As her intellect grew she became less dependent on this sense.
The intellect of the age thus no longer exhibited itself as a unity.
The higher the human intellect rises in the discovery of these purposes, the more obvious it becomes, that the ultimate purpose is beyond our comprehension.
Thus in the perfection of man, as in the nature of God, will and intellect must be united.
"They pretend," as I hear, "that the verses of Kabir have four different senses; illusion, spirit, intellect, and the exoteric doctrine of the Vedas"; but in this part of the world it is considered a ground for complaint if a man's writings admit of more than one interpretation.
I don't understand how a man of his immense intellect can fail to see what is as clear as day, and can go so far astray.
While imprisoned in the shed Pierre had learned not with his intellect but with his whole being, by life itself, that man is created for happiness, that happiness is within him, in the satisfaction of simple human needs, and that all unhappiness arises not from privation but from superfluity.
His courage, his bodily strength and size, his skill in the use of weapons, in riding, and in the chase, his speed of foot, his capacity for eating and drinking, his penetrating intellect and his mastery of 22 languages are celebrated to a degree which is almost incredible.
We play a little game which I find most useful in developing the intellect, and which incidentally answers the purpose of a language lesson.
Gian Galeazzos duchy was a masterpiece of mechanical contrivance, the creation of a scheming intellect and lawless will.
He misjudged the character both of the colonists and of the natives, his cardinal mistake being in regarding the African as little removed from the European in intellect and capacity.
With his hospitable intellect he embraces children, beggars, insane, and scholars, and entertains the thought of all, adding to it commonly some breadth and elegance.
"I know of her intellect," he said.
The system for which the Positive Philosophy is alleged to have been the scientific preparation contains a Polity and a Religion; a complete arrangement of life in all its aspects, giving a wider sphere to Intellect, Energy and Feeling than could be found in any of the previous organic types, - Greek, Roman or Catholic-feudal.
"there is nothing in his remains to show that he possessed any real superiority either of intellect or knowledge, or even any remarkable brilliancy of expression."
In 1898, the raja being of weak intellect and without heir, the administration was undertaken by a British official.
The intellect is a cleaver; it discerns and rifts its way into the secret of things.
In the morning I bathe my intellect in the stupendous and cosmogonal philosophy of the Bhagvat-Geeta, since whose composition years of the gods have elapsed, and in comparison with which our modern world and its literature seem puny and trivial; and I doubt if that philosophy is not to be referred to a previous state of existence, so remote is its sublimity from our conceptions.
Plato, while admiring Pericles' intellect, accuses him of pandering to the mob; Aristotle in his Politics and especially in the Constitution of Athens, which is valuable in that it gives the dates of Pericles' enactments as derived from an official document, accepts the same view.
His knowledge of Roman and foreign law, and the general width of his education, freed him from the danger of relying too exclusively upon narrow precedents, and afforded him a storehouse of principles and illustrations, while the grasp and acuteness of his intellect enabled him to put his judgments in a form which almost always commanded assent.
She was visited by the members of the French embassy and by many belonging to that circle and noted for their intellect and polished manners.
That readiness will not weaken in me, but I and Russia have a right to expect from you all the zeal, firmness, and success which your intellect, military talent, and the courage of the troops you command justify us in expecting.
His intellect was active in many directions; universal learning indeed was perhaps one of his foibles.
The inquirer will find that the first thing to know is intellect, because on it depends the knowledge of all other things.
Another son, James (1786-1869), was a physician, and author of various books, such as Philosophy of the Human Voice (1827) and Analysis of the Human Intellect (1865).
Dr Park's sermon, "The Theology of the Intellect and that of the Feelings," delivered in 1850 before the convention of the Congregational ministers of Massachusetts, and published in the Bibliotheca sacra of July 1850, was the cause of a long and bitter controversy, metaphysical rather than doctrinal, with Charles Hodge.
The best intellect of America outside the region of practical politics has been on the anti-slavery side.
Creevey was a Whig and a follower of Fox, and his active intellect and social qualities procured him a considerable intimacy with the leaders of this political circle.
The more he realized the absence of all personal motive in that old man--in whom there seemed to remain only the habit of passions, and in place of an intellect (grouping events and drawing conclusions) only the capacity calmly to contemplate the course of events--the more reassured he was that everything would be as it should.
Examining next what immediately follows the knowledge of pure intellect, he will pass in review all the other means of knowledge, and will find that they are two (or three), the imagination and the senses (and the memory).
He will therefore devote all his care to examine and distinguish these three means of knowledge; and seeing that truth and error can, properly speaking, be only in the intellect, and that the two other modes of knowledge are only occasions, he will carefully avoid whatever can lead him astray."
Similar, too, was the revelation, when freedom of speech was at last allowed, of the unhappy effect of the long divorce of the intellect of the country from any experience of practical politics.
This material is then formed into a system by all the resources of the intellect and of speculation.
The unification by the last-mentioned of Aristotle's active intellect in all men, and his consequent denial of individual immortality are well known.
For this end, disrepute and poverty are advantageous, in so far as they drive back the man upon himself, increasing his self-control and purifying his intellect from the dross of the external.
Whereas Plato's main problem had been the organization of the perfect state, and Aristotle's intellect had ranged with fresh interest over all departments of the knowable, political speculation had become a mockery with the extinction of free political life, and knowledge as such had lost its freshness for the Greeks of the Roman Empire.
His chief work is a philosophical romance, in which he describes the awakening and growth of intellect in a child removed from the influences of ordinary life.
"The doubt is flattering," said "the man of profound intellect," with a subtle smile.
The point is that the cost of making almost everything is mostly energy and intellect, not raw materials.
" It is very easy for men of acute intellect, apart from experiment and practice, to slip and err."
Nowhere, however, were the keenness and clearness of his intellect more conspicuous than in this brilliant effort, which, if it failed in its immediate object, was highly effective in secondary results.
With Kant, reason (Vernunft) is the power of synthesizing into unity, by means of comprehensive principles, the concepts provided by the intellect (Verstand).
In the schools and universities of the middle age the intellect of the semi-barbarous European peoples had been trained for the work of the modern world.
The pupil, entering into his master's labours, was able from the first to take a more comprehensive survey of the whole field; and in addition he was doubtless endowed with an intellect which was finer, though it might not be more powerful, than his master's.
They teach the inferior but working part of our intellect, the " Understanding," that its picture of sensuous reality envisaged in time and space must be as fully articulated as is possible - as much differentiated into detail, and as perfectly integrated again into unity and system.
His keenly logical intellect, and his impatience of authority where it clashed with his own convictions, quite unfitted him for that unquestioning obedience which the Church demanded.
It is fallen man whom he pursues with his fierce scorn; his view of man's nature - intellect as well as character - is to be read in the light of his unflinching Augustinianism.
Perhaps there is not another instance in history in which a man who was neither a soldier, nor a diplomatist, nor a writer, who appealed to no passion but patriotism, and who avoided power with almost oriental indolence instead of seeking it, became, in the course of a long life, the leader of a great party by sheer force of intellect and moral superiority.
Reason or intellect is bound up with the other faculties.
comprehended by the mind or intellect; it must be experienced directly.
Go along: beef up your after-dinner conversation; satisfy your intellect; learn something.
formidable intellect was to become one of the most influential men of his time.
I am also a very innovative creative writer with a sharp keen intellect.
To knock it down and disprove genetics would be the most staggering feat of intellect ever seen.
He had a mind of his own, but could be controlled by a superior intellect.
My intellect and reasoning could not and would not accept the surreal imagery of the situation.
He lacked the lofty intellect of a Cosimo or a Lorenzo, and the atmosphere of libertyloving Siena with its ever-changing factions was in no way suited to his purpose.
3) that because proper names are innumerable, and no intellect or memory would suffice for the knowing of them, they are all as it were comprehended in the species.
146), " beyond which the intellect cannot rise, called by the Greeks obvia, by the Latins essentia.
The intellect collects the universal, which exists but not as a substance (est sed non substat), from the particular things which not merely are (sunt) but also, as subjects of accidents, have substantial existence (substant), by considering only their substantial similarity or conformity.
The universal human intellect is made by him to proceed from the divine by a series of Neoplatonic emanations.
