Men are His instruments, they are not to blame.
There are a great many instruments besides those which the astronomers use.
I stood amidst the familiar instruments, wondering where to begin.
If it is true that the violin is the most perfect of musical instruments, then Greek is the violin of human thought.
Following the example of William of Orange, Hoorn, Berghen and other governors, the magistrates generally declined to enforce the edicts, and offered to resign rather than be the instruments for burning and maltreating their fellow-countrymen.
Who knows but if our instruments were delicate enough we might detect an undulation in the crust of the earth?
Its other manufactures include machinery, pianos and other musical instruments, cotton goods, cigars, furniture, leather, paper, colours and chemicals.
Printing, book-selling, the manufacture of surgical and scientific instruments, chemicals, gloves and vinegar, and the cultivation of hops, fruit and vines are among the leading occupations of the inhabitants.
His brass instruments have lost nothing of their ancient nobility.
In normal circumstances the instruments at both ends are ready to receive, both ends of the line being to earth through the receiving instruments.
If long circuits were worked direct with ordinary instruments, high battery power would be required in order to send sufficient Single current to actuate the apparatus.
Larger combinations, being semi-orchestral, especially where the double-bass and wind instruments are used, lend themselves to a somewhat lighter style; thus Beethoven's septet and Schubert's octet are both in the nature of a very large serenade.
The end is taken into the testing room in the cable-house and the conductor connected with the testing instruments, and, should the electrical tests continue satisfactory, the ship is put on the proper course and steams slowly ahead, paying out the cable over her stern.
Instruments have been invented by Alvan Clark and Sir Howard Grubb for measuring with the spider-line micrometer angles which are larger than the field of view of the eyepiece.
This belief in the infallibility of revelation is involved in the very beliefs in revelation itself, and is common to all sections of Christians, who differ mainly as to the kind and measure of infallibility residing in the human instruments by which this revelation is interpreted to the world.
Any note may be a pitch note; for orchestras custom has settled upon a' in the treble clef, for organs and pianos in Great Britain c 2, and for modern brass instruments b flat'.
This belief in the infallibility of revelation is involved in the very beliefs in revelation itself, and is common to all sections of Christians, who differ mainly as to the kind and measure of infallibility residing in the human instruments by which this revelation is interpreted to the world.
The queer-looking Japanese musical instruments, and their beautiful works of art were interesting.
Chamber-music. - Bach's and his contemporaries' combinations with the harpsichord show the natural fondness, in his day, for instruments of a tone too gentle for prominent use in large rooms, or indeed for survival in modern times.
Wind instruments produce very special effects in chamber-music, and need an exceedingly adroit technique on the part of the composer.
To increase the speed of working, two single-needle instruments were sometimes used (double-needle telegraph).
Similar instruments to the single and double needle apparatus of Cooke and Wheatstone were about the same time invented by the Rev. H.
Another series of instruments, introduced by Cooke and Wheatstone in 1840, and generally known as " Wheatstone's step-by-step letter-showing " or " ABC instruments," were worked out with great ingenuity of detail by Wheatstone in Great Britain and by Breguet and others in France.
It is not possible to work double current from one set alone, as in this case, if one key of a group of instruments is up and another is down, the battery would be short-circuited and no current would flow to line.
A noticeable feature in the modern A B C indicator, as well as in all modern forms of telegraph instruments, is the adoption of " induced " magnets in the moving portion of the apparatus.
The instruments used for land telegraphs on this system are of two types - " sounders," which indicate by sound, and " recorders," which record the signals.
the working of several instruments from one set of batteries or accumulators, is adopted, the positive and negative currents have to be sent from independent batteries, as shown by fig.
Praetor ius's Cammerton, or chamber pitch, formulated in his diagrams for voices and instruments, is, he says, a whole tone higher; equivalent, therefore, to a' 475.65.
With the improvements in wind instruments this continued, as a more brilliant effect was gained.
After the publication of the Plaine Discovery, Napier seems to have occupied himself with the invention of secret instruments of war, for in the Bacon collection at Lambeth Palace there is a document, dated the 7th of.
It might appear at first sight as though one connexion would serve, but the differences in pressure on which these instruments depend are so minute, that the pressure of the air in the room where the recording part is placed has to be considered.
The narrower term "orchestration" is applied to the instrumentation of orchestral music. Since the most obvious differences of timbre are in those of various instruments, the art which blends and contrasts timbre is most easily discussed as the treatment of instruments; but we must use this term with philosophic breadth and allow it to include voices.
In the 17th century the use of instruments became a necessity; but there were at first no organized ideas for their treatment except those which were grounded on their use as supporting and imitating the voice.
But the treatment of instruments in Bach and Handel has a radical difference from that of the art which was soon to succeed it.
The chords necessary in this part, which with its supporting bass is called the continuo, were indicated by figures; and the evanescent and delicate tones of the harpsichord; lent themselves admirably to this purpose where solo voices and instruments were concerned.
In the interest of euphony some harmonious sound is needed to bridge the great gap which almost always exists between the bass and the upper instruments, but this filling out must be of the softest and most atmospheric kind.
On the other hand, it is significant how everything in the development of new instruments seems to suggest, and be suggested by, the new methods of expression.
The pianoforte trios of Haydn are perhaps the only-works of first-rate artistic importance in which there is no doubt that the earlier stages of the new art do not admit of sufficient polyphony to give the instruments fair play.
Haydn finds the pianoforte so completely capable of expressing his meaning that he is at a loss to find independent material for any accompanying instruments; and the violoncello in his trios has, except perhaps in four passages in the whole collection of thirty-three works, not a note to play that is not already in the bass of the pianoforte; while the melodies of the violin are, more often than not, doubled in the treble.
Similar principles apply in infinite detail to the treatment of wind instruments, and we must never lose sight of them in speculating as to the reasons why the genius of Beethoven was able to carry instrumentation into worlds of which Haydn and Mozart never dreamt, or why, having gone so far, it left anything unexplored.
These instruments thus produced, in Haydn's and Beethoven's times, a very remarkable but closely limited series of effects, which, as Sir George Macfarren pointed out in the article "Music" in the 9th edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica, gave them a peculiar character and function in strongly asserting the main notes of the key.
The accuracy and the paraphernalia are equally exemplified in all Wagner's additions and alterations of the classical orchestral scheme, for these all consist in completing the families of instruments so that each timbre can be presented pure in complete harmony.
A spare set of accumulators is provided for every group of instruments in case of the failure of the working set.
After the publication of the Plaine Discovery, Napier seems to have occupied himself with the invention of secret instruments of war, for in the Bacon collection at Lambeth Palace there is a document, dated the 7th of.
Having spent many afternoons with him in the lab, she knew he kept only serums and instruments in the refrigerator.
to the east, so placed to avoid the disturbance of instruments which would be occasioned by the iron used in the principal building.
Computers can connect to and control highly specialized scientific instruments, and equipment can be accessed remotely.
"Ully?" she called, picking her way through the broken glass and fallen instruments.
By this time he had ceased to devote himself to pure mathematics, and in company with his friends Mersenne and Mydorge was deeply interested in the theory of the refraction of light, and in the practical work of grinding glasses of the best shape suitable for optical instruments.
But experiment shows that in this condition much of the violin part sounds incomplete; and the truth appears to be that Haydn is thinking, like any modern composer, of the opposition of two solid bodies of tone - the pianoforte and the stringed instruments.
For Mozart there never was any such embarras de richesse in any combination of instruments.
In this case no current flows from the battery through the line or instruments, the whole action being inductive.
Delany (which was adopted to a limited extent in Great Britain, but has now been entirely discarded) had for its object the working of a number of instruments simultaneously on one wire.
To each group is connected a set of apparatus; hence during a complete revolution of the arms a pair of instruments (at station A and station B) will be in communication four times, and the intervals during which any particular set of instruments at the two stations are not in connexion with each other become much smaller than in the case of fig.
It is of course necessary that two instruments working together should have the same speed.
If by any chance wrong signals are printed or the instruments get out of phase, the sender is stopped by the receiver sending a few signals, after which both type-wheels are again set to zero and correspondence continued.
Instruments such as the telautograph and telewriter are apparatus for transmitting a facsimile of handwriting inscribed on a paper at one end of a line, the reproduction being made automatically at the other end of the line at the same time that the message is being written.
comparatively heavy moving parts of which the land line instruments are formed.
Two receiving instruments, a siphon recorder and a mirror galvanometer, are shown; one only is absolutely necessary, but it is convenient Cable to have the galvanometer ready, so that in case of accident to the recorder it may be at once switched into circuit by the switch s.
The general principle on which the instruments for working long submarine cables are based is that of making the moving parts very light and perfectly free to follow the comparatively slow rise and fall of the electric impulses or waves.
Instruments of the siphon recorder type have been made to work both with and without electrification of the ink.
The heavier cores, with the consequent advance in speed of working attainable, have necessitated the introduction of automatic sending, the instruments adopted being in general a modification of the Wheatstone transmitter adapted to the form of cable signals, while the regularity of transmission thus secured has caused its introduction even on circuits where the speed cannot exceed that of the ordinary operator's hand signalling.
The number of instruments in the telegraph offices was 12,000.
Instruments for doing this are called wave meters and are of two kinds, open circuit and closed circuit.
In 1831 Wheatstone by his " magic lyre" experiment showed that, when the sounding-boards of two musical instruments are connected together by a rod of pine wood, a tune played on one will be faithfully reproduced by the other.
A telephone transmitter and a receiver on a novel plan were patented in July 1877 by Edison, shortly after the introduction of Bell's instruments.
When both lamps glow, the operator, who thereby knows that both subscribers have restored their instruments, discontinues the connexion.
The average cost of constructing an exchange circuit in the metropolitan area (including the installation of telephone instruments and of exchange apparatus, but excluding the provision of spare plant) has been £33.
A solution of I in 20 is used to sterilize instruments before an operation, and towels or lint to be used for the patient.
They are not, however, to be used in the disinfection of instruments, nor where any large abraded surface would favour absorption.
The Englishman Grew and the Italian Malpighi almost simultaneously published ifiustrated works on the subject, in which they described, for the most part very accurately, what they saw with the new instruments.
