Intercellular Sentence Examples
Only in rare cases is the mycelium intercellular.
The intercellular spaces are here very narrow channels between the palisade cells.
They are accompanied by intercellular channels serving for the conduction of oxygen to, and carbon dioxide from, the living cells in the interior of the wood, which would otherwise be cut off from the means of respiration.
Fumago, Herpotrichia, &c., or, at most, vegetate in the intercellular spaces and anchor itself to the cell-walls, e.g.
In the cortical tissue beneatJI each furrow a wide intercellular space is present running the length of the internode, and called the (C, D, E from Strasburger's Lehrbuch der Bolanik, by permission of Gustav Fischer.) FIG.Advertisement
Externally, the nephridium opens by a straight part of the tube, which is often very wide, and here the intracellular lumen becomes intercellular.
The Polychaeta, however, present us with another form of nephridium seen, for example, in Arenicola, where a large funnel leads into a short and wide excretory tube whose lumen is intercellular.
Endophytic parasites may be intracellular, when the fungus or its mycelium plunges into the cells and destroys their contents directly (Olpidium, Lagenidium, Sclerotinia, &c.), but they are far more frequently intercellular, at any rate while young, the mycelium growing in the lacunae between the cells (Peronospora, Uredineae) into which it may send short (Cystopus), or long and branched (Peronospora Calotheca) haustoria, or it extends in the middle lamella (Ustilago), or even in the solid substance of the cell-wall (Botrytis).
I am predominantly interested in intercellular adhesion mediated by receptor-ligand bonds.
In the beneficial interactions, EpichloÃ« endophytes are strictly limited in their intercellular growth throughout the plant.Advertisement
The directional growth of germ tubes in relation to stomata and veins, and of intercellular hyphae in relation to veins, were recorded.
A richly chlorophyllous tissue, with numerous intercellular spaces communicates with the exterior by stomata, strikingly similar to those of the vascular plants (see below).
The important function of aeration, by which the inner living tissues of the bulky plant-body obtain the oxygen necessary for their respiration, is secured by the development of an extensive system of intercellular spaces communicating with the external air.
This large evaporation, which constitutes the so-called transpiration of plants, takes place not into the external air but into this same intercellular space system, being possible only through the delicate cell-walls upon which it abuts, as the external coating, whether bark, cork or cuticle, is impermeable by watery vapour.
In these we have (1) the evaporation from the damp delicate cell-walls into the intercellular spaces; (2) the imbibition by the cell-wall of water from the vacuole; (3) osmotic action, consequent upon the subsequent increased concentration of the cell sap, drawing water from the wood cells or vessels which abut upon the leaf parenchyma.Advertisement
In its earlier conception, this view embraced as homologous organs (so far as the present group is concerned) not only the nephridia of Oligochaeta and Hirudinea, which are obviously closely similar, but the wide tubes with an intercellular lumen and large funnels of certain Polychaeta, and (though with less assurance) the gonad ducts in Oligochaeta and Hirudinea.
Benham, the tube, though smaller, and with a but little pronounced funnel, has still an intercellular duct.
There are no renal organs with a wide intercellular lumen, such as occur in the Polychaeta, nor is there ever any permanent association between nephridia and ducts connected with the evacuation of the generative products, such as occur in Alciope, Saccocirrus, &c. In these points the Oligochaeta agree with the Hirudinea.
Externally, the nephridium opens by a vesicle, as in many Oligochaetes whose lumen is intercellular.
Another objection was that even if bacteria obtained access through the stomata, they could not penetrate the cell-walls bounding the intercellular spaces, but certain anaerobic forms are known to ferment cellulose, and others possess the power of penetrating the cell-walls of living cells, as the bacteria of Leguminosae first described by Marshall Ward in 1887, and confirmed by Miss Dawson in 1898.Advertisement
The usually fistular pith is surrounded by a ring of collateral vascular bundle, (see Anatomy Of Plants, and Pteridophyta), each of which, with rare exceptions, has an intercellular canal at its inner edge, containing the disorganized spiral tracheae, just as in the recent genus.
It is found in mucous secretions and intercellular spaces.
Protein-losing enteropathy may lead to abnormally large amounts of fluid in the intercellular tissue spaces of the body (edema), abdominal distension, and lack of red blood cells (anemia).
The system removes tissue fluids from intercellular spaces and protects the body from bacterial invasions.
At intervals it is interrupted by pores (stomata) leading from the air outside to the system of intercellular spaces below.Advertisement
The epithem is penetrated by a network of fine intercellular spaces, which are normally filled with water and debouch on one or more intercellular cavities below the epidermis.
The stomata are in direct communication with the ample system of intercellular spaces which is found in the loosely arranged mesophyll (spongy tissue) on that side.
In other cases the reduction goes much further, till the endodermis eventually comes to surround nothing but an intercellular channel formed in place of the stelar tissue.
This may take various forms and may cover the whole of the organ or be localized in special regions; but its cells are always living and are separated by very large intercellular spaces containing air.
The difficulty is solved by the provision of a complete system of minute intercellular spaces which form a continuous series of delicate canals between the cells, extending throughout the whole substance of the plant.
This system of intercellular spaces, extending throughout the plant, constitutes a reservoir, charged with an atmosphere which differs somewhat in its composition from the external air, its gaseous constituents varying from time to time and from place to place, in consequence of the interchanges between itself and the protoplaste.
The entry of gases into, and exit from, the cells, as well as the actual exhalation of watery vapour from the latter, take place in the intercellular space system of which the stomata are the outlets.
These plastids are especially charged with the duty of manufacturing carbohydrates from the carbon dioxide which the air contains, and which is absorbed from it after it has entered the intercellular passages and has so reached the cells containing the plastids.
In all these cases we have a duct which has a usually wide, always intercellular, lumen, generally, if not always, ciliated, which opens directly into the coelom on the one hand and on to the exterior of the body on the other.
It is by no means certain that a hard and fast line can be drawn between intraand intercellular lumina.
In Polynoe the nephridia are short tubes with a slightly folded funnel whose lumen is intercellular, and this intercellular lumen is characteristic of the Polychaetes as contrasted with leeches and Oligochaetes.
These substances may be formed in the cells and given out as a secretion, or they may be formed by an intercellular transformation.
This pigment is usually intracellular, but may be found lying free in the intercellular substance, and is generally in the form of fine granules of a yellowish-brown or brown-black colour.
Cellular activity and oxygen appear to be essential for its development; it is found usually in the cells of certain organs, or it may be deposited in the intercellular tissues.
This is a large group of about 2000 forms. They are all intercellular parasites living mostly on the leaves of higher plants.
No sharp lines can be drawn, however, since many mycelia are intercellular at first and subsequently become intracellular (Ustilagineae), and the various stages doubtless depend on the degrees of resistance which the host tissues are able to offer.
The epidermis is continuous except where stomata or spaces bounded by specialized cells communicate with intercellular spaces in the interior of the leaf.
Certain species are regularly found in the intercellular spaces of higher plants; such are species of Nostoc in the thallus of Anthoceros, the leaves of Azolla and the roots of Cycads.
Kolb, is that a peculiar fermentation is set up under the influence of heat and moisture, resulting in a change of the intercellular substance - pectose or an analogue of that body - into pectin and pectic acid.
The leaves have a single main bundle, and in the mesophyll are four longitudinal series of large intercellular spaces separated by transverse diaphragms. The sporangia, which are situated singly on the adaxial surface of the leaves, between their insertion on the stem and the ligule, arise from a considerable number of epidermal cells.
A striking feature is the presence of large, radiating intercellular cavities in the cortex, suggesting an aquatic habit.