For this reason and because the system of Thomas is simply that of Albert rounded to a greater completeness and elaborated in parts by the subtle intellect of the younger man, it will be convenient not to separate the views of master and scholar, except where their differences make it necessary.
Far removed from actuality as such speculations regarding the priority of intellect or will in the Divine Being may seem to be, the side taken is yet a sure index of the general tendency of a philosophy.
We must therefore hasten onward to the age of Pericles, in which Hippocrates, already called "the Great," was in medicine as complete a representative of the highest efforts of the Greek intellect as were his contemporaries the great philosophers, orators and tragedians.
Although no system or important doctrine of medicine was originated by the Roman intellect, and though the practice of the profession was probably almost entirely in the hands of the Greeks, the most complete picture which we have of medical thought and activity in Roman times is due to a Latin pen, and to one who was, in all probability, not a physician.
It is, however, reasonable to suppose that his commanding intellect often makes itself felt in the words of Sydenham.
He had what is a rare quality among English poets, the gift of humour, which was very singularly absent from others who possessed many other of the higher qualities of the intellect.
The human soul, the human intellect or spirit, the spirit of the universe, and the elements or matter are the four stages of this divine emanation, man being the immediate reflection of God, and nature in turn a reflection of man.
It was in the autumn of 1816 that he thus fell under the influence' of a definite creed, and received into his intellect impressions of dogma never afterwards effaced.
To say that they evince precocity of intellect gives no idea of their main characteristics.
These pure notions are the laws of the operation of the intellect; they are leges intellectus.
That the pure intellectual notions should be defended as springing from the nature of intellect is not out of harmony with the statement of the Treiume eines Geistersehers, for there the pure notions were allowed to exist, but were not held to have validity for actual things except on grounds of experience.
Private schools have smaller classes, a more structured learning environment, a variety of extracurricular activities, and individualized opportunities for developing student creativity and intellect.
Mysticism was pieced on somewhat incongruously to a scholastically accepted theology; the feelings and the intellect were not brought together.
The intellect combines what the understanding separates; hence Nicolas teaches the principle of the coincidentia contradictoriorum.
It is important, however, to note that the really important part of the training was the close association which it involved with the strenuous character and vigorous intellect of his father.
In their first interview, held on a raft in the middle of the river Niemen at Tilsit on the 25th of June, the French emperor, by his mingled strength and suppleness of intellect, gained an easy mastery over the impressionable young potentate.
In personal appearance he was above middle height, with strongly-marked features, indicating great strength of intellect and character.
In this boundlessness He could not be comprehended by the intellect or described in words, and as such the En Soph was in a certain sense Ayin, nonexistent (Zohar, iii.
From the time of Pheidias calm earnestness, self-conscious might, and clearness of intellect were the main characteristics of the goddess.
To this lofty quality of intellect he added a rare sagacity in perceiving analogies, and in detecting the new truths that lay concealed in his formulae, and a tenacity of mental grip, by which problems, once seized, were held fast, year after year, until they yielded up their solutions.
He has no claim to be regarded as a genius; but, as SainteBeuve has said, he well deserves a place "da p s la classe des esprits infiniment distingues" - distinguished, however, it ought to be added by intelligence rather than by intellect, and less by the power of saying much than by the power of saying a little well.
That his brother retained the throne while James lost it is an ironical demonstration that a more pitiless fate awaits the ruler whose faults are of the intellect, than one whose faults are of the heart.
" In the great crises of action her intellect,, her heart and her temperament are at one.
His portrait was thus drawn by the duc de St Simon: - "He was a little, pitiful, wizened, herringgutted man, in a flaxen wig, with a weasel's face, brightened by some intellect.
The Aristotelian school in Islam did not speak with one voice upon the question; Avicenna declared the soul immortal, but Averroes assumes only the eternity of the universal intellect.
He had seen the young prince grow up in the palace of the Via Larga, and had helped in the development of his rare intellect.
Sir Leslie Stephen speaks of him as a curious example of "the effects of an exploded metaphysics on a feeble though ingenious intellect."
In character he was as estimable as he was brilliant in intellect.
Whatever additions it may receive, and whatever corrections it may require, this analysis of social evolution will continue to be regarded as one of the great achievements of human intellect.
Under the Catholic system the supremacy of Feeling was abused, and the Intellect was made its slave.
Then followed a revolt of Intellect against Sentiment.
The business of the new system will be to bring back the Intellect into a condition, not of slavery, but of willing ministry to the Feelings.
The power of the priesthood rests upon special knowledge of man and nature; but to this intellectual eminence must also be added moral power and a certain greatness of character, without which force of intellect and completeness of attainment will not receivethe confidence they ought to inspire.
It is the religious aspect of it which attracts him, the presentation in God of an object which at once satisfies the feelings and the intellect.
He was a man happy in his ancestry; he inherited the dignity, the reserve, the keen and vivid intellect, and the picturesque imagination of the French Huguenot, though they came to him chastened and purified by generations of Puritan discipline exercised under the gravest ecclesiastical disabilities, and of culture maintained in the face of exclusion from academic privileges.
They were in fact nothing better than inferior maga zines, printed from wood-blocks, issued weekly or monthly, ani giving little evidence of enterprise or intellect, though connecte with them were the names of men destined to become famous in th world of literature, as Fukuchi Genichiro, Tsji Shinji (afterward Baron TsUji) and Suzuki Yuichi.
90), Teiresias was the only person in the world of the dead whom Proserpine allowed to retain his memory and intellect unimpaired, and Circe sends Odysseus to consult him concerning his return home.
Although he had a numerous family by his wife, he was completely under the influence of his mistress, Wilhelmine Enke, afterwards created Countess Lichtenau, a woman of strong intellect and much ambition.
of England, brought him under the influence of the greatest governing intellect of his time.
Preeminently he was a devout ecclesiastic, a "great priest"; and his sermons, both Anglican and Catholic, are marked by fervour and dignity, by a conviction of his own authoritative mission as preacher, and by an eloquent insistence on considerations such as warm the heart and bend the will rather than on such as force the intellect to assent.
While it is true that the Church has never condemned individuals, and that the warnings refer only to those who have received the faith, and do not touch the question of the unbaptized, there is a growing feeling that they go beyond the teaching of Holy Scripture on the responsibility of intellect in matters of faith.'
His school sermons were deeply impressive: they rooted religion in the loyalties of the heart and the conscience, and taught that faith might dwell secure amid all the bewilderments of the intellect, if only the life remained rooted in pure affections and a loyalty to the sense of duty.
The letters to Vettori paint a man of vigorous intellect and feverish activity, dividing his time between studies and vulgar dissipations, seeking at one time distraction in low intrigues and wanton company, at another turning to the great minds of antiquity for solace.
The force of his intellect renders this want of geniality repulsive.
In 1886 he became chancellor of St Paul's, and it is said that he declined more than one offer of a bishopric. He died on the 9th of September 1890, in the full vigour of his intellect and at the zenith of his reputation.
Liddon's great influence during his life was due to his personal fascination and the beauty of his pulpit oratory rather than to any high qualities of intellect.
His influence was that of saintliness rather than that of intellect."(b) A discussion of Harnack's second line of argument is impossible here.
Beyond a doubt he was not without a certain moral timidity contrasting strangely with his eager temperament and alertness of intellect; but, though he was not cast in a heroic mould, he must have been one of the most amiable of men.
To them we owe not merely the possession of the greatest works of Greek intellect, but the possession of them in a readable state.
In 1855 he published his first large work, The Senses and the Intellect, followed in 1859 by The Emotions and the Will.
His own philosophical writings already published, especially The Senses and the Intellect (to which was added, in 1861, The Study of Character, including an Estimate of Phrenology), were too large for effective use in the class-room.
This was succeeded (1887, 1888) by a new edition of the Rhetoric, and along with it, a ° book On Teaching English, being an exhaustive application of the principles of rhetoric to the criticism of style, for the use of teachers; and in 1894 he published a revised edition of The Senses and the Intellect, which contains his last word on psychology.
True, nothing is in the intellect which has not been in the senses, but we must add except the intellect itself.
The chief authority for his life is Tacitus, according to whom Secundus was a man of refinement and brilliant intellect.
