Instance sentence example

instance
  • For instance, you may manufacture widgets from lightweight plastic.
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  • Yesterday, for instance, Mitya was naughty...
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  • This will create a cascading effect; once energy, for instance, is free, it will make precious metals free.
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  • In World War II, for instance, the Singer Corporation, of sewing-machine fame, made handguns for the war effort.
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  • In the case of the great grey kangaroo, for instance, the period of gestation is less than forty days, and the newly-born embryo, which is blind, naked, and unable to use its bud-like limbs, is little more than an inch in length.
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  • People who buy organic food, for instance, are not doing it simply because they have more money.
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  • The town is the seat of the tribunal of first instance of the arrondissement of Poligny, and has a communal college.
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  • You would be more comfortable somewhere in a house... in ours, for instance... the family are leaving.
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  • Take our roses, for instance.
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  • In some trades, for instance the silk trade, women earn little more than lod.
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  • It was, for instance, necessary to the well-being of the towns that they should possess territory round their walls, and this had to be wrested from the nobles.
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  • Mezedes, for instance, are snacks that accompany ouzo, a strong anise-flavored spirit.
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  • The introduction of the factions into Florence in 1215, owing to a private quarrel between the Buondelmonti, Amidei and Donati, is a celebrated instance of what was happening in every burgh.
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  • Venice offered the single instance in Italy of a national church.
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  • The annuity payable to the pope has, for instance, been made subject to quinquennial prescription, so that in the event of tardy recognition of the law the Vatican could at no time claim payment of more than five years annuity with interest.
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  • The clearest instance of germinal budding is furnished by Margellium (Rathkea) octopunctatum, one of the Margelidae.
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  • The theory that the medusa is simply an organ, which has become detached and has acquired a certain degree of independence, like the well-known instance of the hectocotyle of the cuttle-fish.
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  • It is quite possible that the characters of the nematocysts might afford data as useful to the systematist in this group as do the spicules of sponges, for instance.
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  • In these species the actinula is parasitic upon another medusa; for instance, Cunoctantha octonaria upon Turritopsis, C. proboscidea upon Liriope or Geryonia.
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  • Thus, for instance, the archecentric condition of any Avian structure is a metacentre of the Sauropsidan stem.
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  • Deposition of a bishop by a synod, or of a priest or deacon by his bishop, is to take effect even pending an appeal, and a cleric continuing his functions after sentence in first instance is to lose all right of appeal.
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  • Brazil is the only instance of a colony becoming the seat of the government of its own mother country, and this was the work of Napoleon.
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  • This instance does not stand the test of criticism.
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  • But it is noticeable that where women engage in occupations of a more than usually strenuous nature, they frequently don male costume while at their work; as, for instance, women who work in mines (Belgium) and who tend cattle (Switzerland, Tirol).
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  • In the territories there are civil and criminal courts of first instance, and municipal courts.
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  • The town is the seat of a bishop, a court of assizes and a sub-prefect; it has tribunals of first instance and of commerce, a lycee for boys, a communal college and a training college for girls, and an ecclesiastical seminary.
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  • The majority of these are large and heavilybuilt ruminants, with horns present in both sexes, the muzzle broad, moist and naked, the nostrils lateral, no face-glands, and a large dewlap often developed in the males; while the tail is long and generally tufted, although in one instance longhaired throughout.
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  • Nevertheless, a new league was formed against the duke of Burgundy in the following year, principally at the instance of Bernard, count of Armagnac, from whom the party opposed to the Burgundians took its name.
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  • The loss in this manner was found to be in one instance over a pound.
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  • If this be done, the synod of first instance is to send letters to Julius, bishop of Rome.
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  • (h) Several attempts were made by metropolitans and their officials to take causes arising in the dioceses of their comprovincials in the first instance and not by way of appeal.
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  • There are, however, a few cases in which the metropolitan is still allowed to cite in the first instance.
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  • It was, for the time, determined that the archbishop might himself, in virtue of his legatine authority, entertain complaints from other dioceses in first instance, but that this legatine jurisdiction was not included in the ordinary jurisdiction of his official principal, even if the archbishop had so willed it in his commission.
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  • The pope could not be effectively prohibited, and no instance is recorded of a prohibition to papal delegates.
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  • In first instance they were tried by the provincial synod.
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  • But the bishop may instead send the cause, in first instance, to the old provincial court, to which appeal lies, if it be not so sent.
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  • In Jersey and in Guernsey there are courts of first instance with appeal to the bishop of Winchester.
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  • As civil courts they judge in first instance all questions connected with glebes and the erection and repair of churches and manses.