Certain ancient stringed instruments were played with a plectrum or plucker made of the quill of a bird's feather, and the word has thus been used of a plectrum made of other material and differing in shape, and also of an analogous object for striking the strings in the harpsichord, spinet or virginal.
The apparent opposition of the observed fact to the assigned theory he overcame by looking upon the forms of the land and the arrangement of land and sea as instruments of Divine Providence for guiding the destiny as well as for supplying the requirements of man.
Such instruments are occasionally found in old collections of philosophical apparatus and they have been used in order to explain to students the formation of multiple images.
Gold-working, the making of arms and musical instruments, wood-carving, cotton, silk and gold thread weaving are of importance.
The earliest of these phenomena were the raps already spoken of and other sounds occurring without apparent physical cause, and the similarly mysterious movements of furniture and other objects; and these were shortly followed by the ringing of bells and playing of musical instruments.
Later followed the appearance of lights; quasi-human voices; musical sounds, produced, it is said, without instruments; the "materialization" or presence in material form of what seemed to be human hands and faces, and ultimately of complete figures, alleged to be not those of any person present, and sometimes claimed by witnesses as deceased relatives; "psychography," or "direct writing and drawing," asserted to be done without human intervention; "spirit-photography," or the appearance on photographic plates of human and other forms when no counterpart was visible before the camera to any but specially endowed seers; 3 unfastening of cords and bonds; elongation of the medium's body; handling of red-hot coals; and the apparent passage of solids through solids without disintegration.
The necessary elements of a Hindu sacrifice are: (I) the sacrificer, who provides the victim, and is affected, directly or indirectly, by the sacrifice; he may or may not be identical with (2) the officiant, who performs the rite; we have further (3) the place, (4) the instruments of sacrifice and (5) the victim; where the sacrificer enjoys only the secondary results, the direct influence of the sacrifice is directed towards (6) the object; finally, we may distinguish (7) three moments of the rite - (a) the entry, (b) the slaughter, (c) the exit.
(6) Then followed the rites of desacralization, including burning of certain of the instruments, lustration of the post, destruction of the butter, &c. Finally the priest, the sacrificer and his wife performed a lustration, found in an exaggerated form in the "bath" which concluded the soma sacrifice, and the ceremonies were at an end.
During the period of the Jesuit ascendancy in the reign of K'ang-hi (1661-1721), the superintendence of this institution was confided to Roman Catholic missionaries, under whose guidance the bronze instruments formerly existing were constructed.
The earliest remains near the site go ' For a discussion of this question see Kathleen Schlesinger, The Instruments of the Orchestra, part ii., and especially chapters on the cithara in transition during the middle ages, and the question of the origin of the Utrecht Psalter, in which the evolution of the cithara is traced at some length.
Among the ancients it was in request for poles, rafters, joists, and for the construction of winepresses, tables and musical instruments; and on that account was so valuable that a plantation of cypresses was considered a sufficient dowry for a daughter.
The industries are few, the growing of wine, breeding of silkworms, making of agricultural instruments, printing and the manufacture of laces being the chief.
There are many industries in the town, especially silk-ribbon weaving, foundries, and factories for the manufacture of cutlery and scientific instruments.
Within the Synagogue the reform movement began in 1825, and soon won many successes, the central conference of American rabbis and Union College (1875) at Cincinnati being the instruments of this progress.
This last enormous privilege, which became one of the main and most efficient instruments of the subjection of Europe to clerical tyranny, extended to matters both civil and criminal; though, as Bingham shows, it did not (always and everywhere) prevail in cases of heinous crime (Origines Eccles.
Bernhard Walther, a rich patrician, became his pupil and patron; and they together equipped the first European observatory, for which Regiomontanus himself constructed instruments of an improved type (described in his posthumous Scripta, Nuremberg, 1544).
In its simplest form, consisting of a ring fixed in the plane of the equator, the armilla is one of the most ancient of astronomical instruments.
It deals with "the means and instruments of obtaining every virtue, and the remedies against every vice, and considerations serving to the resisting all temptations, together with prayers containing the whole Duty of a Christian."
The law of which we are the instruments strives even through the, carnage to cure the wounds due to the law of war.
Attracted to astronomy by the solar eclipse of the 12th of May 1706, he obtained permission in 1710 to lodge in the dome of the Luxembourg, procured some instruments, and there observed the total eclipse of the 22nd of May 1724.
From 1879 to 1888 he was engaged on difficult experimental investigations, which began with an inquiry into the corrections required, owing to the great pressures to which the instruments had been subjected, in the readings of the thermometers employed by the "Challenger" expedition for observing deep-sea temperatures, and which were extended to include the compressibility of water, glass and mercury.
" In the latter end of May and the begynnynge of June, is tyme to wede the come "; and then we have an accurate description of the different weeds, and the instruments and mode of weeding.
Articles of furniture are frequently made of it, and it is in great esteem for carving and for the construction of stringed instruments.
He was not jealous of brother friars because of their funds, instruments and materials for copying and their ability as skilled copyists.
Among the leading and more distinctive items were printing and publishing ($21,023,855 in 1905); sugar and molasses refining ($ 1 5,74 6, 547 in 1900; figures not published in 1905 because of the industry being in the hands of a single owner); men's clothing (in 1900, $8,609,475, in 1905, $11,246,004); women's clothing (in 1900, $3,258,483, in 1905, $5,705,470); boots and shoes (in 1900, $3,882,655, in 1905, $5,575,927); boot and shoe cut stock (in 1905, $5, 211, 445); malt liquors (in 1900, $7,518,668, in 1905, $6,715,215); confectionery (in 1900, $4,455,184, in 1905, $6,210,023); tobacco products (in 1900, $3,504,603, in 1905, $4,59 2, 698); pianos and organs ($3,670,771 in 1905); other musical instruments and materials (in 1905, $231,780); rubber and elastic goods (in 1900, $3,139,783, in 1905, $2,887,323); steam fittings and heating apparatus (in 1900, $2,876,327, in 1905, $3,354, 020); bottling, furniture, &c. Art tiles and pottery are manufactured in Chelsea.
Numerous other forms of open-test and close-test instruments have from time to time been devised, some of which are in use in the United States and in other countries.
Into these divans where figures of this kind moved to the music of Saracen instruments, there entered an inevitable voluptuousness and corruption of manners.
2 The art of the sapper and miner, the use of siege instruments like the mangonel, and the employment of various "fires" as missiles, were all known among the Mahommedans; and in all these respects the Franks learned from their enemies.
- These instruments are also called hot-wire ammeters.
In instruments for larger currents the main current passes through a metallic strip acting as a bye-pass or shunt, and to the ends of this shunt are attached the ends of the working wire.
Hot-wire instruments working on the sag principle can be used in any position if properly constructed, and are very portable.
It is also necessary to notice that shunt instruments cannot be used for high frequencies, as then the relative inductance of the shunt and wire becomes important and affects the ratio in which the current is divided, whereas for low frequency currents the inductance is unimportant.
In certain forms, hot-wire instruments are well adapted for the measurement of very small alternating currents.
Although therefore most simple and cheap to construct, such soft-iron instruments are not well adapted for accurate work.
Such instruments can be made to have equidivisional scales and to read from zero upwards.
Direct reading equidivisional movable coil ammeters can be made in various portable forms, and are very much employed as laboratory instruments and also as ammeters for the measurement of large electric currents in electric generating stations.
- Instruments of the third class depend for their action on the fact discovered by Ampere, that mechanical forces exist between conductors carrying electric currents when those conductors occupy certain relative positions.
Instruments of this type are called Electrodynamometers, and have been employed both as laboratory research instruments and for technical purposes.
Very convenient and accurate instruments based on the above principles have been devised by Lord Kelvin, and a large variety of these ampere balances, as they are called, suitable for measuring currents from a fraction of an ampere up to many thousands of amperes, have been constructed by that illustrious inventor.
The difficulty which has generally presented itself to those who have tried to design instruments on the FIG.
The use of mercury cups is open to many objections on account of the fact that the mercury becomes oxidized, and such instruments are not very convenient for transportation.
In the use of ammeters in which the control is the gravity of a weight, such as the Kelvin ampere balances and other instruments, it should be noted that the scale reading or indication of the instrument will vary with the latitude and with the height of the instrument above the mean sea-level.
- For switchboard use i n Ammeter Kelvin & electric supply stations where space is valuable, James White instruments of the type called edgewise ammeters Ltd.
Thomson), " New Standard and Inspectional Electrical Measuring Instruments," Proc. Soc. Telegraph Engineers, 1888, 17, p. 540; J.
Fleming, A Handbook for the Electrical Laboratory and Testing Room (2 vols., London, 1901, 1903); G.D.Aspinall Parr, Electrical Measuring Instruments (Glasgow, 1903); J.
Swinburne, " Electric Light Measuring Instruments," Proc. Inst.
Punga, " Direct Reading Measuring Instruments for Switchboard Use," Jour.
as of whatsoever fishes increasing in the rivers"; also "to reform nets too straight and other unlawful engines and instruments whatsoever for the catching of fishes"; also to take cognizance "of the wreck of the sea.
This was a notable concession, by which the nobles lost that exclusive legal knowledge which had formed one of their main instruments of oppression.
Obedience he made one of his great instruments, yet he never intended it to be a galling yoke.
They are an extension of the principle on which gongs and cymbals and all instruments without notes of determinate pitch are employed in otherwise polyphonic music.
The industries of Breda comprise the 'manufacture of linen and woollen goods, carpets, hats, beer and musical instruments.
Nearly all these instruments register the revolution of a small wheel of known circumference, which is run along the line to be measured.
Coradi's " Polar Planimeter," one of the most trustworthy instruments of the kind.'
distributed large sums in charity, and at his own charges placed costly astronomical instruments in the Vatican observatory, providing also accommodation and endowment for a staff of officials.
Some served their avowed object with great success, being powerful instruments in the anti-papal polemic and sustaining the revolted Franciscans in their hope of an approaching triumph.
The very daevas are only the inferior instruments, the corrupted children of Ahriman, from whom come all that is evil in the world.
These are his creatures, his instruments, servants and assistants.