The grand-duke's connexion with the courts of Russia and Holland - his mother was a Russian grand-duchess and his wife, Sophia Louisa (1824-1897), a princess of the Netherlands - tended to give the Weimar society a cosmopolitan character, and the grand-duke devoted himself largely to encouraging men of intellect, whether Germans or foreigners, who came to visit or to settle in the town.
Later, in his movement towards Positivism, he strongly repudiates Kant's separation of phenomenon from noumenon, and affirms that our intellect is capable of grasping the whole reality.
At the outbreak of the Revolution in 1789, David was carried away by the flood of enthusiasm that made all the intellect of France believe in a new era of equality and emancipation from all the ills of life.
There is little doubt that for the last ten or fifteen years of his life, if, not from the time of his quarrel with Diderot and Madame d'Epinay, Rousseau was not wholly sane - the combined influence of late and unexpected literary fame and of constant solitude and discomfort acting upon his excitable temperament so as to overthrow the balance, never very stable, of his fine and acute but unrobust intellect.
His seeming inconsistencies are reconciled to apprehension, not by a formula of the intellect, but by the many-sidedness of a highly impressible nature.
It was not only that his intellect revolted against the narrowness of party, his whole being repudiated its clamorous and vulgar excesses.
The union between a prince who physically was something less than a man and mentally little more than a child, and a princess of prodigious intellect and an insatiable love of enjoyment, was bound to end in a catastrophe.
We may gauge the energy with which the Greek intellect turned in this direction if we call to mind that the controversy about dogma was replaced by the controversy about images.
Socrates had spoken of the higher pleasures of the intellect; the Cyrenaics denied the validity of this distinction and said that bodily pleasures as being more simple and more intense are to be preferred.
Spain undoubtedly owed to Isabella's clear intellect, resolute energy and unselfish patriotism much of that greatness which for the first time it acquired under "the Catholic sovereigns."
His Institutio logicae, published in 1687, was very popular, and in his Grammatica linguae Anglicanae we find indications of an acute and philosophic intellect.
Visited in 1873 and 1878 the colony was found in excellent order, but by the end of the century it was stated that intermarriage was bringing a deterioration of intellect, morals and energy, and that the islanders would probably drift into imbecility.
At another time Napoleon said, "Daru is good on all sides; he has good judgment, a good intellect, a great power for work, and a body and mind of iron."
On his deathbed Ivan appointed Boris one of the guardians of his son and successor; for Theodore, despite his seven-and-twenty years, was of somewhat weak intellect.
He pushes the claim even further, requiring, besides entire outward submission to command, also the complete identification of the place of God, without reference to his personal wisdom, piety or discretion; that any obedience which falls short of making the superior's will one's own, in inward affection as well as in outward effect, is lax aect; that going beyond the letter of command, even in things abstractly good and praiseworthy, is disobedience, and that the "sacrifice of the intellect" is the third and highest grade of obedience, well pleasing to God, when the inferior not only wills what the superior wills, but thinks what he thinks, submitting his judgment, so far as it is possible for the will to influence and lead the judgment.
It is a mistake to regard the Gnostics as pre-eminently the representatives of intellect amongChristians, and Gnosticism as an intellectual tendency chiefly concerned with philosophical speculation, the reconciliation of religion with philosophy and theology.
But though his natural defects of intellect and will-power were not improved by the pedantic tutoring to which he was submitted, he grew up pious, honest and well-meaning; and had fate cast him in any but the most stormy times of his country's history he might well have left the reputation of a model king.
His philosophy consisted in an attempt to reconcile the doctrines of his teachers Philo of Larissa and Mnesarchus the Stoic. Against the scepticism of the former, he held that the intellect has in itself a sufficient test of truth; against Mnesarchus, that happiness, though its main factor is virtue, depends also on outward circumstances.
He was simply a fair representative of the Italian piety of his day - amiable, ascetic in his personal habits, indefatigable in many forms of activity, and of more than respectable abilities; though the emotional side of his character had the predominance over his intellect.
The master is said to have called his pupil the intellect of the school and his house a reader's.
The creator, or the divine intellect, with a view to the form of the good, and taking all forms as models, creates in a receptacle (vir080x i, Plato, Timaeus, 49 A) individual impressions which are called things but really change and become without attaining the permanence of being.
It is an exhortation, whose point is that the chief good is philosophy, the contemplation of the universe by divine and immortal intellect.
As the rational is either deliberative or scientific, either practical or speculative intellect, there are two virtues of the intellect - prudence of the deliberative or practical, and wisdom of the scientific or speculative, intellect.
6-fin.) to the famous theory that the highest happiness is the speculative life of intellect or wisdom as divine, but that happiness as human also includes the practical life of combining prudence and moral virtue; and that, while both lives need external goods as necessaries, the practical life also requires them as instruments of moral action.
Do) that acting according to right reason is when the irrational part of the soul does not hinder the rational part of intellect from doing its work.
8-9), where the Nicomachean Ethics places the speculative and the practical life; but it omits the theological element by denying that good fortune is divine grace, and by submitting gentlemanliness to no standard but that of right reason, when the irrational part of the soul does not hinder the rational part, or intellect (vows), from doing its work.
While the Eudemian Ethics in a more theological vein emphasizes God, the object of wisdom as the end for which prudence gives its orders, the Nicomachean Ethics in a more humanizing spirit emphasizes wisdom itself, the speculative activity, as that end, and afterwards as the highest happiness, because activity of the divine power of intellect, because an imitation of the activity of God, because most dear to God.
What differentiates man from other natural and organic substances, and approximates him to a supernatural substance, God, is reason (Aoyos), or intellect (vows).
Now, though only one of the powers of the soul, intellect alone of these powers has no bodily organ; it alone is immortal: it alone is divine.
While the soul is propagated, like any other essence, by the efficient, which is the seed, to the matter, which is the germ, of the embryo man, intellect alone enters from without (Obpa6Ev), and is alone divine (BEiov, not 6EOS), because its activity communicates with no bodily activity (De Gen.
A man then is a third kind of substance, like a natural substance in bodily matter, like a supernatural substance in divine reason or intellect.
- Since things are individuals, and there is nothing, and nothing universal, beyond them, there are two kinds of knowledge sense of individuals, intellect (vous) of universals.
Both powers know by being passively receptive of essence propagated by an efficient cause; but, while in sense the efficient cause is an external object in intelligence it is active intellect (vous Tca iroiEZv) propagating its essence in passive intellect (pas Nevertheless, without sense there is no knowledge.
this white substance: intellect thereupon discovers the universal essence but only in the individuals of sense.
This intellectual discovery requires sensation and retention of sensation; so that sense (ea-Ono-Ls) receives impressions, imagination (0avravLa) retains them as images, intellect (Van) generalizes the universal, and, when it is intelligence of essence, is always true.
But in Ethics a man's individual good is his own happiness; and his happiness is no mere state, but an activity of soul according to virtue in a mature life, requiring as conditions moderate bodily and external goods of fortune; his virtue is (I) moral virtue, which is acquired by habituation, and is a purposive habit of performing actions in the mean determined by right reason or prudence; requiring him, not to exclude, but to moderate his desires; and (2) intellectual virtue, which is either prudence of practical, or wisdom of speculative intellect; and his happiness is a kind of ascending scale of virtuous activities, in which moral virtue is limited by prudence, and prudence by wisdom; so that the speculative life of wisdom is the happiest and most divine, and the practical life of prudence and moral virtue secondary and human.
Still, for perfect happiness a man should prefer the speculative life of divine intellect, and immortalize (CcOavarQ"ecv) as far as possible.
For intellect is what mainly makes a man what he is, and is divine and immortal.
Intelligence is not active intellect propagating universal essence in passive intellect, but only logical inference starting from sense, and both requiring nervous body and conscious soul.
Sense experience is thus the constant action upon our minds of supreme active intellect, and is not the consequence of dead inert matter.
The influence of Edmond de Pressense, a pastor and large-minded theologian, and of Madame de Pressense, a woman of superior intellect and refined feeling, who devoted her life to educational works and charity, made a great impression on him.
He was only saved by his intellect and his fine nature from turning out an arrant prig.
