Instrument sentence example

instrument
  • She knew the essential conditions of the instrument.
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  • I think the bell is an instrument, too.
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  • A specialty debt is created by deed or instrument under seal.
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  • A knife is an instrument to cut with.
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  • The melody grew and passed from one instrument to another.
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  • There are sources of uncertainty in the instrument itself.
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  • The other parts of the instrument will be readily understood from the figure without further explanation.
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  • The dim instrument panel light revealed a strong profile with an aquiline nose and prominent cheekbones.
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  • Each instrument--now resembling a violin and now a horn, but better and clearer than violin or horn--played its own part, and before it had finished the melody merged with another instrument that began almost the same air, and then with a third and a fourth; and they all blended into one and again became separate and again blended, now into solemn church music, now into something dazzlingly brilliant and triumphant.
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  • Cynthia had given him such an instrument at the time the couple signed papers acquiring Bird Song.
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  • The bitter invectives against Ammon, Moab, Edom, Philistia, Tyre, Sidon and Egypt, put into Yahweh's mouth, are based wholly on the fact that these peoples are regarded as hostile and hurtful to Israel; Babylonia, though nowise superior to Egypt morally, is favoured and applauded because it is believed to be the instrument for securing ultimately the prosperity of Yahweh's people.
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  • Man lives consciously for himself, but is an unconscious instrument in the attainment of the historic, universal, aims of humanity.
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  • Sir William Herschel was the first astronomer who measured position angles; the instrument he employed is described in Phil.
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  • As soon as Dean lifted the instrument it fell apart in his hands.
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  • I was sure dear Brenda would be far more candid with the instrument pressed to her throat.
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  • In the first parliament elected under this "Instrument" he sat for Wiltshire, having been elected also for Poole and Tewkesbury, and was one of the commissioners for the ejection of unworthy ministers.
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  • The angle between two objects, such as stars or the opposite limbs of the sun, was measured by directing an arm furnished with fine " sights " (in the sense of the " sights " of a rifle) first upon one of the objects and then upon the other (q.v.), or by employing an instrument having two arms, each furnished with a pair of sights, and directing one pair of sights upon one object and the second pair upon the other.
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  • Bach's conception of the function of an instrument is that it holds a regular part in a polyphonic scheme; and his blending of tones is like the blending of colours in a purely decorative design.
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  • This could be fixed, within certain limits, at whatever pitch suited the composition; but on the horn it could be only very partially filled out by notes of a muffled quality produced by inserting the hand into the bell of the instrument, a device impossible on the trumpet.
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  • This type of instrument is very little used in England, but seems to be more in favour in France.
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  • On a sufficient acquaintance with the work this would probably have revealed the essential nature of the instrument to a hearer unacquainted with technicalities, and revealed it rather as a characteristic than as a limitation.
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  • Instead, however, of proceeding with the work of practical legislation, accepting the Instrument of Government without challenge as the basis of its authority, the parliament immediately began to discuss and find fault with the constitution and to debate about "Fundamentals."
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  • Lind's anemometer, which consists simply of a U tube containing liquid with one end bent into a horizontal direction to face the wind, is perhaps the original form from which the tube class of instrument has sprung.
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  • Thus if the instrument depends on the pressure or suction effect alone, and this pressure or suction is measured against the air pressure in an ordinary room, in which the doors and windows are carefully closed and a newspaper is then burnt up the chimney, an effect may be produced equal to a wind of io m.
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  • Thus, when it is not necessary to keep a copy, a much simpler instrument may be employed and the message read by sound.
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  • The instrument affords a ready method of transferring liquids.
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  • She unfastened the instrument.
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  • That and the crampons are the key tools The sinister instrument was serrated on one end of its curved claw, with an adze blade on the other side of the crescent.
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  • Among other objects also known by the name of "cat" is the small piece of wood pointed at either end used in the game of tip-cat, and the instrument of punishment, generally known as the "cat o' nine tails."
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  • Having thus perfected the instrument, his next step was to apply it in such a way as to bring uniformity of method into the isolated and independent operations of geometry.
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  • He seems to have been regarded by his own party as a useful instrument, especially in disagreeable work, rather than as a desirable colleague.
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  • But it is plain that, once convinced of the necessity for the king's execution, he was the chief instrument in overcoming all scruples among his judges, and in resisting the protests and appeals of the Scots.
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  • The Robinson anemometer, invented (1846) by Dr Thomas Romney Robinson, of Armagh Observatory, is the best-known and most generally used instrument, and belongs to the first of these.
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  • Whether this justifies Wagner's successors and imitators in showing a constant preference for passages of which not even the general outline is practicable; whether it justifies a state of things in which the normal compass of every instrument in an advanced loth-century score would appear to be about a fifth higher than any player of that instrument will admit;, whether it proves that it is artistically desirable that when there.
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  • The singleneedle instrument is a vertical needle galvanoscope worked by a battery and reversing handle, or two " tapper " keys, the motions to right and left of one end of the index corresponding to the dashes and dots of the Morse alphabet.
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  • Wheatstone also described and to some extent worked out an interesting modification of his step-by-step instrument, the object of which was to produce a letter-printing telegraph.
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  • House, of Vermont, U.S., and was very successfully worked on some of the American telegraph lines till 1860, after which it was gradually displaced by other forms. Various modifications of the instrument are still employed for stock telegraph purposes.
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  • The apparatus for generating the electric action at one end is commonly called the transmitting apparatus or instrument, or the sending apparatus or instrument, or sometimes simply the transmitter or sender.
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  • The instrument can be calibrated by a continuous current.
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  • Such an instrument is called a soft-iron gravity ammeter.
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  • Another type of similar instrument consists of a coil of wire having a fragment of iron wire suspended from one arm of an index needle near the mouth of a coil.
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  • In the construction of this soft-iron instrument it is essential that the fragment of iron should be as small and as well annealed as possible and not touched with tools after annealing; also it should be preferably not too elongated in shape so that it may not acquire permanent magnetization but that its magnetic condition may follow the changes of the current in the coil.
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  • Molly looked close to tears when she returned and handed me the instrument.
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  • After breaking Sarah's embrace, she asked, "You love music so much, why don't you sing or play an instrument?"
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  • The first constitution of 1863 was superseded by the present instrument which was adopted August 1872 and was amended in 1880, 1883 and 1902.
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  • On the resignation of this parliament he became a member of the council of state named in the "Instrument."
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  • When the trumpets take it up they make a remarkable change at its iith bar, for no other reason than that one of the notes, though perfectly within their scale, and, indeed, already produced by them in the very same bar, is so harmonized as to suggest the freedom of an instrument with a complete scale.
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  • The apparatus used at the other end of the line to render the effects of this action perceptible to the eye or ear, is called the receiving apparatus or instrument.
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  • At small country towns or villages, where the message traffic is light, the Wheatstone " A B C " instrument is used.
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  • In this apparatus electric A B C currents are generated by turning a handle (placed in front of the instrument), which is geared, in the instru ment.
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  • Although formerly in very extensive employment, this instrument is dropping out of use and the " sounder " (and in many cases the telephone) is being used in its place.
