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integument

integument

integument Sentence Examples

  • - Integument mostly like that of the Cryptostigmata.

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  • Blumrich, "Das Integument der Chitonen," Zeitsch.

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  • Cephalic shield continuous with dorsal integument; no shell; ctenidium projecting from mantle cavity.

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  • These are likely to have been produced by the ripe genital glands, which may have extruded their products directly through the membranous integument of the under side.

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  • A remarkable cord of cells having a position just below the integument occurs on each side of the head.

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  • Cephalic shield continuous with dorsal integument; no shell; ctenidium projecting from mantle cavity.

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  • The surface of the neck is covered by integument forming the floor of the branchial cavity.

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  • In this it remains until the completion of the transformation into the sexually mature insect, which then emerges from the case, leaving the pupal integument behind.

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  • Hind-feet with a very short nailless first toe, the second, third and fourth toes partially united by integument, of nearly equal length, the fifth distinct and rather shorter; all four with long and curved nails.

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  • C. Stirling indicate that in the enclosed as far as the nails in structure of the feet this creature a common integument.

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  • Hind-feet short and broad, with five welldeveloped toes; the first large, nailless and opposable; the second and third slender and united by a common integument as far as.

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  • Body elongated; visceral mass marked off from foot posteriorly; dorsal appendages absent, or reduced to a single pair; spicules in the integument.

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  • Karl Semper has shown that these slugs have, in addition to the usual pair of cephalic eyes, a number of eyes developed upon the dorsal integument.

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  • erect a classification, that there was in them more of importance, hidden in the integument, than had hitherto been suspected; but the warning was of little avail, if any, till many years had elapsed.

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  • While furnishing - almost unconsciously, however - additional evidence for overthrowing that classification, there is, nevertheless, no attempt made to construct a better one; and the elaborate tables of dimensions, both absolute and proportional, suggestive as is the whole tendency of the author's observations, seem not to lead to any very practical result, though the systematist's need to look beneath the integument, even in parts that are so comparatively little hidden as birds' feet, is once more made beyond all question apparent.

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  • The nature of the integument and its hairy clothing in all spiders enables them to be plunged under water and withdrawn perfectly dry, and many species, even as large as the common English house-spider (Tegenaria), are so lightly built that they can run with speed over the surface of standing water, and this faculty has been perfected in genera like Pirata, Dolomedes and Triclaria, which are always found in the vicinity of lakes or on the edges of rivers and streams, readily taking to the water or running down the stems of water plants beneath its surface when pursued.

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  • The connective tissue of the integument and basement membrane imperceptibly merges into that which surrounds the muscular bundles as they are united into denser and definite layers, and this is especially marked in those forms (Akrostomum) where the density of the muscular body-wall has considerably diminished, and the connective tissue has thus become much more prominent.

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  • To it belong (a) superficial grooves or deeper slits situated on the integument near the tip of the head, (b) nerve lobes in immediate connexion with the nervous tissue of the brain, and (c) ciliated ducts penetrating into the latter and communicating with the former.

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  • C, Cellular portion of integument.

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  • Its integument is marked by a large number of transverse grooves simulating the segmentation of Annelids, and near the anterior extremity close to the mouth are two pairs of recurved chitinous hooks.

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  • The soft integument and limbs of the mesosoma have been removed as well as all the viscera and muscles, so that the inner surface of the terga of these somites with their entopophyses are seen.

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  • The entosternite was probably in origin part of the fibrous connective tissue lying close to the integument of the sternal surface - giving attachment to muscles corresponding more or less to those at present attached to it.

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  • This telson may enlarge, it may possibly even become internally and sternally developed as partially separate somites, and the tergum may remain without trace of somite formation, or, as appears to be the case in Limulus, the telson gives rise to a few well-marked somites (mesosoma and two others) and then enlarges without further trace of segmentation, whilst the chitinous integument which develops in increasing thickness on the terga as growth advances welds together the unsegmented telson and the somites in front of it, which were previ ously marked by separate tergal thickenings.

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  • They are small degenerate animals with a relatively firm integument.

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  • - Integument hard, strengthened by a continuously chitinized dorsal and ventral sclerite.

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  • - Integument soft, strengthened by special sclerites, those on the ventral surface of the prosoma apparently representing the basal segments of the legs embedded in the skin.

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  • In the remainder the segmentation involves primarily the genitalia and includes the integument, muscles and part of the excretory system.

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  • The excretory tubes, the nervous system, and the parenchyma and integument are continuous from one end of the worm to the other.

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  • As growth proceeds the integument is periodically cast; and at the final moult the perfect winged insect appears.