In 1544 Bonner gave him the living of Solihull; and Feckenham established a reputation as a preacher and a disputant of keen intellect but unvarying charity.
Yet many psychologists accept the universality of this will to believe, and among them James, who says that " it is far too little recognized how entirely the intellect is built up of practical interests."
He thought that in the soul there is a productive intellect and a passive intellect, and that, when we rise from sense by induction, the productive causes the passive intellect to receive the universal form or essence, e.g.
of all white things; and he thought that this productive intellect is our immortal faculty.
Lastly, he thought that, while other operations have, intellect (vas) has not, a bodily organ; and hence he became responsible for the fancy that there is a break in bodily continuity between sense and will, while intellect is working out a purely immaterial operation of soul, resulting from the former and tending to the latter.
Aquinas thought that before the creation the one eternal essence of any kind was an abstract form, an idea in the intellect of God, like the form of a house in the mind of a builder, ante rem; that after the creation of any kind it is in re, as Aristotle supposed; and that, as we men think of it, it is post rem, as Aristotle also supposed.
Of this view the part which was not Aristotle's, the state of " universalia ante rem," was due to the Neoplatonists, who interpreted the " separate forms " of Plato to be ideas in intellect, and handed down their interpretation through St Augustine to the medieval Realists like Aquinas, who thus combined Neoplatonism with Aristotelianism.
Philo tells us expressly that they rejected logic as unnecessary to the acquisition of virtue, and speculation on nature as too lofty for the human intellect.
It is profoundly affecting to contemplate this man, a mere wreck from gout, shrinking from no fatigue, no labour, and no personal sacrifices; disregarding the obstacles and difficulties thrown in his way by cardinals and temporal princes, whose fatal infatuation refused to see the peril which hung above them all; recurring time after time, with all his intellect and energy, to the realization of his scheme; and finally adopting the high-hearted resolve of placing himself at the head of the crusade.
The Romantic movement helped, with its idealization of a past but vaguely realized and imperfectly understood, and Chateaubriand heralded in the Catholic reaction with his Genie du Christianisme (1801) a brilliant if superficial attack on the encyclopaedists and their neo-Paganism, and a glorification of the Christian Church as supreme not only in the regions of faith and morals, but also in those of intellect and art.
Madame de Charriere, although twentyseven years older than Constant, became his mistress, and the liaison, an affair possibly more of the intellect than of the heart, lasted until 1796, when Constant became intimate with Madame de Stael.
His defects as a debater were not compensated entirely by the excellence of his set speeches; but his wide culture and powerful intellect were bound to leave their mark on affairs.
He was a true scholar, who lived entirely in the things of the intellect.
This phase may be considered as beginning after the establishment of Elean supremacy in 572 B.C. And so to the last Olympia always remained a central expression of the Greek ideas that the body of man has a glory as well as his intellect and spirit, that body and mind should alike be disciplined, and that it is by the harmonious discipline of both that men best honour Zeus.
Endowed by inheritance with a rich religious character, evangelical traditions, ethical temper and strong intellect, he developed, by wide reading in ancient and modern literature, a personality and attitude of mind which appealed to the characteristic thought and life of the period.
He had conspicuous defects both in spirit and intellect, but was benevolent and philanthropic. He was a successful botanist.
Yet when we compare Hume with Adam Smith, the advance which Hume had made on his predecessors in lucidity of exposition and subtlety of intellect becomes clear, and modern criticism is agreed that the main errors of Adam Smith are to be found in those deductions which deviate from the results of the Political Discourses.
Within this the individual moves and acts with liberty and responsibility; for each, in will, affection and intellect is consubstantial with the rest.
He had long outlived his reputation, and towards the end of his life his intellect failed him.
Its distinctive doctrines are: (1) that all created beings, spiritual or corporeal, are composed of matter and form, the various species of matter being but varieties of the universal matter, and similarly all forms being contained in one universal form; (2) that between the primal One and the intellect (the y olk of Plotinus) there is interposed the divine Will, which is itself divine and above the distinction of form and matter, but is the cause of their union in the being next to itself, the intellect, in which Avicebron holds that the distinction does exist.
doctrine that there is a material, as well as a formal, element in all created beings was explicitly adopted from Avicebron by Duns Scotus (as against the view of Albertus Magnus and Thomas Aquinas), and perhaps his exaltation of the will above the intellect is due to the same influence.
He early gave evidence of exceptional gifts both of intellect and character.
No Englishman of that day stood in the same repute abroad, and foreigners, noble or learned, who came to England, never forgot to pay their respects to the old man, whose vigour and freshness of intellect no progress of the years seemed able to quench.
The reason or intellect is introduced to balance possible pleasures and pains, and to construct a scheme in which pleasures are the materials of a happy life.
intellect and character, distinctly above the social class in which she was born.
was a man of narrow intellect and I.
By this, the real Kulturkampf, the attempt of the state to control the intellect and faith of the clergy, ceased.
His intellect was logical in the highest degree; he was clear and precise, an enemy of loose reasoning, and quick to refute prevailing fallacies.
But the intellect of free Sicily struck out higher paths.
His intellect was strong rather than broad, his position being that of the traditional High Churchman, with little sympathy either with the Evangelicals or with the Tractarians.
Its immediate consequence was to throw open every state appointment to the middle classes; and the middle classes of that period, with very few exceptions, monopolized the intellect and the energy of the nation.
But let it be observed, first, that to reduce the huge and confused mass of pre-existing law into the compass of these two collections was an immense practical benefit to the empire; secondly, that, whereas the work which he undertook was accomplished in seven years, the infinitely more difficult task of codification might probably have been left unfinished at Tribonian's death, or even at Justinian's own, and been abandoned by his successor; thirdly, that in the extracts preserved in the Digest we have the opinions of the greatest legal luminaries given in their own admirably lucid, philosophical and concise language, while in the extracts of which the Codex is composed we find valuable historical evidence bearing on the administration and social condition of the later Pagan and earlier Christian empire; fourthly, that Justinian's age, that is to say, the intellect of the men whose services he commanded, was quite unequal to so vast an undertaking as the fusing upon scientific principles into one new organic whole of the entire law of the empire.
Carlyle meanwhile was suffering domestic troubles, unfortunately not exceptional in their nature, though the exceptional intellect and characters of the persons concerned have given them unusual prominence.
His industry, his remarkable political insight, his lack of scruple, and his combined strength of will and subtlety of intellect enabled him to utilize all the forces which tended at that time towards strong government throughout western Europe.
He threw his keen intellect and trenchant style into the cause of university reform, the leading champion of which was another fellow of University College, Arthur Penrhyn Stanley.
From scepticism he escapes by accepting the doctrine of the mystics that God can be apprehended by intuition (intuitio, speculatio), an exalted state of the intellect in which all limitations disappear.
He identified the active intellect (vous 7rocrlrteOr), through whose agency the potential intellect in man becomes actual, with God.
Psychology, in the stricter sense, deals with the various forms of theoretical and practical intellect, such as attention, memory, desire and will.
The marriage was a very unhappy one, the husband having no qualities that could appeal to a woman who, whatever the censorious might say of her moral character, was distinguished to the last by a lively intellect and a singular charm.
The infectious joyousness of his nature, his sterling character, his solid, if not brilliant, intellect, and his prowess at games gave him an undisputed lead among his contemporaries.
First, Socrates, whilst he conceived that the physicists had mistaken the field of inquiry, absolute truth being unattainable, maintained, as has been seen, that one opinion was better than another, and that consistency of opinion, resulting in consistency of action, was the end which the human intellect properly proposes to itself.
Following Aristotle in this order - sense, memory, intellect - he resolved the whole process of induction into three ministrations: r.
The ministration to intellect or reason, aided by the negative elimination by means of contradictory instances of whatever in the instances is not always present, absent and varying with the given subject investigated, and finally by the positive inference that whatever in the instances is always present, absent and varying with the subject is its essential cause.
At the same time his psychology, though maintaining his empiricism, contained some seeds of conceptual logic, and indirectly of formal logic. Intellectual development, which according to the logic of the Analytics consists of sense, memory, experience, induction and intellect, according to the psychology of the De Anima consists of sense, imagination and intellect, and one division of intellect is into conception of the undivided and combination of conceptions as one (De An.
