in 1863 he won before the Supreme Court of the United States the famous prize case of the "Amy Warwick," on the decision in which depended the right of the government to blockade the Confederate ports, without giving the Confederate states an international status as belligerents.
He brought out in 1865 an edition of Wheaton's International Law, his notes constituting a most learned and valuable authority on international law and its bearings on American history and diplomacy; but immediately after its publication Dana was charged by the editor of two earlier editions, William Beach Lawrence, with infringing his copyright, and was involved in litigation which was continued for thirteen years.
In its effects on the international situation Navarino may be reckoned one of the decisive battles of the world.
JOHAN GYLLENSTJERNA, Count (1635-1680), Swedish statesman, completed his studies at Upsala and then visited most of the European states and laid the foundations of that deep insight into international politics which afterwards distinguished him.
His son, GEORGE JELLINEK, was appointed professor of international law at Heidelberg in 1891.
" By those nine treaties," he said, " we have, I hope, dealt with all the questions that are likely to arise between the United States and Canada - questions relating to boundary; questions relating to the disposal and the use of boundary waters; questions relating to the fisheries in the international waters where the two countries adjoin one another; questions relating to the interests which we have in sealing in the Behring Sea, and many other matters."
In the latter he advocated the unlimited coinage of silver, irrespective of international agreement, at a ratio of 16 to 1, a policy with which his name was afterwards most prominently associated.
The failure of the method based on transits of Venus led to an international effort carried out on the initiative of Sir David Gill to measure the parallax by observations on those minor planets which approach nearest the earth.
for "closed sea" and "free sea"), in international law, terms associated with the historic controversy which arose out of demands on the part of different states to assert exclusive dominion over areas of the open or high sea.
ARBITRATION International arbitration is a proceeding in which two nations refer their differences to one or more selected persons, who, after affording to each party an opportunity of being heard, pronounce judgment on the matters at issue.
This would, however, be highly inconvenient since international law has never been codified.
An international arbitrator may be the chief of a friendly power, or he may be a private individual.
In this respect international arbitration differs from civil arbitration, since a private arbitrator cannot delegate his office without express authority.
An international award cannot be enforced directly; in other words it has no legal sanction behind it.
International awards, as already pointed out, differ from civil awards in having no legal sanction by which they can be enforced.
The history of international arbitration is dealt with in the article Peace, where treaties of general arbitration are discussed, both those which embrace all future differences thereafter to arise between the contracting parties, and also those more limited conventions which aim at the settlement of all future differences in regard to particular subjects, e.g.
The rapid growth of international arbitration in recent times may be gathered from the following figures.
The establishment of a permanent tribunal at the Hague, pursuant to the Peace convention of 1899, marks a momentous epoch in the history of international arbitration.
The credit of the realization is due, in the first place, to the tsar of Russia, who initiated the Hague Conference of 1899, and, in the second place to Lord Pauncefote (then Sir Julian Pauncefote, British ambassador at Washington), who urged before a committee of the conference the importance of organizing a permanent international court, the service of which should be called into requisition at will, and who also submitted an outline of the mode in which such a court might be formed.
Each of the signatory powers is to designate within three months from the ratification of the convention four persons at the most, of recognized competence in international law, enjoying the highest moral consideration, and willing to accept the duties of arbitrators.
The prospects of the expansion of international arbitration will be more clearly perceived if we classify afresh all state differences under two heads: - (r) those which have a legal character, (2) those which have a political character.
All differences falling under the first of these two general heads appear to be suitable for international arbitration.
It may be that, just as the usages of civilized nations have slowly crystallized into international law, so there may come a time when the political principles that govern states in relation to each other will be so clearly defined and so generally accepted as to acquire something of a legal or quasi-legal character.
In order that international arbitration may do its perfect work, it is not enough to set up a standing tribunal, whether at the Hague or elsewhere, and to equip it with elaborate rules of procedure.
Merignhac, Traite de l'arbitrage international (Paris, 1895); Le Chevalier Descamps, Essai sur l'organisation de l'arbitrage international (Bruxelles, 1896); Feraud-Giraud, Des Traites d'arbitrage international general et permanent, Revue de droit international (Bruxelles, 1897); Pasicrisie International, by Senator H.
Moore, History of the International Arbitrations to which the United States has been a Party (Washington, 1898).
Arbitration and mediation will be found briefly noticed in Phillimore's International Law; in Sir Henry Maine's Lectures, delivered in Cambridge in 1887; in W.
Hall's International Law, and more at length in an interesting paper contributed by John Westlake to the International Journal of Ethics, October 1896, which its author has reprinted privately.
A London journal, The Herald of Peace and International Arbitration, issued some years ago a list of instances in which arbitration or mediation had been successfully resorted to during the 19th century.
David Dudley Field, of New York, subsequently enlarged this list, which has been continued under the title International Tribunals, by Dr W.
Debray (1827-1888) he worked at the platinum metals, his object being on the one hand to prepare them pure, and on the other to find a suitable metal for the standard metre for the International Metric Commission then sitting at Paris.
National and international money order systems are also in operation.
Rugby football is in high favour, Edinburgh being commonly the scene of the international matches when the venue falls to Scotland.
In 1849 he brought forward a proposal in parliament in favour of international arbitration, and in 1851 a motion for mutual reduction of armaments.
In pursuance of the same object, he identified himself with a series of remarkable peace congresses - international assemblies designed to unite the intelligence and philanthropy of the nations of Christendom in a league against war - which from 1848 to 1851 were held successively in Brussels, Paris, Frankfort, London, Manchester and Edinburgh.
Cobden, if I may be permitted to say so, was an international man."
Meanwhile the new Austrian empire had failed to stand the test of international complications.
The question of Italian unity had no sooner been settled than the question of The German unity arose, and fresh international difficulties Austro- once more inclined the Austrian government towards moderation and concession.
The Balkan crisis threw this question into the background during the winter; but, with the settlement of the international questions raised by the annexation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, it once more came to the front.
He admitted that under the Compromise of 1867 Hungary might have a separate bank, while urging the expediency of such an arrangement from the point of view of the international position of the Dual Monarchy.
Saltillo, on the Mexican International railway.
In point of international law, its existence may be said to date from Dec. I 1918, when the Prince-Regent Alexander of Serbia formally complied with the invitation of the Yugoslav National Council to assume the regency over the sister provinces also.
Korosec in the name of the Czech and Yugoslav Clubs unreservedly rejected it and claimed that the future of both nations was an international problem which only the future Peace Conference could solve.
It then defined what came to be known as " the Wilson Line," which assigned to Italy Gorizia, Trieste and Istria west of the river Arsa, but not Fiume, which must become an international port, nor any points south of it, save perhaps Lissa and Valona: it also advocated the dismantling of the whole eastern Adriatic coast.
(1907), in International Critical Commentary.
The protest was unheeded, the British government having realized the international complications that might ensue had the Transvaal a port of its own.
For much of all this the prime minister's colleagues were primarily responsible; but he himself had given a lead to the anti-militarist section by prominently advocating international disarmament, and the marked rebuff to the British proposals at the Hague conference of 1907 exposed alike the futility of this Radical ideal and the general inadequacy of the prime minister's policy of pacificism.