In 1858 the representatives of Austria, Belgium, France, the Netherlands, Piedmont, Russia, the Holy See, Sweden, Tuscany and Turkey appropriated the sum of 400,000 francs in recognition of the use of his instruments in those countries.
festival of the instruments of the Passion, of the Precious Blood, of the invention and elevation of the Cross; all festivals of apostles, except those above noted; festivals of martyrs; masses for a papal election; the Feast of the Holy Innocents, when it falls on a Sunday (violet if on a week-day), and its octave (always red).
The industries of Dessau include the production of sugar, which is the chief manufacture, woollen, linen and cotton goods, carpets, hats, leather, tobacco and musical instruments.
They are the chief instruments of research, and have themselves much benefited by being so employed.
Its most striking characteristic lies in the superscription ("A prayer of Habakkuk the prophet, set to Shigionoth"), the subscription ("For the chief musician, on my stringed instruments"), and the insertion of the musical term "Selah" in three places (v.
(2) The prophecy of the Chaldaeans as the instruments of the divine purpose involves a different, yet related, conception of the divine providence.
The principal industries are, the metallurgic and textile industries in all their branches, milling, brewing and chemicals; paper, leather and silk; cloth, objets de luxe and millinery; physical and musical instruments; sugar, tobacco factories and foodstuffs.
The instruments used were heliometers, the construction and use of which had been greatly improved, largely through the efforts of Gill himself.
Besides the ordinary studies of the monastic scholar, he devoted himself to mathematics, astronomy and music, and constructed watches and instruments of various kinds.
Several instruments in which the traction method is applied have been devised for the rapid measurement of induction or of magnetization in commercial samples of iron and steel.
Along with the land are expropriated all claims and rights appended to the land and all instruments of husbandry, live stock included, with the exception of such industrial establishments as are not working to satisfy the local rural demand only.
The final imposition of hands and the bestowal of power to forgive sins at the end of the ordination rite for priests in the Roman Pontifical is later even than the tradition of instruments.
For like reasons the tradition of the instruments, i.e.
The rejection of Anglican orders in the 16th and 17th centuries was based on a theory about the " tradition of instruments," which has long ceased to be tenable in the face of history, and is abandoned by Romanists themselves.
Reason in its own strength and with its own instruments evolves a system of the universe which coincides, according to Erigena, with the teaching of Scripture.
Both the chancery and the stadholdership were independent of the diet and responsible to the king alone, being, in fact, his executive instruments.
Under the influence of the touchstone of strict inquiry set on foot by the Royal Society, the marvels of witchcraft, sympathetic powders and other relics of medieval superstition disappeared like a mist before the sun, whilst accurate observations and demonstrations of a host of new wonders accumulated, amongst which were numerous contributions to the anatomy of animals, and none perhaps more noteworthy than the observations, made by the aid of microscopes constructed by himself, of Leeuwenhoek, the Dutch naturalist (1683), some of whose instruments were presented by him to the society.
We may conveniently commence with them on account of their simplicity and great importance in respect to the theory of optical instruments.
The contraction of the diffraction pattern with increase of aperture is of fundamental importance in connexion with the resolving power of optical instruments.
In these instruments the lines are ruled upon a spherical surface of speculum metal, and mark the intersections of the surface by a system of parallel and equidistant planes, o; of which the middle member passes through the centre of the sphere.
But this system is practicable only by the voice and instruments of the violin class.
For keyed or fretted instruments a compromise is indispensable.
To meet this exigency, Zarlino proposed that for the lute the octave should be divided into twelve equal semitones; and after centuries of discussion this system of "equal temperament" has, within the last thirty-five years, been universally adopted as the best attainable for keyed instruments of every description.3 Again, Zarlino was in advance of his age in his classification of the ecclesiastical modes.
But there is no difficulty in supposing that each division of the Levitical musicians had its own traditional music, certain instruments being peculiar to the one and certain to the other, in which case the assignment of a psalm to the Asaphites or Korahites will merely denote the sort of music to which it is set.
The "khen," or mouth organ, which is universal among them, is the sweetest-toned of eastern instruments.
The objections raised were (i) the costliness of the instruments employed and their liability to get out of order; (2) the need for specially instructed measurers, men of superior education; (3) the errors that frequently crept in when carrying out the processes and were all but irremediable.
The percussion instruments were pushed up against the wall in the music room.
Leeches were his favourite instruments, and so much so that he is said to have used ioo,000 in his own hospital wards during one year.
By these, and other instruments of precision, such as the thermometer, of which we have already spok en, the eminently scientific discipline of the measurement of functional movements, so difficult in the complex science of biology, has been cultivated.
Although modern mercurial pumps have assumed a multiplicity of forms, their actions can be reduced to two principles, one statical, the other hydrodynamical - at the same time instruments have been devised utilizing both these principles.
In modern thermometry instruments of extreme accuracy are required, and researches have been made, especially in Germany and France, to ascertain the causes of variability in mercurial thermometers, and how such variability is to be removed or reduced.
It is true that the use of glass for windows was only gradually extending itself at the time when Roman civilization sank under the torrent of German and Hunnish barbarism, and that its employment for optical instruments was only known in a rudimentary stage; but for domestic purposes, for architectural decoration and for personal ornaments glass was unquestionably much more used than at the present day.
He was one of the earliest composers for stringed instruments, and Kircher has given one specimen of this class of his works in the Musurgia.
For the mapping of the whole vast interior, except in rare cases, no data exist beyond the itineraries of explorers, travelling as a rule under conditions which precluded the use of even the simplest surveying instruments.
Panegyric and satire (hija`) were his chief instruments.
In the number and variety of its leather and other fancy goods Vienna rivals Paris, and is also renowned for its manufacture of jewelry and articles of precious metals, objets d'art, musical instruments, physical chemicals and optical instruments, and artistic products generally.
Cedar-wood, however, is said to be injurious to natural history objects, and to instruments placed in cabinets made of it, as the resinous matter of the wood becomes deposited upon them.
In 1830 he was placed in charge of the division of instruments and charts, and in 1838 was appointed to command an exploring and surveying expedition in the Southern Seas, authorized by Congress in 1836.
In 1794 a nautical school was founded at Lima, with Andres Baleato as instructor and Pedro Alvarez as teacher of the use of instruments.
There is a great deal of practical information on lenses in connexion with the camera and other optical instruments, and the book is valuable as a repertory of early practical optics, also for the numerous references to and extracts from previous writers.
The ethnographical museum, the cabinet of coins, and the collections of fossils, minerals, and physical and optical instruments, are also worthy of mention.
The observatory is equipped with instruments by the celebrated Josef Fraunhofer.
Munich has long been celebrated for its artistic handicrafts, such as bronze-founding, glass-staining, silversmith's work, and wood-carving, while the astronomical instruments of Fraunhofer and the mathematical instruments of Traugott Lieberecht von Ertel (1778-1858) are also widely known.
45, and note the association of the name in the Books of Samuel, where it first appears, with the ark, or with war); by others, of the heavenly hosts, the stars conceived as living beings, later, perhaps, the angels as the court of Yahweh and the instruments of his will in nature and history (Ps.
Solingen is one of the chief seats of the German iron and steel industry, its speciality consisting in all kinds of cutlery, Solingen sword-blades have been celebrated for centuries, and are widely used outside Germany, while bayonets, knives, scissors, surgical instruments, files, steel frames and the like are also produced in enormous quantities.
The principal manufactures are leather goods, furniture, carriages, chemicals, musical instruments and carpets, for the first two of which the city has attained a wide reputation.
The word actinometer is now usually applied to instruments for measuring the actinic or chemical effect of luminous rays; their action generally depends upon photochemical changes.
logical Of course the first step was to approach the phenomena of human character and social existence with the expectation of finding them as reducible to general laws as the other phenomena of the universe, and with the hope of exploring these laws by the same instruments of observation and verification as had done such triumphant work in the case of the latter.
What are the instruments for securing the preponderance of Altruism?
Japan also experiences a vast number of petty vibrations not perceptible without the aid of delicate instruments.
The court will construe the Articles of Religion and formularies according to the legal rules for the interpretation of statutes and written instruments.
Troughton, who brought spider lines into universal use in astronomical instruments (see von Zach's Monatliche Correspondenz, vol.
('E7rch,utcov a Kai -y'); (5) On Regimen in Acute Diseases (IIEpi cairns o Ewv); (6) On Airs, Waters, and Places (IIEpi cthpwv, l'6aTwv, Kai rorrwv); (7) On the Articulations (IIEpi etpBpwv); (8) On Fractures (IIEpi by c&v); (9) The Instruments of Reduction (M0xXix6s); (Jo) The Physician's Establishment, or Surgery (Kar' i rpEiov); (II) On Injuries of the Head (IIEpi KE0aXij TpwpaTwv); (12) The Oath ("OpKoi); (13) The Law (Nopos).
This he did by an alliance with the Italian trading towns, especially Genoa, which supplied in return for the concession of a quarter in the conquered towns, the instruments and the skill for a war of sieges, in which the coast towns of Palestine were successively reduced.
The Religions of the World (1847); Moral and Metaphysical Philosophy (at first an article in the Encyclopaedia Metropolitana, 1848); The Church a Family (1850); The Old Testament (1851); Theological Essays (1853); The Prophets and Kings of the Old Testament (1853); Lectures on Ecclesiastical History (1854); The Doctrine of Sacrifice (1854); The Patriarchs and Lawgivers of the Old Testament (1855); The Epistles of St John (1857); The Commandments as Instruments of National Reformation (1866); On the Gospel of St Luke (1868); The Conscience: Lectures on Casuistry (1868); The Lord', Prayer, a Manual (1870).
Zeitz has manufactures of cloth, cottons and other textiles, machinery, wax-cloth, musical instruments, vinegar, cigars, &c.; and wood-carving, dyeing and calico-printing are carried on.
It has manufactures of cloth, leather, chemicals and optical instruments; large quantities of beetroot sugar are produced in the neighbourhood; and there is a considerable transit trade on the Elbe.
Alice Perrers was removed from court, and Duke John's subordinate instruments were impeached.
An acquaintance with these various methods is indispensable to the student of the charters, chronicles and legal instruments of the middle ages.
Sir David Brewster found with one of these instruments that the number of drops of pure water was 734, while of proof spirit, sp. gr.