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  • At offices where the work is heavier than can be dealt with by the A B C apparatus, the " Single Needle " instrument has been very largely employed; it has the advantage of slight Single liability to derangement, and of requiring very little adjustment.
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  • A simple, but important, addition to enable the reading from the instrument to be effected by sound is shown in fig.
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  • In the earlier forms of instrument the record was made by embossing lines on a ribbon of paper by means of a sharp style fixed to one end of a lever, which carried at the other end the armature of an electromagnet.
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  • Dots and dashes are distinguished by the interval between the sounds of the instrument in precisely the same way as they are distinguished when reading from the recorder by sound.
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  • It differs from the open circuit in only requiring one battery (although, as in the figure, half of it is often placed at each end), in having the re circuit ceiving instrument between the line and the key, and in having the battery continuously to the line.
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  • The coils of the electromagnets are differentially wound with silk-covered wire, 4 mils (= 004 inch) in diameter, to a total resistance of 400 ohms. This differential winding enables the instrument to be used for " duplex " working, but the connexions of the wires to the terminal screws are such that the relay can be used for ordinary single working.
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  • In order to avoid this sparking, every local instrument in the British Postal Telegraph Department has a " spark " coil connected across the terminals of the electromagnet.
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  • In order that the line between two stations may be worked on the duplex system it is essential that the receiving instrument shall not be acted on by the outgoing currents, but shall respond to incoming currents.
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  • One very great advantage in this method is that the instrument used between P and Q may be of any ordinary form, i.e.
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  • It consists in punching, by means of " a puncher," a series of holes in a strip of paper in such a way that, when the strip is sent through another instrument, called the " transmitter," the holes cause the circuit to be closed at the proper times and for the proper proportionate intervals for the message to be correctly printed by the receiving instrument or recorder.
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  • In the Hughes instrument two trains of clockwork mechanism, one at each end of the line, are kept moving, at the same speed.
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  • Each instrument is provided with a keyboard, resembling that of a small piano, the key levers of which communicate with a circular row of vertical pins.
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  • The current thus sent to the line may be made either to act directly on the printing instrument or to close a local circuit by means of a relay.
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  • In Hughes's instrument almost perfect accuracy and certainty have been attained; and in actual practice it has proved to be decidedly superior to all previous type-printing telegraphs, not only in speed and accuracy, but in less liability to mechanical derangement from wear and tear and from accident.
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  • The function of the " combiner " in each receiving instrument is so to group the received combination of positive and negative currents that they operate polarized relays in such a manner that the position of the tongues corresponds with the operation of the levers on the transmitter.
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  • After a very short interval of time, the length of which depends on the inductive retardation of the cable, the condensers corresponding to C 1 and C3 at the other end begin to be charged from the cable, and since the charge of C3 passes through the receiving instrument I or G the signal is recorded.
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  • The simplest form of receiving instrument (formerly much used) is known as the " mirror."
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  • These indications form the telegraph alphabet and are read in the same manner as in the case of the " single needle " instrument used on land.
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  • The spark recorder in some respects foreshadowed the more perfect instrument - the siphon recorder - which was introduced some years later.
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  • The record of the signals given by this instrument was an undulating line of fine perforations or spots, and the character and succession of the undulations were used to interpret the signals desired to be sent.
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  • The ink is electrified by a small induction electrical machine E placed on the top of the instrument; this causes it to fall in very minute drops from the open end of the siphon tube upon the brass table or the paper slip passing over it.
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  • The motor is usually supported on a platform at the back of the instrument, its drivingwheel being connected to the shaft of the paper roller by means of a spirally wound steel band.
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  • The difficulty experienced is that of securing a good electrical contact under the very slight pressure obtainable from an instrument excited by attenuated arrival-currents.
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  • The magnetic shunt (which is connected Magnetic across the receiving instrument) consists of a low resist- shunt.
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  • The receiving instrument is joined up across these ends in the usual manner.
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  • He caused the relay in series with the sensitive tube to set in action not only a telegraphic instrument but also the electromagnetic tapper, which was arranged so as to administer light blows on the under side of the sensitive tube when the latter passed into the conductive condition.
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  • The instrument was described in over fifty publications 6 in various countries, and was well known to physicists previous to Bell's introduction of the electric telephone as a competitor with the electric telegraph.
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  • The suggestion of Bourseul and the experiments of Reis are founded on the idea that a succession of currents, corresponding in number to the successive undulations of the pressure on the membrane of the transmitting instrument, could reproduce at the receiving station sounds of the same character as those produced at the sending station.
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  • Neither of them seemed to recognize anything as important except pitch and amplitude, and Reis thought the amplitude was to some extent obtained by the varying length of contact in the transmitting instrument.
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  • This might possibly be true to a small extent; but, considering the small capacity of the circuits he used and the nature of his receiving instrument, it is hardly probable that duration of contact sensibly influenced the result.
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  • The next worker at the telephone, and the one to whom the present great commercial importance of the instrument is due, Bell's re- was Bell.
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  • The instrument was joined in circuit with a battery and another similar instrument placed at a distance; and a continuous current was made to flow through the circuit, keeping the electromagnets energized.
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  • Varley, who proposed to make use of it in a telegraphic receiving instrument.4 In Dolbear's instrument one plate of a condenser was a flexible diaphragm, connected with the telephone line in such a way that the varying electric potential produced by the action of the transmitting telephone caused an increased or diminished charge in the condenser.
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  • In the specification of the patent applied for on the list of July 1877 he showed a sketch of an instrument which consisted of a diaphragm, with a small platinum patch in the centre for an electrode, against which a hard point, made of plumbago powder cemented together with india-rubber and vulcanized, was pressed by a long spring, the pressure of the carbon against the platinum disk being adjusted by a straining screw near the base of the spring.
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  • Acting upon this discovery, he constructed an instrument which he called a " microphone," 6 and which consisted essentially of two hard carbon electrodes placed in contact, with a current passing through the point of contact and a telephone included in the same circuit.
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  • The electrical connexions of the instrument as arranged for actual use are also illustrated in the figure.
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  • Another type of microphone which was used in Europe much more than in the United States was the multiple-contact instrument.
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  • The earliest instrument of this kind was the Hunnings transmitter, patented in 1878.
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  • The chief difficulty with this transmitter, and with various others of later date based upon it, has been the frequent packing of the carbon granules, which renders the instrument inoperative.
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  • The motions impressed upon the carbon granules are very vigorous, and this together with the particular arrangement of the parts of the instrument is effectual in obviating the difficulty from packing which attended the use of earlier forms of granulated carbon transmitters.
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  • This instrument has almost entirely displaced all other forms of transmitter.
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  • In the first place it increased the visibility of the signalling instrument; in the second place it brought that instrument into the position in which it could most readily catch the operator's eye; and finally it eliminated the effort involved in associating one piece of apparatus with another and in finding that other.
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  • The original method of charging adopted in Great Britain took the telephone instrument as the unit, charging a fixed annual rental independent of the amount of use to which the instrument was put.
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  • But the tendency is towards a system of charging a moderate sum to cover the rent of the instrument and an additional fee per message.