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  • Through this temporary protection the active pupa, which closely resembles the mature insect, subsequently bites a way by means of its strong mandibles, and rising to the surface of the water casts the pupal integument and becomes sexually adult.

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  • The muscular tissue of the dorsal body-wall is much reduced and the integument here is thin and FIG.

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  • The dorsal border of this groove is extended outwards and downwards as a fold of the integument.

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  • There is some confusion of terms here: some writers call the free fold the mantle or pallium, and this is the proper use of the term; but others apply the term to the whole of the dorsal integument, including both the projecting fold and the part covering the viscera.

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  • In the centre of this antipedal area there has appeared (often at a very early period) a gland-like depression or follicle of the integument.

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  • The metameric repetition of the shellplates and of the ctenidia are probably special modifications, but it is difficult to explain the spicules of the dorsal integument except as a condition more primitive than the shell itself.

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  • In the majority of ant-imitating spiders the forepart of the cephalothorax is constricted on each side to resemble the neck of the insect, and in many cases the similarity is increased by the presence of a stripe of white hairs which has the optical effect of cutting out an extra piece of integument, exactly as occurs in analogous cases in insects.

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  • The dorsal integument or mantle bears, not a simple shell, but eight calcareous plates in longitudinal series articulating with each other.

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  • (After Cuvier.) C. The same species of Chiton, with the shells removed and the dorsal integument reflected.

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  • In some cases the embryo or the embryo-sac sends out suckers into the nucellus and ovular integument.

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  • As the development of embryo and endosperm proceeds within the embryo-sac, its wall enlarges and commonly absorbs the substance of the nucellus (which is likewise enlarging) to near its outer limit, and combines with it and the integument Fruit and to form the seed-coat; or the whole nucellus and even the integument may be absorbed.

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  • Ovular characters determine the grouping in the Dicotyledons, van Tieghem supporting the view that the integument, the outer if there be two, is the lamina of a leaf of which the funicle is the petiole, whilst the nucellus is an outgrowth of this leaf, and the inner integument, if present, an indusium.

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  • The hindfeet have a very short nailless first toe; the second, third and fourth toes partially united by integument, of nearly equal length; the fifth distinct and rather shorter; these four are provided with long and curved nails.

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  • integument.

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  • In its simplest form the exoskeleton of a typical somite is a ring of chitin defined from the rings in front and behind by areas of thinner integument forming moveable joints, and having a pair of appendages articulated to its ventral surface on either side of the middle line.

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  • of the class, is the possession of a carapace or shell, arising as a dorsal fold of the integument from the posterior margin of the head-region.

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  • In some of the terrestrial Isopoda or woodlice (Oniscoidea) the abdominal appendages have ramified tubular invaginations of the integument, filled with air and resembling the tracheae of insects.

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  • In the majority of the Decapoda there is a saccular invagination of the integument in the basal segment of the antennular peduncle having on its inner surface " auditory " setae of the type just described.

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  • The mouth is overhung by a large labrum or upper lip, and the integument of the dorsal surface of the body forms a more or less definite dorsal shield.

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  • The rudiments of the paired eyes appear under the integument at the sides of the head, but only become pedunculated at a comparatively late stage.

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  • Seeds albuminous, with one integument; the single embryo, usually bearing two partially fused cotyledons, is attached to a long tangled suspensor.

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  • An ovule consists of a conical nucellus surrounded by a single integument.

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  • In the ripe seed the integument assumes the form of a fleshy envelope, succeeded internally by a hard woody shell, internal to which is a thin papery membrane - the apical portion of the nucellus - which is easily dissected out as a conical cap covering the apex of the endosperm.

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  • A young ovule consists of a conical nucellus surrounded by a single integument terminating as a two-lipped micropyle.

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  • The morphology of the female flowers has been variously interpreted by botanists; the peduncle bearing the ovules has been described as homologous with the petiole of a foliage-leaf and as a shoot-structure, the collar-like envelope at the base of the ovules being referred to as a second integument or arillus, or as the representative of a carpel.

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  • Each ovule is enclosed at the base by an envelope or collar homologous with the lamina of a leaf; the fleshy and hard coats of the nucellus constitute a single integument.

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  • Secretory sacs occur abundantly in the leaflamina, where they appear as short lines between the veins; they are abundant also in the cortex and pith of the shoot, in the fleshy integument of the ovule, and elsewhere.

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  • Abies), on each side of which is situated an inverted ovule, consisting of a nucellus surrounded by a single integument.

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  • The female flowers of the Taxaceae assume another form; in Microcachrys (Tasmania) the reproductive structures are spirally disposed, and form small globular cones made up of red fleshy scales, to each of which is attached a single ovule enclosed by an integument and partially invested by an arillus; in Dacrydium the carpellary leaves are very similar to the foliage leaves - each bears one ovule with two integuments, the outer of which constitutes an arillus.