He acted as president of the International Congress held at Geneva in 1892 for revising the nomenclature of the fatty acid series.
The new king was not fond of "boetry," but Queen Caroline was, and international jealousy was pleased at the thought of welcoming a distinguished exile from French illiberality.
Recognizing that slavery was a state institution, with which the Federal government had no authority to interfere, he contended that slavery could only exist by a specific state enactment, that therefore slavery in the District of Columbia and in the Territories was unlawful and should be abolished, that the coastwise slave-trade in vessels flying the national flag, like the international slave-trade, should be rigidly suppressed, and that Congress had no power to pass any act which in any way could be construed as a recognition of slavery as a national institution.
on St Luke (in international Series, 4th ed., 1906); W.
The term is not in use in self-governing churches like the Congregationalists and Baptists, though these from time to time hold councils or assemblies (national and international), for conference and fellowship without any legislative power.
In these circumstances, the British government sent out invitations on the 2nd of July 1887 for an international conference to meet in London.
There is excellent boating and bathing here, and there are mineral springs in the Park, where in the summer there are a Chautauqua course lasting for six weeks, a normal school, a Bible school, a Bible conference, a school of missions, an International Training School for Sunday School Workers, a conference of temperance workers and nature study and other regular summer school courses; and in other months of the year courses are given here by the Winona Normal School and Agricultural Institute, Winona Academy (for boys) and Winona Conservatory of Music, and the Winona Park School for Young Women.
In 1873 a great international exhibition took place here.
In 1892 he was a member of the Bureau Internationale des Poids et Mesures and in 1897 of the International Committee of Weights and Measures.
Peru belongs to the international postal union, and had in 1906 a money order and parcels exchange with seven foreign states.
His period of office was signalized by the opening of an international exhibition at Lima.
See also Transactions of the International Swedenborg Congress (London, 1910), summarized in The New Church Magazine (August, 1910).
to Monterrey, and thence westward to Trevino (formerly Venadito) in Coahuila, a station on the Mexican International.
Other magazines were the American Monthly Magazine (1833-1838), the Southern Literary Messenger (1834), Richmond, the Gentleman's Magazine (1837-1840), and the International Magazine (1850-1852), edited by R.
The New Englander (1843-1892), the Biblical Repertory and Princeton Review (1825), the Ncitional Quarterly Review (1860) and the New York International Review (1874-1883), may also be mentioned.
- Annales de droit commercial (1877); Revue al, gerienne et tunisienne de legislation et de jurisprudence (1885); Revue du droit public et de la science politique (1894); Revue generale du droit international public (1894).
Science (General).-La Nature, weekly; Revue scientifique (1863), weekly; La Science francaise, monthly.-Science (Applied): Les inventions illustrees, weekly; Revue industrielle, weekly.-Science (Natural): Archives de biologie; Journal de botanique (1887); L'Annee biologique (1895); Revue des sciences naturelles de l'ouest (1891); Revue generale de botanique (1889); La Pisciculture pratique (1895).- Science (Political, Sociological and Statistical): Annales economiques (founded as La France commerciale in 1885); L'Annee sociologique (1896-1897); Bulletin de l'office du travail (1894); Bulletin de l'office international du travail (1902); Le Mouvement socialiste-international bi-monthly (1899); Notices et comptes rendus de l'office du travail (1892); L'Orient et l'abeille du Bosphore (1889) Revue politique et parlementaire (1894); Revue international de sociologie, monthly.
But the manner of the peacemaking, which had been carried on by a series of underhand conspiracies with the enemy instead of by open conferences with the allies, and was characterized throughout by a violation of the most solemn international assurances, left a deep and lasting stain upon the national honour and credit; and not less dishonourable was the abandonment of the Catalans by the treaty.
Large powers devolve upon other officers, such as the "Chief of the Staff," the "Foreign Secretary," and the "Chancellor," who direct affairs from the "International Headquarters" in London.
In 1909 the general income and expenditure account of International Headquarters in London dealt with a total of £64,345.
The number debarred from 1896 to 1905 is shown in the following table: No law of international comity is violated by the refusal to receive these unfortunates.
His special interest in legislation for the working classes led him to be placed upon the Trades Union Commission of 1867-1869; he was secretary to the commission for the digest of the law, 1869-1870; and was from 1877 to 1889 professor of jurisprudence and international law under the council of legal education.
by Holtzmann, Julicher, Weiss, Zahn, Davidson, Salmon, Bacon and the standard Commentaries of Meyer and Holtzmann, the International (Bigg) and other series, contain discussions of authorship and date.
The field for recruiting its members, as well as its landed estates, became restricted by the Reformation in England and Germany, and the French knights gradually gained a preponderance which upset the international equilibrium of the Order.
He was peculiarly adapted for the wise and skilful treatment of difficult problems in the spirit of an international set, playing the great game of diplomacy with grace and honour.
medius, middle), in the international sense, the intervention of a third power, on the invitation or with the consent of two other powers, for the purpose of arranging differences between the latter without recourse to war.
resolved to wipe from the map of Europe an inconvenient rival, and without any warning, in defiance of all international equity, let loose his veterans upon Denmark a second time.
At the time of the invasion of the Gauls in 391 B.C., on the other hand, Clusium was on friendly terms with Rome; indeed, it was the action of the Roman envoys who had come to intercede for the people of Clusium with the Gauls, and then, contrary to international law, took part in the battle which followed, which determined the Gauls to march on Rome.
He was Canadian delegate at the Paris Monetary Conference of 1881, and to the International Exhibition of Fisheries in 1883.
A second epoch comparable to that of the " Challenger " and resulting like it in a leap forward in the precision of the methods previously employed was marked by the institution in 1901 of the International Council for the Study of the Sea.
A definite terminology for the larger forms of sub-oceanic relief was put forward by the International Geographical Congress at Berlin in 1899 and adopted by that at Washington in 1004.
According to the resolutions of the International Geographical Congress the larger individual forms which have been described by generic terms shall have specific names of a purely geographical character; but in the case of the minor forms the names of ships and persons are considered applicable.
Although put forward by the highest international authority recognized by geographers the system of nomenclature has not been adopted universally.
For the sake of uniformity it is to be hoped that the system of nomenclature recommended by the International Geographical Congress will ultimately be adopted.
This definition was adopted by the International Council for the Study of the Sea in 1902, and it has since been very widely accepted.
On the authority of the first meeting of the International Conference for the Study of the Northern European Seas at Stockholm in 1899 Martin Knudsen, assisted by Karl Forch and S.
Fox, of the Central Laboratory of the International Council at Christiania, has investigated the relation of the atmospheric gases to sea-water by very exact experimental methods and arrived at the following expressions for the absorption of oxygen and nitrogen by sea-water of different degrees of concentration.
In shallow seas such as the North Sea and the British fringing seas, where tidal currents run strong, there is a general mixing together of the surface and deeper water, thus making the arrangement of vertical temperature anathermic in summer and katathermic in winter, while at the transitional periods in spring and autumn it is practically homothermic. Thus at Station E2 of the international series at the mouth of the English Channel in 49° 2 7' N., 4 42' W., the following distribution of temperature F.