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  • As the cost of the service varies in proportion to the amount of use, the toll rate is more scientific, and it has the further advantage of discouraging the unnecessary use of the instrument, which causes congestion of traffic at busy hours and also results in lines being " engaged " when serious business calls are made.
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  • The tariff for unlimited use has to be made very high to cover the cost of the additional burdens thrown upon the service, and it only works economically to the individual subscriber who has an exceptionally large number of calls originating from his instrument.
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  • Formed for mercenary warfare, they proved a perilous instrument in the hands of those who used them, and were hardly less injurious to their friends than to their foes.
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  • In the long struggle of the Netherlands against Spain, Ghent took a conspicuous part, and it was here that, on the 8th of November 1576, was signed the instrument, known as the Pacification of Ghent, which established the league against Spanish tyranny.
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  • The study of the evolution of faunas and the comparison of the faunas of distant regions have furnished a trustworthy instrument of pre-historic geographical research, which enables earlier geographical relations of land and sea to be traced out, and the approximate period, or at least the chronological order of the larger changes, to be estimated.
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  • The instrument has been extensively used by designers.
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  • The only telescope erected in the establishment when he took it in charge was the transit instrument, and to this he vigorously devoted himself.
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  • The emperor Nicholas found that his ambassador at Vienna, Baron Meyendorff, was not a sympathetic instrument for carrying out his schemes in the East.
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  • Some of these officers had been in touch with the revolutionary movements, and had adopted the idea then prevalent in France, Germany and Italy that the best instrument for assuring political progress was to be found in secret societies.
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  • In 1899 he married Baroness de Rosen, and after 1900 he appeared but little in public; but he became better known as a composer, chiefly of pieces for his own instrument.
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  • The assertion in the " Declaration of Rights " that " no power exists in the people of this or any other state of the Federal Union to dissolve their connexion therewith or perform any act tending to impair, subvert, or resist the supreme authority of the government of the United States," is a result of the drafting of the instrument during the Civil War.
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  • The instrument was submitted to a vote of the people and was adopted, and a full set of state officers was chosen.
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  • The instrument contained a very unpopular clause taxing all mining property, unproductive as well as productive.
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  • They brought to the support of that instrument "the areas of intercourse and wealth" (Libby), the influence of the commercial towns, the greater planters, the army officers, creditors and property-holders generally, - in short, of interests that had felt the evils of the weak government of the Confederation, - and alsc of some few true nationalists (few, because there was as yet no general national feeling), actuated by political principles of centralization independently of motives of expediency and self-interest.
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  • What does distinguish Hebrew prophecy from all others is that the genius of a few members of the profession wrested this vulgar but powerful instrument from baser uses, and by wielding it in the interest of a high morality rendered a service of incalculable value to humanity.
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  • Herod put his own profit above the Law, acting after his kind, and he also was God's instrument.
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  • The metal rattle was an ancient Egyptian percussion instrument.
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  • This ancient instrument was extensively used by the priests in the temple of Isis to attract the attention of worshippers to different parts of the ritual.
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  • Queen Cleopatra' made use of a large number of sistra at the battle of Actium (31 B.C.), and accordingly the instrument was satirically called Queen Cleopatra's war trumpet.
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  • The aim of the society was a war with Turkey with a view to the acquisition of Macedonia, and it found a ready instrument for its designs in the growing discontent of the Cretan Christians.
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  • Oedipus fulfils an ancient prophecy in killing his father; he is the blind instrument in the hands of fate.
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  • When several rings or circles were combined representing the great circles of the heavens, the instrument became an armillary sphere.
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  • It consisted of a graduated circle inside which another could slide, carrying two small tubes diametrically opposite, the instrument being kept vertical by a plumb-line.
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  • No material advance was made on Ptolemy's instrument until Tycho Brahe, whose elaborate armillary spheres passing into astrolabes are figured in his Astronjmiae Instauratae Mechanica.
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  • The great Mogul emperor's impoverished and enfeebled successor was fain to recognize the Mahratta state by a formal instrument.
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  • Indeed, he had very limited faith in the human mind as an instrument of truth.
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  • This was an order founded by Albert, 3rd bishop of Riga, in 1201, to serve as an instrument, under his control, for the conquest of the land.
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  • An instrument of higher interest, the stereoscope, which, though of much later date (1849-1850), may be mentioned here, since along with the kaleidoscope it did more than anything else to popularize his name, was not, as has often been asserted, the invention of Brewster.
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  • Sir Charles Wheatstone discovered its principle and applied it as early as 1838 to the construction of a cumbrous but effective instrument, in which the binocular pictures were made to combine by means of mirrors.
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  • Blith speaks of an instrument which ploughed, sowed and harrowed at the same time; and the setting of corn was then a subject of much discussion.
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  • These qualities are required all the more because, in order to make any further progress with such an inquiry as we have suggested, we have deliberately to make use of abstraction as an instrument of investigation.
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  • There is another very important instrument of investigation which can be used in our own time, but cannot be employed in historical research.
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  • Bowdoin and Samuel Adams, he formed a sub-committee which drew up the first draft of that instrument, and most of it probably came from John Adams's pen.
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  • This burlesquing of things universally held sacred, though condemned by serious-minded theologians, conveyed to the child-like popular mind of the middle ages no suggestion of contempt, though when belief in the doctrines and rites of the medieval Church was shaken it became a ready instrument in the hands of those who sought to destroy them.
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  • This instrument provided a temporary government for the Territory with the understanding that, as soon as the population was sufficient, the representative system should be adopted, and later that states should be formed and admitted into the Union.
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  • He certainly describes a method of constructing a telescope, but not so as to lead one to conclude that he was in possession of that instrument.
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  • The landlord must not part with the whole of his interest, since, if he does so, the instrument is not a lease but an assignment.
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  • The earliest form of testing instrument employed for this purpose was that of Giuseppe Tagliabue of New York, which consists of a glass cup placed in a copper water bath heated by a spirit lamp. The cup is filled with the oil to be tested, a thermometer placed in it and heat applied, the temperatures being noted at which, on passing a lighted splinter of wood over the surface of the oil, a flash occurs, and after further heating, the oil ignites.
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  • Such an apparatus, in which the oil-cup is uncovered, is known as an open-test instrument.
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  • Testing is begun when the temperature reaches 66° by slowly drawing the slide open and reclosing it, the speed being regulated by the swing of a pendulum supplied with the instrument.
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  • The Abel-Pensky instrument, used in India and in Germany, differs only in being provided with a clockwork arrangement for moving the slide.
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  • This instrument is so constructed that the higher temperature needed can be readily applied, and it is fitted with a stirrer to equalize the heating of the contents of the oil-cup.
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  • By means of this instrument the time occupied in the flow of a measured quantity of the oil through a small orifice at a given temperature is measured.
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  • The penitentiary system, according to which the priest enforced a code of moral law in the confessional by the sanction of penance - penance which must be performed as a condition of admission to the sacrament of the Eucharist - had been from early times a great instrument in the civilization of the raw Germanic races.
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  • He thinks that his principal aim was simply the formation of a compact Mahommedan state, which was, indeed, in the issue destined to be the instrument of the jihad,.