Hence "to cash" means to convert cheques and other negotiable instruments into coin.
Some excellent instruments of the second type were subsequently made by Dollond's eldest son Peter, in which for the " convex glass within the tube " was substituted an achromatic object-glass, and outside that a divided negative achromatic combination of long focus.
With one of these instruments of somewhat smaller dimensions (telescope 22 in.
Considering the accuracy of these measures (an accuracy far surpassing that of any other contemporary observations), it is somewhat surprising that this form of micrometer was never systematically used in any sustained or important astronomical researches, although a number of instruments of the kind were made by Dollond.
focus) which have since become historical instruments.
It is probable that the Bonn heliometer was in course of construction before these suggestions of Struve were published or discussed, since its construction resembles that of the Konigsberg and Pulkowa instruments.
4 The illumination of these scales is interesting as being the first application of electricity to the illumination of astronomical instruments.
These small instruments have since done admirable work in the hands of Schur, Hartwig, Kiistner, Elkin, Auwers and others.
Of these and kindred instruments only two types have proved of practical value.
p. 144 seq.) such instruments have done valuable service.
In recent times, especially since the rapid increase in the study of the exact sciences during the 19th century, observations at sea with accurate instruments have become common, and the ships' logs of to-day are provided with headings for entering daily observations of the phenomena of the seasurface.
These instruments must be constructed with the greatest care, but when well made in accordance with J.
Thoulet, Instruments et operations d'oceanographie pratique (Paris, 1908); Precis d'analyse des fonds sous-marins actuels et anciens (Paris, 1907); T.
The name has been applied generally to all kinds of instruments used in the measurement of a force, as for example electric dynamometers, but the term specially denotes apparatus used in connexion with the measurement of work, or in the measurement of the horse-power of engines and motors.
Louis Charles d'Albert (1620-1690), duke of Luynes, son of the constable, was an ascetic writer and friend of the Jansenists; Paul d'Albert de Luynes (1703-1788), cardinal and archbishop of Sens, an astronomer; Michel Ferdinand d'Albert d'Ailly (1714-1769), duke of Chaulnes, a writer on mathematical instruments, and his son Marie Joseph Louis (1741-1793), a chemist; and Honore Theodore Paul Joseph (1802-1867), duke of Luynes, a writer on archaeology.
The sword and military discipline supplied the only effective instruments of government.
Under A we should have the following departments and stores: - Departments of issue and receipt, pattern room, armoury department, ordnance or park, harness, saddlery and accoutrements, camp equipment, tools and instruments, engineer store, magazines, raw material store, timber yard, breaking-up store, unserviceable store.
Water vapour is always present; the amount is determined by instruments termed hygrometers.
Gradually, from Eratosthenes to Tycho, Hipparchus playing the most important part among ancient astronomers, the complex astrolabe was evolved, large specimens being among the chief observa tory instruments of the 15th, 16th and even 17th centuries; while small ones were in use among travellers and learned men, not only for astronomical, but for astrological and topographical purposes.
Nearly every one of the modern instruments used for the observations of physical astronomy is a part of the perfected astrolabe.
Rochester ranks first among the cities of the United States in the manufacture of photographic materials and apparatus and optical instruments.
Personal property consisting of necessary household furniture, working tools and team of horses, professional instruments and a library, not exceeding $250 in value, besides the necessary food for the team for ninety days, provisions for the family, wearing apparel, wages or other income not exceeding $12 a week, and several other things, when owned by a householder or person providing for a family, are also exempt from seizure for debt, unless the debt be for purchase money or for services performed in the family by a domestic.
Amphiaraus, foreseeing the disastrous issue of the war, at first refused to share in it; he had, however, promised Eriphyle when he married her that, in the event of any dispute arising between her brother and ' See " The Electrolysis of Copper Sulphate in Standardizing Electrical Instruments," by A.
Various instruments have been devised which produce any desired note, and which are provided with methods of counting the frequency of vibration.
We shall treat only of the diatonic scale, which is the basis of European music, and is approximated to as closely as is consistent with convenience of construction in key-board instruments, such as the piano, where the eight white notes beginning with C and ending with C an octave higher may be taken as representing the scale with C as the key-note.
It is evident that for exact diatonic scales for even a limited number of key-notes, key-board instruments would have to be provided with a great number of separate strings or pipes, and the corresponding keys would be required.
- Though a musical note has definite pitch or frequency, notes of the same pitch emitted by different instruments have quite different quality or timbre.
- The longitudinal vibration of air in cylindrical pipes is made use of in various wind instruments.
Beats also afford an excellent practical guide in the tuning of instruments, but more so for the higher notes of the register, inasmuch as the same number of beats are given by a smaller deviation from unison by two notes of high pitch than by two notes of low pitch.
But we have to remember that with strings, pipes and instruments generally the fundamental tone is accompanied by overtones, called also " upper partials," and beating within the dissonance range may occur between these overtones.
The harshness of deep notes on instruments rich in overtones may be explained as arising from beats between successive overtones.
The industries embrace engine-building, the manufacture of railway carriages a11d plant, scientific instruments, porcelain, tobacco and cigars, lithography, jute-spinning, iron-founding, brewing and gardening.
The distinctive industry is the manufacture of mathematical and musical instruments.
The building was finished in 1832, and the instruments were ready for work in 1835, from which date the observations were published in 4to volumes (Annales de l'Observatoire Royal de Bruxelles), but Quetelet chiefly devoted himself to meteorology and statistics.
is divine in its nature, God is the absolute Ego and the empirical egos are his instruments.
In 1873 De la Rue gave up active work in astronomy, and presented most of his astronomical instruments to the university observatory, Oxford.
From the first the social side of the congress impressed observers with its wealth and variety, nor did the statesmen disdain to use the dining-table or the ballroom as the instruments of their diplomacy.
Aspinall Parr, Electrical Engineering Measuring Instruments (London, 1903); W.
41, 86), and with the modern practice of employing innocent instruments of chance in lotteries (op. cit.
See "New Alternate Current Instruments," Jour.
Aspinall Parr, Electrical Engineering Measuring Instruments (1903); A.
Sumpner, "New Iron-cored Instruments for Alternate Current Working," Jour.
He especially devoted himself to investigations of the radiation of heat from the sun and its absorption by the earth's atmosphere, and to that end devised various delicate methods and instruments, including his electric compensation pyrheliometer, invented in 1893, and apparatus for obtaining a photographic representation of the infra-red spectrum (1895).
Authoritative standards and instruments for the measurement of electricity, based on the fundamental units of the metric system, have been placed in the Electrical Laboratory of the Board of Trade.
Current measuring instruments.
Potential measuring instruments.
Resistance measuring instruments.
Here is carried out the work of standardizing measuring instruments of various sorts in use by manufacturers, the determination of physical constants and the testing of materials.
A descriptive list of the verifying instruments of the Standards Department, London, has been published.
(See: Descriptive List of Standards and Instruments.
An inspector is required to hold a certificate of qualification, and for his guidance general regulations are made by his local authority as to modes of testing weights, measures and weighing instruments.
(Markets and Fairs (Cattle) Acts 1887, 1891; Coal Mines Regulation Act 1887; Factory and Workshop Act 1878.) Useful statutes have also been passed to protect the working class, as in checking the weighing instruments used in mines in Great Britain, over which instruments wages are paid, and in the inspection of similar instruments used in factories and workshops.
Stringed Instruments >>
Copper was known to them, and it is possible that they knew how to make cutting instruments from it, but they generally used stone axes, hammers and picks, and their most dangerous weapon was a war-club into which chips of volcanic glass were set.
Iron was not known, but copper and tin ores were mined, and the metals combined into bronze of much the same alloy as in the Old World, of which hatchet blades and other instruments were made, though their use had not superseded that of obsidian and other sharp stone flakes for cutting, shaving, &c. Metals had passed into a currency for trading purposes, especially quills of gold-dust and T-shaped pieces of copper, while coco-beans furnished small change.
The third side of the triangle was formed by the strings themselves, the front pillar, which in modern European harps plays such an important part, being always absent in these early Oriental instruments.
This board, which is composed of five members appointed by the supreme court for a term of two years, also assesses the taxes on the railways, and on telegraph and telephone lines; for railways the average rate of taxation is assessed on the estimated actual value of the road beds, rolling stock and equipment, and for the telegraph and telephone lines this rate is assessed on the estimated actual value of the poles, wires, instruments, apparatus, office furniture and fixtures.
north-west of Dublin; it is amply furnished with astronomical instruments.
Having been provided, in August 1610, by Ernest, archbishop of Cologne, with one of the new Galilean instruments, Kepler began, with unspeakable delight, to observe the wonders revealed by it.
by 750, in the south-eastern part of the town; within it was a square tower or fort; a portico of entrance and an avenue of rows of sphinxes was added in Ptolemaic times, as is shown by the foundation deposits found at the corners of the portico; these consisted of models of the tools and materials used in the buildings, models of instruments for sacrifice or ceremonies, and cartouches of King Ptolemy Philadelphus.
Instruments of this kind have been constructed not only by Lord Kelvin, but also by W.
In other types of electrostatic instruments the movable system rotates round a horizontal axis or rests upon knife edges like a scale beam; in others again the movable system is suspended by a wire.
In these instruments the potential difference between two points is measured by the electric current produced in a wire connecting to two points.
These instruments are only adapted for the measurement of continuous potential difference, that is to say, unidirectional potential difference, but not for alternating voltages.
Electrostatic instruments, however, take up no power and hence cost nothing for maintenance other than wear and tear of the instrument.
(iii.) The instrument should have no temperature correction; this is a good quality of electrostatic instruments, but in all voltmeters of the electrokinetic type which are wound with copper wire an increase of one degree centigrade in the average temperature of that wire alters the resistance by 0.4%, and therefore to the same extent alters the correctness of the indications.
Aspinall Parr, Electrical Engineering Measuring Instruments (London, 1903); K.
Punga, "On Direct Reading Measuring Instruments for Switchboard Use," Journ.
The policy adopted by the early emperors of encouraging, within the limits of a uniform system, the independence and civic patriotism of the towns, was superseded in the 3rd and 4th centuries by a deliberate effort to use the towns as instruments of the imperial government, under the direct control of the emperor or his representatives in the provinces.