Reports of many minor expeditions and researches have appeared in the Reports of the Fishery Board for Scotland; the Marine Biological Association at Plymouth; the Kiel Commission for the Investigation of the Baltic; the Berlin Institut fur Meereskunde; the bluebooks of the Hydrographic Department; the various official reports to the British, German, Russian, Finnish, Norwegian, Swedish, Danish, Belgian and Dutch governments on the respective work of these countries in connexion with the international cooperation in the North Sea; the Bulletin du musee oceanographique de Monaco (1903 seq.); the Scottish Geographical Magazine; the Geographical Journal; Petermanns Mitteilungen; Wagner's Geogi'aphisches Jahrbuch; the Proceedings and Transactions of the Royal Societies of London and Edinburgh; the Annalen der Hydrographie; and the publications of the Swedish Academy of Sciences.
As a term of International Law, it has been displaced by that of "prisoner of war."
See Peace Conference and WAR; also Sir T.Barclay, supplement to Problems of International Practice and Diplomacy, for comparison of texts of 1899 and 1907.
His devotion, indeed, to the ideal of international socialism caused him, at the outbreak of the World War, to lose touch not only with British public feeling in general, but even with the sentiment of the Labour party which he led.
He was active in the summer of 1917 in promoting the participation of representatives of the English Labour and Socialist parties in an International Socialist Conference at Stockholm, to which German representatives were coming, and he went to Paris with bIr.
xvi., xvii.; " Geographische Untersuchungen in der Westhalfte von New Guinea," in Report of Sixth International Geographical Congress (London, 1895); J.
Though he was often on strained terms with Mirabeau, yet his views generally coincided with those of that statesman, who is said on his death-bed (2nd of April 1791) to have communicated to him his opinions on domestic and international affairs, especially advising a close understanding with England.
His great aim was to bring about peace, both international and internal.
Next came two publications in "The International Scientific Series," namely, Mind and Body (1872), and Education as a Science (1879).
The first step in clarifying the situation is to come to a full realization that the medieval Church was essentially an international state, and that the character of the Protestant secession from it was largely determined by this fact.
The Reformation was thus essentially a stage in the disengaging of the modern state from that medieval, international ecclesiastical state which had its beginning in the ecclesia of the Acts of the Apostles.
Individuals, often large groups, and even whole districts, had indeed earlier rejected some portions of the Roman Catholic faith, or refused obedience to the ecclesiastical government; but previously to the burning of the canon law by Luther no prince had openly and permanently cast off his allegiance to the international conceived them is found in his Dictatus.
The existence of this theocratic international state was of course conditioned by the weakness of the civil government.
The Persians took over the realm of their predecessors, and Gaza grew in importance as a seat of international commerce.
established an international Benedictine College in Rome for theological studies, and conferred on its abbot the title of "Abbot Primate," with precedence among Black Monk abbots.
The change thus established de facto owed its first diplomatic consecration to the developments of international politics in the Old World.
Though the vast ultimate consequences of this sudden appearance of the great western republic in the arena of international politics were not realized even by those in sympathy with Monroe's action, the weight of the United States thrown into the scale on the side of Great Britain made any effective protest by the European powers impossible; Russia, Austria and Prussia contented themselves with joining in a mild expression of regret that the action of Great Britain "tended to encourage that revolutionary spirit it had been found so difficult to control in Europe."
The first international council of Congregationalists held in London in 1891 was partly cause, partly consequence, of his visit, and Mackennal acted as secretary.
He was a lifelong advocate of international peace, and made a remarkable declaration as to the Christian standard of national action when the Free Church Federation met at Leeds during the South African War in 1900.
He next organized an extensive international business in coal, and had 13 steamers trading to and from North Sea, Baltic, Mediterranean and Black Sea ports.
The subjects to which most importance is attached from the international standpoint are age, sex, civil condition, birthplace, illiteracy and certain infirmities.
Congregationalists generally have been to the fore in attempts to apply Christian principles to matters of social, municipal, national and international importance.
They have been steady friends of foreign missions in the most catholic form (supporting the London Missionary Society, founded in 1795 on an inter-denominational basis), of temperance, popular education and international peace.
This gradually led to the idea of " An Ecumenical Council of Congregational Churches," broached in 1874, and first realized in 1891, in the London International Council under the presidency of Dr R.
The movement in the direction of union has been still further promoted by the International Councils referred to above (section on British Congregationalism ad fin.), in which the American Congregationalists have met the representatives of their brethren in Great Britain and its colonies having the same faith and polity.
He also excelled as a speaker, particularly at gatherings of an international character, for in addition to his native German he could speak English, French and Italian with fluency.
From 1884 he was the Hamburg delegate for the International Earth Measurement.
The Dardanelles, Bosporus, the Sea of Marmora, and the adjoining coastal areas, both in Europe and Asia, were demilitarized, and, to the extent necessary to ensure the freedom of the Straits, were placed under the control of an International Commission.
The close of the American Civil War, the Fenian raids across the American border, and the dangers incident to the international situation, gave a decisive impulse to the movement.
Tungsten is found as wolframite in Stevens county near Deer Trail and Bissell, in Okanogan county near Loomis, in Whatcom county near the international boundary, and (with some scheelite) at Silver Hill, near Spokane.
While the system of counting from the capital of the country is still used for local purposes, the tendency in recent years is to use the meridian of Greenwich for nautical and international purposes.
in Idaho), Bitterroot (1,180,900 acres), Blackfeet (1,956,340 acres), 1 The St Mary and both forks of the Milk river flow northward into the Dominion of Canada, and as there has been much private irrigation both north and south of the international boundary, the present Federal project and other undertakings in the same region necessitate an international agreement as to the division of the waters, especially of the St Mary, and commissioners representing the Canadian government and the United States conferred in regard to it in May 1908.
But it was his course in the presidency that gave him his international reputation) and it is as President Roosevelt that future historians: Of American political life must chiefly discuss him.
Mr Roosevelt was a pronounced advocate of international peace but also an advocate of law and order.
He believed that international controversies would ultimately be settled by judicial procedure, and in the Russo-Japanese War and the establishment of the Hague Court he took an active part in promoting the judicial settlement of disputes between nations.
For his efforts leading to the settlement of the Russo-Japanese War he received the Nobel Peace Prize, and in May 1910 he delivered an address on "International Peace" before the Nobel committee in Christiania.
But, with this advocacy of international peace, he also advocated the maintenance by the United States of an efficient and thoroughly equipped army and navy.
In his Nobel address he said: "In any community of any size the authority of the courts rests upon actual potential force; on the existence of a police or on the knowledge that the able-bodied men of the country are both ready and willing to see that the decrees of judicial and legislative bodies are put into effect;" and he expressed the opinion that until a recognized international supreme court was firmly established, every nation must be prepared to defend itself, and when it was established all the nations must be prepared to maintain its decrees against any recalcitrant nation.
His critics said that his course in this matter was unconstitutional, although the question of constitutionality has never been raised before any national or international tribunal.
de Martens, Traite du droit international, translated by A.
There are sovereign and non-sovereign states; international law recognizing both.
52; Political Science Quarterly, 3.123; Georges Streit, Revue de droit international, 1900, p. 14).