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  • They became an instrument in its hands which it used to its own undoing.
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  • From this it follows that hot-wire ammeters are generally not capable of giving visible indications below a certain minimum current for each instrument.
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  • The instrument therefore does not begin to read from zero current, but from some higher limit which, generally speaking, is about one-tenth of the maximum, so that an ammeter reading up to io amperes will not give much visible indication below i ampere.
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  • In the construction of such an instrument it is essential that the wire should be subjected to a process of preparation or " ageing," which consists in passing through it a fairly strong current, at least the maximum that it will ever have to carry, and starting and stopping this current frequently.
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  • The wire ought to be so treated for many hours before it is placed in the instrument.
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  • In constructing a hot-wire instrument for the measurement of high frequency currents it is necessary to make the working wire of a number of fine wires placed in parallel and slightly separated from one another, and to rpass the whole of the current to be measured through this strand.
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  • Such an instrument is called a shunted movable coil ammeter, and is represented by a type of instrument shown in fig.
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  • In the case of ammeters intended for very small currents, the whole current can be sent through the coil, but for larger currents it is necessary to provide in the instrument a shunt which carries the main current, the movable coil being connected to the ends of this shunt so that it takes a definite small fraction of the current passed through the instrument.
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  • In this last case the shunt need not be contained in the instrument itself but may be at a considerable distance, wires being brought from the shunt which carries the main current to the movable coil ammeter itself, which performs the function simply of an indicator, 3.
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  • The instrument can therefore be graduated by passing through it known and measured continuous currents, and it then becomes available for use with either continuous or alternating currents.
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  • The instrument can be provided with a curve or table showing the current corresponding to each angular displacement of the torsion head.
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  • It has the disadvantage of not being direct reading when made in the usual form, but can easily be converted into a direct reading instrument by appropriately dividing the scale over which the index of the torsion head moves.
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  • The appearance of the complete instrument is shown by fig.
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  • When a current is passed through the instrument it causes one end of the movable system to tilt downwards, and the other end upwards; the sliding weight is then moved along the tray by means of a silk cord until equilibrium is again established.
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  • Each instrument is accompanied by a pair of weights and by a square root table, so that the product of the square root of the number corresponding to the position of the sliding weight and the ascertained constant for each weight, gives at once the value of the current in amperes.
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  • An instrument of the latter type of considerable accuracy was designed by Lord Kelvin for the British Board of Trade Electrical Laboratory, and it is there used as the principal standard ampere balance.
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  • In these circumstances the current is known to have a fixed value in amperes determined by the weight attached to the instrument.
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  • In the use of ammeters in which the control is the gravity of a weight, such as the Kelvin ampere balances and other instruments, it should be noted that the scale reading or indication of the instrument will vary with the latitude and with the height of the instrument above the mean sea-level.
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  • Since the difference between the acceleration of gravity at the pole and at the equator is about 2%, the correction for latitude will be quite sensible in an instrument which might be used at various times in high and low latitudes.
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  • It may be noted that the word " alembic " is derived from the Greek "cup," with the Arabic article prefixed, and that the instrument is figured in the MSS.
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  • Rubidium, caesium, thallium, indium and gallium were first discovered by means of this instrument; the study of the rare earths is greatly facilitated, and the composition of the heavenly bodies alone determinable by it.
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  • The secularization of the church was carried to a pitch never before dreamed of, and it was clear to all Italy that he regarded the papacy as an instrument of worldly schemes with no thought of its religious aspect.
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  • The strips (inae, philyrae), which were cut with a sharp knife or some such instrument, were laid on a board side by side to the required width, thus forming a layer (scheda), across which another layer of shorter strips was laid at right angles.
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  • It was not until 1836 that he completed any apparatus that would work, and finally, on the 2nd of September 1837, the instrument was exhibited to a few friends in the building of the university of the City of New York, where a circuit of 1700 ft.
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  • Political parties were forming without very evident basis for differences outside questions of political patronage and the good 'or ill use of power; and, in the absence of the laws just mentioned, the Moderates, being in power, used every instrument of government to strengthen their hold on office.
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  • According to this instrument Greece was to be erected into a tributary state, but autonomous, and governed by an hereditary prince chosen by the powers.
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  • In the blessing of the holy water (cap. ii.), the essential instrument of all benedictions, the object is clearly to establish its potency against evil spirits.
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  • In his youth and early manhood there was no prospect of his ascending the Danish throne, and he consequently became the instrument of his father's schemes of aggrandizement in Germany.
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  • He was an earnest advocate of the adoption of the Federal constitution, was a member of the Massachusetts convention which ratified that instrument, and was one of the most influential advisers of the leaders of the Federalist party.
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  • An authority on precious stones, and especially the diamond, he succeeded in artificially making some minute specimens of the latter gem; and on the discovery of radium he was one of the first to take up the study of its properties, in particular inventing the spinthariscope, an instrument in which the effects of a trace of radium salt are manifested by the phosphorescence produced on a zinc sulphide screen.
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  • The legend that Athena, observing in the water the distortion of her features caused by playing that instrument, flung it away, probably indicates that the Boeotians whom the Athenians regarded with contempt, used the flute in their worship of the Boeotian Athena.
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  • Pipes conveying the water of an aqueduct across a valley and following the contour of the sides are sometimes called siphons, though they do not depend on the principle of the above instrument.
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  • Obviously, the reference to the Chaldaeans as a divine instrument could not then stand in its present place, and it is accordingly regarded as a misplaced earlier prophecy.
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  • On this view, the Chaldaeans are the divine instrument for punishing the tyranny of the Assyrians, to whom the following woes will therefore refer.
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  • In any case, there is nothing in this fine poem to connect it with the conception of the Chaldaeans as a divine instrument.
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  • Serious doubt was first cast upon its accuracy by the observations of Nyren with the same instrument during the years 1880-1882, but on a much larger number of stars.
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  • Grassot has devised a galvanometer, or " fluxmeter," which greatly alleviates the tedious operation of taking ballistic readings.2 The instrument is of the d'Arsonval type; its coil turns in a strong uniform field, and is suspended in such a manner that torsion is practically negligible, the swings of the coil being limited by damping influences, chiefly electromagnetic. The index therefore remains almost stationary at the limit of its deflection, and the deflection is approximately the same whether the change of induction occurs suddenly or gradually.
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  • The deflection is indicated by a pointer upon a graduated scale, the readings being interpreted by comparison with two standard specimens supplied with the instrument.
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  • The instrument exhibited by Thompson would, without undue heating, take a current of 30 amperes, which was sufficient to produce a magnetizing force of woo units.
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  • The instrument is represented diagrammatically in fig.
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  • The actual magnetizing force H is of course less than that due to the coil; the corrections required are effected automatically by the use of a set of demagnetization lines drawn on a sheet of celluloid which is supplied with the instrument.
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  • An improved but somewhat more complex form of the instrument is described in Ann.
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  • An excellent instrument of the class is Ewing's permeability bridge.
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  • A little instrument, supplied by Hartmann and Braun, contains a short length of fine bismuth wire wound into a flat double spiral, half an inch or thereabouts in diameter, and attached to a long ebonite handle.