An active trade, fostered by abundant railway communications, is combined with manufactures of iron and steel wares, paper, chemicals, vinegar, physical and optical instruments, besides artistic printing and lithography.
In the earlier days of the republic they were comparatively short and simple instruments, confined to the definition of civic rights and the establishment of a frame of government.
Judged by modern standards, his description of the direction of rivers and mountain-chains seems defective, but allowance must be made for difficulties in procuring information, and for want of accurate instruments.
Among other industries are the manufactures of watches, clocks, toys and musical instruments.
Wheatstone's early training in making musical instruments now bore rich fruit in the continuous designing of new instruments and pieces of mechanism.
In acoustics his principal work was a research on the transmission of sound through solids, the explanation of Chladni's figures of vibrating solids, various investigations of the principles of acoustics and the mechanism of hearing, and the invention of new musical instruments, e.g.
He devised the "A, B, C" telegraph instrument, the automatic transmitter, by which messages may be sent at the rate of 500 words a minute, printing telegraph receivers of various forms, electrical chronoscopes, and many forms of electrical recording apparatus, - amongst others two sets of registering meteorological instruments, of which the earlier, described in 1842, was afterwards developed by Father A.
6-fin.) to the famous theory that the highest happiness is the speculative life of intellect or wisdom as divine, but that happiness as human also includes the practical life of combining prudence and moral virtue; and that, while both lives need external goods as necessaries, the practical life also requires them as instruments of moral action.
Secondly, the Eudemian Ethics, while not agreeing with Plato's Republic that the just can be happy by justice alone, does not assign to the external goods of good fortune (Eutu X ia) the prominence accorded to them in the Nicomachean Ethics as the necessary conditions of all virtue, and the instruments of moral virtue.
The stem is usually divided into a number of equal parts, the divisions of the scale being varied in different instruments, according to the purposes for which they are employed.
But, instead of employing a number of instruments differing only in the weights with which they are loaded, we may employ the same instrument, and alter its weight either by adding mercury or shot to the interior (if it can be opened) or by attaching weights to the exterior.
Cartier's hydrometer was very similar to that of Baume, Cartier having been employed by the latter to construct his instruments for the French revenue.
The need of adjustable weights is avoided by employing a set of five instruments, graduated respectivelyo°- 1000, 80 0 -120°, 100°- 140°,130°-170°, 160°-20o°.
The slider is also provided with scales, marked respectively Dicas and Clarke, which serve to show the readings which would have been obtained had the instruments of those makers been employed.
Further information concerning these instruments and the state of hydrometry in 1803 will be found in Atkins's pamphlet On the Relation between the Specific Gravities and the Strength of Spirituous Liquors (1803); or Phil.
He constructed his instruments of glass, using different instruments for different portions of the scale (Francoeur, Traite d'are'ome'trie, Paris, 1842).
The best instruments are now constructed for revenue purposes of silver, heavily gilded, because it was found that saccharic acid contained in some spirits attacked brass behind the gilding.
c. 52, § 123, it was further enacted that the same instruments and methods should be employed in determining the duty upon imported spirits as should in virtue of any Act of Parliament be employed in the determination of the duty upon spirits distilled at home.
To avoid an inconveniently long stem, different instruments are employed for different parts of the scale as mentioned above.
The marine hydrometers, as supplied by the British government to the royal navy and the merchant marine, are glass instruments with slender stems, and generally serve to indicate specific gravities from 1.000 to 1.040.
In prehistoric times in Egypt the dead were laid in the graves on mats in the crouching position common in the burials of primitive peoples, and were supplied with jars of food, flint instruments, &c. Perhaps the attempt was already made to preserve the bodies by drying or otherwise.
He devoted himself particularly to the improvement of instruments employed in physical experiments.
Returning to his home at Mortlake, in Surrey, he continued his studies, and made a collection of curious books and manuscripts, and a variety of instruments.
In the Zwinger are the zoological and mineralogical museums and a collection of instruments used in mathematical and physical science.
The instruments which effect such a resolution are called spectroscopes.
The parallelism, which is required to avoid aberrations, otherwise introduced by the prism or grating, may often be omitted in instruments of small power.
A prism or a train of prisms. These are employed in instruments of small power, especially when luminosity is a consideration; but their advantage in this respect is to a great extent lost, when, in order to secure increased resolving power, the size of the prisms, or their number, is unduly increased.
The limitation of power is introduced as in all optical instruments, by the finiteness of the length of a wave of light which causes the image of an indefinitely narrow slit to spread out over a finite width in the focal plane of the observing telescope.
There is something arbitrary in this definition, but as the practical importance of the question lies in the comparison between instruments of different types, the exact standard adopted is of minor importance, the chief consideration being simplicity of application.
Lord Rayleigh's expression for the resolving power of different instruments is based on the assumption that the geometrical image of the slit is narrow compared with the width of the diffraction image.
He finds a remarkable agreement between the theoretical and experimental values, which it would be important to confirm with the more suitable instruments which are now at our disposal, as we might in this way get an estimate of the energy of translatory motion of the luminous molecules.
The collimator has a vertical slit at its outer end, the width of which may be regulated by a micrometer screw; in some instruments one half of the slit is covered by a small total reflection prism which permits the examination of two spectra simultaneously.
Sorby and, later, Abbe, designed instruments on the same principle to be used in connexion with the microscope.
By suitably replacing the ocular of the observing telescope in an angular vision spectroscope by a photographic camera, it is possible to photograph spectra; such instruments are termed spectrographs.
Few men have ever had a more intimate persuasion that they were but instruments for good in the hands of God.
For in the meantime opinion as to the efficacy of relics had undergone a transformation, parallel with the growth of the theory, which soon predominated in the Church, that material instruments are the vehicles of divine grace.
The great scholastic philosopher abandoned the theory that the relics in themselves are vessels and instruments of the divine grace and miraculous power.
MAGNETOMETER, a name, in its most general sense, for any instrument used to measure the strength of any magnetic field; it is, however, often used in the restricted sense of an instrument for measuring a particular magnetic field, namely, that due to the earth's magnetism, and in this article the instruments used for measuring the value of the earth's magnetic field will alone be considered.
For the instruments and methods used in measuring the dip see Inclinometer.
Mascart, Traite de magnetisme terrestre, containing a description of the instruments used in the French magnetic survey, which are interesting on account of their small size and consequent easy portability; H.
In practice it is found that a magnet can be prepared which, when suitably protected from shock, &c., retains its magnetic moment sufficiently constant to enable observations of H to be made comparable in accuracy with that of the other elements obtained by the instruments ordinarily employed at sea.
There are rock quarries here, and the city manufactures sewing machines, musical instruments, especially pianos, foundry and machine shop products, agricultural implements and furniture.
These instruments they have from us, and made by our artists, and they do not in the least vary from ours, except that the characters are Arabic. The Arabs are the most skilful navigators of all the Asiatics or Africans; but neither they nor the Indians make use of charts, and they do not much want them; some they have, but they are copied from ours, for they are altogether ignorant of perspective."
There is a school of industrial art (engraving and enamelling watch cases) and a school of watch-making (including instruction in the manufacture of chronometers and other scientific instruments of precision).
These men were specially Service trained at Dehra Dun in the work of surveying, and entered Tibet with a strong wooden box with a specially concealed secret drawer for holding observing instruments, .a prayer wheel with rolls of blank paper instead of prayers in the barrel on which observations might be noted, and lamaic rosaries by the beads of which each hundred paces might be counted.
3 A Descriptive Catalogue of the Musical Instruments in the South Kensington Museum, by Carl Engel (London, 18 74), p. 143.
And in the World War, while optical instruments of this kind were elaborated and improved, the periscope as such came into use for the infantry garrisoning trenches.
It is much shorter than the typical instruments described, so that the maximum brightness of image is obtained.
As an investigator, Dalton was content with rough and in accurate instruments, though better ones were readily attainable.
Minor industries are represented by workshops for the production of surgical, musical and geodetic instruments; of telephone and telegraph accessories; dynamos, sewing-machines, bicycles and automobiles.
Returning to Beaune for a vacation, he made, on a large scale, a plan of the town, inventing the methods of observation and constructing the necessary instruments; the plan was presented to the town, and preserved in their library.
Aschaffenburg manufactures fancy goods, Augsburg and Hof produce excellent cloth, and Munich has a great reputation for scientific instruments.
In Germany and elsewhere refracting theodolites and transit instruments are sometimes employed.
Destined by his father to the pursuits of trade, he was allowed, nevertheless, to indulge his fondness for music, and learnt to play at an early age on several instruments, his first teacher being the Tirolean composer, I.
Here you find articles in the encyclopedia about musical instruments.
Matters came to a climax at the council of Vienne in 1311 under Pope Clement V., where the "sect of Beguines and Beghards" were accused of being the main instruments of the spread of heresy, and decrees were passed suppressing their organization and demanding their severe punishment.
Mechain in the attempt to determine an arc of the meridian, and the greater number of the instruments employed in the task were invented by him.
It is also noted for its bleach and dye works, its engine works, foundries, paper factories, and production of silk goods, watches, jewelry, mathematical instruments, leather, chemicals, &c. Augsburg is also the centre of the acetylene gas industry of Germany.
Rambaut's results were obtained with similar instruments similarly located, but he did not investigate the seasonal variations of diffusivity, or the effect of percolation.
Exempt from duty were now only refuse, raw products, scientific instruments, ships and literary and artistic objects; forty-four articles notably beer, vinegar, sugar, herrings, cocoa, salt, fish oils, ether, alum and sodawere unaffected by the change, while duties were henceforth levied upon a large number of articles which had previously been admitted dtity free, such as pig iron, machines and locomotives, grain, building timber, tallow; horses, cattle and sheep; and, again, the tariff law further increased the duties leviable upon numerous other articles.
Instruments, machines, &c..
Instruments of precision 813 885 4,877 4,982
Firearms, clocks, musical instruments, toys..
Musical instruments - 223 170 3,176 2,780
Musical instruments - -.
A party called the National Liberals was formed, whose main object was to secure the union of South with North Germany, and it at once entered into peculiar relations with Bismarck, who, in spite of his native contempt for parliaments and parliamentary government, was quite prepared to make use of any instruments he found ready to his hand.