Feudalism had a phraseology to express the varieties of fiefs which existed under it; modern international law has no generally-accepted terminology for the still greater variety of states which now exist.
(b) Organized associations, including - (1) international commissions (internationale Verwaltungsvereine, such as international postal and telegraph unions, &c.); (2) the Staatenbund or confederation of states; (3) real unions of states as distinguished from personal; (4) the Bundesstaat or federal state.'
States which have complete independence, complete autonomy, external and internal, and which are recognized in international law as sovereign states.
Moore, Digest of International Law (Washington, 1906), i.
18 seq.; "Notes on Sovereignty," American Journal of International Law 1907), i.
Baty, International Law (1909).
In disputes between states, arbitration has long played an important part (see [[International arbitration).
International arbitration >>
"A true child of the London streets," she never pretended to be superior to what she was, nor to interfere in matters outside the special sphere assigned her; she made no ministers, she appointed to no bishoprics, and for the high issues of international politics she had no concern.
The Social Democrats in particular had always insisted that the working-classes were necessarily international.
In spite of this, the calculation was defeated; for in Europe every true democracy at once becomes national, and hence the national problem infected the working-classes so soon as they won parliamentary power; the " International " split up into national groups, just as the bourgeoisie had done before it.
12 1918 a meeting of their deputies at Prague unanimously accepted a resolution to the effect that the Bohemian question was to receive an international solution at the Peace Congress.
All this, combined with the stringency of the international money-market, meant a heavy burden on Austrian national economy.
It endeavours, therefore, to undermine all aspirations of this nature and, its own tendency being essentially international, strives to ensure that national sentiment and national interests shall not find over-zealous champions among the clergy.
The International Exhibition of 1851, the creation of the Museum and Science and Art Department at South Kensington, the founding of art schools and picture galleries all over the country, the spread of musical taste and the fostering of technical education may be attributed, more or less directly, to the commission of distinguished men which began its labours under Prince Albert's auspices.
The extent of her family connexions, and the correspondence she maintained with foreign sovereigns, together with the confidence inspired by her personal character, often enabled her to smooth the rugged places of international relations; and she gradually became in later years the link between all parts of a democratic empire, the citizens of which felt a passionate loyalty for their venerable queen.
To those who, in order to promote the cause of international arbitration, are desirous of acquiring a knowledge of the dangers and difficulties which beset this mode of settling disputes, the account which Palmer has left of his part in this arbitration may be commended.
The Pembina Mountains, low hills near the international boundary and about 30 m.
The Sheyenne, the Goose, the Park and the Pembina rivers are the most important of these streams. The Mouse, or Souris, river rises in Canada, crosses the international boundary near the meridian of 102° W.
at Portal, on the international boundary, having in 1909 a length within the state of 361 m.
Garstang's "Reports on the Natural History of the Plaice" (Rapports et proces-verbaux du conseil international pour l'exploration de la mer, 1905 seq.).
In 1856 he drew up a plan of action, and he prosecuted it with untiring perseverance until he saw it embodied in an international convention seven years later.
In 1855 he went as member of the international commission to Egypt to report on the possibility of the proposed Suez canal, and by the articles which he wrote he contributed largely to making the project popular in France.
It was in favour of aiding Austria on a broad basis of financial and economic help, to be rendered generally to the states of central Europe by international agreement.
The left wing of the party,-22 deputies and 5 senators - after a somewhat violent quarrel, then broke away and formed an independent organization owing allegiance to the Third (Moscow) International.
They pursued a national as opposed to an international social policy, being thus opponents of the Social Democrats and in particular antagonistic to Communism.
Prohibitions in respect of night work, the work of women (especially mothers) and young persons have been dealt with in the sense of the resolutions adopted at international conferences.
Masaryk, The New Europe (1918), The Problem of Small Nations in the European Crisis (Council for the Study of International Relations 1916); B.
In 1906 an international celebration of the fiftieth anniversary of his invention of mauve was held in London, and in the same year he was made a knight.
The city is served by the New York Central & Hudson River, the Wabash, the Erie, the Lehigh Valley, the West Shore and the Michigan Central railways, and by the International Electric railway and the Niagara, St Catharines & Toronto (electric) railway.
Thus a network of treaties was spread over Europe, leading to much great freedom of trade and opening an era of freer international exchange.
But mention must also be made of his founding of Carnegie Hero Fund commissions, in America (1904) and in the United Kingdom (1908), for the recognition of deeds of heroism; his contribution of £500,000 in 1903 for the erection of a Temple of Peace at The Hague, and of £150,000 for a Pan-American Palace in Washington as a home for the International Bureau of American republics.
Morse, Jr., he edited the International Review.
refractor to enable it to take part in the International Photographic Survey of the Heavens.
Ten years later considerations of a somewhat similar kind led to his election to succeed Sir William Harcourt as Whewell professor of international law at Cambridge.
His all too short performance in this office is represented by a posthumous volume which had not received his own final revision, International Law (1888).
Some there were who hoped that so great an opportunity would not be lost, but that the statesmen would initiate such measures of international disarmament as would perpetuate the blessings of that peace which Europe was again enjoying after twenty years of warfare.
The principles of international law he reduces to those of the law of nature, and combats, in so doing, many of the positions taken up by Grotius.
FREDERIC WILLIAM MAITLAND (1850-1906), English jurist and historian, son of John Gorham Maitland, was born on the 28th of May 1850, and educated at Eton and Trinity, Cambridge, being bracketed at the head of the moral sciences tripos of 1872, and winning a Whewell scholarship for international law.
During this period, while Germany remains the most productive of the nations, scholarship has been more and more international and cosmopolitan in its character.
The 19th century in Germany was marked by the organization of the great series of Greek and Latin inscriptions, and by the foundation of the Archaeological Institute in Rome (1829), which was at first international in its character.
Acheson, in 1896, patented an application of his, carborundum process to graphite manufacture, and in 1899 the International Acheson Graphite Co.
In 1872 he visited Switzerland, and became a member of the International Workingmen's Association at Geneva.
Shortly afterwards he was arrested by the French government, and, after a trial at Lyons, sentenced by a police-court magistrate (under a special law passed on the fall of the Commune) to five years' imprisonment, on the ground that he had belonged to the International Workingmen's Association (1883).
But the blockade of 3000 miles of coast was a far more formidable task, and international law required it to be effective in order to be respected.
The volumes of the International Geological Congress review Algerian geology.
Briggs, whose influence has been due in part to a large and varied body of work (Biblical Study, 1883, and many articles and volumes since) and in part to his organization of united critical, international and interconfessional labour, the chief fruits of which have been the Hebrew Lexicon (based on Gesenius, and edited by F.
Driver and himself), and the International Critical Commentary.
In Everett's life and career was a combination of the results of diligent training, unflinching industry, delicate literary tastes and unequalled acquaintance with modern international politics.
A work on international law, on which he was engaged at his death, was never finished.
Of the metric units international definitions have been stated as follows:
(c) The kilogram is the unit of mass; it is equal to the mass of the international prototype of the kilogram.
For the specific mass of the cubic decimetre of water at 4° C., under an atmospheric pressure equal to 760 mm., Guillaume and Chappuis of the Comite International des Poids et Mesures at Paris (C.I.P.M.) have obtained 0.9999707 kg., which has been accepted by the committee.
