How to use Instituted in a sentence

instituted
  • Dorset's beneficent intentions for his sons' pedagogue probably suggested Wolsey's ordination as priest at Marlborough on March ro, 1498, and on October io, r50o, he was instituted, on Dorset's presentation, to the rectory of Limington in Somerset.

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  • Indeed it would seem that Domitian instituted a persecution of the Jews, to which Nerva his successor put an end.

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  • It is his duty also to induct the clergy of his archdeaconry into the temporalities of their benefices after they have been instituted into the spiritualities by the bishop or his vicar-general.

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  • Here he instituted evening nave services.

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  • Elaborate legal enactments codified in Babylonia by the 10th century B.C. find striking parallels in Hebrew, late Jewish (Talmudic), Syrian and Mahommedan law, or in the unwritten usages of all ages; for even where there were neither written laws nor duly instituted lawgivers, there was no lawlessness, since custom and belief were, and still are, almost inflexible.

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  • But, still clinging to the groundless belief, for which British statesmen had, of late at least, afforded Turkey no justification, that Great Britain at all events would support him, he obstinately refused to give ear to the pressing requests of the Powers that the necessary reforms should be instituted.

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  • The movement was especially strong in the diocese of Liege, and when Julienne, prioress of Mont-Cornillon near Liege (1222-1258), had a vision in which the need for the establishment of a festival in honour of the Sacrament was revealed to her, the matter was taken up with enthusiasm by the clergy, and in 1246 Robert de Torote, bishop of Liege, instituted such a festival for his diocese.

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  • The substantial education supplied by the parish schools, of which nearly the whole population could then avail themselves, had diffused through all ranks such a measure of intelligence as enabled them promptly to discern and skilfully and energetically to take advantage of this spring-tide of prosperity, and to profit by the agricultural information now plentifully furnished by means of the Bath and West of England Society, established in 1777; the Highland Society, instituted in 1784; and the National Board of Agriculture, in 1793.

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  • This body was instituted in 1798 as the Smithfield Cattle and Sheep Society, the title being [[Table Xix]].

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  • In 1895 the Smithfield Club instituted a carcase competition in association with its annual show of fat stock, and it has been continued each year since.

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  • The party which had set up the Committee of Public Safety was now struck down by the very man who through the Directory inherited by direct lineal descent the dictatorial powers instituted in the spring of 1793 for the salvation of the republic. It remains to add that the suspects in the plot of October 1800 were now guillotined (31st of January 1801), and that two of the plotters closely connected with the affair of Nivose were also executed (21st of April).

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  • First came the French princes, namely, the brothers of the emperor; six grand imperial dignities were also instituted, viz.

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  • Napoleon also suppressed the Tribunate; and in the year 1808 instituted an order of nobility.

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  • Then a new order " Picariae " is instituted for the reception of the Macrochires, Cuculinae, Picinae Psittacinae and Amphibolae of his old arrangement, to which are added three 3 others - Caprimulginae, Todidae and Lipoglossae - the last consisting of the genera Buceros, Upupa and Alcedo.

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  • The division seems to have been instituted by this author a couple of years earlier in the second edition of his Handbuch der Naturgeschichte (a work not seen by the present writer), but not then to have received a scientific name.

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  • In 1664 Sir John Cutler instituted for his benefit a mechanical lectureship of £50 a year, and in the following year he was nominated professor of geometry in Gresham College, where he subsequently resided.

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  • In a somewhat narrower sense, too, the Church of England at bast has never repudiated the conception of the Catholic Church as a divinely instituted organization for the safe-guarding and proclamation of the Christian revelation.

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  • Lessons of value may be learnt from the fate of similar work undertaken by the Cotton Supply Association, Suppl at on As= wh i ch was instituted in April 18 J 7.

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  • In pursuance of the policy of encouraging the self-governing powers of the Basuto, a national council was instituted and held its first sitting in July 1903.

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  • A crisis was brought on by his sermon on the resurrection, preached at Easter 1771; and in November 1773 a prosecution was instituted against him in the consistory court of Gloucester.

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  • Provincial governors were kept under strict supervision; extortion was practically unheard of; the jus Latii was bestowed upon several communities; special officials were instituted for the control of the finances; and the emperor's interest in provincial affairs was shown by his personal assumption of various municipal offices.

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  • Direct collection of taxes by imperial procurators was substituted for the system of farming, and a special official (advocatus fisci) was instituted to look after the interests of the imperial treasury.

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  • He amended the constitution in some respects, and instituted a new national festival, the Panhellenica.

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  • From an analogy instituted between the healthy human being and gold, the most perfect of the metals, silver, mercury, copper, iron, lead and tin, were regarded in the light of lepers that required to be healed.

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  • In America public laboratory instruction was first instituted at Yale College during the professorship of Benjamin Silliman.

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  • The custom of marriages between brothers and sisters, agreeable to old Persian as to old Egyptian ethics, was instituted in Egypt by the second Ptolemy when he married his full sister Arsinoe Philadelphus.

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  • One may notice that the first Ptolemy himself made a contribution of some value to historical literature in his account of Alexander's campaigns; the fourth Ptolemy not only instituted a cult of Homer but himself published tragedies; and even Ptolemy Euergetes II.

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  • The first proved instance of a cult of the latter kind is that instituted at.

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  • He renewed old taxes and instituted new, increased the tribute of the provinces, and kept a watchful eye upon the treasury officials.

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  • It should here be noted that, from the fiscal point of view, the reforms instituted at the commencement of the 19th century may be summarized thus.

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  • A commission (the successor of many) was instituted at the ministry of finance in 1910, to draw up proposals for setting this confusion in order.

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  • Yet the feelings of dismay and even ridicule with which this proclamation was received by the Mussulmans in many parts of the country show how great a change it instituted, and how strong was the opposition which it encountered among the ruling race.

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  • Towards the end of Mahmud II.'s reign ministries had been instituted, and a council of ministers had been established, presided over by the grand vizier.

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  • In 1837 a " council of public works " was instituted, converted ten years later into a separate ministry.

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  • In 1833 the reserves were instituted, and three years later reserve commandants were appointed in six principal provinces.

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  • The direction of the police, formerly left to the Janissaries, was formed into a ministry, and a body of gendarmerie was instituted.

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  • At the council proceedings were instituted against him, which ended at last on the 26th of July 1417 in his deposition.

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  • He was a distinguished educationist who fought for the retention of the Latin classics in the schools and instituted the celebrated catechetical method of St Sulpice.

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  • In Prussia the superintendents now wear pectoral crosses (instituted by the emperor William II.).

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  • Four captains of the people (hejtmane) were elected, one of whom was Zizka; and a very strictly military discipline was instituted.

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  • The Benefices Act 1898 substitutes and makes obligatory on every person about to be instituted to a benefice a simpler and more stringent form of declaration against simony.

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  • The present governing charter was granted by Elizabeth in 1596, and instituted a governing body of a mayor, fourteen masters or councillors, and an indefinite number of burgesses, including a select body called "the Twenty-men."

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  • He probably also instituted the "plebeian" games.