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  • C, seminiferous scale as fused pair of leaves (1 1, 1 2, l 3, first, second and third leaves; b, shoot; Br, bract), D, cone-scale of Araucaria (n, nucellus; i, integument; x, xylem).

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  • The ovule is usually surrounded by one integument, which projects beyond the tip of the nucellus as a wide-open lobed funnel, which at the time of pollination folds inwards, and so assists in bringing the pollen-grains on to the nucellus.

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  • Taxus, Cephalotaxus, Dacrydium, &c.) the ordinary integument is partially enclosed by an arillus or second integument.

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  • It is held by some botanists (Celakovsky) that the seminiferous scale of the Abietineae is homologous with the arillus or second integument of the Taxaceae, but this view is too strained to gain general acceptance.

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  • The seeds of some genera depend on animals for dispersal, the carpellary scale (Microcachrys) or the outer integument being brightly coloured and attractive.

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  • The presence of a perianth is a feature suggestive of an approach to the floral structure of Angiosperms; the prolongation of the integument furnishes the flowers with a substitute for a stigma and style.

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  • The female flower is enveloped in a closely fitting sac-like investment, which must be regarded as a perianth; within this is an orthotropous ovule surrounded by a single integument prolonged upwards as a beak-like micropyle.

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  • In function the perianth may be compared with a unilocular ovary containing a single ovule; the projecting integument, which at the time of pollination secretes a drop of liquid, serves the same purpose as the style and stigma of an angiosperm.

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  • After fertilization, some of the uppermost bracts below each flower become red and fleshy; the perianth develops into a woody shell, while the integument remains membranous.

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  • i, Integument.

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  • The integument of the sterile ovule is prolonged above the nucellus as a spirally-twisted tube expanded at its apex into a flat stigma-like organ.

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  • Regarding the Echinoderms as a whole in the light of the foregoing account, we may give the following analytic summary of the characters that distinguish them from other coelomate animals: They live in salt or brackish water; a primitive bilateral symmetry is still manifest in the right and left divisions of the coelom; the middle coelomic cavities are primitively transformed into two hydrocoels communicating with the exterior indirectly through a duct or ducts of the anterior coelom; stereom, composed of crystalline carbonate of lime, is, with few exceptions, deposited by special amoebocytes in the meshes of a mesodermal stroma, chiefly in the integument; reproductive cells are derived from the endothelium, apparently of the anterior coelom; total segmentation of the ovum produces a coeloblastula and gastrula by invagination; mesenchyme is formed in the segmentation cavity by migration of cells, chiefly from the hypoblast.

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  • apical plates by a stretch of dorsal integument containing skeletal elements; the opening of the water-vascular system (madreporite) is not connected with a definite apical plate or system of plates.

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  • It is by means of the hypostome that ticks pierce the integument and firmly adhere to the host whose blood they suck for food.

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  • In the Argasidae the anterior portion of the dorsal surface of the body is extended forwards above the capitulum, so that this structure is concealed from above; the integument is fairly uniformly granular or coriaceous above and below; the palpi are simple and unmodified; there is no sucker beneath the claws in the adult, and there is only a slight structural difference between the sexes.

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  • In the Ixodidae the capitulum is not overlapped by a forward extension of the dorsal area, which is smooth and firmly chitinized either in front or all over; the palpi are usually modified, that is to say, their second and third segments are usually excavated internally to form a sheath for the hypostome; there is a distinct sucker beneath the claws and the difference between the sexes is well marked, the males having the dorsal integument thickly and continuously chitinized, whereas in the females only its anterior portion bears a chitinous plate, the rest of the integument being soft to admit of its distension by the blood which is imbibed in quantity by members of this sex.

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  • These young, or larvae as they are called, after the integument has hardened by exposure to the air, climb up the stalks of grain or herbage and cling with outstretched legs waiting for passing animals.

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  • In some of the heterosporous forms (Lepidocarpon, Miadesmia) the sporangia were sometimes surrounded by an integument; and since only a single megaspore attained maturity, the structure of the megasporangium suggests a comparison with an ovule.

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  • The rigidity of the integument caused by the deposition of dense chitin upon it is intimately connected with the physiological activity and form of all the internal organs, and is undoubtedly correlated with the total disappearance of the circular muscular layer of the body-wall present in Chaetopods.

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  • (a) The integument is covered by a delicate soft cuticle (not firm or plated) which allows the body and its appendages great range of extension and contraction.