He now began the course of Christian conferences at the College Stanislas, which attracted the art and intellect of Paris; thence he went to Nitre Dame, and for two years his sermons were the delight of the capital.
If the empiricist denies the intellectual element in scientific knowledge, he must not claim absolute validity for his conclusions; but he may hold against the intuitionalist that absolute laws are impossible to the human intellect.
To them, therefore, Christianity presented itself not primarily as the religion of a redemption through the indwelling power of a risen saviour, as with Paul, nor even as the solution of the problem how the sins of men could be forgiven, but as the reconciliation of the antinomy of the intellect, indicated above.
In this period of degeneracy there were none the less an awakening to religious needs and a profound longing for a new revelation of truth, which should satisfy at once the intellect and the religious emotions.
Under this name are included a number of philosophers of the 6th and 5th centuries B.C. Mainly Ionians by birth, they are united by a local tie and represent all that was best in the early Ionian intellect.
Those traditions or doctrines which were most uncongenial to the modern world were placed in strong relief; and the disparagement of the individual intellect was extended to the disparagement of scientific research itself " (Wilfrid Ward, Life of W.
In this article the Renaissance will be considered as implying a comprehensive movement of the European intellect and will Method toward self-emancipation, toward reassertion of the natural rights of the reason and the senses, toward the conquest of this planet as a place of human occupation, and toward the formation of regulative theories both for states and individuals differing from those of medieval times.
But very little came of the revival of learning which Charles is supposed to have encouraged; and the empire he restored was accepted by the medieval intellect in a crudely theological and vaguely mystical spirit.
Man and the actual universe kept on reasserting their rights and claims, announcing their goodliness and delightfulness, in one way or another; but they were always being thrust back again into Cimmerian regions of abstractions, fictions, visions, spectral hopes and fears, in the midst of which the intellect somnambulistically moved upon an unknown way.
determine the form of masterpieces which for perfection of workmanship and for emancipated force of intellect rank among the highest products of the human mind.
But the cause in which German intellect and will were enlisted was so different that it is difficult not to make a formal separation between that movement which evolved culture in Italy and that which restored religion in Germany, establishing the freedom of intelligence in the one sphere and the freedom of the conscience in the other.
In later ages Elisha (alaer " the other," as he was named) was regarded as the type of a heretic whose pride of intellect betrayed him into infidelity to law and morals.
The idea of plagiarism as a wrong is comparatively modern, and has grown up with the increasing sense of property in works of the intellect.
In 1810 the Christian Instructor began to appear under the editorship of Dr Andrew Thomson, a churchman of vigorous intellect and noble character.
His intellect was far-seeing and acute, quick and yet cautious, meditative, methodical and free from prejudice.
Even reason must be restrained from striving after ultimate truth; it is one of the errors of the human intellect that it will not rest in general principles, but must push its investigations deeper.
In erudition, literary power, and force and versatility of intellect he far surpassed ev2ry contemporary.
More than others he leads a second life in the spirit or intellect alongside of his life in the flesh - the life of knowledge beside the life of will.
Intellect, in short, is only the consequence of insufficient response between stimulus and action.
It is when the excitation is partial only, when it does not inevitably and immediately appear as action, that we have the appearance of intellect in the gap. The chief and fundamental difference between Schopenhauer and Spencer lies in the refusal of the latter to give this "adjustment" or "automatic action" the name of will.
shown with unusual lucidity of expression how feeble is the spontaneity of that intellect which is so highly lauded, and how overpowering the sway of original will in all our action.
But he was not strong enough in will or intellect to give unity to the administration.
She is distinguished from Selma Lagerltif, who is simply an artist, by her exercise of pure intellect; she is a moral leader; she has been called " the Pallas of Sweden."
Naturally he starts from the old views, and is indebted to them for many of his tenets and ideas; but out of this material he builds a uniform system which bears throughout the impress of his own intellect.
of Salamis and Plataea definitely shattered the offensive powe of the empire; that the centre of gravity in the worlds history had shifted from Susa and Babylon to the Aegean Sea; and that the Persians were conscious that in spite of all their courage they were henceforward in the presence of an enemy, superior in arms as well as in intellect, whom they could not hope to subdue by their own strength.
The well-known stories of his laughter when he was introduced to Belisarius, and his chant, "Vanitas vanitatum," when he walked before the triumphal car of his conqueror through the streets of Constantinople, probably point to an intellect disordered by his reverses and hardships.
Halifax, however, concludes by desiring to moderate the roughness of his picture by emphasizing the excellence of his intellect and memory and his mechanical talent, by deprecating a too censorious judgment and by dwelling upon the disadvantages of his bringing up, the difficulties and temptations of his position, and on the fact that his vices were those common to human frailty.
His intellect was profound and comprehensive, thoroughly qualified to grapple with the deepest problems of metaphysics, but by natural preference occupying itself mainly with the practical and moral.
He was considerably influenced by his tutor, the celebrated William Perkins, and by his successor, a man of kindred intellect and fervour, Paul Bayne.
But, though it arose on Hellenic soil, from lectures delivered in a public place at Athens, the school is scarcely to be considered; a product of purely Greek intellect, but rather as the firstfruits of that interaction between West and East which followed the conquests of Alexander.
Properly therefore it stands in marked antithesis to that fairest growth of old Hellas, the Academy, which saw the Stoa rise and fall - the one the typical school of Greece and Greek intellect, the other of the Hellenized East, and, under the early Roman Empire, of the whole civilized world.
The same criterion was available for knowledge derived more directly from the intellect.
So long as dialectic subtleties and exciting polemics afforded food for the intellect, the gulf between theory and practice might be ignored.
His penetrating intellect had mastered the subtleties of the system of Chrysippus, but they seldom appear in his works, at least without, apology.
was not merely earnest and conscientious, but of incisive intellect, and unfailingly cheerful and witty.
Warburton was undoubtedly a great man, but his intellect, marred by wilfulness and the passion for paradox, effected no result in any degree adequate to its power.
His intellect, indeed, was not incapable of understanding and admiring the majestic edifice of Roman law; but he shrank with disgust from the illiberal technicalities of practice.
By bringing the men of his own generation into sympathetic contact with antiquity, he gave a decisive impulse to that European movement which restored freedom, self-consciousness, and the faculty of progress to the human intellect.
Though the latter took the first rank in relation to man's eternal welfare, the former was necessary for the perfection of his intellect and the civilization of his manners.
In 1870 he delivered a course of lectures before the university on "The Natural History of the Intellect."
By some it will be said that man, while similar in the organization of his body to the lower tribes, is distinguished from them by the possession of an immaterial soul, a principle capable of conscious feeling, of intellect and thought.
His style is clear, absolutely unadorned, and somewhat lacking in force; he appeals constantly to the intellect rather than to the emotions, and is seldom picturesque, though in describing a few famous scenes, such as the execution of Charles I., he writes with pathos and dignity.
Aristotle's methodic intellect led him to separate the different aspects of reality here confounded.
He is described by the Four Masters as " a learned man, skilled in many arts, gifted with a profound intellect, and the knowledge of every science."
But as a literary man his intellect was of the highest order.
If he was imperious in temper and inflexible in his conception of the Christian faith, he possessed a great heart and a great intellect, inspired with an enthusiastic devotion to Christ.
Editio princeps (Milan, 1475); Casaubon (1603) showed great critical ability in his notes, but for want of a good MS. left the restoration of the text to Salmasius (1620), whose notes are a most remarkable monument of erudition, combined with acuteness in verbal criticism and general vigour of intellect.
Lord Brougham declared that he " had never met with any man of Sumner's age of such extensive legal knowledge and natural legal intellect."
In domestic affairs Marcy was a shrewd, but honest partisan; in diplomacy he exhibited the qualities of a broadminded, patriotic statesman, endowed, however, with vigour, rather than brilliancy, of intellect.
Christian faith had been dismissed from its seat in the heart, where Luther had placed it, to the cold regions of the intellect.
Yet Pietism could claim to have contributed largely to the revival of Biblical studies in Germany, and to have made religion once more an affair of the heart and the life, and not merel y of the intellect.
She was a woman of extraordinary beauty and intellect, and is said to have greatly influenced her husband's public career.