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  • At Abuzabel, near Cairo, he founded a hospital and schools for all branches of medical instruction, as well as for the study of the French language; and, notwithstanding the most serious religious difficulties, instituted the study of anatomy by means of dissection.

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  • The united diet which was opened on the 3rd of February 1847 was no more than a congregation of the diets instituted by Frederick William III.

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  • According to the traditional account, Romulus instituted a cavalry corps, consisting of three centuriae (" hundreds"), called after the three tribes from which they were taken (Ramnes, Tities, Luceres), divided into ten turmae (" squadrons") of thirty men each.

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  • Another important officer of the later Roman court was the comes sacri patrimonii, who was instituted by the emperor Anastasius.

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  • That they instituted a rival congress of their own in Philippopolis is improbable.

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  • In 1910 it was renamed and appropriated to the uses of the Royal Scottish Academy of Painting, Sculpture and Architecture, which was instituted in 1826, and incorporated by royal charter in 1838, on the model of the Royal Academy in London.

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  • They are held in the public square, the curious and historic Piazza del Campo (now Piazza di Vittorio Emanuele) in shape resembling an ancient theatre, on the 2nd of July and the 16th of August of each year; they date from the middle ages and were instituted in commemoration of victories and in honour of the Virgin Mary (the old title of Siena, as shown by seals and medals, having been "Sena vetus civitas Virginis").

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  • The genus Pelecanus as instituted by Linnaeus included the 1 This caution was not neglected by the prudent, even so long ago as Sir Thomas Browne's days; for he, recording the occurrence of a pelican in Norfolk, was careful to notice that about the same time one of the pelicans kept by the king (Charles II.) in St James's Park, had been lost.

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  • He wrote poems of all kinds in a language hitherto employed only for ballads and hymns; he instituted a theatre, and composed a rich collection of comedies for it; he filled the shelves of the citizens with works in their own tongue on history, law, politics, science, philology and philosophy, all written in a true and manly style, and representing the extreme attainment of European culture at the moment.

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  • In 1866 the Cobden Club was founded in London, to promote free-trade economics, and it became a centre for political propaganda on those lines; and prizes were instituted in his name at Oxford and Cambridge.

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  • This party instituted an elementary form of government, and in 1840 entered into a loose confederation with the Natal Boers, and also with the Boers south of the Vaal, whose headquarters were at Winburg.

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  • He at the same time instituted what was called a second chamber, the franchise qualifications for which were easier, but which was not endowed with any real power.

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  • He determined to make the area of operations a waste, and instituted the concentration camps, into which he intended to bring the whole of the noncombatant inhabitants of the two republics.

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  • It was instituted in 165 B.C. in commemoration of, and thanksgiving for, the purification of the temple at Jerusalem on this day by Judas Maccabaeus after its pollution by Antiochus Epiphanes, king of Syria, who in 168 B.C. set up a pagan altar to Zeus Olympius.

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  • The first charter of incorporation was granted by Queen Mary in 1553, and instituted a common council consisting of a bailiff, 12 aldermen and 12 chief burgesses; a court of record, one justice of the peace, a Thursday market and two annual fairs.

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  • They, however, persisted obstinately in their opposition to Damasus, combating him at first by riots, and then by calumnious law-suits, such as that instituted by one Isaac, a converted and relapsed Jew.

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  • Games called Assinarian, from the name of the river at which the final surrender occurred, were instituted to commemorate it.

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  • The Post Office thereupon instituted a separate system of exchanges and lines, intercommunication between the two systems being arranged.

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  • The Order of Mercy was instituted by the King as a reward for distinguished personal service.

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  • In course of time there was a widespread desire in Europe for a stricter rule among the monks, and reforms of the Benedictine rule were instituted at Cluni (910), Chartreuse (about 1080) and Citeaux (1098).

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  • At the beginning of the 13th century the remarkable evangelical revival, instituted almost simultaneously by St Dominic and St Francis, swept over Europe.

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  • He was originally a king's officer and the office was probably instituted soon after the Conquest.

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  • The order, which was instituted in 1886, was responsible for the Stuart exhibition of 1889, and has a newspaper, the Royalist.

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  • Two possible eventualities had especially to be feared - the sea might get up, or a heavy bombardment of the beaches might be instituted by the Turks while the final evacuation was in progress.

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  • A Patamabyan examination for marks in the Pali language was first instituted in 1896 and is held annually.

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  • In Upper Burma the chief source of revenue is the thathameda, a tithe or income tax which was instituted by King Mindon, and was adopted by the British very much as they found it.

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  • He, like his predecessors, openly attacked all distinctions of caste, and taught the equality of all men who would join him, and he instituted a ceremony of initiation with baptismal holy water by which all might enter the Sikh fraternity.

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  • A cadastral survey seems also to have been instituted, and one of the documents relating to it states that a certain Uru-Malik, whose name appears to indicate his Canaanitish origin, was governor of the land of the Amorites, as Syria and Palestine were called by the Babylonians.

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  • The existence of these works of art attracts students from all countries, and a German art school subsidized by the imperial government has been instituted.

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  • The township government of Greenwich was instituted in the colonial period.

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  • The meetings took place either in the Rathaus, or town hall, or, when they were held - as was usually the case - on Sunday, in the church; and three times a year, at Easter, Whitsuntide and Christmas, special festivals and singing competitions were instituted.

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  • He compiled the Koran, instituted the civil list, regulated the military organization.

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  • It was instituted in 1755 at the White Bear Inn (now St Bride's Tavern), Fleet Street, moved about 1850 to Discussion Hall, Shoe Lane, and in 1871 finally migrated to the Barley Mow Inn, Salisbury Square, E.C., its present quarters.

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  • The grand duke Cosmo I., a genuine statesman, not only restored the university, but instituted the "uffizio dei fossi," or drainage office for the reclamation of marsh lands, and founded the knighthood of St Stephen.

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  • Antiochus of Commagene instituted an order of priests to celebrate the anniversary of his birth and coronation in a special sanctuary, and the kings of Pergamum claimed divine honours for themselves and their wives during their lifetime.

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  • In the preface to it he took occasion to express his approval of Louis Napoleon's coup d'etat of the 2nd of December, - " a fortunate crisis which has set aside the parliamentary system and instituted a dictatorial republic."

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  • The diet at Worms in 1495 chose Frankfort as the seat of the newly instituted imperial chamber, or " Reichskammergericht," and it was not till 1527 that the chamber was removed to Spires.

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  • Resistance to the financial extortions of the government was cruelly chastised, and the "Chambre Ardente" was instituted against the Reformers.

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  • He holds a high place in the history of humanism by the foundation of the College de France; he did not found an actual college, but after much hesitation instituted in 1530, at the instance of Guillaume Bude (Budaeus), Lecteurs royaux, who in spite of the opposition of the Sorbonne were granted full liberty to teach Hebrew, Greek, Latin, mathematics, &c. The humanists Bude, Jacques Colin and Pierre Duchatel were the king's intimates, and Clement Marot was his favourite poet.

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  • They alone held the two offices, those of polemarch and archon, which were instituted during the 8th century B.C. to restrict the powers of the kings.

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  • He instituted temperance refreshment rooms, a congregational penny savings bank, and held services specially for the poor.