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  • (b) The paired claws on the ends of the parapodia and the fanglike modifications of these on the first post-oral appendages (mandibles) are the only hard chitinous portions of the integument.

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  • (a) Integument heavily plated with firm chitinous cuticle, allowing no expansion and retraction of regions of the body nor change of dimensions, except, in some cases, a dorso-ventral bellows movement.

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  • No tracheate Crustacea are known, but some terrestrial Isopoda develop pulmonary in-sinkings of the integument.

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  • ii, inner, ie, outer integument.

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  • These structures are all enclosed in the middle subcorneous integument, a continuation of the ordinary skin of the limb, but extremely vascular, and having its superficial extent greatly increased by being developed into papillae or laminae.

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  • It is formed of pavement epithelial cells, mainly grouped in a concentric manner around the vascular papillae of the subcorneous integument, so that a section near the base of the hoof, cut transversely to the long axis of these papillae, shows a number of small circular or oval orifices, with cells arranged concentrically round them.

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  • n, Nucellus; i, inner; o, outer integument in section; m, micropyle.

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  • As the first integument grows round it, the amount of inversion increases, and the funicle becomes adherent to the side of the nucellus.

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  • Then if a second integument be formed it covers all the free part of the ovule, but does not form on the side to which the raphe is adherent.

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  • The body is indistinctly segmented, and is enveloped in a fold of the integument, usually with calcareous plates.

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  • The long tentacles of the integument may have served to facilitate pollination.

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  • Sporangium and dendron, ranges throughout the Carbonsporophyll before deveiferous, but has not yet been detected lopment of integument.

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  • v, Velum or integument.

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  • The single integument is united to the nucellus, except at the top, and is traversed by about nine vascular strands.

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  • vb, Vascular bundles of stalk, cupule and integument.

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  • cp, " Canopy," or waterreservoir, at top of integument.

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  • This is a large seed, with a very long micropyle; it has a beaked pollen-chamber, and a complex integument made up of hard and fleshy layers, closely resembling the seed of a modern Cycad; the nucellus, however, was free from the integument, each a sketch after Kidston.

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  • bundles in tangential section; br, bracts; d, short axillary shoot, bearing a bracteole and a terminal ovule; i, integument; n, nucellus of ovule; ov, another ovule seen from the outside.

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  • Upper part of seed, in longitudinal section; i, integument; mi, micropyle; n, remains of nucellus; p.c, pollen-chamber (containing pollen-grains), with its canal extending up to the micropyle; pr, part of prothallus; ar, archegonia.

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  • 32, A, it appears that each ovule was borne terminally, on an extremely short axillary shoot, as in Taxus among recent Gymnosperms. The ovule consists of an integument (regarded by some writers as double) enclosing the nucellus.

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  • 15, 4 and 7), as investigated in English, French, Italian, and American specimens, may be briefly described as a short lateral shoot or peduncle, arising in a leaf-axil and terminating in a bluntly rounded apex, bearing numerous linear bracts enclosing a central group of appendages, some of which consist of slender pedicels traversed by a vascular strand and bearing a single terminal ovule enclosed in an integument, which forms a distal canal or micropyle.

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  • Integument.

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  • The integument of tailed and tailless batrachians is remarkable for the great abundance of follicular glands, of which there may be two kinds, each having a special secretion, which is always more or less acrid and irritating, and affords a means of defence against the attacks of many carnivorous animals.

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  • Beside, collegiality does not offer a legitimating integument.

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  • Centralisation of the means of production and socialization of labor at last reach a point where the become incompatible with their capitalist integument.

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  • Hind feet long and narrow; the first toe rudimentary or absent; the second and third very slender and united in a common integument; the fourth very large, with a stout elongated conical claw; the fifth smaller than the fourth (see fig.

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  • Hind-feet with a very short nailless first toe, the second, third and fourth toes partially united by integument, of nearly equal length, the fifth distinct and rather shorter; all four with long and curved nails.

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  • C. Stirling indicate that in the enclosed as far as the nails in structure of the feet this creature a common integument.

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  • Hind-feet short and broad, with five welldeveloped toes; the first large, nailless and opposable; the second and third slender and united by a common integument as far as.

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  • In this it remains until the completion of the transformation into the sexually mature insect, which then emerges from the case, leaving the pupal integument behind.

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  • The pupa either shows the appendages of the perfect insect, though these are encased in a sheath and adherent to the body, or else it is entirely concealed within the hardened and contracted larval integument, which forms a barrel-shaped protecting capsule or puparium.

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  • tion of some organs lying below the transparent integument (fig.

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  • Anisopleura) extends between the liver and the integument of the visceral dome very widely.