Congrês International de Physique reuni a Paris en 1900.
The value of this intensity is equal to that of the force of gravity at the Bureau International, Paris (at the level of the Bureau), divided by 1.000332; a co-efficient which allows for theoretical reduction to the latitude 45° and to the level of the sea.
The International Geodetic Committee have adopted the metre as their unit of measurement.
Represented Great Britain at the International Conference on the Metric System, 1901.
2: The international trade metric weights and measures (1897) handled in shops, &c., of which there are also Board of Trade standards, are set out as follows: --
Scranton is the see of a Roman Catholic bishop, has a good public school system, and is the seat of the International Correspondence Schools (1891), which give instruction by mail in the trades and professions to large numbers of students; Mt.
Gregory (Climatic Variations, their Extent and Causes, International Geological Congress, Mexico, 1906), who holds that the extent of climatic changes in past times has been greatly exaggerated.
International Congress of Arts and Science, St Louis, Sept.
The railway has been built by the Mexican government as a transcontinental route for international commerce.
Manufacturing for international trade has not been and may never be reached, but the industry certainly has reached the stage of meeting a great part of the home demand for manufactured goods, where the raw material can be produced in the country.
In 1876 he returned to France to become one of the chief French apostles of Marxian collectivism, and was imprisoned for six months in 1878 for taking part in the first Parisian International Congress.
It was in conjunction with Marx and Laf argue that he drew up the programme accepted by the national congress of the Labour party at Havre in 1880, which laid stress on the formation of an international labour party working by revolutionary methods.
The permanent building of the International Exhibition of 1865 adjoins the pleasure ground of St Stephen's Green.
Thereafter, for fourteen years, he devoted himself chiefly to questions of international law and arbitration, but in 1876, upon the advent of the Left to power, became minister of justice in the Depretis cabinet.
From 1847 to 1862 he was advising astronomer to the headquarters of the army and navy; chairman of the International Astronomical Congress from 1867-1878; acting president of the International Metric Commission in 1872; and president of the International Congress for a Photographic Survey of the Stars in 1887, in which year he was also made a privy councillor.
Originally organized as an asram, or retreat, by the Maharshi, it was developed by Rabindranath into a school conducted on unconventional lines, and he aimed at enlarging it into an international university which should comprehend the whole range of eastern culture.
With the opening of the Karun river, as far as Ahvaz, to international navigation in 1889, Muhamrah acquired greater importance, and its customs, which until then were leased to the governor for 150o per annum, rose considerably, and paid 8000 until taken over by the central customs department under Belgian officials in 1902.
The violation of a passport, or safe conduct, is a grave breach of international law.
The Cascade Range enters from Canada, trending sotithward across the international boundary through ThePacifk Washington and Oregon to latitude 41; the Sierra Ranges.
P. Austin, chief of the national bureau of statistics, using data of 1903, that the internal commerce of the United States exceeds in magnitude the total international commerce of the world., (F.
He was, further, obnoxious to them on account of his revelations as to the origin of the war, and at an international Socialist conference at Berne he had urged the German delegates to make a clean breast of Germany's war guilt.
The United States claimed as a matter of right an exclusive jurisdiction over the sealing industry in Bering Sea; they also contended that the protection of the fur seal was, upon grounds both of morality and interest, an international duty, and should be secured by international arrangement.
The British government repudiated the claim of right, but were willing to negotiate upon the question of international regulation.
C. Carter, therefore, as counsel for the United States, submitted a theory of international jurisprudence which was equally novel.
He argued that the determination of the tribunal must be grounded upon "the principles of right," that "by the rule or principle of right was meant a moral rule dictated by the general standard of justice upon which civilized nations are agreed, that this international standard of justice is but another name for international law, that the particular recognized rules were but cases of the application of a more general rule, and that where the particular rules were silent the general rule applied."
The practical result of giving effect to this contention would be that an international tribunal could make new law and apply it retrospectively.
At the international boundary in lat.
When its vast area stretching from the international boundary to beyond the Arctic circle is opened up, it may be expected to prove the counterpart of the great mining region of the Cordillera in the United States to the south.
During the progress of the Civil War American feeling had been greatly exasperated by the losses inflicted on commerce by the cruiser " Alabama," which, it was claimed, was allowed to leave a British port in violation of international law.
This was the first time that a colonist had been called upon to assist in the settlement of international disputes.
In 1886 a difference about international rights on the high seas arose on the Pacific coast in connexion with the seal fisheries of Bering Sea.
The British government at once protested against this infraction of international right, and through long and troublesome negotiations firmly upheld Canada's claims in the matter.
While the power of making treaties must rest ultimately in the hands that can enforce them, the tendency to give the colonies chiefly interested a larger voice in international arrangements had become inevitable.
He was one of the chief ministers of Charles V.; he played an important part in the tangled international negotiations of his time; and he was always loyal to his imperial masters.
In the same spirit he carried out the immense and unique trust imposed upon him by the allies when they placed him in command of the international army by which France was to be occupied, under the terms of the second peace of Paris, for five years.
He was consulted, moreover, in all matters of international importance, notably the affairs of the Spanish colonies, in which he associated himself with Castlereagh in pressing those views which were afterwards carried into effect by George Canning.
His work in Paris, however, was now finished, and on the 30th of October, in a final "order of the day," he took leave of the international troops under his command.
him once more into international prominence.
She was a member of the International Council of Women; the International Suffrage Alliance; the National Society for Broader Education and the League to Enforce Peace.
In this lie was helped by the revival of a strong national feeling in France, provoked by the international crisis of 1911.
During 1920 and 1921 it was Poincare's influence that was mainly dictating the aggressiveness of French feeling in international politics; and during the latter part of Briand's premiership, culminating in Briand's visit to the United States for the Washington Conference at the end of 1921, it was Poincare who was fomenting the criticism that French interests were being undermined.
It is served by the Galveston, Harrisburg & San Antonio, the International & Great Northern, the San Antonio & Aransas Pass, and the Missouri, Kansas & Texas railways.
of the city are the International Fair Grounds, where in 1898 Colonel Theodore Roosevelt organized his "Rough Riders," and Riverside Park.
Annually in October an International Fair is held, to which Mexico sends an exhibit of Mexican products and manufactures.
With the Canadian shore Buffalo is connected by ferry, and by the International bridge (from Squaw Island), which cost $1,500,000 and was completed in 1873.
The permanent committee of the Paris International Congress of 1900, which was held for the purpose of unification of the numerotage of counts, unanimously decided - (a) With reference to cotton, silk and other textiles spun from fibres, that they should be based on a fixed weight and variable length, the unit being one metre to one gramme.
All continental conditioning establishments now formulate their tests for counts on the agreement arrived at by the International Congress of 1900.
Its sense in international law is the condition of not being at war.
Even Grotius, who reduced the tendencies existing in his time to a sort of orderly expression, addressed himself to the law of war as the positive part of international jurisprudence and dealt only with peace as its negative alternative.
It is now customary among writers on international law to give peace at any rate a volume to itself.