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  • In his time there was no fixed, divinely instituted congregational organization, no canon of New Testament Scriptures, no anti-Gnostic theology, and no Catholic Church.

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  • On his return to Europe he visited a second time several parts of Italy, and during his stay at Rome instituted inquiries into the ancient weights and measures.

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  • They were said to have been instituted by the Idaean Heracles, to commemorate his victory over his four brothers in a foot-race.

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  • It is stated by D'Herbelot that the era of the Hegira was instituted by Omar, the second caliph, in imitation of the Christian era of the martyrs.

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  • To promote the ends he had in view he suggested non-importation, instituted the Boston committees of correspondence, urged that a Continental Congress be called, sought out and introduced into public service such allies as John Hancock, Joseph Warren and Josiah Quincy, and wrote a vast number of articles for the newspapers, especially the Boston Gazette, over a multitude of signatures.

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  • Whilst making the school a strong one on the classical side, he instituted scholarships in natural science, built a laboratory, and gave importance to that side of the school work.

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  • A few months after his arrival (seventh year of Artaxerxes, 458 B.C.) he instituted a great religious reform, viz.

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  • A statute of 1899, authorized by a constitutional amendment of 1897, instituted a system of pensions for Confederate veterans.

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  • He was an ardent social reformer; he secured the abolition of corporal punishment in the schools, the suppression of lotteries, of houses of ill-fame and of obscene literature; he instituted reforms in the hospitals, and insisted on the honours of public burial for the poor.

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  • He resigned office on the proclamation of the republic after the flight of the pope to Gaeta in 1849, resumed it for a while when Pius returned to Rome with the protection of French arms, but when a reactionary and priestly policy was instituted, he went into exile and took up his residence at Turin.

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  • Missions are maintained in Ning-po by the Roman Catholic church, by the Church Missionary Society (1848), the American Presbyterians, the Reformed Wesleyans, the China Inland Mission (1857), &c. A mission hospital was instituted in 1843.

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  • The Latin doctors by arguments as good as those usually put forth in such controversies have no difficulty in proving that Christ instituted all seven.

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  • They contend even that extreme unction was so instituted, and that St James in his Epistle did but promulgate it.

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  • So Christ instituted confirmation non exhibendo sed promittendo, not by undergoing it and so setting it forth in His own person, but by promising to send the Paraclete.

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  • The sacrament of confession and penance He equally instituted when He assigned the power of the keys to the Apostles.

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  • The merchants combined to prevent the importation of goods which by law would yield the crown a revenue; and the patriots - as the anti-prerogative party called themselves - under the lead of Samuel Adams, instituted regular communication between the different towns, and afterwards, following the initiative of Virginia, with the other colonies, through " committees of correspondence "; a method of the utmost advantage thereafter in forcing on the revolution by intensifying and unifying the resistance of the colony, and by inducing the co-operation of other colonies.

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  • In 1563 a second Book of Homilies was submitted along with the 39 Articles to convocation; it was issued the same year under the title The second Tome of Homilies of such matters as were promised and instituted in the former part of Homilies, set out by the authority of the Queen's Majesty, and to be read in every Parish Church agreeably.

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  • The treuga Dei was decreed for Flanders at the Synod of Therouanne (1063) and was instituted in southern Italy in 1089, probably through Norman influence.

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  • The various inquiries instituted during the middle ages, such as the Domesday Book and the Breviary of Charlemagne, were so far on the Roman model that they took little or no account of the population, the feudal system probably rendering information regarding it unnecessary for the purposes of taxation or military service.

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  • Almost from the date of their taking possession of the Cape of Good Hope and its vicinity, the Netherlands East Indian Company instituted annual returns of population, livestock and agricultural produce.

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  • Foreign Countries Inquiries by local officials in connexion with measures of taxation, such as the hearth-tax in France, were instituted in continental Europe as early as the, 4th century; but as the basis of an estimate of population they were intrinsically untrustworthy.

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  • This loss of clerical prestige has been due in no small degree to the increasing habit of dispensing with a form of installation, and of substituting for a permanent pastorate, instituted with the advice and consent of a council, an engagement to serve as a minister for a fixed term of one or more years.

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  • A second-grade school was instituted out of the foundation in 1878.

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  • A paper currency had been instituted, and the notes - currently known as " bluebacks "- soon dropped to less than half their nominal value.

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  • The first ten years of his active reign passed in peace and quiet; agriculture, manufactures and industries were fostered, economical reforms instituted, and the heavy public debt of forty million thalers was steadily reduced.

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  • On the 25th of May 1671 the dignities of count and baron were introduced into Denmark "to give lustre to the court"; a few months later the order of the Danebrog was instituted as a fresh means of winning adherents by marks of favour.

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  • It became famous by the so-called "butchery of Eperjes," a tribunal instituted by the Austrian general Caraffa in 1687, which condemned to death and confiscated the property of a great number of citizens accused of Protestantism.

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  • On his return he entered Rome with an ovation (a minor form of triumph), temples were built, statues erected in his honour, and a special priesthood instituted to attend to his worship. The people were ground down by new forms of taxation and every kind of extortion, but on the whole Rome was free from internal disturbances during his reign; some insignificant conspiracies were discovered and rendered abortive.

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  • By Manetho his worship is said to have been instituted by Kaiechos of the Second Dynasty.

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  • The system of prohibition thus instituted, while aimed at Great Britain, was made general in its terms. Hence the importation into France of virtually all manufactured articles from foreign countries was completely interdicted; and such was the legislation' in force when peace came in 1815.

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  • This was instituted in 1300 by Boniface VIII., who pleaded a popular tradition for its celebration every hundredth year, though no written evidence could be found.

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  • Parker, closed his review of the reforms instituted in Germany and France by adding that in England there had classical been but little change.

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  • The leaving examination (Abgangspriifung), instituted in that year, required Greek translation at sight, with Greek prose composition, and ability to speak and to write Latin.

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  • Before 1415 he was instituted to the rectory of Boston in Lincolnshire, and in 1420 he was consecrated bishop of Lincoln.

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  • Estheria (RUppell, 1837) was instituted for the species dahalacensis, which Sars includes in his genus Leptestheria (1898); but Estheria was already appropriated, and of its synonyms Cyzicus (Audouin, 1837) is lost for vagueness, while Isaura (Joly, 5842) is also appropriated, so that Leptestheria becomes the name of the typical genus, and determines the name of the family.

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  • The French Bible Society, instituted in 1792, came to an end in 1803, owing to the Revolution.

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  • A college of Luperci, with the surname Juliani, was instituted in his honour and flamines were created as priests of his godhead.

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  • This Society, instituted to this special end, namely, to offer spiritual consolation for the advancement of souls in life and Christian doctrine, for the propagation of the faith by public preaching and the ministry of the word of God, spiritual exercises and works of charity and, especially, by the instruction .of children and ignorant people in Christianity, and by the spiritual, consolation of the faithful in Christ in hearing confessions...."

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  • He had begun his career as a clerk in the French Home Office, but at the outbreak of the Franco-German War he was editing Les Droits de l'homme at Montpellier, and had to take refuge at Geneva in 1871 from a prosecution instituted on account of articles which had appeared in his paper in defence of the Commune.