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  • The surface of the neck is covered by integument forming the floor of the branchial cavity.

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  • Body elongated; visceral mass marked off from foot posteriorly; dorsal appendages absent, or reduced to a single pair; spicules in the integument.

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  • The ctenidium is atrophied, and the edge of the mantle-skirt is fused to the dorsal integument by concrescence, except at one point which forms the aperture of the mantle-chamber, thus converted into a nearly closed sac. Air is admitted to this sac for respiratory and hydrostatic purposes, and it thus becomes a lung.

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  • A remarkable cord of cells having a position just below the integument occurs on each side of the head.

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  • Karl Semper has shown that these slugs have, in addition to the usual pair of cephalic eyes, a number of eyes developed upon the dorsal integument.

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  • erect a classification, that there was in them more of importance, hidden in the integument, than had hitherto been suspected; but the warning was of little avail, if any, till many years had elapsed.

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  • While furnishing - almost unconsciously, however - additional evidence for overthrowing that classification, there is, nevertheless, no attempt made to construct a better one; and the elaborate tables of dimensions, both absolute and proportional, suggestive as is the whole tendency of the author's observations, seem not to lead to any very practical result, though the systematist's need to look beneath the integument, even in parts that are so comparatively little hidden as birds' feet, is once more made beyond all question apparent.

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  • The spider owes its name Argyroneta or the silver swimmer to its silvery appearance as it swims about under water enveloped in air, and its power to retain an envelope of air on its sternum and abdomen depends upon the circumstance that these areas are beset with hairs which prevent the water reaching the integument; but the air retained by these hairs can be released when the spider wishes to fill its subaqueous home with that element.

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  • The nature of the integument and its hairy clothing in all spiders enables them to be plunged under water and withdrawn perfectly dry, and many species, even as large as the common English house-spider (Tegenaria), are so lightly built that they can run with speed over the surface of standing water, and this faculty has been perfected in genera like Pirata, Dolomedes and Triclaria, which are always found in the vicinity of lakes or on the edges of rivers and streams, readily taking to the water or running down the stems of water plants beneath its surface when pursued.

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  • c, Cellular tissue of the integument; Bm, basement membrane; cire.

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  • The connective tissue of the integument and basement membrane imperceptibly merges into that which surrounds the muscular bundles as they are united into denser and definite layers, and this is especially marked in those forms (Akrostomum) where the density of the muscular body-wall has considerably diminished, and the connective tissue has thus become much more prominent.

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  • To it belong (a) superficial grooves or deeper slits situated on the integument near the tip of the head, (b) nerve lobes in immediate connexion with the nervous tissue of the brain, and (c) ciliated ducts penetrating into the latter and communicating with the former.

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  • C, Cellular portion of integument.

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  • Its integument is marked by a large number of transverse grooves simulating the segmentation of Annelids, and near the anterior extremity close to the mouth are two pairs of recurved chitinous hooks.

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  • The soft integument and limbs of the mesosoma have been removed as well as all the viscera and muscles, so that the inner surface of the terga of these somites with their entopophyses are seen.

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  • The entosternite was probably in origin part of the fibrous connective tissue lying close to the integument of the sternal surface - giving attachment to muscles corresponding more or less to those at present attached to it.

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  • This telson may enlarge, it may possibly even become internally and sternally developed as partially separate somites, and the tergum may remain without trace of somite formation, or, as appears to be the case in Limulus, the telson gives rise to a few well-marked somites (mesosoma and two others) and then enlarges without further trace of segmentation, whilst the chitinous integument which develops in increasing thickness on the terga as growth advances welds together the unsegmented telson and the somites in front of it, which were previ ously marked by separate tergal thickenings.

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  • They are small degenerate animals with a relatively firm integument.

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  • - Integument hard, strengthened by a continuously chitinized dorsal and ventral sclerite.

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  • - Integument mostly like that of the Cryptostigmata.

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  • - Integument soft, strengthened by special sclerites, those on the ventral surface of the prosoma apparently representing the basal segments of the legs embedded in the skin.

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  • In the remainder the segmentation involves primarily the genitalia and includes the integument, muscles and part of the excretory system.

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  • The excretory tubes, the nervous system, and the parenchyma and integument are continuous from one end of the worm to the other.

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  • As growth proceeds the integument is periodically cast; and at the final moult the perfect winged insect appears.

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  • Through this temporary protection the active pupa, which closely resembles the mature insect, subsequently bites a way by means of its strong mandibles, and rising to the surface of the water casts the pupal integument and becomes sexually adult.

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  • The muscular tissue of the dorsal body-wall is much reduced and the integument here is thin and FIG.