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  • The advantages of portability, very considerable range (from H =I upwards), and fair accuracy are claimed for the instrument.
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  • From this time dates the existence of the equestrian order as an officially recognized political instrument.
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  • But it was in the application to mechanical questions of the instrument which he thus helped to form that his singular merit lay.
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  • The Brazilian Company founded by Vieyra, which so materially contributed to preserve its South American possessions to Portugal, had been abolished in 1721 by John V.; but such an instrument being well suited to the bold spirit of Pombal, he established a chartered company again in 1755, to trade exclusively with Maranhao and Para; and in 1759, in spite of the remonstrance of the British Factory at Lisbon, formed another company for Parahyba and Pernambuco.
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  • The Ars magna of the former professed by means of a species of logical machine to give a rigid demonstration of all the fundamental Christian doctrines, and was intended by its author as an unfailing instrument for the conversion of the Saracens and heathen.
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  • Split straws are prepared with the aid of a small instrument having a projecting point which enters the straw pipe, and from which radiate the number of knife-edged cutters into which the straw is to be split.
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  • This proposal was at once recognized by public opinion - to use the language of the Journal des Debats (May 21, 1909) - as " an instrument of domination " rather than as an attempt to carry out the spirit of the compact under which the Coalition goyernment had been summoned to power.
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  • People, however, persisted in the belief that the queen had used the countess as an instrument to satisfy her hatred of the cardinal de Rohan.
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  • It was not until the 19th century that the microscope, thus early applied by Leeuwenhoek, Malpighi, Hook and Swammerdam to the study of animal structure, was perfected as an instrument, and accomplished for zoology its final and most important service.
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  • The actual finiteness of A imposes a limit upon the separating or resolving power of an optical instrument.
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  • The definition of a fine vertical line, and consequently the resolving power for contiguous vertical lines, is thus independent of the vertical aperture of the instrument, a law of great importance in the theory of the spectroscope.
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  • Throughout the operation of increasing the focal length, the resolving power of the instrument, which depends only upon the aperture, remains unchanged; and we thus arrive at the rather startling conclusion that a telescope of any degree of resolving power might be constructed without an object-glass, if only there were no limit to the admissible focal length.
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  • The position of the middle of the bright band representative of a mathematical line can be fixed with a spider-line micrometer within a small fraction of the width of the band, just as the accuracy of astronomical observations far transcends the separating power of the instrument.
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  • These eighteen months of storm and stress established his influence in the capital once for all and at the same time knitted him closely to Frederick III., who recognized in Nansen a man after his own heart, and made the great burgomaster his chief instrument in carrying through the anti-aristocratic Revolution of 1660.
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  • In later years, when the Boers desired to regard the whole of this convention (and not merely the articles) as cancelled by the London Convention of 1884, and with it the suzerainty, which was only mentioned in the preamble, Mr Chamberlain, a member of the cabinet of 1880-1885, pointed out that if the preamble to this instrument were considered cancelled, so also would be the grant of self-government.
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  • Nevertheless, so late as the 13th century it was still an effective instrument in the hands of the most many-sided of Syriac authors, the eminent Barhebraeus.
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  • They assailed the cross, saying that Christ is cross, and that we ought not to worship the tree, because it is a cursed instrument.
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  • It is notable that an important instrument of research, the speculum, which has been reinvented in modern times, was used by Soranus; and specimens of still earlier date, showing great mechanical perfection, have been found among the ruins of Pompeii.
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  • This instrument, now indispensable in our daily work at the bedside, had indeed long been known both to physiologists (Haller) and to clinicians.
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  • Skill in modern laboratory work is as far out of the reach of the untaught as performance on a musical instrument.
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  • Reinhard, who considered Arthur O'Connor "a far abler man," accurately read the character of Lord Edward Fitzgerald as that of a young man "incapable of falsehood or perfidy, frank, energetic, and likely to be a useful and devoted instrument; but with no experience or extraordinary talent, and entirely unfit to be chief of a great party or leader in a difficult enterprise."
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  • The invention of the mechanical air-pump is generally attributed to Otto von Guericke, consul of Magdeburg, who exhibited his instrument in 1654; it was first described in 1657 by Gaspar Schott, professor of mathematics at Wurttemberg, in his NI echanica hydraulico-pneumatica, and afterwards (in 1672) by Guericke in his Experimenta nova Magdeburgica de vacus spatia.
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  • An instrument thus modified was constructed by Poggendorff in 1865.
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  • Akin to the geometrical works is that On the Dioptra, a remarkable book on land-surveying, so called from the instrument described in it, which was used for the same purposes as the modern theodolite.
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  • In the Fery radiation pyrometer this difficulty is obviated, as the instrument may be placed at a considerable distance from the furnace.
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  • This instrument is an iron tube, some 5 ft.
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  • The siphon is a simple instrument; but the forcing-pump is a complicated invention, which could scarcely have been expected in the infancy of hydraulics.
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  • In 1785 appeared his Recherches theoriques et experimentales sur la force de torsion et sur l'elasticite des fils de metal, &c. This memoir contained a description of different forms of his torsion balance, an instrument used by him with great success for the experimental investigation of the distribution of electricity on surfaces and of the laws of electrical and magnetic action, of the mathematical theory of which he may also be regarded as the founder.
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  • The scums forming on the top of the continuous defecator become so hard and dry that they have to be removed from time to time with a specially constructed instrument like a flat spade with three flat prongs in front.
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  • His capacity for dealing with men was considerable, and he never allowed himself to become the instrument of any particular party.
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  • The term tobacco appears not to have been a commonly used original name for the plant, and it has come to us from a peculiar instrument used for inhaling its smoke by the inhabitants of Hispaniola (San Domingo).
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  • The instrument, described by Oviedo (Historia de las Indias Occidentales, Salamanca, 1535), consisted of a small hollow wooden tube, shaped like a Y, the two points of which being inserted in the nose of the smoker, the other end was held into the smoke of burning tobacco, and thus the fumes were inhaled.
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  • The increasing importance of the camera obscura as a photographic instrument makes it desirable to bring together what is known of its early history, which is far more extensive than is usually recognized.
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  • He was the first to describe an instrument fitted with a sight and paper screen for observing the diameters of the sun and moon in a dark room.
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  • Traber (Nervus Opticks, 1675), but their accounts are generally more interesting theoretically than as recording progress in the practical use and development of the instrument.
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  • Being compelled to leave the convention before its adjournment, he did not sign the instrument, but used his influence to secure its ratification by his native state.
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  • The English language was used on the ground that it was destined to be the great instrument of higher education in India, and also as giving the Hindu the key of Western knowledge.
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  • Science, 1825); Herschel's instrument has since been discarded in favour of the pyrheliometer (Gr.
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  • Looking at the problem in this way, even a moralist who does not expect theology to be the instrument of social revival, might still ask whether the sympathetic instincts will not necessarily be already developed to their highest point, before people will be persuaded to accept the religion, which is at the bottom hardly more than sympathy under a more imposing name.
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  • The Siemens and Halske ozonizer, in form somewhat resembling the old laboratory instrument, is largely used in Germany; working with an alternating current transformed up to 650o volts, it has been found to give 280 grains or more of ozone per e.