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  • The success which crowned his efforts was so great that in 1854 he was induced to enter the government service, as chief of the newly instituted statistical department.

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  • A constitution on the French imperial pattern granted by the king remained practically inoperative, an arbitrary bureaucratic regime was instituted, the finances were from the beginning in a hopeless condition, and the country was drained of men and money for Napoleon's wars.

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  • For here Jesus affirms his conviction, in view of his impending death, which unlike his disciples he foresaw, that, when the kingdom of God is instituted on earth, he will take his place in it.

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  • But the covenant instituted by Jesus on the eve of his death was hardly intended as a new covenant with God, superseding the old.

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  • It may be held as undoubted that the later Manichaeans celebrated mysteries analogous to Christian baptism and the Lord's Supper, which may have rested upon ancient consecration rites and other ceremonies instituted by Mani himself and having their origin in nature worship.

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  • Since 1903 the Dominion government has instituted a railway commission of three members with large powers of control over freight and passenger rates and other such matters.

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  • Since the amount of money in circulation was not sufficient to meet the demands of the increasing population, a system of state banks was instituted.

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  • Georgia's system of public instruction was not instituted until 1870, but as early as 1817 the legislature provided a fund for the education in the private schools of the state of children of indigent parents.

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  • An additional class was instituted for the reception of Dentalium and its few allies, and for this class Bronn's name Scaphopoda was used.

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  • Trinity House is a charity for seamen of the merchant service; the building (1753) was founded by the Trinity House Gild instituted in 1369, and contains a noteworthy collection of paintings and a museum.

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  • Though he approved of the French Revolution, his sympathies were with the more moderate party, and he became a member of the "club of 1789," instituted to support the new form of constitutional monarchy in opposition to the anarchical attempts of the Jacobins.

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  • At the conference of 1899, moreover, a court of arbitration was instituted for the purpose of dealing judicially with such matters in dispute as the powers agreed to submit to it.

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  • As a result of the severe famine of 1878-1879, Lord Lytton's government instituted a form of insurance against famine known as the Famine Insurance Grant.

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  • The first three of these services were abolished in 1859 by royal warrant - that is to say by the exercise of the same authority which had instituted them.

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  • The new pope - a man of high moral character, great sagacity, eloquence, and of a kindly disposition - at once instituted an entirely different policy from that pursued by his predecessor.

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  • A suit was instituted against the Carafa, and Cardinal Carafa was even executed.

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  • Some mild forms of boycott have occasionally been instituted.

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  • The sinking fund was formerly divided among certain favoured banks in such manner as would best advance the political interests of the organization which controlled the state; but just after the reform victory in the election of 1905 the sinking fund commission instituted the policy of buying bonds at the market price, and the debt is now being reduced by that method.

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  • This Congregation, established in 1542 by Paul III., constitutes the tribunal of the Inquisition, of which the origins are much older, since it was instituted in the 13th century against the Albigenses.

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  • With this should be connected the commission for historical studies, instituted in 1883 by Leo XIII., at the same time as he threw the Vatican archives freely open to scholars.

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  • Chalcedon was repudiated afresh, union with the Jacobites instituted, use of water and leaven in the Eucharist condemned, the five days' preliminary fast before Lent restored, Saturday as well as Sunday made a day of feasting and synaxis, any but the orthodox excluded from the Maundy Thursday Communion, the first communion of the new catechumens; union of the Baptismal and Christmas feasts was restored, and the faithful forbidden to fast on Fridays from Easter until Pentecost.

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  • The Court of Chivalry was a court instituted by Edward III., of which the lord high constable and earl marshal of England were joint judges.

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  • After his father's death he instituted splendid funeral games in his honour, which were celebrated by artists and poets, such as Stesichorus.

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  • It is, however, certain that the " most noble " Order of the Garter at least was instituted in the middle of the 14th century, when English chivalry was outwardly brightest and the court most magnificent.

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  • There are also certain orders, such as the recently instituted Order of Merit (British), and the Pour le Merite (Prussia), which have but one class, all members being on an equality of rank within the order.

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  • The " most illustrious " Order of St Patrick was instituted by George III.

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  • Of these the first was instituted in 1861 and enlarged in 1876.1897 and 1903, in three classes, knights grand commanders, knights commanders and companions, and the second was established (for " companions " only) in 1878 and enlarged in 1887, 1892, 1897 and 1903, also in the same three classes, in commemoration of Queen Victoria's assumption of the imperial style and title of the Empress of India.

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  • The Royal Victorian Order was instituted by Queen Victoria on the 25th of April 1896,' and conferred for personal services rendered to her majesty and her successors on the throne.

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  • The Imperial Service Order was likewise instituted on the 26th of June 1902, and finally revised in 1908, to commemorate King Edward's coronation, and is specially designed as a recognition of faithful and meritorious services rendered to the British Crown by the administrative members of the civil service in various parts of the Empire, and is to consist of companions only.

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  • The Royal Order of Victoria and Albert, which was instituted in 1862, is a purely court distinction.

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  • The Order of the Iron Cross, the badge of which is a black cross with gold borders, with a gold centre bearing a lion, was instituted by Leopold II.

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  • The military cross was instituted in 1885.

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  • There are also the following orders instituted by Leopold II.

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  • The Order of SS Cyril and Methodius was instituted in 1909 by King Ferdinand to commemorate the elevation of the principality to the position of an independent kingdom.

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  • The Legion of Honour, the only order of France, and one which in its higher grades ranks in estimation with the highest European orders, was instituted by Napoleon Bonaparte on the 19th of May 1802 (29 Floreal of the year X.) as a general military and civil order of merit.

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  • In 1805 the rank of "Grand Eagle " (now Grand Cross, or Grand Cordon) was instituted, taking precedence of the grand officers.

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  • The Order of Fidelity or Loyalty (Hausorden der Treue) was instituted by William, margrave of Baden-Durlach in 1715, and reconstituted in 1803 by the elector Charles Frederick.

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  • The Order of St George (one class only) was instituted by King Ernest Augustus I.

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  • In 1866 a special grand cross was instituted for the crown prince (afterwards Frederick III.) and Prince Frederick Charles.

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  • Other Prussian orders are the Order of William, instituted by William II.

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  • The Order of the Redeemer was founded as such in 1833 by King Otto, being a conversion of a decoration of honour instituted in 1829 by the National Assembly at Argos.

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  • In 1892 Queen Wilhelmina instituted the Order of Orange-Nassau with five classes.

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  • The cross Pro Ecclesia et Pontifice, instituted by Leo XIII.

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  • The Order of Knights of Alcantara, instituted about 1156 by the brothers Don Suarez and Don Gomez de Barrientos for protection against the Moors.

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  • The Order of Isabella the Catholic was founded in 1815 under the patronage of St Isabella, wife of Diniz of Portugal; originally instituted to reward loyalty in defence of the Spanish possessions in America, it is now a general order of merit, in three classes.

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  • The Japanese orders have all been instituted by the emperor Mutsu Hito.

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  • In 1878 a map of the park based upon triangulation was drawn up by the Hayden survey, and in 1883-85 a more detailed map was made by the United States Geological Survey, and a systematic study of its geological phenomena was instituted.