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  • The dorsal border of this groove is extended outwards and downwards as a fold of the integument.

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  • There is some confusion of terms here: some writers call the free fold the mantle or pallium, and this is the proper use of the term; but others apply the term to the whole of the dorsal integument, including both the projecting fold and the part covering the viscera.

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  • In the centre of this antipedal area there has appeared (often at a very early period) a gland-like depression or follicle of the integument.

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  • The metameric repetition of the shellplates and of the ctenidia are probably special modifications, but it is difficult to explain the spicules of the dorsal integument except as a condition more primitive than the shell itself.

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  • In the majority of ant-imitating spiders the forepart of the cephalothorax is constricted on each side to resemble the neck of the insect, and in many cases the similarity is increased by the presence of a stripe of white hairs which has the optical effect of cutting out an extra piece of integument, exactly as occurs in analogous cases in insects.

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  • The dorsal integument or mantle bears, not a simple shell, but eight calcareous plates in longitudinal series articulating with each other.

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  • (After Cuvier.) C. The same species of Chiton, with the shells removed and the dorsal integument reflected.

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  • Blumrich, "Das Integument der Chitonen," Zeitsch.

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  • In some cases the embryo or the embryo-sac sends out suckers into the nucellus and ovular integument.

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  • As the development of embryo and endosperm proceeds within the embryo-sac, its wall enlarges and commonly absorbs the substance of the nucellus (which is likewise enlarging) to near its outer limit, and combines with it and the integument Fruit and to form the seed-coat; or the whole nucellus and even the integument may be absorbed.

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  • Ovular characters determine the grouping in the Dicotyledons, van Tieghem supporting the view that the integument, the outer if there be two, is the lamina of a leaf of which the funicle is the petiole, whilst the nucellus is an outgrowth of this leaf, and the inner integument, if present, an indusium.

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  • The hindfeet have a very short nailless first toe; the second, third and fourth toes partially united by integument, of nearly equal length; the fifth distinct and rather shorter; these four are provided with long and curved nails.

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  • In its simplest form the exoskeleton of a typical somite is a ring of chitin defined from the rings in front and behind by areas of thinner integument forming moveable joints, and having a pair of appendages articulated to its ventral surface on either side of the middle line.

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  • of the class, is the possession of a carapace or shell, arising as a dorsal fold of the integument from the posterior margin of the head-region.

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  • In some of the terrestrial Isopoda or woodlice (Oniscoidea) the abdominal appendages have ramified tubular invaginations of the integument, filled with air and resembling the tracheae of insects.

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  • In the majority of the Decapoda there is a saccular invagination of the integument in the basal segment of the antennular peduncle having on its inner surface " auditory " setae of the type just described.

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  • The mouth is overhung by a large labrum or upper lip, and the integument of the dorsal surface of the body forms a more or less definite dorsal shield.

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  • The rudiments of the paired eyes appear under the integument at the sides of the head, but only become pedunculated at a comparatively late stage.

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  • Seeds albuminous, with one integument; the single embryo, usually bearing two partially fused cotyledons, is attached to a long tangled suspensor.

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  • An ovule consists of a conical nucellus surrounded by a single integument.

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  • In the ripe seed the integument assumes the form of a fleshy envelope, succeeded internally by a hard woody shell, internal to which is a thin papery membrane - the apical portion of the nucellus - which is easily dissected out as a conical cap covering the apex of the endosperm.

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  • A young ovule consists of a conical nucellus surrounded by a single integument terminating as a two-lipped micropyle.

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  • The morphology of the female flowers has been variously interpreted by botanists; the peduncle bearing the ovules has been described as homologous with the petiole of a foliage-leaf and as a shoot-structure, the collar-like envelope at the base of the ovules being referred to as a second integument or arillus, or as the representative of a carpel.

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  • Each ovule is enclosed at the base by an envelope or collar homologous with the lamina of a leaf; the fleshy and hard coats of the nucellus constitute a single integument.

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  • Secretory sacs occur abundantly in the leaflamina, where they appear as short lines between the veins; they are abundant also in the cortex and pith of the shoot, in the fleshy integument of the ovule, and elsewhere.

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  • Abies), on each side of which is situated an inverted ovule, consisting of a nucellus surrounded by a single integument.

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  • The female flowers of the Taxaceae assume another form; in Microcachrys (Tasmania) the reproductive structures are spirally disposed, and form small globular cones made up of red fleshy scales, to each of which is attached a single ovule enclosed by an integument and partially invested by an arillus; in Dacrydium the carpellary leaves are very similar to the foliage leaves - each bears one ovule with two integuments, the outer of which constitutes an arillus.