Another result of the personal government by the emperor was that it was impossible, in dealing with recent history, to determine how far the ministers of state were really responsible for the measures which they defended, and how far they were the instruments and mouthpieces of the policy of the emperor.
C. i treats of the finding of good water; c. 2 of rainwater and rivers - rivers in various countries; c. 3 of hot springs, mineral waters, with an account of the chief medicinal springs of the world; c. 4 of selection of water by observation and experiment; c. 5 of instruments for levelling used by aqueduct engineers; c. 6 of construction of aqueducts, pipes of lead, clay, &c., and other matter on the subject of water-supply.
Machinery, chemicals, sugar, malt, paper, musical instruments, cotton, straw hats, tobacco, carpets, soap, playing cards, chocolate and dye-stuffs are among the manufactures.
This name was originally given to instruments designed to measure the movement of the ground during earthquakes (q.v.).
The term " seismometer " may conveniently be extended (and will here be understood) to cover all instruments which are designed to measure movements of the ground.
Popularly it is supposed that earthquake recorders are instruments so sensitive to slight vibrations that great care is necessary in selecting a site for their installation.
Generally speaking, the instruments used for these purposes are not disturbed by the vibrations resulting from ordinary traffic. In almost every household something may be found which will respond to a gentle shaking of the ground.
The next class of instruments to be considered are seismometers or earthquake measurers, and seismographs or instruments which Se give diagrams of earthquake motion.
slow and slight undulatory movements of the ground, experience has shown that the most satisfactory results are obtained when special instruments are employed for special purposes.
Records obtained from instruments of this description give information respecting the range and principal direction of motion, and show us that in a given earthquake the ground may move in many azimuths.
Although by compounding corresponding portions of the diagrams given by instruments of this type, it is possible to determine the range and direction of the movement of which they are the resolved parts, their chief value is that they enable us to measure with ease the extent of any vibration, half of which is called its amplitude, and the time taken to make any complete back-and-forth movement, or its period.
We next turn to types of instruments employed to record earthquakes which have radiated from their origins, where they may 6.
In these instruments the same principles are followed as in the construction of horizontal pendulums, the chief difference being that the so-called steady mass is arranged to have a much longer period than that required when recording perceptible earthquakes.
Instruments largely employed for this purpose in Italy are ordinary pendulum seismographs as in fig.
Two of these instruments are set up, one in the N.-S.
Two instruments are set up, and the two components are recorded on one strip.
There are many kinds of musical instruments.
In the limestone was found the flint or chert used for weapons and instruments in early times.
As to legal instruments: contracts agreed to in public or before witnesses and written on papyrus are found as early as the Middle Kingdom and perhaps belong to all historic times, but are very scarce until the XXVth Dynasty.
multiplying and dividing by 5 and finding the 13/4 value were also among the fundamental instruments of calculation, and all multiplication proceeded by repetitions of these processes with addition, e.g.
A large number of utensils, articles of furniture and the like were placed in the burial-chamber for the use of the deadjars, weapons, mirrors, and even chairs, musical instruments and wigs.
In modern lists the signs are classified according to the nature of the objects they depict, as human figures, plants, vessels, instruments, &c. Fiorapollons Flieroglyphica may be cited as a native work, but its author, if really an Egyptian, had no knowledge of good writing.
The Ayyubites were followed by the Mameluke dynasties, usually classified as Bal~ri from 1252-1382, and Burji from 1382-1517; these sovereigns were nominally under the suzerainty of Abbasid caliphs, who were in reality instruments of the Mameluke sultans, and resided at Cairo.
Prinsep prepared a series of alloys of silver and gold, and of gold and platinum, whose melting points, as determined by accurate instruments, covered a range of temperature from 9540 to 1775°, at intervals of from 25° to 30°.
He experimented in the outlying provinces of his empire; and the Russians noted with open murmurs that, not content with governing through foreign instruments, he was conferring on Poland, Finland and the Baltic provinces benefits denied to themselves.
The newly created council of ministers, and the senate, endowed for the first time with certain theoretical powers, became in the end but the slavish instruments of the tsar and his favourites of the moment.
the traditional documents of the church as mortal sin, became the unwilling instruments for the propagation of what they regarded as works of the devil.
Industries include the manufacture of alum, sugar, rope and agricultural instruments, and iron-founding.
Of his works in this connexion the best known is L'Harmonie universelle (1636), dealing with the theory of music and musical instruments.
Most of the mechanical contrivances which made Tycho Brahe's instruments so superior to those of his contemporaries were adopted at Cassel about 1584, and from that time the observations made there seem to have been about as accurate as Tycho's; but the resulting longitudes were 6' too great in consequence of the adopted solar parallax of 3'.
The "Melancolia," numbered "1" as though intended to be the first of a series, with its brooding winged genius sitting dejectedly amidst a litter of scientific instruments and symbols, is hard to interpret in detail, but impossible not to recognize in general terms as an embodiment of the spirit of intellectual research (the student's "temperament" was supposed to be one with the melancholic), resting sadly from its labours in a mood of lassitude and defeat.
He published, both alone and jointly with others, a large number of papers on physical, and in particular electrical, subjects, and his name was especially associated, together with that of Professor John Perry, with the invention of a long series of electrical measuring instruments.
Sharks' teeth, shells and bamboo were formerly generally used as cutting instruments for shaving and surgical operations.
Their musical instruments are few and rude - consisting of the drums and flutes already mentioned, and shell trumpets.
The manufactures include linen fabrics, cloth, toys, buttons, optical instruments, agricultural machines, knives, mineral waters, condensed soups and condensed milk.
In 1752 he abandoned silk-weaving and joined his eldest son, Peter Dollond (1730-1820), who in 1750 had started in business as a maker of optical instruments.
They were excluded from the tribunate and the council of the plebs, which had become important instruments of government, and were only eligible for one place in the consulship and censorship, while both were open to plebeians.
river from the forests of other states), whose output increased from 1890 to 1900 nearly 50%, but declined slightly between 1900 and 1905; of furniture ($22,131,846 in 1905; $15,285,475 in 1900; showing an increase of 44.8%), and of musical instruments ($ 1 3,3 2 3,35 8 in 1905; $ 8, 1 5 6, 445 in 1900; an increase of 6 3.3% in the period), in both of which Illinois was second in 1900 and in 1905; book and job printing, in which the state ranked second in 1900 ($28,293,684 in 1905; $19,761,780 in 1900; an increase of 43.2%), newspaper and periodical printing ($28,644,981 in 1905; $ 1 9,4 0 4,955 in 1900; an increase of 47.6%), in which it ranked third in 1900; and the manufacture of clothing, boots and shoes.
It has also important and growing manufactures of ladies' mantles, boots and shoes, machines, furniture, woollen goods, musical instruments, agricultural machinery and implements, leather, tobacco, chemicals, &c. Brewing, bleaching and dyeing are also carried on on a large scale, and there are extensive railway works and a government rifle factory.
(At Oxford and Cambridge many fellowships are now awarded on the results of examination; it is sometimes stated, in defence of this system, that young men cannot be expected to carry out research in classics or philosophy.) On the other hand, the defenders of examinations reply that (xiii.) examinations are necessary in order to test the efficiency of schools to which grants of public money are given (this argument has become somewhat out of date owing to the recent substitution of " inspection " for examination as a test of the efficiency of schools; a combination of inspection and examination is also sometimes used); (xiv.) they serve as a necessary incentive to steady and concentrated work 1 (the reply made to this is that the incentive is a bad one, and that with efficient teachers it is unnecessary); (xv.) they show both student and teacher where they have failed (unnecessary for efficient teachers); (xvi.) though possibly harmful to the highest class of men, they are good for the mass (reply: no system which damages the highest class of men is tolerable); (xvii.) they are indispensable as an impartial means of selecting men for the civil service; (xviii.) in a difficult examination like the first class civil service examination the qualities of quickness of comprehension, industry, concentration, power of rapidly passing 1 The Oxford commissioners of 1852 reported that " the examinations have become the chief instruments not only for testing the proficiency of the students but also for stimulating and directing the studies of the place " (Report, p. 61).
The rainfall is scanty, but as no civilized person inhabits the southern end of the Jordan valley throughout the year, and it has hitherto proved impossible to establish self-registering instruments, no systematic meteorological observations have been taken.
In the recording acts relating to real property, fractions of a day are of the utmost importance, and all deeds, mortgages and other instruments affecting the property, take precedence in the order in which they were filed for record.
Days of grace are abolished in many of the seventeen states in which the Negotiable Instruments law has been enacted.
The sophistical movement was then, primarily, an attempt to provide a general or liberal education which should supplement the customary instruction in reading, writing, gymnastic and music. But, as the sophists of the first period chose for their instruments grammar, style, literature and oratory, while those of the second and third developments were professed rhetoricians, sophistry exercised an important influence upon literature.
As instruments of education Protagoras used grammar, style, poetry and oratory.
Nevertheless, rhetoric and disputation, though at the present day strangely neglected in English schools and universities, are, within their limits, valuable instruments; and, as specialization in teaching does not necessarily imply specialization in learning, many of those who attended the lectures and the classes of a rhetorician or an eristic sought and found other instruction elsewhere.
But in any case it may be claimed for its professors, that in the course of a century they discovered and turned to account most of the instruments of literary education.
Neither were they united by a common educational method, the end and the instruments of education being diversely conceived by Protagoras, Gorgias and Isocrates, to say nothing of the wider differences which separate these three from the eristics, and all the four normal types from the abnormal type represented by Socrates.
Other sources of revenue are stamps, levied on judicial proceedings and commercial documents; registration of mortgages and other instruments; and provincial rates, chiefly in Bengal and the United Provinces for public works or rural police.
The term "photographic telescope" has been applied to instruments employed to record the appearance of celestial objects by photography.
Further, on the 15th December of the same year they examined an instrument invented by Lippershey at their request to see with both eyes, and gave him orders to execute two similar instruments at goo florins each; but, as many other persons had knowledge of this new invention to see at a distance, they did not deem it expedient to grant him an exclusive privilege to sell such instruments.