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  • David Brandeis of Jung-Bunzlau in Bohemia was saved from an accusation of poisoning on the 10th of Adar 1731, and instituted a similar family Purim celebration in consequence.

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  • Thus St Augustine 54 ad Januar.) mentions it as having been kept from time immemorial and as probably instituted by the apostles Chrysostom, in his homily on the ascension, mentions a celebration of the festival in the church of Romanesia outside Antioch, and Socrates (Hist.

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  • During the World War he issued, in 1915, an order barring unneutral envelopes and cards from the mails, and after America became a belligerent he instituted a censorship designed to suppress treasonable and seditious newspapers.

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  • In this reign the system of appointing Phanariote Greeks to the principalities of Moldavia and Wallachia was instituted.

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  • Bruce castle, on the site of the old mansion of the Bruces, but built probably by Sir William Compton in the beginning of the 16th century, was occupied by a boarding-school founded by Mr (afterwards Sir) Rowland Hill in 1827 on the system instituted by him at Hazlewood, Birmingham.

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  • Presentation is the act of a patron in offering his clerk to the bishop, to be instituted in a benefice of his gift.

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  • In a presentative advowson, the patron presents a clergyman to the bishop, with the petition that he be instituted into the vacant living.

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  • A new university was formed at Liege, normal schools for the instruction of teachers were instituted, and numerous elementary schools and schools for higher instruction were established over the country.

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  • The title of Knight Harbinger was taken from an office no longer existing in the Royal Household, and a regular gradation was instituted for the honorific titles and decorations assigned to members.

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  • Celeus endeavoured to kill him on his return, but Demeter intervened and forced him to surrender his country to Triptolemus, who named it Eleusis after his father and instituted the festival of Demeter called Thesmophoria.

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  • Its chief buildings are the citadel and many mosques, one of which is an ancient Byzantine basilica, originally a 1 Prince von Billow was credited with suggesting in his correspondence on the question of the Bundesrath that a tribunal of arbitration should be instituted to deal with all questions of capture.

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  • In 1816 the first annual conference was held, id in 1843 there was instituted a general conference, composed delegates chosen by the annual conferences and constituting ie highest legislative and judicial authority in the church.

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  • He instituted by proclamation of the 19th of April a blockade of the Southern ports, took effective steps to extemporize a navy, convened Congress in special session (on the 4th of July), and asked for legislation and authority to make the war "short, sharp and decisive."

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  • Partly to provide for the expenses of this court, partly to furnish Maximilian with the promised monetary aid, a tax called the common penny was instituted, this impost taking the form both of a property tax and of a poll tax.

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  • So long as the repressive machinery instituted by the Carlsbad Decrees worked smoothly, Germany was not likely to be troubled by revolutions.

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  • They were at first placed under the direction of a special department of the Foreign Office, and in 1890 a council of experts on colonial matters was instituted, while in 1907 a separate office for colonial affairs was created.

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  • They alone have kept the spiritual baptism with fire which Christ instituted, and which has no connexion with the water baptism of John; for the latter was an unregenerate soul, who failed to recognize the Christ, a Jew whose mode of baptism with water belongs to the fleeting outward world and is opposed to the kingdom of God.

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  • Menabrea disavowed Garibaldi and instituted judicial proceedings against him; but in negotiations with the French government he protested against the retention of the temporal power by the pope and insisted on the Italian right of interference in Rome.

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  • Since that year the empire had been the subject of numerous experiments in government; by the last, which began in 1860, Landtage or diets have been instituted in each of the territories on a nearly uniform system and with nearly identical powers, and by the constitution published in February 1861 (the February Constitution, as it is called), which is still the ultimate basis for the government, there was instituted a Reichsrath or parliament for the whole empire; it consisted of a House of Lords (Herren- haus), in which sat the archbishops and prince bishops, members of the imperial family, and other members appointed for life, besides some hereditary members, and a Chamber of Deputies.

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  • The Godiva procession, a commemoration of the legendary ride instituted on the 31st of May 1678 as part of Coventry fair, was celebrated at intervals until 1826.

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  • He instituted in 1354 the festival of the Holy Lance.

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  • In all local temples the worship of Aton was instituted.

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  • He also instituted a fresh survey and division of land in Egypt and Syria, which occasioned much discontent.

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  • In 1315 he instituted a survey of Egypt, and of the twenty-four parts into which it was divided ten were assigned to the sultan and fourteen to the amirs and the army.

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  • The Caisse de la Dette, instituted in May 1876 as a result of the Cave mission, led to international control over a large portion of the revenue.

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  • Prosecutions had to be instituted by the Director of Public Prosecutions in England, the Lord Advocate in Scotland, or the Attorney-General in Ireland.

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  • The conference of Anglican bishops from all parts of the world, instituted by Archbishop Longley in 1867, and known as the Lambeth Conferences, though even for the Anglican communion they have not the authority of an ecumenical synod, and their decisions are rather of the nature of counsels than commands, have done much to promote the harmony and co-operation of the various branches of the Church.

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  • It was separated from the English Department, and undertook the inspection of higher class schools (public, endowed and voluntary), and two years later instituted a leaving certificate examination, the pass of which is accepted for most of the university and professional authorities in lieu of their preliminary examinations.

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  • St Mungo's College, Glasgow, incorporated in 1889 under a Board of Trade licence, has medicinal and law faculties, and Anderson's College Medical School, Glasgow, was instituted in 1887.

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  • Such a leisurely fashion of transacting business soon grew intolerable, and in 1635 a system of relays was instituted which enabled the journey between the two cities to be accomplished in three days, the charge for a letter being 8d.

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  • Theseus now carried out a political revolution in Attica by abolishing the semi-independent powers of the separate townships and concentrating those powers at Athens, and he instituted the festival of the Panathenaea,3 as a symbol of the unity of the Attic race.

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  • Further, according to tradition, he instituted the three classes or castes of the eupatrids (nobles), geomori (husba.ndmen), and demiurgi (artisans).

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  • He was the first to celebrate in their full pomp the Isthmian games in honour of Poseidon; for the games previously instituted by Hercules in honour of Melicertes had been celebrated by night, and had partaken of the nature of mysteries rather than of a festival.

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  • The Quitonian doctor Eugenio Espejo, and his fellow-citizen Don Juan Pio Montufar, entered into hearty cooperation with Narino and Zea, the leaders of the revolutionary movement at Santa Fe; and it was at Espejo's suggestion that the political association called the Escuela de Concordia was instituted at Quito.

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  • A political union was at once effected with New Granada and Venezuela on the basis of the republican constitution instituted at Cucuta in July 1821 - the triple confederation taking the name of Colombia.

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  • By the statutes of 1849 and 1858 an intermediate " Moderations " examination was instituted between the preliminary examination called " Responsions " and the final examination.

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  • He was in the employment of Robert Peel, grandfather of the prime minister of that name, who here instituted the factory system, and as the director of a large business carefully fostered the improvement of methods.

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  • It was instituted in 1871, and educates about 220 boys.