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  • C, seminiferous scale as fused pair of leaves (1 1, 1 2, l 3, first, second and third leaves; b, shoot; Br, bract), D, cone-scale of Araucaria (n, nucellus; i, integument; x, xylem).

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  • The ovule is usually surrounded by one integument, which projects beyond the tip of the nucellus as a wide-open lobed funnel, which at the time of pollination folds inwards, and so assists in bringing the pollen-grains on to the nucellus.

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  • Taxus, Cephalotaxus, Dacrydium, &c.) the ordinary integument is partially enclosed by an arillus or second integument.

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  • It is held by some botanists (Celakovsky) that the seminiferous scale of the Abietineae is homologous with the arillus or second integument of the Taxaceae, but this view is too strained to gain general acceptance.

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  • The seeds of some genera depend on animals for dispersal, the carpellary scale (Microcachrys) or the outer integument being brightly coloured and attractive.

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  • The presence of a perianth is a feature suggestive of an approach to the floral structure of Angiosperms; the prolongation of the integument furnishes the flowers with a substitute for a stigma and style.

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  • The female flower is enveloped in a closely fitting sac-like investment, which must be regarded as a perianth; within this is an orthotropous ovule surrounded by a single integument prolonged upwards as a beak-like micropyle.

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  • In function the perianth may be compared with a unilocular ovary containing a single ovule; the projecting integument, which at the time of pollination secretes a drop of liquid, serves the same purpose as the style and stigma of an angiosperm.

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  • After fertilization, some of the uppermost bracts below each flower become red and fleshy; the perianth develops into a woody shell, while the integument remains membranous.

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  • i, Integument.

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  • 17, A, n), surrounded by a single integument (fig.

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  • Gazette, xlvi., 1908, regards this tissue as belonging to the nucellus.) At the time of pollination the long tubular integument secretes a drop of fluid at its apex, which holds the pollen-grains, brought by the wind, or possibly to some extent by insect agency, and by evaporation these are drawn on to the top of the nucellus, where partial disorganization of the cells has given rise to an irregular pollen-chamber (fig.

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  • The integument of the sterile ovule is prolonged above the nucellus as a spirally-twisted tube expanded at its apex into a flat stigma-like organ.

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  • These are likely to have been produced by the ripe genital glands, which may have extruded their products directly through the membranous integument of the under side.

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  • In any case we have to admit a closure of the integument over the ciliated groove (fig.

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  • Regarding the Echinoderms as a whole in the light of the foregoing account, we may give the following analytic summary of the characters that distinguish them from other coelomate animals: They live in salt or brackish water; a primitive bilateral symmetry is still manifest in the right and left divisions of the coelom; the middle coelomic cavities are primitively transformed into two hydrocoels communicating with the exterior indirectly through a duct or ducts of the anterior coelom; stereom, composed of crystalline carbonate of lime, is, with few exceptions, deposited by special amoebocytes in the meshes of a mesodermal stroma, chiefly in the integument; reproductive cells are derived from the endothelium, apparently of the anterior coelom; total segmentation of the ovum produces a coeloblastula and gastrula by invagination; mesenchyme is formed in the segmentation cavity by migration of cells, chiefly from the hypoblast.

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  • apical plates by a stretch of dorsal integument containing skeletal elements; the opening of the water-vascular system (madreporite) is not connected with a definite apical plate or system of plates.

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  • It is by means of the hypostome that ticks pierce the integument and firmly adhere to the host whose blood they suck for food.

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  • In the Argasidae the anterior portion of the dorsal surface of the body is extended forwards above the capitulum, so that this structure is concealed from above; the integument is fairly uniformly granular or coriaceous above and below; the palpi are simple and unmodified; there is no sucker beneath the claws in the adult, and there is only a slight structural difference between the sexes.

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  • In the Ixodidae the capitulum is not overlapped by a forward extension of the dorsal area, which is smooth and firmly chitinized either in front or all over; the palpi are usually modified, that is to say, their second and third segments are usually excavated internally to form a sheath for the hypostome; there is a distinct sucker beneath the claws and the difference between the sexes is well marked, the males having the dorsal integument thickly and continuously chitinized, whereas in the females only its anterior portion bears a chitinous plate, the rest of the integument being soft to admit of its distension by the blood which is imbibed in quantity by members of this sex.

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  • These young, or larvae as they are called, after the integument has hardened by exposure to the air, climb up the stalks of grain or herbage and cling with outstretched legs waiting for passing animals.

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  • "Mantle" is used in many transferred senses, all with the meaning of "covering," as in zoology, for an enclosing sac or integument; thus it is applied to the "tunic" or layer of connective-tissue forming the body-wall of ascidians enclosing muscle-fibres, blood-sinuses and nerves (see Tunicata).