The rise of arbitration as a method of settling international difficulties has carried it a step further, and now the Hague Peace Conventions have given pacific methods a standing apart from war, and the preservation of peace has become an object of direct political effort.
In the final act, the conference went farther in agreeing to the " principle of compulsory arbitration," declaring that " certain disputes, in particular those relating to the interpretation and application of the provisions of international agreements, are suitable (susceptible) to be submitted to compulsory arbitration without any restriction."
These declarations were obviously a concession to the widespread feeling, among civilized nations, that peace is an object in itself, an international political condition requiring its code of methods and laws just as much as the domestic political conditions of nations require their codes of methods and laws.
In other words peace among nations has now become, or is fast becoming, a positive subject of international regulation, while war is 1 This has been incorrectly rendered in the English official translation as " the sincere desire to work for the maintenance of general peace."
Though the idea of preserving peace by general international regulation has had several exponents in the course of ages, no deliberate plan has ever yet been carried into effect.
We have thus the nucleus of that international parliament which idealist peacemakers have dreamt of since the time of Henry IV.'s " grand design."
It was due to the initiative of the young tsar Nicolas II., who, in his famous rescript of the 24th of August 1898, stated that he thought that the then moment was " very favourable for seeking, by means of international discussion, the most effectual means of assuring to all peoples the benefits of a real and durable peace."
" In the course of the last twenty years," added the rescript, " the preservation of peace had become an object of international policy."
He therefore proposed that there should be an international conference for the purpose of focusing the efforts of all states which were " sincerely seeking to make the great idea of universal peace triumph over the elements of trouble and discord."
The conventions drawn up at the second conference were a deliberate codification of many branches of international law.
Meanwhile a conference of the maritime powers was held in London in1908-1909for the elaboration of a code of international maritime law in time of war, to be applied in the international Court of Prize, which had been proposed in a convention signed ad referendum at the Hague Conference of 1907.
A further development in the common efforts which have been made by different powers to assure the reign of justice and judicial methods among the states of the world was the proposal of Secretary Knox of the United States to insert in the instrument of ratification of the International Prize Court Convention (adopted at the Hague in 1897) a clause stating that the International Prize Court shall be invested with the duties and functions of a court of arbitral justice, such as recommended by the first Voeu of the Final Act of the conference.
The hardship inflicted on those who have to learn a second language is very easily exaggerated, though it is to be regretted that in the case of Hungary the second language is not one more useful for international purposes.
At the second International Conference of American States, which sat in the city of Mexico from the 22nd of October 1901 to the 31st of January 1902, the same subject was again discussed, and a scheme was finally adopted as a compromise which conferred authority on the government of Mexico to ascertain the views of the different governments.
Different states had adjusted their frontiers, Great Britain in British Guiana had settled an outstanding question with Venezuela, France in French Guiana another with Brazil, Great Britain in Newfoundland had removed time-honoured grievances with France, Great Britain in Canada others with the United States of America, and now the most difficult kind of international questions which can arise,.
These efforts in the two hemispheres are based on the idea that international differences can be adjusted without war, where the parties are honestly aggrieved.
The Hague Peace Convention of 1907, which re-enacts the essential parts of the earlier one of 1899, sets out five ways of adjusting international conflicts without recourse to war.
Firstly, the signatory powers have undertaken to use their best efforts to ensure the pacific settlement of international difficulties.
Fourthly, the convention recommends that in disputes of an international nature, involving neither national honour nor vital interests, and arising from a difference of opinion on points of fact, the parties who have not been able to come to an agreement by means of diplomacy should institute an international commission of inquiry to facilitate a solution of these disputes by an investigation of the facts.
Down to 1910 no suggestion of mediation had actually been carried out, but a number of cases of arbitration had been tried by the Hague Court, created by the Hague Peace Convention (see [[International arbitration), and one case, viz.
Secretary Knox's idea, as expressed in the identical circular note addressed by him on the 18th of October 1909 to the powers, was to invest the International Prize Court, proposed to be established by the convention of the 18th of October 1907, with the functions of a " court of arbitral justice."
The United States government therefore proposed that the signatories should insert in the act of ratification a reservation to the effect that resort to the International Prize Court, in respect of decisions of their national tribunals, should take the form of a direct claim for compensation.
Secretary Knox also proposed that a further enabling clause be inserted providing that the International Court of Prize be competent to accept jurisdiction in all matters, arising between signatories, submitted to it, the Court to sit at fixed periods every year and to be composed according to the panel which was drawn up at the Hague.
It thought that danger of international irritation might be removed by each power making a declaration respecting the " sphere of interest " in China to which it laid claim.
From the point of view of diminishing the possible causes of conflict among nations, the adoption of this principle as one of international contractual obligation would be of great utility.
The declaration of the French government stated that: " France hoped that other nations would grow, as she had done, more and more attached to solutions of international difficulties based upon the respect of justice, and she trusted that the progress of universal opinion in this direction would enable nations to regard the lessening of the present military budgets, declared by the states represented at the Hague to be greatly desirable for the benefit of the material and moral state of humanity, as a practical possibility."
Of waterways, international rivers have been the chief subject of neutralization.
See Nys, Droit International (Brussels, 1904), i.
See Barclay, Problems of International Practice and Diplomacy (1907).
Foremost among standing peace agreements are, of course, the International Hague Conventions relating directly to peace, agreements which have not only created a special peace jurisdiction for the settlement of international difficulties by judicial methods but also a written law to apply within the scope of this jurisdiction.
It has now been followed by over a hundred others forming a network of international relationships which shows that, at any rate, the wish for peace is universal among mankind.'
In most cases such conventions have created international unions of states for all matters which lend themselves to international co-operation.
The international bureau of weights and measures at Paris was created by a convention signed there in 1875, for the purpose of comparing and verifying weights and measures on the metric system, and preserving their identity for the contracting states.
The copyright union was created by an international convention signed in 1874.
It shows how deep and widespread the sense of the utility of international state co-operation has become.
The convention sets out the scope and objects of the institute, which a recent British official publication states has been joined by 38 states, including Great Britain and all other great powers, as follows: Whilst limiting its action to international questions, it shall be the duty of the institute: (a) To collect, elaborate and publish, with as little delay as possible, statistical, technical, or economic information regarding the cultivation of the soil, its productions, whether animal or vegetable, the trade in agricultural products, and the prices obtained on the various markets.
resolutions passed by international congresses or other congresses relating to agriculture or to sciences.
- Until quite recently it had been a distinctive mark of practical wisdom to treat private efforts for the improvement of international relations for the preservation of peace, with the patronizing tolerance courteous people of the world extend to half-crazy idealists.
See Barclay, Problems of International Practice and Diplomacy, 0907), p. 137 seq.
It seems to have been the first great popular effort ever made deliberately by a representative body of the middle class of a nation for the promotion of international friendship without the aid of diplomacy and without official assistance or even countenance of any kind.
(I) those which, without having peace for their direct object, promote friendship among men of different races and nationalities; (2) those which directly address themselves to the promoting of friendship and goodwill among peoples; (3) those which regarding peace as the immediate object of their efforts, endeavour to educate democracy in this sense; (4) those which endeavour to remove the causes of international friction by the codification of international law and the promotion of the international regulation of common interests.