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  • Augustus, when he instituted a general restoration of the roads of Italy, which he assigned for the purpose among various senators, reserved the Flaminia for himself, and rebuilt all the bridges except the Pons Mulvius, by which it crosses the Tiber, 2 m.

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  • In 1808 he became astronomer to the Bureau des Longitudes; and when the Faculte des Sciences was instituted in 1809 he was appointed professeur de la mecanique rationelle.

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  • They are seldom good scholars, but those under French rule take all the advantage they can of the schools instituted by the government.

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  • On the 23rd the Austrians entered Naples, followed soon afterwards by the king; every vestige of freedom was suppressed, the reactionary Medici ministry appointed, and the inevitable state trials instituted with the usual harvest of executions and imprisonment.

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  • As the result of favourable indications extensive gold-mining operations have been instituted in the provinces of Benguet and Ambos Camarines in Luzon, and on the island of Masbate.

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  • By its stipulations the yearly stipendium or tribute payable to Attila by the Romans was doubled; the fugitives were to be surrendered, or a fine of £8 to be paid for each of those who should be missing; free markets, open to Hun and Roman alike, were to be instituted; and any tribe with which Attila might be at any time at war was thereby to be held as excluded from alliance with Rome.

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  • Abdalmalik instituted a purely Islamitic coinage.

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  • Lastly, a regular post service was instituted from Damascus to the provincial capitals, especially destined for governmental despatches.

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  • Nasr instituted a system of taxation, which, if it had been introduced earlier, would perhaps have saved the Arabic domination.

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  • A magnificent temple was raised to him at Venice, where his body is believed to lie, and numerous brotherhoods have been instituted in his honour.

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  • Valens returned to Antioch, wherein the winter of 373-4 he instituted a persecution of magicians and other people whom he foolishly believed to imperil his life.

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  • To obtain these money had been necessary; and to raise money the pasha had instituted those internal "reforms" - the bizarre system of state monopolies and the showy experiments in new native industries which are described in the article Egypt (q.v.).

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  • But in the standing jury courts (of which the first - that for repetundae - was instituted in 149), or rather in the most important of them, the praetors themselves presided and tried the cases.

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  • This did not suit Philip, who, although he instituted a process in the supreme tribunal of Aragon, speedily abandoned it and caused Perez to be attacked from another side, the charge of heresy being now preferred, arising out of certain reckless and even blasphe On the other hand it is suggested that this story of his being the son of Gomez was only circulated by Ruy Gomez's wife, Ana de Mendoza, as a refutation of the possibility of a supposed amour between her and Perez.

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  • The picture thus presented by Hindu society - as made up of a confused congeries of social groups of the most varied standing, each held together and kept separate from others by a traditional body of ceremonial rules and by the notion of social gradations being due to a divinely instituted order of things - finds something like a counterpart in the religious life of the people.

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  • C. Fabricius instituted the genus Gammarus for five species, of which only three were amphipods, while he left five other amphipods in the genus Oniscus, from this total of eight science has developed the order, at first very slowly, but of late by great leaps and bounds, so that now the Gammaridea alone comprise more than 1300 species, distributed among some 300 genera and 39 families.

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  • Spain was utterly dumb; Italian fervour could only boast the foundation of two small orders of popular preachers - the Passionists (1737), and the Redemptorists, instituted in 1732 by St Alfonso Liguori, who also won for himself a dubious reputation on the unsavoury field of casuistry.

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  • Now the right method of interrogating nature with patience and loving admiration was instituted.

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  • Secondary education, formerly instituted on two separate lines, classical and scientific, has been reformed so as to give more prominence to scientific education, even in the classical (linguistic) lyceums or gymnasia.

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  • During the eighteen years in which he held this post he rendered valuable services to the territory and to the nation; he extinguished the Indian title to large tracts of land, instituted surveys, constructed roads, and explored the lakes and sources of the Mississippi river.

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  • Thus among the tribes of south-eastern Australia described by Mr Howitt, 10 the native rites and laws handed down from generation to generation were supposed to have been first imparted by some higher being such as Nurrundere, who made all things on the earth; or Nurelli, who created the whole country, with the rivers, trees and animals; or Daramulun, who (like Nurrundere) bestowed weapons on the men, and instituted the rites and ceremonies connected with life and death.

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  • Not only were Catholics and Protestants opposed to them on doctrinal grounds, but the secular powers, fearing that the new teaching was potentially as revolutionary as Munzer's radicalism had been, soon instituted a persecution of the Anabaptists.

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  • It is strange that the Protestant Council of Zurich, which had scarcely won its own liberty, and was still in dread of the persecution of the Romanists, should pass the decree which instituted the cruel persecution of the Anabaptists.

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  • The Pastors' College in connexion with the Metropolitan Tabernacle was instituted in 1856, and in 1866 the present Baptist College at Manchester was instituted at Bury in the interests of the "Strict" Baptist views.

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  • Among the scientific and literary societies are to be noted the Swedish Academy, consisting of 18 members, which was instituted in 1786 by Gustavus III., after the pattern of the Academie Frangaise, for the cultivation of the Swedish language and literature; and the Academy of Science, founded in 1739 by Linnaeus and others for the promotion of the natural sciences.

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  • Richard furnished the chronicler, Matthew Paris, with material for the life of Edmund Rich, and instituted the offerings for the cathedral at Chichester which were known later as "St Richard's pence."

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  • All of the grounds have suffered depletion, and cultural methods to maintain the supply have been instituted.

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  • But in the middle of the century the natural beds had been almost exhausted and the system of government control, letting "parks" to private tenants, and artificial cultivation was instituted.

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  • Augustus instituted an Achaean synod comprising the dependent cities of Peloponnese and central Greece; this body sat at Argos and acted as guardian of Hellenic sentiment.

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  • He laid out the Circus Maximus, instituted the "great" games, built the great sewers (cloacae), and began the construction of the temple of Jupiter on the Capitol.

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  • Thus, certain public works were said to have been begun by the earlier and finished by the later king; both instituted games, acquired the Sibylline books, and reorganized the army.

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  • On the promontory was an ancient temple of Apollo Actius, which was enlarged by Augustus, who also, in memory of the battle, instituted or renewed the quinquennial games called Actia or Ludi Actiaci.

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  • For the former several of the arches of the city railway have been utilized, and correspond in internal arrangement to like shelters instituted by the Salvation Army in London and various other cities.

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  • In 1809 the present municipal government was instituted.

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  • Jewett, History of Worcester County (2 vols., Worcester, 1879); the Collections and Proceedings (1881 sqq.) of the Worcester Society of Antiquity (instituted in 1877).

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  • She inherited all his property and bequeathed it to the Roman people, who out of gratitude instituted in her honour a yearly festival called Larentalia (Dec. 23).

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  • Later in the month proceedings were instituted against him by the bishop of Bath and Wells under the Clergy Discipline Act.

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  • Here it was found by his uncle Sisyphus, who had it removed to Corinth, and by command of the Nereids instituted the Isthmian games and sacrifices in his honour.

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  • A custom instituted by Willis on St Martin's Day (November 11th) includes a service in the church, the firing of some small cannon called the "Fenny Poppers," and other celebrations.