His philosophy exhibited in a striking manner the generalizing tendency of the French intellect, and its logical need of grouping details round central principles.
At the beginning ~f the century the intellect of thoughtful Englishmen ~ ~ad applied itself to speculative problems of religion g md philosophy.
He was a man of weak character and narrow intellect, whose main claim to succeed Pitt was that he shared to Addingion the full the Protestant prejudices of king and people.
That it was fully sanctioned by his intellect at maturity is evident; but the vindication of unbiased choice would not have been readily accepted had Disraeli abandoned Judaism of his own will at the pushing Vivian Grey period or after.
His second wife was Sarah Siprout de Gabay, "a beautiful woman of strong intellect" and importunate ambitions, who hated the race she belonged to because it was despised by others.
These letters, written with the utmost freedom and fullness to the one whose affection and intellect he trusted more than any, are of the greatest value for interpreting the writer.
great distinction, and appreciated for his intellect by the very few to whom he at all opened himself."
The advantages of Sidonia's intellect and temperament were largely his, in affairs, but not without their drawbacks.
The Attic comedians and Plato speak with enthusiasm of their native climate, and the fineness of the Athenian intellect was attributed to the clearness of the Attic atmosphere.
I have champed up all that chaff about the ego and the non-ego, noumena and phenomena, and all the rest of it, too often not to know that in attempting even to think of these questions, the human intellect flounders at once out of its depth."
The basis for this crusade was theological, not scientific; but it reveals a clear intellect and independent judgment.
He brought to his task an intellect of the first calibre - keen, quick, penetrating.
a capacity of spiritual insight in no sense dependent upon the creative activity of the intellect) is conditioned by our spontaneous acts of faith.
upon the intellect and makes the identification of morality with knowledge.
Freedom exists for Thomas, if it exists at all, only as the power of choosing what is necessarily determined by the intellect to be choiceworthy, the various possibilities of choice being themselves presented by the understanding to the will.
Upon his view the intellect must always be subordinate to the will, and to the will belongs the power of complete self-determination.
For this purpose was needed the concentration of a philosophic intellect of the first order on the problems of practice.
And both he and Plato hold that a similar activity of pure speculative intellect is that in which the philosopher will seek to exist, though he must, being a man, concern himself with the affairs of ordinary human life, a region in which his highest good will be attained by realizing perfect moral excellence.
Both, however, recognize that this actuality of moral insight is not a function of the intellect only, but depends rather on careful training in good habits applied to minds of good natural dispositions, though the doctrine has no doubt a more definite and prominent place in Aristotle's system.
He who exercises this wisdom or knowledge has complete well-being; all else is indifferent to 1 There is a certain difficulty in discussing Aristotle's views on the subject of practical wisdom, and the relation of the intellect to moral action, since it is most probable that the only accounts that we have of these views are not part of the genuine writings of Aristotle.
When further he teaches that the attainment of happiness depends almost entirely upon insight and right calculation, fortune having very little to do with it; that the pleasures and pains of the mind are far more important than those of the body, owing to the accumulation of feeling caused by memory and anticipation; and that an indispensable condition of mental happiness lies in relieving the mind of all superstitions, which can be effected only by a thorough knowledge of the physical universe - he introduces an ample area for the exercise of the philosophic intellect.
that the first attempt was made to offer a systematic exposition of Christian morality; and nine centuries more had passed away before a genuinely philosophic intellect, trained by a full study of Aristotle, undertook to give complete scientific form to the ethical doctrine of the Catholic church.
He follows Aristotle closely in dividing the " natural " virtues into intellectual and moral, giving his preference to the former class, and the intellectual again into speculative and practical; in distinguishing within the speculative class the " intellect " that is conversant with principles, the " science " that deduces conclusions, and the " wisdom " to which belongs the whole process of knowing the sublimest objects of knowledge; and in treating practical wisdom as inseparably connected with moral virtues, and therefore in a sense moral.
He argues that Hobbes's atomic materialism involves the conception of an objective physical world, the object not of passive sense that varies from man to man, but of the active intellect that is the same in all; there is therefore, he urges, an inconsistency in refusing to admit a similar exercise of intellect in morals, and an objective world of right and wrong, which the mind by its normal activity clearly apprehends as such.
On the one hand he maintains that these principles express an absolute good, which is to be called intellectual because its essence and truth are apprehended by the intellect.
We might infer from this that the intellect, so judging, is itself the proper and complete determinant of the will, and that man, as a rational being, ought to aim at the realization of absolute good for its own sake.
He explains that though absolute good is discerned by the intellect, the " sweetness and flavour " of it is apprehended, not by the intellect proper, but by what he calls a " boniform faculty "; and it is in this sweetness and flavour that the motive to virtuous conduct lies; ethics is the " art of living well and happily," and true happiness lies in " the pleasure which the soul derives from the sense of virtue."
Moreover, the substance of Shaftesbury's main argument was adopted by Butler, though it could not pass the scrutiny of that powerful and cautious intellect without receiving important modifications and additions.
The development of the science by the successors of Newton, especially Laplace and Lagrange, may be classed among the most striking achievements of the human intellect.
Nor will he admit of any privileged position or class, for "it is the peculiarity of privilege and of every privileged position to kill the intellect and heart of man.
The privileged man, whether he be privileged politically or economically, is a man depraved in intellect and heart."
the quick intellect of the fairer, and the savagery and suspicion of the dark.
The chiefs are a real aristocracy, excelling the people in physique, skill, intellect and acquirements of all sorts; and the reverence felt for them, now gradually diminishing, was very great, and had something of a religious character.
The only liberty which he admits is a certain power of suspending the deliberative process and determining the direction of the intellect.
Rather as that city which most nobly expressed the noblest attributes of Greek political existence, and which, by her preeminent gifts both of intellect and of moral insight, was primarily responsible, everywhere and always, for the maintenance of those attributes in their integrity.
By "science" in this case is especially meant what is learned from tradition, books or men, and through the intellect.
A great antithesis lies at the basis of all thought and life - that of the real and the ideal, of organism, or sense, and intellect.
The ego is itself both body and soul - the conjunction of both constitutes it; our "organization" or sense nature has its intellectual element, and our "intellect" its organic element.
The specific functions of the ego, as determined by the relative predominance of sense or intellect, are either functions of the senses (or organism) or functions of the intellect.
For while he maintains constantly his favourite maxim "that there is nothing in the intellect which has not been in the senses" (nihil in intellectu quod non pries fuerit in sensu), while he contends that the imaginative faculty (phantasia) is the counterpart of sense - that, as it has to do with material images, it is itself, like sense, material, and essentially the same both in men and brutes; he at the same time admits that the intellect, which he affirms to be immaterial and immortal - the most characteristic distinction of humanity - attains notions and truths of which no effort of sensation or imagination can give us the slightest apprehension (Op. ii..383).
Now, if that than which nothing greater can be conceived existed only in the intellect, it would not be the absolutely greatest, for we could add to it existence in reality.
The natural impartiality of his intellect was accentuated by a certain timidity, which is apparent in his writings no less than in his life.
Our first question will be, Is there any stage of human society, and of the human intellect, in which facts that appear to us to be monstrous and irrational are accepted as ordinary occurrences of every day life ?
But is there any known stage of the human intellect in which these divine adventures, and the metamorphoses of men into animals, trees, stars, and converse with the dead, and all else that puzzles us in the civilized mythologies, are regarded as possible incidents of daily human life?
But, while the possibility of the diffusion of myths by borrowing and transmission must be allowed for, the hypothesis of the origin of myths in the savage state of the intellect supplies a ready explanation of their wide diffusion.
Curiosity and credulity, then, are the characteristics of the savage intellect.
Tylor replies, " When the attention of a man in the myth-making stage of intellect is drawn to any phenomenon or custom which has to him no obvious reason, he invents and tells a story to account for it.
After Louis Vs sudden death, aged twenty, in 987, Adalbero and Gerbert, with the support of the reformed Cluniac clergy, at the Assembly of Senhis eliminated from the succession the rightful heir, Charles of Lorraine, who, without influence or wealth, had become a stranger in his own country, and elected Hugh Capet, who, though rich and powerful, was superior neither in intellect nor character.