Lastly, there are two agencies which cannot be classed among the foregoing; one is the International Parliamentary Union and the other the Nobel Prize Committee.
Technology, electricity, mining, railways, navigation and many other subjects are now dealt with in international congresses.
International exhibitions are always used as an occasion for holding many such meetings.
A society, numbering many thousands of working men among its members, which has set itself the more special task of promoting the interchange of visits between working men of different nations, is called the " International Brotherhood Alliance," or, after the initials of its motto, Fraternitas inter genies, the F.I.G.
Another agency, called the " American Association for International Conciliation," seeks by the publication of essays on the different aspects of international friendship to promote the same cause.
Their first International Congress was held in London at the suggestion of Joseph Sturge in 1843.
At length in 1878 a congress was held at the Paris International Exhibition of that year, but it was not till the next Paris International Exhibition of 1889 that these international peace congresses became periodical.
These congresses have been supplemented by national congresses in ' See Annuaire du mouvement pacifaste pour l'anne'e 1910, published by the Bureau International de la Paix, at Bern.
First among the bodies which try to remove the causes of international friction is the Institute of International Law.
This is a body of international lawyers, consisting of sixty members and sixty associates recruited by election - the members from those who " have rendered services to international law in the domain of theory or practice," and associates from those " whose knowledge may be useful to the Institute."
Its mode of operation is to work out the matters it deals with during the intervals between the sessions, in permanent commissions, among which the whole domain of international law is divided up. The commissions, under the direction of their rapporteurs or conveners, prepare reports and proposals, which are printed and distributed among the members some time before the plenary sittings at which they are to be discussed.
Thus the resolutions of the Institute have the authority attaching to a mature expression of the views of the leading international jurists of Europe.
Another body having a more or less similar purpose is the International Law Association, which was founded in 1873 as the " Association for the Reform and Codification of the Law of Nations," with practically the same objects as those which led to the constitution of the Institute of International Law.
There are now numerous volumes of such reports, many of them containing most valuable materials for international jurists.
In 1895 the name was changed to International Law Association.
A new society was recently (1906) formed in America called the American Society of International Law, " to foster the study of international law and promote the establishment of international relations on the basis of law and justice."
The publications of this society have already taken an important place among the literature of international law.
Still more recently yet another society came into being in Switzerland with objects which seem to be similar to those of the Institute of International Law.
It is composed of groups of the different parliaments of the world, who meet periodically to " bring about the acceptance in their respective countries, by votes in parliament and by means of arbitration treaties, of the principle that differences between nations should be submitted to arbitration and to consider other questions of international importance."
2 At the third congress of the new series, held at Rome in 1891, was created the Bureau International de la Paix.
In this connexion we may mention that the secretary of the London Peace Society, Dr Evans Darby, has edited an exhaustive collection of materials called International Tribunals.
His statements every two years on the progress of arbitration at the International Law Association meetings also form an excellent source of materials for reference.
Even war has no other avowed purpose than that of placing specific international relations on a definite footing.
3 Surely with all the existing activity in the removal of causes of war, in the reduction to precise expression of the rules of law governing the relations of states with one another, in the creation of international judicatures for the application of these rules, in the concluding of treaties specifically framed to facilitate the pacific settlement of difficulties diplomacy may have failed to adjust, in the promotion of democratic civilian armies with everything to lose by war,!and all the other agencies which have been described above, the hope seems warranted that, in no distant future, life among nations will become still more closely assimilated to life among citizens of the same nation, with legislation, administration, reform all tending to the one great object of law, order and peace among men.
The most convenient unit is that adopted by the International Union of Solar Research and is called an Angstrom (A); and is equal to i 08 cms. A.
Driver and Francis Brown he prepared a revised Hebrew and English Lexicon (1891-1905), and with Driver edited the " International Commentary Series."
All western trade in Canada of the vast provinces of Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta and British Columbia, must pass through the narrow belt of loo m., lying between the international boundary line and Lake Winnipeg.
Austin is served by the Houston & Texas Central, the International & Great Northern, and the Missouri, Kansas & Texas railways.
In that capacity he accompanied his uncle to the Berlin congress, and gained his first experience of international politics in connexion with the settlement of the Russo-Turkish conflict.
It was not till the 28th that Mr Balfour, speaking at Southampton, was able to announce that the Russian government had expressed regret, and that an international commission would inquire into the facts with a view to the responsible persons being punished.
The railways were built between 1856 and 1862, while the opening of the Simplon tunnel (1906) greatly increased the commercial importance of Lausanne, which is now on the great international highway from Paris to Milan.
Mistress of the entire Christian organism, Rome thus gained control of international education, and the mendicant monks who formed her devoted militia lost no time in monopolizing the professorial chairs.
The international situation was the most difficult imaginable, and altogether beyond the powers of the timorous, vacillating and irresolute Medician pope.
The pope sacrificed the national aspirations of his subjects to his international relations as head of the Church; and he sacrificed their craving for liberty to the alliance with autocracy on which rested the continued existence of the temporal power.
By the Achaemenian period Aramaic had become the international language, and was adopted officially.
What may be described as "national systems" of law are dealt with historically and generally under English Law, American Law, Roman Law, Greek Law, Mahommedan Law, Indian Law, &c. Certain broad divisions of law are treated under Constitution And Constitutional Law, Canon Law, Civil Law, Common Law, Criminal Law, Ecclesiastical Law, Equity, International Law, Military Law, &C. And the particular laws of different countries on special subjects are stated under the headings for those subjects (Bankruptcy, &c.).
He was a member of the Allied Conference (1917), of the Supreme War Council (1918), and of the International Peace Conference (1918-9).
It is served by the Chicago, Rock Island & Gulf, the Fort Worth & Denver City, the Fort Worth & Rio Grande, and the St Louis, San Francisco & Texas of the "Frisco" system, the Gulf, Colorado & Santa Fe, the Houston & Texas Central, the International & Great Northern, the Missouri, Kansas & Texas, the St Louis SouthWestern, the Texas & Pacific, and the Trinity & Brazos Valley (Colorado & Southern) railways.
The Saxon ministers, after protesting against the new arrangement, arrested Patkul and shut him up in the fortress of Sonnenstein (Dec. 19, 1705), altogether disregarding the remonstrances of Peter against such a gross violation of international law.
Paine being the other members) appointed by President McKinley to confer with the governments of Great Britain, France and Germany with a view to the establishment of international bimetallism.
Editions in English have recently been undertaken in the International Critical Commentary (by W.
Asylrecht), in international law, the right which a state possesses, by virtue of the principle that every independent state is sole master within its boundaries, of allowing fugitives from another country to enter or sojourn upon its territory.
They took part in the International Exhibition of 1862, quoting a price of 40s.
International Missionary Alliance (1887), which has sent many missionaries to India and China.
Mott succeeded in forming students' associations in universities and colleges in several European countries, as well as in Turkey in Asia, Syria, India, Ceylon, China, Japan and Australia; and all these associations, over 150 in number, are now linked together in a great International Student Federation.
The municipal schools of Milan are as well organized as any in Italy, and the exhibit in connexion with them at the great international exhibition of 1906 was of interest.