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  • He further instituted an association (Magnetischer Verein), composed at first almost entirely of Germans, whose continuous observations on fixed term-days extended from Holland to Sicily.

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  • Le Boys de Guays began his masterly translation of all Swedenborg's theological works and instituted public New Church worship, which was carried on at his house for thirty years.

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  • The county council may not only themselves institute proceedings under the acts, but they may contribute to the costs of any prosecution under the acts instituted by any other county or district council.

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  • It was instituted primarily as a precaution against the ever-present danger of a helot revolt, and secondarily perhaps as a training for young Spartans, who were sent out by the ephors to keep watch on the helots and assassinate any who might appear dangerous.

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  • This is due in large measure to the system of forced labour instituted by the state.

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  • Courts of first instance have been instituted in the various districts, and there is a court of appeal at Boma which revises the decisions of the inferior tribunals.

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  • In the latter year he was appointed to the vicarage of Easton Maudit, Northamptonshire, and three years later was instituted to the rectory of Wilby in the same county, benefices which he retained until 1782.

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  • Queen Mary's charter instituted a Wednesday market and fairs at the feasts of the Annunciation and the Invention of the Holy Cross.

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  • In 1865 he was appointed professor of geology and palaeontology in the Berlin University, where he was eminently successful as a teacher; and when the Prussian Geological Survey was instituted in 1873 he was appointed co-director with Wilhelm Hauchecorne (1828-1900).

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  • Treatises on poverty appeared on every side; the party of Occam clamoured with increasing imperiousness for the condemnation of John by a general council; and the Spirituals, confounded in the persecution with the Beghards and with Fraticelli of every description, maintained themselves in the south of France in spite of the reign of terror instituted in that region by the Inquisition.

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  • The immediate withdrawal of the offensive passage, and a sham prosecution instituted against the printer, extricated Swift from his danger.

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  • In a supplement to the systematic work of Engler and Prantl the well-known name Welwitschia, instituted by Hooker in 1864 in honour of Welwitsch, the discoverer of the plant, is superseded by that of Tumboa, originally suggested by Welwitsch.

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  • Reduced to obedience by Matilda in 1113, the city obtained its liberty on her death, and instituted a communal government of its.

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  • As originally instituted in April 1798, during the great war with France, under the name of a "triplicate assessment," it was rather a consolidation of various assessed taxes levied upon the luxuries of the rich and upon property, than a wholly new tax.

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  • Here we need only mention the litaniae which are stated by Usener ("Alte Bittgange," in Zeller, Philosophische Aufsatze, p. 278 seq.) to have been first instituted by Pope Liberius (352-366).

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  • Hitherto they had been erratic, lukewarm and poorly attended (vagae, tepentes, infrequentesque); those which he instituted were characterized by fasting, prayers, psalms and tears."

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  • By an act of 1895, a close period was instituted, the lakes and rivers restocked, and the state fisheries, which are either farmed by private companies or directly administered, were set in order.

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  • The introduction to a dialogue called Virgilius orator an pceta is extant, in which the author (whose name is given as Publius Annius Florus) states that he was born in Africa, and at an early age took part in the literary contests on the Capitol instituted by Domitian.

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  • There is a tradition that the Delphian oracle was consulted as early as the period of the kings during the reign of Tarquinius Superbus, and in 4 3 o a temple was dedicated to Apollo on the occasion of a pestilence, and during the Second Punic War (in 212) the Ludi Apollinares were instituted in his honour.

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  • After the battle of Actium, Augustus enlarged his old temple, dedicated a portion of the spoil to him, and instituted quinquennial games in his honour.

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  • Salgar, a Liberal candidate elected in opposition to General Herran, a treaty was finally concluded with the United States in connexion with an interoceanic canal, a bank was established at Bogota, and educational reforms instituted.

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  • Ranuccio was a reserved and gloomy bigot; he instituted savage persecutions against supposed witches and heretics, and lived in perpetual terror of plots.

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  • The code of this last year created diocesan synods, to be held annually and to consist of the bishop, dean and all instituted clergy of the diocese.

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  • The first lodge in Germany was instituted at Berlin in 1883.

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  • The question arises whether Jesus Himself instituted baptism as a condition of entry into the Messianic kingdom.

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  • In 1264 he instituted the festival of Corpus Christi.

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  • An order of the crescent was instituted by Charles I.

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  • A Turkish order or decoration of the crescent was instituted by Sultan Selim III.

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  • He established and richly endowed the first foundling hospital, built and repaired numerous churches, constructed the Sistine Chapel and the Sistine Bridge, improved church music and instituted the famous Sistine choir, commissioned paintings on the largest scale, pensioned men of learning, and, above all, immortalized himself as the second founder of the Vatican library.

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  • He appointed as governor Sheikh Mahmud Barzinja, and instituted a form of government designed to be acceptable to southern Kurdistan.

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  • The president of the republic, Kruger, however, handed over his prisoners to the British authorities, and parliament instituted an inquiry by a select committee into the circumstances of the raid.

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  • It was thus to be the supreme executive and judicial organ, discharging all business except that of finance and the drafting of documents; and it was intended to serve Maximilian as a point d'appui for the monarchy against the system of oligarchical committees, instituted by Berthold, archbishop of Mainz.

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  • When the order of the Garter was founded, he was instituted as one of the first founders, and his stall in St George's chapel, Windsor, was the eleventh on the side of Edward, the Black Prince.

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  • Paul embellished the costume of the cardinals, collected jewels for his own adornment, provided games and food for the Roman people and practically instituted the carnival.

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  • About the same time were instituted the deputies on mission in the provinces, who could overrule any local authority, and who corresponded regularly with the Committee.

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  • Uncertainty as to his future led him to accept an invitation from the king of France to Paris, where he was naturalized and was appointed director of optics for the marine, an office instituted for him, with a pension of 8000 livres.

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  • He instituted the flamens (sacred priests) of Jupiter, Mars and Quirinus; the virgins of Vesta, to keep the sacred fire burning on the hearth of the city; the Salii, to guard the shield that fell from heaven; the pontifices and augurs, to arrange the rites and interpret the will of the gods; he also divided the handicraftsmen into nine gilds.

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  • James I., by a charter dated 1610, increased the number of chief burgesses to twenty-five and instituted a recorder, a clerk of the market, justices of the peace and other officers.

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  • Caldwell's views were accepted by Lankester (8) in the 9th edition of this work, the Phylum Podaxonia being there instituted to include the groups just mentioned, together with the Pterobranchia.

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  • Preller thinks that at the same time the trade in grain was regulated by law and a regular college or gild of merchants instituted.

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  • Game laws were instituted in 1898.

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  • It was then that the Government instituted the rank of viceadmiral, previously unknown in the American service.

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  • The then governorgeneral of Angola, Senhor Norton de Mattos, had already instituted reforms and in 1913 had created a Department for Native Affairs, which set itself to regulate the employment of natives, including the recruitment of labourers for the cocoa plantations on St.

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  • At first the person who instituted the games and defrayed the expenses was the Agonothetes; but in the great public games, such as the Olympic and Pythian, these presidents were the representatives of different states, or were chosen from the people in whose country the games were celebrated; thus at the Panathenaic festival at Athens ten athlothetae were elected for four years to superintend the various contests.