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  • The imperfections of the thermopile, with which he began his work, led him, about 1880, to the invention of the bolometer, an instrument of extraordinary delicacy, which in its most refined form is believed to be capable of detecting a change of temperature amounting to less than one-hundred-millionth of a degree Centigrade.
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  • By the aid of this instrument, Langley, working on Mount Whitney, 12,000 ft.
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  • Fox acquired the conviction that, if the House was to be made an efficient instrument for restraining the interference of the king and for securing good government, it must cease to be filled to a very large extent by the nominees of boroughmongers and the treasury.
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  • As an astronomer, Rittenhouse's principal merit is that he introduced in 1786 the use of spider lines in the focus of a transit instrument.
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  • It shows how flexible an instrument Latin prose had become in his hand, when it could do justice at once to the ample and vehement volume of his oratory, to the calmer and more rhythmical movement of his philosophical meditation, and to the natural interchange of thought and feeling in the everyday intercourse of life.
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  • The instrument known as a Leyden jar consists of a glass bottle coated within and without for three parts of the way up with tinfoil.
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  • He left, however, in the Macedonian army a splendid instrument which enabled his son within ten years to change the face of the world.
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  • From their using the noose as an instrument of murder they were also frequently called Phansigars, or "noose-operators."
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  • Such a theory was bound to be fatal, as it makes religion at once a mere instrument of statecraft.
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  • He was a disciple of Hillel, and after the destruction of the Temple of Jerusalem by Titus was the main instrument in the preservation of the Jewish religion.
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  • Logic he probably despised as merely an instrument of pedants - a judgment for which, in his day, and especially at the universities, there was only too much ground.
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  • Casimir belongs to that remarkable group of late medieval sovereigns who may be called the fathers of modern diplomacy, inasmuch as they relegated warfare to its proper place as the instrument of politics, and preferred the councilchamber to the battle-field.
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  • He was one of the three members of the sub-committee which actually drafted that instrument; and although John Adams is generally credited with having performed the principal part of that task, Samuel Adams was probably the author of most of the bill of rights.
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  • When he first read that instrument he was very much opposed to the consolidated government which it provided, but was induced to befriend it by resolutions which were passed at a mass meeting of Boston mechanics or "tradesmen" - his own firmest supporters - and by the suggestion that its ratification should be accompanied by a recommendation of amendments designed chiefly to supply the omission of a bill of rights.
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  • The despised Herati Tajik, in blue shirt and skull-cap, and with no instrument better than a three-cornered spade, is as skilled an agriculturist as is the Ghilzai engineer, but he cannot effect more than the limits of his water-supply will permit.
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  • The answer to this was found experimentally by Arthur Schuster, who suspended the whole instrument in delicate equilibrium, and observed the effect of introducing the radiation.
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  • This form of the instrument is often used in conjunction with the microscope, the mirror being attached to the eye-piece and the tube of the microscope being placed horizontally.
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  • It will readily be understood, for example, that a copy will be halfsize if the distance of the object from the instrument is double the distance of the instrument from the copy.
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  • The peasants are famous for their devotion to the Roman Catholic religion, their fervent loyalty to the House of Austria, their excellent marksmanship, and their love of singing and music, the zither being the national instrument.
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  • In 1907 an amendment to the constitution was adopted, which struck out from the instrument the clause requiring the payment of a registration fee of one dollar by each elector.
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  • In this instrument a considerable linear relative movement of the divided lens corresponds with a comparatively small separation of the double image, so that simple verniers reading to 6 1 0 in.
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  • The most important part, however, which this type of instrument seems to have played in the history of astronomy arises from the fact that one of them was in the possession of Bessel at Konigsberg during the time when his new observatory there was being built.
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  • But he was so delighted with the general performance of the instrument, with the sharpness of the images and the possibilities which a kindred construction offered for the measurement of FIG.
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  • Its dimensions are similar to those of the former instrument.
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  • Bessel, having been consulted by the celebrated statesman, Sir Robert Peel, on behalf of the Radcliffe trustees, as to what instrument, added to the Radcliffe Observatory, would probably most promote the advancement of astronomy, strongly advised the selection of a heliometer.
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  • As the transit of Venus of 1874 approached, prepara tions were set on foot by the German Government in good time; a commission of the most celebrated astronomers was appointed, and it was resolved that the heliometer should be the instrument chiefly relied on.
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  • This instrument suggested to Struve the abovementioned idea of employing a similar motion for the heliometer.
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  • The instrument so altered was in use at the Cape Observatory from March 1881 till 1887 in determining the parallax of some of the more interesting southern stars.
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  • The instrument then passed, by purchase from Gill, to Lord McLaren, by whom it was presented to the Royal Observatory, Edinburgh.
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  • The instrument is shown in fig.
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  • The hour circle is also read by microscopes, and the instrument can be used in both positions (tube preceding and following) for elimination of the effect of flexure on the position angles.
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  • The two handles 82 serve for manipulating the instrument.
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  • Experience has shown that there is little that can be advantageously changed to improve this instrument either in convenience or precision of working.
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  • Should Clausen's micrometer be employed as an astronomical instrument, it would be well to adopt the improvement of Helmholtz.
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  • The last improvement on this instrument is mentioned in the Report of the R.A.S.
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  • He, however, successfully employed the instrument in measuring double stars, so close as I" or 2", and using a power of 300 diameters, with results that agreed satisfactorily amongst themselves and with those obtained with the filar micrometer.
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  • If Struve had employed a properly proportioned double circular diaphragm, fixed symmetrically with the axis of the telescope in front of the divided lens and turning with the micrometer, it is probable that his report on the instrument would have been still more favourable.
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  • A similar instrument is used in surgery for operations involving the excision of portions of bone.
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  • Buchanan, which has an arbitrary scale and can be varied in weight by placing small metal rings on the stem so as to depress the scale to any desired depth in sea-water of any salinity, the specific gravity being calculated for each reading by dividing the total weight by the immersed volume; (3) the total immersion areometer, which has no scale and the weight of which can be adjusted so that the instrument can be brought so exactly to the specific gravity of the water sample that it remains immersed, neither floating nor sinking; this has the advantage of 'eliminating the effects of surface tension and in Fridtjof Nansen's pattern is capable of great precision.
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  • Nansen perfected the instrument, adapting it not only for enclosing a portion of water at any desired depth, but by a series of concentric divisions insulating in the central compartment water at the temperature it had at the moment of collection.
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  • The last elaboration of the insulated slip water-bottle by Ekman, Nansen and Pettersson has produced an instrument of great perfection, in which the insulation is effected by layers of water between a series of concentric ebonite cylinders, all of which are closed both above and below when the apparatus encloses a sample, and each of which in turn must be warmed considerably before there is any rise of temperature in the chamber within.
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  • The principle is to have a constriction in the tube above the bulb so proportioned that when the instrument is upright it acts in every way as an ordinary mercurial thermometer, but when it is inverted the thread of mercury breaks at the constriction, and the portion above the point runs down the now reversed tube and remains there as a measure of the temperature at the moment of turning over.