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  • In some of the heterosporous forms (Lepidocarpon, Miadesmia) the sporangia were sometimes surrounded by an integument; and since only a single megaspore attained maturity, the structure of the megasporangium suggests a comparison with an ovule.

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  • The rigidity of the integument caused by the deposition of dense chitin upon it is intimately connected with the physiological activity and form of all the internal organs, and is undoubtedly correlated with the total disappearance of the circular muscular layer of the body-wall present in Chaetopods.

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  • (a) The integument is covered by a delicate soft cuticle (not firm or plated) which allows the body and its appendages great range of extension and contraction.

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  • (b) The paired claws on the ends of the parapodia and the fanglike modifications of these on the first post-oral appendages (mandibles) are the only hard chitinous portions of the integument.

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  • (a) Integument heavily plated with firm chitinous cuticle, allowing no expansion and retraction of regions of the body nor change of dimensions, except, in some cases, a dorso-ventral bellows movement.

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  • No tracheate Crustacea are known, but some terrestrial Isopoda develop pulmonary in-sinkings of the integument.

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  • ii, inner, ie, outer integument.

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  • These structures are all enclosed in the middle subcorneous integument, a continuation of the ordinary skin of the limb, but extremely vascular, and having its superficial extent greatly increased by being developed into papillae or laminae.

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  • It is formed of pavement epithelial cells, mainly grouped in a concentric manner around the vascular papillae of the subcorneous integument, so that a section near the base of the hoof, cut transversely to the long axis of these papillae, shows a number of small circular or oval orifices, with cells arranged concentrically round them.

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  • n, Nucellus; i, inner; o, outer integument in section; m, micropyle.

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  • As the first integument grows round it, the amount of inversion increases, and the funicle becomes adherent to the side of the nucellus.

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  • Then if a second integument be formed it covers all the free part of the ovule, but does not form on the side to which the raphe is adherent.

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  • The body is indistinctly segmented, and is enveloped in a fold of the integument, usually with calcareous plates.

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  • An integument grew up from the superior surface of the sporophyll, completely enveloping the sporangium, except for a narrow crevice left open along the top. In favourable cases the prothallus is found preserved, within the functional megaspore or embryo-sac, and the whole appearance, especially as seen in a section tangential to the strobilus, is then remarkably seed-like (see diagram, fig.

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  • The megasporangium is enclosed in an a A"° cu integument, which completely envelopes it, leaving only a narrow micropyle at the distal end (fig.

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  • The long tentacles of the integument may have served to facilitate pollination.

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  • Sporangium and dendron, ranges throughout the Carbonsporophyll before deveiferous, but has not yet been detected lopment of integument.

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  • v, Velum or integument.

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  • The single integument is united to the nucellus, except at the top, and is traversed by about nine vascular strands.

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  • vb, Vascular bundles of stalk, cupule and integument.

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  • cp, " Canopy," or waterreservoir, at top of integument.

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  • This is a large seed, with a very long micropyle; it has a beaked pollen-chamber, and a complex integument made up of hard and fleshy layers, closely resembling the seed of a modern Cycad; the nucellus, however, was free from the integument, each a sketch after Kidston.

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  • bundles in tangential section; br, bracts; d, short axillary shoot, bearing a bracteole and a terminal ovule; i, integument; n, nucellus of ovule; ov, another ovule seen from the outside.

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  • Upper part of seed, in longitudinal section; i, integument; mi, micropyle; n, remains of nucellus; p.c, pollen-chamber (containing pollen-grains), with its canal extending up to the micropyle; pr, part of prothallus; ar, archegonia.

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  • 32, A, it appears that each ovule was borne terminally, on an extremely short axillary shoot, as in Taxus among recent Gymnosperms. The ovule consists of an integument (regarded by some writers as double) enclosing the nucellus.

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  • 15, 4 and 7), as investigated in English, French, Italian, and American specimens, may be briefly described as a short lateral shoot or peduncle, arising in a leaf-axil and terminating in a bluntly rounded apex, bearing numerous linear bracts enclosing a central group of appendages, some of which consist of slender pedicels traversed by a vascular strand and bearing a single terminal ovule enclosed in an integument, which forms a distal canal or micropyle.

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  • The integument of tailed and tailless batrachians is remarkable for the great abundance of follicular glands, of which there may be two kinds, each having a special secretion, which is always more or less acrid and irritating, and affords a means of defence against the attacks of many carnivorous animals.

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  • Anisopleura) extends between the liver and the integument of the visceral dome very widely.

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  • c, Cellular tissue of the integument; Bm, basement membrane; cire.

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