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  • Tradition connects the better known of these fairs with pagan rites performed round the tombs of the heroes of the race; thus the assembly of Telltown was stated to have been instituted by Lugaid Lamfada.

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  • The Austrians soon lost all control of the city, the arsenal was seized by the revolutionists, and under the direction of Manin a civic guard and a provisional government were instituted.

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  • Immediately on the expiration of his sentence (13th April 1713) he was instituted to the valuable rectory of St Andrew's, Holborn, by the new Tory ministry, who despised the author of the sermons, although they dreaded his influence over the mob.

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  • The turning-point is marked by the legislation of Lycurgus, who effected the unification of the state and instituted that training which was its distinguishing feature and the source of its greatness.

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  • The story tells how Jacob discovered its sanctity, - it was the gate of heaven, - made a covenant with its God, established the sacred pillar, and instituted its tithes (xxviii.).

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  • Thus the Merovirigians had shown themselves incapable of rising above the barbarous notion that royalty is a personal asset to the idea that royalty is of the state, a power belonging to the nation and instituted for the benefit of all.

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  • Philip the Fair instituted suits against his natural enemies, the king of England and the count of Flanders, foreign princes Philip the holding possessions within his kingdom; and against the emperor, whose ancient province of Lorraine and kingdom of Arles constantly changed hands between Germany and France.

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  • But he maintained the legislation of the Valois, who placed industry in a state of strict dependency on finance, and he instituted a servitude of labor harder even than that of individuals; his great factories of soap, glass, lace, carpets and cloth had the same artificial life as that of contemporary Russian industry, created and nourished by the state.

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  • To her colonial empire in America he added the greater part of Santo Domingo, Tobago and Dominica; he restored Guiana; prepared for the acquisition of Louisiana by supporting Cavelier de la Salle; extended the suzerainty of the king on the coast of Africa from the Bay of Arguin to the shores of Sierra Leone, and instituted the first commercial relations with India.

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  • The police, instituted in 1667 by La Reynie, became a public force independent of magistrates and under the direct orders of the ministers, making the arbitrary royal and ministerial authority absolute by means of lettres de cachet (qv.), which were very convenient for the government and very terrible for the individuals concerned.

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  • The provincial assemblies of Dauphin and elsewhere gave the signal; and numerous towns, following the example of Paris, instituted munioipalitieswhichsubstituted their authority for that of the intendants and their subordinates.

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  • After the close of the National Assembly he was nominated one of the judges of the newly instituted court of cassation from October 1791 to September 1792.

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  • The archdeaconry of Lincoln was among those instituted by Remigius, and the division into rural deaneries also dates from this period.

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  • The divergence of these views has led to a large number of experimental investigations, instituted with the idea of deciding between them.

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  • The British Bee- keepers' keepers' Association (instituted in 1874) has been associa- untiring in its efforts to raise the standard of efficiency bons.

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  • There are many equally beneficial societies, framed on different lines, existing in Germany, France, Russia and Switzerland, but they are mainly co-operative bodies instituted for the general benefit of members, who are without exception either bee-keepers on a more or less extensive scale, or scientists interested in the study of insect life.

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  • Here he established the worst, of Athena, instituted the Panathenaea, and built an Erechtheum.

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  • Among the charitable institutions are the general hospitals (Harper, Grace and St Mary's); the Detroit Emergency, the Children's Free and the United States Marine hospitals; St Luke's hospital, church home, and orphanage; the House of Providence (a maternity hospital and infant asylum); the Woman's hospital and foundling's home; the Home for convalescent children, &c. In 1894 the mayor, Hazen Senter Pingree (1842-1901), instituted the practice of preparing, through municipal aid and supervision, large tracts of vacant land in and about the city for the growing of potatoes and other vegetables and then, in conjunction with the board of poor commissioners, assigning it in small lots to families of the unemployed, and furnishing them with seed for planting.

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  • Societies were formed at Tiflis and in several European capitals for the circulation of pamphlets and newspapers, and secret societies, such as the Huntchagist, were instituted for more revolutionary methods.

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  • He was said to have divided the inhabitants into twelve communities, to have instituted the laws of marriage and property, and a new form of worship. The introduction of bloodless sacrifice, the burial of the dead, and the invention of writing were also attributed to him.

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  • A general peace (Landfrieden), which became the basis of all such peaces in the future, was sworn to; a new office, that of imperial justiciar, was created, and a permanent judicial record was first instituted.

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  • The principal race is that for the Ascot Gold Cup, instituted in 1807.

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  • When first instituted, it was levied uniformly on all the provinces in France, but for the greater part of its history the price varied in different provinces.

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  • But this, since it arises from the moral order as a unity grounded in the very essence of freedom and not accidentally instituted by external commands, establishes the teleology of nature on grounds which a priori must be inseparably connected with the inner possibility of things.

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  • This feature originated in the 5th century, when Mamercus, bishop of Vienna, instituted special prayers and fasting and processions on these days.

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  • In recent years, the government, in an effort to formalize access and camping in the area, had instituted a fee program, creating considerable controversy with a number of locals.

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  • Plans and individuals instituted its aetna you with a. Have to buy for circulating bogus chooses to have.

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  • Legs were visibly instituted to be breeched, and we have breeches.. .

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  • Quite simply, it is because we are continuing to adhere to some woefully errant farming policy instituted nearly 50 years ago.

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  • The European legislators instituted a further policy decision which is enshrined in Art.

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  • The way Hank instituted 19th century ideals into the 6th century was a perfect way to add pizazz to the novel.

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  • The Hasmonaeans also instituted the duty of paying a half shekel to the temple.

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  • He had received tonsure but was only in his fifteenth year; he was instituted to the rectory in 1308 while still a minor.

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  • In 1836 fairs were instituted on the Tuesday before the 6th of April and on the Tuesday before the 11th of October, which are still maintained, and a large cattle market is held on the first Wednesday of every month.

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  • Marino Giorgi reckoned the ordinary income of the pope for the year 1517 at about 580,000 ducats, of which 420,000 came from the States of the Church, ioo,000 from annates, and 60,000 from the composition tax instituted by Sixtus IV.

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  • A scheme of pensions for her aged poor has been instituted.

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  • In important industrial towns tribunals called conseils de prudhommes are instituted to deal with disputes &tween employers and employees, actions arising out of contracts of apprenticeship and the like.

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  • Semler he co-operated in the revolution of Lutheran theology, and in conjunction with Gesner he instituted a new school in ancient literature.

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  • By it an arbitration court was instituted, consisting of a president and assessors representing the employers' unions and the workers' unions respectively; in any trade in which a dispute occurs, any union of workmen or employers registered under the act was given the right to bring the matter before the arbitration court, and if the court makes an award, an application may be made to it to make the award a " common rule," which thereupon becomes binding over the trade affected, wherever the act applies.

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  • The Edison Company announced its intention to start telephone business in London, and the Postmaster-General instituted proceedings against the company for infringement of his monopoly rights under the Telegraph Act 1869.

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  • Local finance is regulated by the communal and provincial law of May 1898, which instituted provincial administrative juntas, empowered to examine and sanction the acts of the coin