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  • This may be done by the method suggested by Arago in 1828, introduced by Aime in 1841 and again suggested by Glaisher in 1858, of sealing up the whole instrument in a glass tube exhausted of air; or, less effectively, by surrounding the bulb alone with a strong outer sheath of glass.
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  • Immediately after his return from Montreal he was a member of the committee of five appointed to draw up the Declaration of Independence, but he took no actual part himself in drafting that instrument, aside from suggesting the change or insertion of a few words in Jefferson's draft.
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  • Alexander was also an idealist, but his ideals were apt to centre in himself; his dislike and distrust of talents that overshadowed his own were disarmed for a while by the singular charm of Speranski's personality, but sooner or later he was bound to discover that he himself was regarded as but the most potent instrument for the attainment of that ideal end, a regenerated Russia, which was his minister's sole preoccupation.
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  • Some writers deny the company's right under this instrument to rule as they proceeded to do; but at any rate what they did was to make the suffrage dependent on stringent religious tests, and to repress with determined zeal all theological " vagaries " and " whimsies."
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  • It must be admitted, however, that both the tools and the processes have escaped the archaeologist, as they did "the ablest goldsmiths in Spain, for they never could conceive how they had been made, there being no sign of a hammer or an engraver or any other instrument used by them, the Indians having none such" (Herrera).
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  • An instrument for superintending this coordination in the social and economic aspects was ready to hand in the Economic Council of the German Reich, set up by the new Republican constitution of 1919.
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  • The instrument was a ingenuity, and was called "the mathematical jewel."
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  • This was the instrument used by Columbus.
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  • At the beginning of the 19th century a revival of the popularity of this instrument took place, and quartets were played on four sets of pipes of different sizes and pitch.
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  • For this purpose the ohmmeter is provided with a small dynamo D, contained in a box, which produces a continuous electromotive force of from 200 to 500 volts when the handle of the instrument is steadily turned.
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  • The Evershed and Vignoles form of the instrument is much used in testing the insulation resistance of electric wiring in houses.
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  • In this case the dynamo and ohmmeter are combined in one instrument.
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  • Hence the instrument can be graduated to show this directly.
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  • Chebichev further constructed an instrument for drawing large circles, and an arithmetical machine with continuous motion.
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  • To this period belong five Masses, a dozen operas, over thirty clavier-sonatas, over forty quartets, over a hundred orchestral symphonies and overtures, a Stabat Mater, a set of interludes for the service of the Seven Words, an Oratorio Tobias written for the Tonkiinstler-Societe t of Vienna, and a vast number of concertos, divertimenti and smaller pieces, among which were no less than 175 for Prince Nicholas' favourite instrument, the baryton.
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  • As a substantive the term is used of a surgical instrument for the exploration of a wound, cavity, &c., a probe.
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  • Neither this instrument nor the next to be described is now used for exact work; they merely serve as illustrations of the law of pitch.
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  • The inventor has given to this instrument the name of the many-voiced siren.
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  • The interval between and 44 = 44 - -- 8 01 is termed a " comma," and is so small that the same note on an instrument may serve for both.
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  • For this purpose a simple mechanism is found in the instrument, by means of which the fixed upper plate can be turned round and placed in any position relatively to the lower one.
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  • The submission may be missions; effected sometimes by parol, sometimes by written instrument, sometimes by deed or deed poll.
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  • The instrument generally employed is a bag-shaped net attached to a semicircular hoop, provided with a long handle and pushed over the surface of the sand by a fisherman wading in the water at ebb-tide.
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  • Peckham's main instrument was a minute system of "visitation," which he used with a frequency hitherto unknown.
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  • Although at first unfriendly to the Federal Constitution as drafted by the convention at Philadelphia, he was finally won over to its support, and in 1788 he presided over the Massachusetts convention which ratified the instrument.
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  • As his trusted adviser, Miot de Melito, observed in his memoirs, Joseph tried to be constitutional king of Spain, whereas after the experience of the years 1808-1809 he could only succeed in the Peninsula by becoming "the mere instrument of a military power."
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  • He did not make a study apart of antiquity for its own sake, but used it as an instrument of culture.
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  • Regular work with this instrument, inaugurated at Kew by De la Rue in 1858, was carried on there for fourteen years; and was continued at the Royal Observatory, Greenwich, from 1873 to 1882.
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  • Universal doubt Ancient was the instrument which the sceptics of antiquity recommended for the attainment of complete peace of mind.
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  • In later days it became the chief instrument of foreign ambassadors for dissolving inconvenient diets, as a deputy could always be bribed to exercise his veto for a handsome consideration.
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  • An account of the work he did with this instrument was published in 1660 under the title New Experiments PhysicoMechanical touching the spring of air and its effects.
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  • A close and somewhat strange intimacy, considering the difference in the characters and ideals of the two men, between Laud and Buckingham now began, and proved the chief instrument of Laud's advancement.
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  • Puttkammer was the chosen instrument of the Clerical Conservative policy initiated by Bismarck when the Socialist peril made it expedient to conciliate the Catholic Centre.
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  • Owing to the famine and the disturbed state of the country, which demanded his attention as a large landowner and lieutenant of King's County (from 1831), the instrument remained unused for nearly three years, but since 1848 it has been in constant use, chiefly for observations of nebulae, for which it was particularly suited on account of its immense optical power, nominally 6000.
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  • The instrument has a focal length of 54 ft.
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  • The term potentiometer is usually applied to an instrument for the measurement of steady or continuous potential difference between two points in terms of the potential difference of the terminals of a standard voltaic cell of some kind, such as a Clark or Weston cell.
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  • The fixed coil is called the current coil, and the movable coil is called the potential coil, and each of these coils has its ends brought to separate terminals on the base of the instrument.
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  • The principle on which the instrument works is as follows: Suppose any circuit, such as an electric motor, lamp or transformer, is receiving electric current; then the power given to that circuit reckoned in watts is measured by the product of the current flowing through the circuit in amperes and the potential difference of the ends of that circuit in volts, multiplied by a certain factor called the power factor in those cases in which the circuit is inductive and the current alternating.
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  • When the currents flow through the two coils, forces are brought into action compelling the coils to set their axes in the same direction, and these forces can be opposed by another torque due to the control of a spiral spring regulated by moving a torsion head on the instrument.
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  • The framework and case of the instrument must be completely non-metallic, else eddy currents induced in the supports will cause disturbing forces to act upon the movable coil.
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  • In January 1561 he was given the lucrative office of master of the court of wards in succession to Sir Thomas Parry, and he did something to reform that instrument of tyranny and abuse.
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  • With the first instrument of this kind, having objectives of 1 5 inch aperture, he measured the brightness of 4260 stars, including all stars down to the 6th magnitude between the North Pole and - 30° declination.
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  • With the object of reaching fainter stars, Professor Pickering constructed another instrument of larger dimensions, and with this more than a million observations have been made.
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  • The instrument was then returned to Cambridge (U.S.A.), where the survey extended so as to include all stars of magnitude 7.5 down to - 40° declination, after which it was once more sent back to Arequipa.