His first telescope magnified three diameters; but he soon made instruments which magnified eight diameters, and finally one that magnified thirty-three diameters.'
One of these instruments of only 20-in.
The fame of these instruments was rapidly spread by the brilliant discoveries which their maker's genius and perseverance accomplished by their aid.
to describe in detail special typical instruments, which, owing to the work accomplished by their aid or the practical advances exemplified in their construction, appear most worthy of record.
These instruments have done admirable work in connexion with the great international undertaking, the Carte du Ciel.
But when much larger instruments are required the hour circle becomes inaccessible from the floor, and means have to be devised for reading both circles from the eyeend.
From this point we must condense farther description into critical remarks on a few typical modern instruments.
instrument of the same type subsequently mounted at Paris, and in like instruments of intermediate size mounted at other French observatories, the object-glass is placed outside the mirror N, so that both the silvered mirrors are protected from exposure to the outer air.
57) have had instruments constructed on the same general principle.
It is, however, obviously impossible to apply a micrometer with advantage to such instruments, because to touch such an instrument, in order to turn a micrometer screw, would obviously set it into motion.
Equulei, 13 Ceti and Pegasi are all extremely close pairs, and can only be resolved with the most powerful instruments.
With the best instruments a star can be distinguished as double when the separation of the two components is a little less than 0.1".
The latter sometimes lapses into methods which are not usually thought compatible with prison discipline, such as the permission to play on musical instruments, the holding of concerts, the privilege of smoking and chewing tobacco, of receiving baskets of provisions, novels and newspapers from friends outside.
Sayyar to collect a rich present of horses, falcons, musical instruments, golden and silver vessels and to offer it to the caliph in person, but before the present was ready the news came that Walid had been murdered.
Everywhere else the change from iron weapons to bronze is immediate, but at Hallstatt iron is seen gradually superseding bronze, first for ornament, then for edging cutting instruments, then replacing fully the old bronze types, and finally taking new forms of its own.
Nor are consciousness and linguistic analysis all the instruments of the logician.
There must be convergence in a unitary principle, soul or consciousness, which is that which really functions in perception, the senses and their organs being merely its instruments.
Where new conceptions emerge, the imperfection of the instruments, mechanical and methodological, of the sciences renders them unfruitful, until their rediscovery in a later age.
RAGMAN ROLLS, the name given to the collection of instruments by which the nobility and gentry of Scotland were compelled to subscribe allegiance to Edward I.
The derivation of the word "ragman" has never been satisfactorily explained, but various guesses as to its meaning and a list of examples of its use for legal instruments both in England and Scotland will be found in the preface to the Bannatyne Club's volume, and in Jamieson's Scottisk Dictionary, s.v.
The optical instruments of Jena and the scientific instruments of Ilmenau are well known.
Through varied instruments - lynch law, popular courts, vigilance committees - order was, however, enforced, better as times went on, until there was a stable condition of things.
Many even of the richer towns, notably Nuremberg, ran into debt irretrievably, owing partly to an exorbitant expenditure on magnificent public buildings and extensive fortifications, calculated to resist modern instruments of destruction, partly to a faulty administration.
Finding, however, that there was little chance of obtaining instruments suitable for the work which he wished to undertake, he resigned that appointment and established in 1853 an observatory of his own at Redhill.
per hour, but in modern instruments provision is generally made for the time scale to be increased at will to 180 mm.
The scale values of the records given by the horizontal and vertical force magnetographs are determined by deflecting the respective needles, either by means of a magnet placed at a known distance or by passing an electric current through circular coils of large diameter surrounding the instruments.
The width of the photographic sheet which receives the spot of light reflected from the mirrors in the above instruments is generally so great that in the case of ordinary changes the curve does-not go off the paper.
To overcome this difficulty Eschenhagen in his earlier type of instruments attached to each magnet two mirrors, their planes being inclined at a small angle so that when the spot reflected from one mirror goes off the paper, that corresponding to the other comes on.
The effects of temperature being so marked on the readings of the horizontal and vertical force magnetographs, it is usual to place the instruments either in an underground room or in a room which, by means of double walls and similar devices, is protected as much as possible from temperature changes.
He also investigated the oxygen compounds of phosphorus and nitrogen, and was ' The names of the musical instruments in those verses of the Book of Daniel have formed the basis of a controversy as to the authenticity of the book.
In the use of all these electroscopic instruments it is essential to bear in mind (as first pointed out by Lord Kelvin) that what a gold-leaf electroscope really indicates is the difference of potential between the gold-leaf and the solid walls enclosing the air space in which they move.'
Graslitz is one of the most important industrial towns of Bohemia, its specialities being the manufacture of musical instruments, carried on both as a factory and a domestic industry, and lace-making.
The more complete isolation of the regular clergy, however, together with their direct relation to the Holy See, has made them, not only the more effective instruments of papal authority, but more obnoxious to the peoples and governments of countries where they have gained any considerable power.
aroused curiosity for nature encouraged men'like Alberti, Da Vinci, Toscanelli and Da Porta to make practical experiments, penetrate the working of physical forces, and invent scientific instruments.
The four main instruments of the reaction were the papacy, which had done so much by its sympathy with the revival to promote the humanistic spirit it now dreaded, the strength of Spain, and two Spanish institutions planted on Roman soil - the Inquisition and the Order of Jesus.
Other parts of the castle are the pentagonal tower, the oldest building in the town, wherein are preserved the famous "iron virgin of Nuremberg," and other instruments of torture; the granary (Kornhaus), also called the Kaiserstallung; and the Vestnertor or Vestnerturm.
In 1772 and 1773 he was a member of the Massachusetts General Court, inwhich he identified himself with Samuel Adams and the patriot party, and in 1773 he served on the Committee of Correspondence, which became one of the great instruments of intercolonial resistance.
1792), and an improved method of graduating astronomical instruments (Id.
Some of his instruments are preserved in the Royal Institution, London, and his name is commemorated in the Cavendish Physical Laboratory at Cambridge, which was built by his kinsman the 7th duke of Devonshire.
Opponents of this accidentalism maintain that what seems to be the result of chance is in reality due to a cause or causes which, owing to the lack of imagination, knowledge or scientific instruments, we are unable to detect.
Like Protagoras, he professed to train his pupils for domestic and civic affairs; but it would appear that, while Protagoras's chief instruments of education were rhetoric and style, Prodicus made ethics prominent in his curriculum.
The principles of telegraphy (land, submarine and wireless) and of telephony are discussed in the articles Telegraph and Telephone, and various electrical instruments are treated in separate articles such as Amperemeter; Electrometer; Galvanometer; Voltmeter; Wheatstone'S Bridge; Potentiometer; Meter, Electric; Electrophorus; Leyden Jar; &C.
In addition to this he provided the means for studying the phenomena not only qualitatively, but also quantitatively, by the profoundly ingenious instruments he invented for that purpose.
Weber at the same time deduced the mathematical laws of induction from his elementary law of electrical action, and with his improved instruments arrived at accurate verifications of the law of induction which by this time had been developed mathematically by Neumann and himself.
Buddhism conceived men as constantly making their own world for good and ill; it took over from Brahmanism a whole series of heavens and hells to provide an exact adjustment in the future for the virtue or vice of the present; and its eschatologic confidence was one of the potent instruments of its success in countries which, like China and Japan, had developed no theories of retribution or reward beyond the grave.
The observatory grounds were enlarged; two powerful instruments of the novel kind known as coude equatorials were installed; a spectroscopic department was established, and the gigantic task of re-observing all Lalande's stars was completed.
Like every Jew, Spinoza had learned a handicraft; he was a grinder of lenses for optical instruments, and was thus enabled to earn an income sufficient for his modest wants.
It contains only some small books, some engravings, a few lenses and the instruments to polish them."
A similar electric balance was subsequently devised by SirW.Snow-Harris,' one of whose instruments is shown in fig.
The principle underlying these instruments is that we can measure differences of potential by means of the motion of an electrified body in a symmetrical field of electric force.
A new church is anointed at its four corners, and also the altar round which it is built; similarly tombs, church gongs, and all other instruments and utensils dedicated to cultual uses.
Again and again it has been proved that the human great toe can be by constant practice used as a thumb; artists exist who have painted pictures grasping the brush with their toes, and violinists have been known to play their instruments in the same manner.
Soc., 1878), the most suitable for visual instruments (" optical achromatism ").
They are classified under the respective heads of porcelain and earthenware, tiles, arms and armour, textile fabrics, needlework and embroidery, metal-work, wood carving and mosaic-painting, manuscripts, enamel, jewelry and musical instruments.
Two points are selected on the surface of the shaft at different positions along it, and the relative displacement which occurs between them round the shaft when power is being transmitted is determined either by electrical means, as in the Denny-Johnson torsion-meter, or optically, as in the Hopkinson-Thring and Bevis-Gibson instruments.
This is what the commission ought to have had, but it would have sufficed had they referred to the report of the sittings of 6th and 8th April, in which it is clearly explained that the instruments presented by M.
1 We designedly omit the use of the word " brass " to qualify these instruments.
The police were to be employed, it was said, as the instruments of a new despotism, the enlisted members of a new standing army, under the centralized authority, riding roughshod over the peaceable citizens.
Napoleon availed himself largely of police instruments, especially through his minister Fouche.
His interest in music was indeed stimulated from 1862 onwards by his friendship with Balakirev, and from 1863 by his marriage with a lady who was an accomplished pianist; but in his earlier years he had been proficient both in playing the piano, violin, 'cello and other instruments, and also in composing; and during life he did his best to pursue his studies in both music and chemistry with equal enthusiasm.
In the year 1830 also he was appointed director of the Observatory, and as a member of the chamber of deputies he was able to obtain grants of money for rebuilding it in part, and for the addition of magnificent instruments.
Among the many victims of Juvenal's satire it is only against him and against one of the vilest instruments of his court, the Egyptian Crispinus, that the poet seems to be animated by personal hatred.
trifler rather than as a monster of lust and cruelty, is the reproduction of a real or imaginary scene from the reign of Domitian, and is animated by the profoundest scorn and loathing both of the tyrant himself and of the worst instruments of his tyranny.
For the most part he lived in England and Holland, devoting himself to the study of physics and making a living, apparently, by the manufacture of meteorological instruments.