The international exhibition of 1906 held in Milan was of considerable importance, all the leading states of the world taking part in it.
H.*) Whatever lustre the international position won by Maximilian I might add to the ducal house, on Bavaria itself its effect during the next two centuries was more dubious.
The British government was forced to interfere, more especially as the country, by international agreement, had been included in the British sphere of influence.
One of Auber's latest compositions was a march, written for the opening of the International Exhibition in London in 1862.
From the internal, as distinct from the international, aspect, the absolute quantity of money, supposed as of fixed amount, in a country, is of no consequence, while a quantity larger than is required for the interchange of commodities is injurious, as tending to raise prices and to drive foreigners from the home markets.
wish to destroy a body which, with its privileged position and international financial and military organization, constituted a possible menace to the state.
The Comite des Etudes du Haut Congo, formed in 1878 at the instance of the king and mainly financed by him had developed into the International Association of the Congo, of which a Belgian officer, Colonel M.
Stanley a rudimentary state was created, and through the efforts of King Leopold in Europe the International Association was recognized during 1884-1885 by the powers as an independent state.
1830), though a Frenchman by birth, completed his Geographic universelle (1875-1894) in exile at Brussels; and Ernest Nys has written many standard works on international law.
He held a unique position among foreign residents in Japan, alike as a profound student of its history and art, and as a powerful factor in international politics.
1909 of the International Bureau of American Republics gave a very confident account of its future, under improved methods.
At the outbreak of the Revolution he turned to journalism, becoming editor of the Mercure international.
The naturalization treaties which he negotiated successively with Prussia and the other north German states were the first international recognition of the right of expatriation, a principle since incorporated in the law of nations.
He nevertheless found time to organize the meteorological service in France and to promote the present system of international weather-warnings.
If in this matter Louis Philippe had seemed to sacrifice the international position of France to dynastic interests, his attempt to re-establish it by allying himself with the reactionary monarchies against the Liberals of Switzerland finally alienated from him the French Liberal opinion on which his authority was based.
Evarts; and in 1881 was a delegate to the International Sanitary Conference, which met in Washington, D.C., and of which he was chosen president.
John Hay was a man of quiet and unassuming disposition, whose training in diplomacy gave a cool and judicious character to his statesmanship. As secretary of state under Presidents McKinley and Roosevelt his guidance was invaluable during a rather critical period in foreign affairs, and no man of his time did more to create confidence in the increased interest taken by the United States in international matters.
Germany, including Bavaria and Wurttemberg, constitutes with Austria-Hungary a special postal union (Deutsch-Osterreichischer Postverband), besides forming part of the international postal union.
of France, together with other international mt mat complications, prevented the emperor from following affairs of up his victory over the Turks, or from reducing the GerWany.
The conception of the diet as a sort of international board of control, responsible in the last resort not to Germany but to Europe, exactly suited Metternichs policy, in which the interests of Germany were subordinate to the wider ambitions of the Habsburg monarchy.
structing a new Germany out of states, several of which, and those the most powerful, were largely composed of non-German elements, was sure to lead to international complications; moreover, the military power of the monarchies had only been temporarily paralysed, not destroyed.
His plans were singularly helped by international developments.
This office has done much in the matter of unifying the systems of various railways and of regulating their relations to the military, postal and telegraph organizations; it also took a leading part in the framing of the international laws regarding goods traffic; but the imperial code of railway law which it drafted has never been laid before the Reichstag.
In one addressed to the chancellor he declared his intention, as emperor, of bettering the lot of the working classes; for this purpose he proposed to call an international congress to consider the possibility of meeting the requirements and wishes of the working men; in the other, which he issued as king of Prussia, he declared that the regulation of the time and conditions of labor was the duty of the state, and the council of state was to be summoned to discuss this and kindred questions.
These were not accepted by the Bundesrat, but after the International Congress of 1890 an important amendment and addition to the Gewerbeordnung was carried to this effect.
The suspicions as to the stability of the Triple Alliance ~ produced, indeed, for some years a kind of nervous ness in the attitude of the government, whose deter mination to assert for Germany a leading international role tended to isolate her in Europe.
In the elections of 1907, indeed, the Social Democratic party, owing to the unparalleled exertion of the government, had a set-back, its representation in parliament sinking to 43; but at the International Socialist Congress, which met at Stuttgart on the 18th of August, Herr Bebel was able to point oui that, in spite of its defeat at the polls, the Socialist cause had actually gained strength in the country, their total poll having increased from 3,010,771.
In the work of pressing on the national and international expansion of Germany the interests and views of the lesser constituent states of the Empire were apt to be overlooked or overridden; and in the southern states there was considerable resentment at the unitarian tendency of the north, which seemed to aim at imposing the Prussian model on the whole nation.
p. 187; (22) ' Rapports presentes au Conrges International de Physique reuni a Paris, 1900, iii.
10, 1905, p. 1; (26) Observations of the International Polar Expeditions 1882-1883 Fort Rae..
The minister of foreign affairs conducts the international relations of the Dual Monarchy, and can conclude international treaties.
(See Napoleon, Napoleonic Campaigns, Europe.) It was a recognition of the decisive part played by Austria in these great events that Vienna was chosen as the scene of the great international congress summoned (September 1814) for the purpose of re-establishing the balance Congress 4) P P g of Vieana.
But his interest was in the fascinating game of diplomacy; he was ambitious of playing the leading part on the great stage of international politics; and he was too consummate a courtier to risk the loss of the imperial favour by any insistence on unpalatable reforms, which, after all, would perhaps only reveal the necessity for the complete revolution which he feared.
The disputes which resulted in the Crimean War revealed the fact that " gratitude " plays but a small part in international affairs.
He had no previous experience of Austrian affairs, and was only anxious at once to bring about a settlement which would enable the empire to take a strong position in international politics.
S.) During this period of internal crisis the international position of the Dual Monarchy was threatened by two external dangers.
In 1880 the influence of the international " scramble for Africa " made itself felt by the establishment under the recognized protection of the French government of two French firms which opened upwards of thirty trading stations on the Lower Niger.
The movements of Germany from the south-east, and of France from the west and north, were thus held in check, and by securing international agreements the mutual limits of the three European powers concerned were definitely fixed.
The preservation of wild animals and birds in accordance with international agreements is enforced by law.
On the south side of the Ezbekia are the post office, the courts of the International Tribunals,and the opera house.
For several years before 1904 the administration of the railways was carried on by an international or, mixed board for the security of foreign creditors.
The grave abuse to which the consular system was subject led to the establishment, in February 1876, at the instance of Nubar Pasha and after eight years of negotiation, of International or Mixed Tribunals to supersede consular jurisdiction to the extent indicated.
The convention left the permanent rate of interest on the debt, as fixed by the Law of Liquidation, unchanged, but to afford temporary relief to the Egyptian exchequer a reduction of 5% on the interest of the debt was granted for two years, on condition that if at the end of that period payment, including the arrears of the two years, was not resumed in full, another international commission was to be appointed to examine into the whole financial situation.
During the two years that followed the signing of the London Convention, the financial policy of the Egyptian government was The race directed to placing the country in a position to resume against full payment of the interest on the debt in 1887, and bank- thereby to avoid the appointment of an international IuDY.
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