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  • Money, "the great wheel of circulation," is altogether different from the goods which are circulated by means of it; it is a costly instrument by means of which all that each individual receives is distributed to him; and the expenditure required, first to provide it, and afterwards to maintain it, is a deduction from the net revenue of the society.
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  • The word is particularly used of the cord of a bow, and of the stretched cords of gut and wire upon a musical instrument, the vibration of which.
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  • Refusing to entangle himself in the abortive and equivocal schemes of Lepidus to subvert the Sullan constitution, Caesar took up the only instrument of political warfare left to the opposition by prosecuting two senatorial governors, Cn.
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  • He made it clear from the first might prove a useful instrument for carrying out the Society's objects.
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  • After a preliminary examination of all possible different attempts at a solution of the problem of evil, the attempt is here made to represent the devil as an instrument of God.
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  • The constitution which then went into effect provided for a General Court consisting of a Senate and a House of Representatives and made the Council a body advisory to the state president; the 1784 instrument was much amended in 1792, when the title of president was changed to governor, but with the amendments adopted in that year it is in large measure the constitution of to-day.
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  • Six states had ratified the Federal constitution when the New Hampshire convention met at Exeter on the 13th of February 1788, to accept or reject that instrument, and so great was the opposition to it among the delegates from the central part of the state that after a discussion of ten days the leaders in favour of ratification dared not risk a decisive vote, but procured an adjournment in order that certain delegates who had been instructed to vote against it might consult their constituents.
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  • He suggested, though he did not elaborate, the theory of the myth, so potent an instrument for good and ill in modern historical criticism.
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  • A voltmeter isan instrument for measuring difference of electric potential in terms of the unit called a volt.
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  • A voltmeter is therefore one form of electrometer, but the term is generally employed to describe the instrument which indicates on a scale, not merely in arbitrary units but directly in volts, the potential difference of its terminals.
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  • This movement is resisted by the torsional elasticity of the suspending wire, and hence a fixed indicating needle attached to the movable system can be made to indicate directly on a scale, the difference of potential between the terminals of the instrument in volts.
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  • For such purposes the whole of the working parts are contained in a metal case; the indicating needle moving over a divided scale which is calibrated to show directly the potential difference in volts of the terminals of the instrument.
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  • For use at the switch-boards of electric supply stations the instrument takes another form known as the "edge-wise" pattern.
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  • Electromagnetic voltmeters consist of a coil of fine wire connected to the terminals of the instrument, and the current produced in that wire by a difference of potential between the terminals creates a magnetic field proportional at any point to the strength of the current.
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  • In this instrument there is a fixed permanent magnet, producing a.
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  • The movable coil has attached to it an index needle moving over a scale, and a fixed coil of high-resistance wire is included in series with the movable coil between the terminals of the instrument.
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  • Consider, for instance, a hot-wire instrument, such as a Cardew's voltmeter.
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  • If the wire has a resistance of 300 ohms and is connected to two points differing in potential by 100 volts, the instrument passes a current of one-third of an ampere and takes up 33 watts in power.
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  • Since there are 8760 hours in a year, if such an instrument were connected continuously to the circuit it would take up energy equal to 263,000 watt-hours, or 260 Board of Trade units per annum, If the cost of production of this energy was only one penny per unit, the working expenses of keeping such a voltmeter in connexion with a circuit would therefore be more than £i per annum, representing a capitalized value of, say, £io.
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  • Electrostatic instruments, however, take up no power and hence cost nothing for maintenance other than wear and tear of the instrument.
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  • It is therefore always necessary to check the readings of such an instrument in situ.
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  • Electrostatic voltmeters are also liable to have their indications disturbed by electrification of the glass cover of the instrument; this can be avoided by varnishing the glass with a semi-conducting varnish so as to prevent the location of electrostatic charges on the glass.
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  • By Lord Lyndhurst's act, the Nonconformist Chapels Act 1844, where no particular religious doctrine or mode of worship has been prescribed by the deed or instrument of trust the usage of the congregation for twenty-five years is to be taken as conclusive evidence of the doctrine and worship which may be properly observed in such meeting-houses.
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  • This feature is the existence of a supreme instrument of government, a document, enacted by the people, which controls, and cannot be altered by, any or all of the ordinary organs of government.
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  • They have now become very long and elaborate documents, seven, eight or ten times as long as the Federal Constitution, and containing a vast number of provisions on all sorts of subjects, many of them partaking of the nature of ordinary statutes passed by a legislature rather than safeguards suitable to a fundamental instrument.
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  • But they were, considering the conditions under which the instrument was framed, comparatively few, and the Constitution, when one regards it as a piece of drafting, deserves the admiration which it has received from nearly all American and most foreign critics.
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  • When the instrument was played, the vibrations were transmitted silently, and became audible in the lyre, which thus appeared to play of itself.
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  • While in Paris perfecting a receiving instrument for submarine cables, Sir Charles Wheatstone caught cold, and died on the 19th of October 1875.
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  • A cryptographic machine, which changed the cipher automatically and printed a message, entirely unintelligible until translated by a duplicate instrument, was one of the most perfect examples of this.
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  • Acting on this hint, not Aristotle but the Peripatetics inferred that all logic is an instrument (6pyavov) of all sciences; and by the time of Andronicus, who was one of them and sometimes called " the eleventh from Aristotle," the order, LogicPhysics-Metaphysics, had become established pretty much as we have it now.
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  • With Plato, who thought that the interrogation of man is the best instrument of truth, dialectic was exaggerated into a universal science of everything that is.
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  • He really left the Peripatetics to combine his scattered discourses and treatises into a system, to call it logic, and logic Organon, and to put it first as the instrument of sciences; and it was the Stoics who first called logic a science, and assigned it the first place in their triple classification of science into logic, physics, ethics.
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  • A similar use of birch rods has continued among pedagogues to times so recent that the birch is yet, literally or metaphorically, the instrument of school-room discipline.
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  • This instrument was devised for the purpose of detecting counterfeit coin, especially guineas and half-guineas.
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  • It is usually made of glass, the lower bulb being loaded with mercury or small shot which serves as ballast, causing the instrument to float with the stem vertical.
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  • The quantity of mercury or shot inserted depends upon the density of the liquids for which the hydrometer is to be employed, it being essential that the whole of the bulb should be immersed in the heaviest liquid for which the instrument is used, while the length and diameter of the stem must be such that the hydrometer will float in the lightest liquid for which it is required.
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  • Let V denote the volume of the inEssay Instrument.
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  • Also W = (V +IA)w i; or w1=W/(V+/A), w p =W/(V+plA), and wn =W/(Vd-nIA), or the densities of the several liquids vary inversely as the respective volumes of the instrument immersed in them; and, since the divisions of the scale correspond to equal increments of volume immersed, it follows that the densities of the several liquids in which the instrument sinks to the successive divisions form a harmonic series.
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  • If V = N/A then N expresses the ratio of the volume of the instrument up to the zero of the scale to that of one of the scale-divisions.
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  • If we suppose the lower part of the instrument replaced by a uniform bar of the same sectional area as the stem and of volume V, the indications of the instrument will be in no respect altered, and the bottom of the bar will be at a distance of N scale-divisions below the zero of the scale.
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