Many of the instruments and processes of Portuguese agriculture and viticulture were introduced by the Romans, and are such as Columella described in the 1st century A.D.
Prince Henry placed at the disposal of his captains the vast resources of the Order of Christ, the best information and the most accurate instruments and maps which could be obtained.
employed Jewish physicians; it was a Jew - Abraham Zacuto ben Samuel - who supplied Vasco da Gama with nautical instruments; and Jews were employed in the overland journeys by which the Portuguese court first endeavoured to obtain information on Far Eastern affairs.
Reed Instruments >>
The manufactures of Heidelberg include cigars, leather, cement, surgical instruments and beer, but the inhabitants chiefly support themselves by supplying the wants of a large and increasing body of foreign permanent residents, of the considerable number of tourists who during the summer pass through the town, and of the university students.
It has a variety of manufacturing establishments, among which are cotton and woollen mills, rolling mills, steel mills, foundries, boiler shops, tube works, and works for making surgical instruments and artificial stone.
Day, Descriptive Catalogue of Musical Instruments (London, 1891), pp. 18 -22 and p1.4; also Complete Instructions for the Double Flageolet (London, 1825); and The Preceptor, or a Key to the Double Flageolet (London, 1815).
Other important branches of industry are: - the manufacture of chemicals at Prague and Aussig; pencils at Budweis; musical instruments at Graslitz and SchOnbach; paper, leather, dyeing and calicoprinting.
To the College of Physicians he left his books, globes, instruments and minerals, but they were destroyed in the great fire of London.
He is the reputed inventor besides of two instruments to enable sailors "to find out the latitude without seeing of sun, moon or stars," an account of which is given in Thomas Blondeville's Theoriques of the Planets (London, 1602).
His interest in the evolution of the rifle early extended itself to other weapons and instruments in the history of man, and he became a collector of articles illustrating the development of human invention.
The town carries on a variety of small manufactures, including musical instruments, iron-wares, marble ornaments.
Aurungzeb's successors became the helpless instruments of conflicting chiefs.
His equally careful experiments on various acoustic instruments also resulted in giving to his country the most serviceable system of fog-signals known to maritime powers.
His first memoir on the theory of magnetism, Intensitas vis magneticae terrestris ad mensuram absolutam revocata, was published in 1833, and he shortly afterwards proceeded, in conjunction with Wilhelm Weber, to invent new apparatus for observing the earth's magnetism and its changes; the instruments devised by them were the declination instrument and the bifilar magnetometer.
The instruments and methods thus due to him are substantially those employed in the magnetic observatories throughout the world.
Iron-founding, machine-making, woolspinning and the making of paper, tobacco and musical instruments are carried on here, and the trade in wool and agricultural products is considerable.
Its principal industries are the manufacture of tobacco, furniture, machinery, scientific instruments and railway carriages.
Other industries are jute-spinning, dyeing and brewing, and the manufacture of musical instruments, chemicals, tobacco, cigars, porcelain and machinery.
The France of the Maurists supplied the most essential of these instruments.
Dictionaries and manuals are the instruments of this industrial revolution.
They are also conical on section from within outwards and from before backwards, this shape converting the pinionsinto delicately graduated instruments balanced with the utmost nicety to satisfy the requirements of the muscular system on the one hand and the resistance and resiliency of the air on the other.
Gotha is one of the most active commercial towns of Thuringia, its manufactures including sausages, for which it has a great reputation, porcelain, tobacco, sugar, machinery, mechanical and surgical instruments, musical instruments, shoes, lamps and toys.
Musical instruments of crude design are common.
The lord of the earth, who contemplates the eternal order of the universe, and aspires to communion with its invisible Maker, is a being composed of the same materials, and framed on the same principles, as the creatures which he has tamed to be the servile instruments of his will, or slays for his daily food.
The employment of mechanical instruments, of which instances of monkeys using sticks and stones furnish the only rudimentary traces among the lower animals, is one of the often-quoted distinctive powers of man.
The chief musical instruments are rough types of trumpets and flutes, drums, tambourines and cymbals, and quadrangular harps.
Furth is the seat of several important industries; particularly, the production of chromolithographs and picture-books, the manufacture of mirrors and mirror-frames, bronze and gold-leaf wares, pencils, toys, haberdashery, optical instruments, silver work, turnery, chicory, machinery, fancy boxes and cases, and an extensive trade is carried on in these goods as also in hops, metals, wool, groceries and coal.
As in so many of the newer Western states, the constitution specifies minutely many details which in the older instruments are left to be fixed by statute.
Although he made several ingenious improvements in scientific instruments, his mind was rather imitative and critical than creative.
Taxes, as instruments for advancing the prosperity of a country, are things unknown to the study of "taxation" in the proper sense of the word.
The staple industry is the production of boots and shoes; but musical instruments, leather and machines are also manufactured.
Several of the varieties are cut into gems and ornaments, balance weights, pivot supports for delicate instruments, agate mortars, &c.; or used for engraving, for instance, cameos and the elaborately carved crystal vases of ancient and medieval times.
Abbot at Mount Wilson, with instruments and methods in which Langley's experience is embodied, has reduced it greatly, having proved that one of Langley's corrections was erroneously applied.
Whatever be the subsequent method of reduction, the instant is required when the planet's disk is in internal contact with that of the sun; but after contact has plainly passed it still remains connected with the sun's rim by a " black drop," with the result that trained observers using similar instruments set up a few feet from one another sometimes differed by half a minute of time in their record.
to simplify mechanically the solution of logical problems. These instruments are all more or less elaborate developments of the " logical slate," on which were written in vertical columns all the combinations of symbols or letters which could be made logically out of a definite number of terms. These were compared with any given premises, and those which were incompatible were crossed off.
His faithful men preserved the body in the sun as well as they could, and, wrapping it carefully up, carried it and all his papers, instruments and other things across Africa to Zanzibar.
The only remedy for this is the abolition of the law of inheritance, and the union of all the instruments of labour in a social fund, which shall be exploited by association.
And it must be said that his time was better employed in original investigations than it would have been had he spent it in observations made even with the best of instruments, infinitely better than if he had spent it on those of the observatory, which, however good originally, were then totally unfit for the delicate requirements of modern astronomy.
Had he devoted himself to practical astronomy they would assuredly have furnished him with modern instruments and an adequate staff of assistants.
35 and 36; names of musical instruments, Bd.
Kiesewetter, Die Musik der Araber,nach Originalquellen dargestellt (Leipzig, 18 43, p. 93, classification of instruments).
He adds: " This made me take reflections into consideration, and finding them regular, so that the Angle of Reflection of all sorts of Rays was equal to their Angle of Incidence; I understood, that by their mediation Optick instruments might be brought to any degree of perfection imaginable, provided a Reflecting substance could be found, which would polish as finely as Glass, and reflect as much light, as glass transmits, and the art of communicating to it a Parabolick figure be also attained.
The instruments of Yahweh's anger (ch.
Aspinall Parr, Electrical Measuring Instruments (1903); W.
His chosen instruments were two men whom his enemies called his favorites, though it was absurd to apply the name either to an elderly statesman like Michael de la Pole, who was made chancellor in 1384, or to Robert de Vere, earl of Oxford, a young noble of the oldest lineage, who was the kings other confidant.
The bishop now ruled, with his nephew Edmund Beaufort, duke of Somerset, and William de la Pole, earl of Suffolk, as his chief instruments.
His instruments were ministers of ability chosen from the clergy and the gentryhe seems to have been equally averse to trusting the baronage at the one end of the social scale, or mere upstarts at the other, and it is notable that no one during his reign can be called a court favorite.
The common sense of a British jury had preserved, in spite of parliament and ministry, that free right of meeting which was to be one of the strongest instruments of future reform.
He now devoted himself mainly to the study of criminal law, and in 1818 published La Justice criminelle en France, in which with great courage he attacked the special tribunals, provosts' courts or military commissions which were the main instruments of the Reaction, and advocated a return to the old common law and trial by jury.
Few men, if any, have ever acquired a settled mental habit of surveying human affairs broadly, of watching the play of passion, interest, circumstance, in all its comprehensiveness, and of applying the instruments of general conceptions and wide principles to its interpretation with respectable constancy, unless they have at some early period of their manhood resolved the greater problems of society in independence and isolation.
The people, he contended, were no worse off under the old monarchy than they will be in the long run under assemblies that are bound by the necessity of feeding one part of the community at the grievous charge of other parts, as necessitous as those who are so fed; that are obliged to flatter those who have their lives at their disposal by tolerating acts of doubtful influence on commerce and agriculture, and for the sake of precarious relief to sow the seeds of lasting want; that will be driven to be the instruments of the violence of others from a sense of their own weakness, and, by want of authority to assess equal and proportioned charges upon all, will be compelled to lay a strong hand upon the possessions of a part.
In spite of its somewhat sleepy appearance, Potsdam has manufactures of silk goods, chemicals, furniture, chocolate, tobacco and optical instruments.
There are several thriving industries, including, besides the various branches of the publishing trade, the manufacture of cloth and woollens and of mathematical and other scientific instruments.
With Gunter's name are associated several useful inventions, descriptions of which are given in his treatises on the Sector, Cross-staff, Bow, Quadrant and other Instruments.
That he remained satisfied with them himself is doubtful, unless for their foresight, their tremendous effect as instruments of punishment, and as they swept him to so much distinction.
The manufacturing industries assisted by the government developed rapidly during the later years of the 19th century, notably metal-working, especially such branches of it as require exact and delicate workmanship. Of particular importance are iron and steel goods, locomotives (for which Esslingen enjoys a great reputation), machinery, motor-cars, bicycles, small arms (in the Mauser factory at Oberndorf), all kinds of scientific and artistic appliances, pianos (at Stuttgart), organs and other musical instruments, photographic apparatus, clocks (in the Black Forest),.
Sacrobosco's De sphaera, he read all the books on the subject that he could buy or borrow; observed a partial solar eclipse on the 12th of September 1662; and attempted the construction of measuring instruments.
It is also used for preparing shoemaker's wax, as a flux for soldering metals, for pitching lager beer casks, for rosining the bows of musical instruments and numerous minor purposes.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.