In the domain of intellect the advance of the French showed a no less dazzling and a no less universal activity; they sang Intel- as well as they fought, and their epics were worthy Iectual of their swordsmanship, while their cathedrals were develop- hymns in stone as ardent as their soaring flights of inent, devotion.
and forceful intellect all rendered rivalry both inevitable and formidable.
In affairs of intellect dragooning was equally the policy; and, as Corneille learnt to his cost, the French Academy was created in 1635 simply to secure in the republic of letters the same unity and conformity to rules that was enforced in the state.
The highest point, beyond which strictly philosophical inquirers did not penetrate, was the active intellect, - a sort of soul of the world in Aristotelian garb - the principle which inspires and regulates the development of humanity, and in which lies the goal of perfection for the human spirit.
In theological language the active intellect is described as an angel.
But while the theologian incessantly postulated the agency of that God whose nature he deemed beyond the pale of science, the philosopher, following a purely human and natural aim, directed his efforts to the gradual elevation of his part of reason from its unformed state, and to its final union with the controlling intellect which moves and draws to itself the spirits of those who prepare themselves for its influences.
His order and enumeration of the principles of being, his doctrine of the double aspect of intellect, and of the perfect beatitude which consists in the aggregation of noble minds when they are delivered from the separating barriers of individual bodies, present at least in germ the characteristic theory of Averroes.
But al-Farabi was not always consistent in his views; a certain sobriety checked his speculative flights, and although holding that the true perfection of man is reached in this life by the elevation of the intellectual nature, he came towards the close to think the separate existence of intellect no better than a delusion.
The first of these three points of view deals with the form or idea as self-contained in the principles of its own being, apart from those connexions and distinctions which it receives in real (sensuous) science, and through the act of intellect.
It is intellect which first makes the abstract idea a true universal.
as they exist in and for the intellect which has examined and compared.
In man there is only the susceptibility to reason, which is sustained and helped by the light of the active intellect.
Man may prepare himself for this influx by removing the obstacles which prevent the union of the intellect with the human vessel destined for its reception.
The first stage is that of the hylic or material intellect, a state of mere potentiality, like that of a child for writing, before he has ever put pen to paper.
There are, however, grades of susceptibility to the active intellect, i.e.
(In this way philosophy tried to account for the phenomenon of prophecy, one of the ruling ideas of Islam.) But the active intellect is not merely influential on human souls.
These the intellect can grasp, and in so doing it becomes what he calls intellect us acquisitus, and is in a measure divine.
The intellect has in itself power to know ultimate truth and intelligence, and does not require a mystical illumination as Ghazal" taught.
Avempace's principles, it is clear, lead directly to the Averroistic doctrine of the unity of intellect, but the obscurity and incompleteness of the Regime do not permit us to judge how far he anticipated the later thinker.
It describes the process by which an isolated truth-seeker detaches himself from his lower passions, and raises himself above the material earth and the orbs of heaven to the forms which are the source of their movement, until he arrives at a union with the supreme intellect.
It was this theory which Averroes (1126-1198), the last and most famous of the thinkers of Moslem Spain, carried out to his doctrine of the unity of intellect.
He is thought or intellect, the actuality, of which movement is but the fragmentary attainment in successive instants of time.
A special application of this relation between the prior perfect, and the imperfect, which it influences, is found in the doctrine of the connexion of the abstract (transcendent) intellect with man.
Such an intellect, named active or productive, as being the author of the development of reason in man, is the permanent, eternal thought, which is the truth of the cosmic and physical movement.
Humanity is the chosen vessel in which the light of the intellect is revealed; and so long as mankind lasts there must always be some individuals destined to receive this light.
What seems from the material point of view to be the acquisition of learning, study and a moral life, is from the higher point of view the manifestation of the transcendent intellect in the individual.
The preparation of the heart and faculties gives rise to a series of grades between the original predisposition and the full acquisition of actual intellect.
But beyond these, Averroes claims as the highest bliss of the soul a union in this life with the actual intellect.
The intellect, therefore, is one and continuous in all individuals, who differ only in the degree which their illumination has attained.
Such was the Averroist doctrine of the unity of intellect - the eternal and universal nature of true intellectual life.
Albertus Magnus and St Thomas devote special treatises to an examination of the Averroist theory of the unity of intellect, which they labour to confute in order to establish the orthodoxy of Aristotle.
Meanwhile Albertus Magnus and Thomas Aquinas, accepting the exegetical services of the Arabians, did their best to controvert the obnoxious doctrine of the Intellect, and to defend the orthodoxy of Aristotle against the unholy glosses of infidels.
They excluded the Deity from all direct action upon the world, and substituted for a cosmic principle the active intellect, - thus holding a form of Pantheism.
His mother was a woman of intellect and piety.
With their eyes on the ends of the earth, and a ring of enemies from Constantinople to the Antilles, the Spaniards fought, with steadily diminishing material resources, with a character and intellect which shrivelled by swift degrees.
The intellect and character of the nation had been rendered childish.
Up to the stage indicated by the Dissertation he had been attempting, in various ways, to unite two radically divergent modes of explaining cognition - that which would account for the content of experience by reference to affection from things without us, and that which viewed the intellect itself as somehow furnished with the means of pure, rational cognition.
Space and time, the two essential conditions of senseperception, are not data given by things, but universal forms of intellect into which all data of sense must be received.
She was of noble birth and seems to have attracted Sigismondo's notice as early as 1438, for at the age of twenty he produced verses of some merit in praise of her charms. She was indeed widely celebrated for her beauty and intellect, culture, firmness and prudence; and even Pope Pius II.
actualizeis not at all clear what that means, if intellect is not in any way actualizing the body.
To me, he signified the threatening danger was not so much death, as permanent alienation of intellect.
I am as reason and intellect within thy bosom At the time of joy and gladness, at the time of sorrow and distress.
The clarity of a vision is with regard to the will; it is not clarity of a vision is with regard to the will; it is not clarity with regard to the intellect.
It's a timeless, paranoid fable that grabs at the emotions, negates the intellect, and reduces everything to absolutes.
Every universal would be a pure figment of the intellect.
The discouraged intellect may feel itself utterly incompetent to make anything at all of such concepts.
Tumors that are located in the areas of the brain that control breathing, intellect or physical movement would possibly be considered inoperable.
His keen and penetrating intellect enabled him to find a Biblical basis for every provision of the Oral Law.
An added bonus would be that yellow is a great color for stimulating the intellect i.e. doing that homework.
Yet it would seem that only a spiritual creature, possessing intellect and will, is capable of returning to God.
It is worth notice- that practical jurisprudence has long engaged the American intellect with success.
She combined a fine intellect with a straightforward, no nonsense approach that spoke directly to people.
Even the eternal teachings require human intellect to be rightly enforced in a new environment.
It cannot be identified with a pebble, whatever its degree of abstraction, and can never be grasped by a disembodied intellect.
This formidable intellect was to become one of the most influential men of his time.
Meanwhile the man responsible for this waste is showing off his towering intellect.
The attendant looked worried, knowing deep in his heart that he'd been truly defeated by a superior intellect.
He now turns his fierce intellect exclusively on this subject, denouncing its faulty logic and the suffering it causes.
Only one part of the divine intellect is in play, not divine assent or the divine will.
intellect cannot estimate what we owe to woman, sir.
intellect books are not aimed at the educated reader at large.
But the cause of this, the agent intellect, is not a faculty of the soul.
X-ray intellect is not necessary to read my book.
Later, even man's intellect or mind would be swallowed up by the machine theory.
A stranger would be critical and judge the child's intellect whilst playing with that toy.
intellect of man as a proof which reminds man of Allah's Lordship.
manding intellect in all time.
Intellect which is solely a product of the lower manas has in our age, says HPB, paralyzed spiritual perceptions.
pessimism of the intellect, optimism of the will ' is always worth quoting.
Aristotle was an encyclopedic polymath, an all time intellect.
samsara in the intellect is not Real.
self-questioning intellect examines itself, morally this is conscience which elicits self-reproach.
staggering feat of intellect ever seen.
No more taunts on my " intellect, " no more menaces of grating public shows!
This is hardly tenable in the light of the Apollonian intellect behind the tonal structure of this organ.
timeless, paranoid fable that grabs at the emotions, negates the intellect, and reduces everything to absolutes.
He insisted that the individual soul, as part of absolute intellect, is indestructible, and on the death of the body is merged in the eternal unity.
Unlike her former lovers, he was a man of masterful will, a budge philosopher who carried her intellect by storm before he laid siege to her heart.
This separation of intellect from sense, imagination and memory is the cardinal precept of the Cartesian logic; it marks off clear and distinct (i.e.
In the range of perception, intellect is subjected to the material conditions of sense, memory and imagination; and in infancy, when the will has allowed itself to assent precipitately to the conjunctions presented to it by these material processes, thought has become filled with obscure ideas.
They were, according to his analysis, personal will, primitive instincts, voluntary movement, natural and artificial signs, sensibility and the faculties of intellect; on this analytic he founded his scheme of the universe.
At her mother's death in 1815 she came most directly under the influence of her eldest sister Catherine, eleven years her senior, a woman of keen intellect, who a few years later set up a school in Hartford to which Harriet went, first as a pupil, afterwards as teacher.
Lord Sunderland possessed a keen intellect and was consumed by intense restlessness; but his character was wanting in steadfastness, and he yielded too easily to opposition.
The six books pass in review (1) the doctrine of the soul, in which Gersonides defends the theory of impersonal reason as mediating between God and man, and explains the formation of the higher reason (or acquired intellect, as it was called) in humanity, - his view being thoroughly realist and resembling that of Avicebron; (2) prophecy; (3) and (4) God's knowledge of facts and providence, in which is advanced the curious theory that God does not know individual facts, and that, while there is general providence for all, special providence only extends to those whose reason has been enlightened; (5) celestial substances, treating of the strange spiritual hierarchy which the Jewish philosophers of the middle ages accepted from the Neoplatonists and the pseudo-Dionysius, and also giving, along with astronomical details, much of astrological theory; (6) creation and miracles, in respect to which Gerson deviates widely from the position of Maimonides.
Had Wagner been a man of more urbane literary intellect he might have been less ambitious of expressing a world-philosophy in music-drama; and it is just conceivable that the result might have been a less intermittent dramatic movement in his later works, and a balance of ethical ideas at once more subtle and more orthodox.
As a supplement to these labours in the field of Platonic and Alexandrian philosophy, Marsilio next devoted his energies to the translation of Dionysius the Areopagite, whose work on the celestial hierarchy, though recognized as spurious by the Neapolitan humanist, Lorenzo Valla, had supreme attraction for the mystic and uncritical intellect of Ficino.
In the first place, the ridiculous and discreditable incident of the beating had time to blow over; in the second, England was a very favourable place for Frenchmen of note to pick up guineas; in the third, and most important of all, his contact with a people then far more different in every conceivable way from their neighbours than any two peoples of Europe are different now, acted as a sovereign tonic and stimulant en his intellect and literary faculty.
But though his intellect was sharpened and his zeal for learning quickened by the great thinker's influence, Kant's "categorical imperative" did not prevent him from yielding to the taste for wine, women and high play which pursued him through life.
Still the humanists effected a delivery of the intellect from what had become the bondage of obsolete ideas, and created a new medium for the speculative faculty.
The Principe, it seems, had already begun to prejudice the world against him; and we can readily believe that Varchi sententiously observes, that "it would have been better for him if nature had given him either a less powerful intellect or a mind of a more genial temper."
McGillivray was polished in manners, of cultivated intellect, was a shrewd merchant, and a successful speculator; but he had many savage traits, being noted for his treachery, craftiness and love of barbaric display.
This was succeeded (1887, 1888) by a new edition of the Rhetoric, and along with it, a Ã‚° book On Teaching English, being an exhaustive application of the principles of rhetoric to the criticism of style, for the use of teachers; and in 1894 he published a revised edition of The Senses and the Intellect, which contains his last word on psychology.
" Philistine " thus became the name of contempt applied by the cultured to those whom they considered beneath them in intellect and taste, and was first so used in English by Carlyle, and Matthew Arnold (Essays in Criticism, " Heinrich Heine," 1865) gave the word its vogue and its final connotation, as signifying " inaccessible to and impatient of ideas."
In the character of his intellect, as in personal appearance, he bore an extraordinary resemblance to the first Napoleon, possessing the same marvellous lucidity of insight, and the same gift of infallibly distinguishing the essential from the non-essential.
In order to acquire the knowledge of the true and primary principles of scientific knowledge, and especially the intelligence of the universal essence of the subject, which is always true, the process of knowledge consists of (I) sense (a'lcO o s), which receives the essence as individual, (2) memory (uvi j), which is a retention of sensible impression, (3) experience (cµirecpia),which consists of a number of similar memories, (4) induction (brayw-y), which infers the universal as a fact (TO iTC), (5) intellect (vas), which apprehends the principle (apxit); because it is a true apprehension that the universal induced is the very essence and formal cause of the subject: thereupon, scientific syllogism (i rcnf µovucos vvXXoycvµos), making the definition (opeg ios) of this essence the middle term (TO, c Vov), becomes a demonstration (6.7rOSee es) of the consequences which follow from the essence in the conclusion.
had always the well-being of the Church primarily in view; and the highest goal of his pontificate, which inaugurated 'the Maecenatian era of the popedom, was to ennoble that Church by the works of intellect and art.
This weakness was due not to attacks from without - for orthodox Protestantism had long since lost its aggressive force - but to disruptive tendencies within the Church; the Enlightenment of the 18th century had sapped the foundations of the faith among the world of intellect and fashion; the development of Gallicanism and Febronianism threatened to leave the Holy See but a shadowy pre-eminence over a series of national churches, and even to obliterate the frontier line between Catholicism and Protestantism.
It is plain that her intellect had begun to fail just before her death, for she allowed the reigning favourite, Platon Zubov, to persuade her to despatch his brother Valerian, with the rank of field marshal and an army of 20,000 men, on a crack-brained scheme to invade India by way of Persia and Tibet.
The fundamental difficulty underlying this logic is the paradox more clearly expressed by Zeno and to a large extent represented in almost all modern discussion, namely that the evidence of the senses contradicts the intellect.
Books, pictures, objects of art, antiquities, reminiscences of Rat Goethe's visit to Italy, above all a marionette theatre, kindled the child's quick intellect and imagination.
But, while the necessities of antagonism to papal Rome made it assume at first the form of narrow and sectarian opposition, it marked in fact a vital struggle of the intellect towards truth and freedom, involving future results of scepticism and rationalistic audacity from which its earlier champions would have shrunk.
Knowledge, therefore, with its vehicle, the intellect, is dependent upon the existence of certain nerve-organs located in an animal system; and its function is originally only to present an image of the interconnexions of the manifestations external to the individual organism, and so to give to the individual in a partial and reflected form that feeling with other things, or innate sympathy, which it loses as organization becomes more complex and characteristic. Knowledge or intellect, therefore, is only the surrogate of that more intimate unity of feeling or will which is the underlying reality - the principle of all existence, the essence of all manifestations, inorganic and organic. And the perfection of reason is attained when man has transcended those limits of individuation in which his knowledge at first presents him to himself, when by art he has risen from single objects to universal types, and by suffering and sacrifice has penetrated to that innermost sanctuary where the euthanasia of consciousness is reached - the blessedness of eternal repose.
Small and slight in person and never robust in health, Robertson Smith was yet a man of ceaseless and fiery energy; of an intellect extraordinarily alert and quick, and as sagacious in practical matters as it was keen and piercing in speculation; of an erudition astonishing both in its range and in its readiness; of a temper susceptible of the highest enthusiasm for worthy ends, and able to inspire others with its own ardour; endowed with the warmest affections, and with the kindest and most generous disposition, but impatient of stupidity and ready to blaze out at whatever savoured of wrong and injustice.
The most richly stored intellect which had ever spent itself in acquiring knowledge was in the presence of the Omniscient" (Pattison) .
A man in intellect and courage, yet without conceit or bravado; a woman in sensibility and tenderness, yet without shrinking or weakness; a saint in purity of life and devotion of heart, yet without asceticism or religiosity; a knight-errant in