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  • In 1831 the pope enacted that in all the dioceses of the then Pontifical States, the court of first instance for the criminal causes of ecclesiastics should consist of the ordinary and four other judges.
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  • In the Roman communion in England and the United States, there are commissions of investigation appointed to hear in first instance the criminal causes of clerks.
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  • The court of first instance is the " consistorial court " of the bishop. This consists of a small body of ecclesiastics.
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  • The bishop's consistorial court, consisting of himself and four priests, has a limited jurisdiction in first instance.
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  • Most of the charitable institutions - for instance, the convalescent home, fever hospital, home for girls and Red House home - are situated at Inveresk, about 12 m.
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  • Any poisonous substance that is not included in the schedules can be sold by anyone, as, for instance, red lead, sulphate of copper, &c. The duty of the Pharmaceutical Society is a purely legal one, and relates only to the schedules of poisons framed by the government to protect the public by rendering it a difficult matter to obtain the poisons most frequently used for criminal purposes.
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  • They may, for instance, be glandular or stinging, as in the common stinging nettle, where the top of the hair is very brittle, easily breaking off when touched.
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  • If we go back to the first instance cited, the embryo in the seed and its development during germination, we can ascertain what is necessary for its life by inquiring what are the materials which are deposited in the seed, and which become exhausted by consumption as growth and development proceed.
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  • Fixation of Nitrogen.Another, and perhaps an even more important, instance of symbiotic association has come to the front during the same period, it is an alliance between the plants of the Natural Order Leguminosae and certain bacterium-like forms which find a home within the tissues of their roots.
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  • The yellowing and subsequent casting of leaves, for instance, is a very general symptom of disease in plants, and may be induced by drought, extremes of temperature, insufficient or excessive illumination, excess of water at the roots, the action of parasitic Fungi, insects, worms, &c., or of poisonous gases, and so forth; and extreme caution is necessary in.
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  • For instance, a Fungus epidemic is impossible unless the climatic conditions are such as to favor the dispersal and germination of the spores; and when plants are killed off owi~ig to the supersaturation of the soil with water, it is by no means obvious whether the excess of water and dissolved materials, or the exclusion of oxygen from the root-hairs, or the lowering of the temperature, or the accumulation of foul products of decomposition should be put into the foreground.
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  • Some very curious details are observable in these cases of malformation, For instance, the Aecidium eta/mum first referred to causes the new shoots to differ in direction, duration and arrangement, and even shape of foliage leaves from the normal; and the shoots of Euphorbia infected with the aecidia of Uromyces Pisi depart so much from the normal in appearance that the attacked plants have been taken for a different species.
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  • For instance, suppose the effect of a falling temperature is to so modify the metabolism of the cells that they fill up more and more with watery sap; as the freezing-point is reached this may result in destructive changes, and death from cold may result.
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  • In many cases the punctures of Aphides and Coccideae are shown to be responsible for such exudations, and at least one instance is known where a FungusClaviceps-causes it.
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  • For instance, the difference between the long-stalked and finely-cut leaves of Anemone attacked with rust and the normal leaves with broad segments, or between the urceolate leaves occasionally found on cabbages and the ordinary formin these cases undoubtedly pathological and teratological respectivelyis nothing like so great as between the upper and lower normalleaves of many Umhelliferae or the submerged and floating leaves of an aquatic Ranunculus or Cabomba.
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  • The homology of members was based, in the first instance, upon similarity of development and upon similar relations to the other parts of the body, that is, upon ontogeny.
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  • For instance, all the leaves of the Bryophyta are generally homologous inasmuch as they are all developments of the gametophyte.
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  • The phylogeny of the various floral leaves, for instance, was generally traced as follows: foliage-leaf, bract, sepal, petal, stamen and carpel (sporophylls)in accordance with what Goethe termed ascending metamorphosis.
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  • For instance, some xerophytes are dry and hard in structure, whilst others are succulent and fleshy.
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  • For instance, the animal traps of carnivorous plants (Drosera, Nepenihes, &c.) did not, presumably, originate as such; they began as organs of quite another kind which became adapted to their present function in consequence of animals having been accidentally caught.
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  • Adaptive characters are often hereditary, for instance, the seed of a parasite will produce a parasite, and the same is true of a carnivorous plant.
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  • He considered, for instance, that stems, leaves, roots and flowers differ as they do because the plastic substances entering into their structure are diverse.
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  • This is the case, for instance, in the Caspian sea, the Aral and Balkhash lakes, the Tarim basin, the Sahara, inner Australia, the great basin of the United States and the Titicaca basin.
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  • The casket was opened in 1906, at the instance of the emperor William II., and the draperies enclosing the body were temporarily removed to Berlin, with a view to the reproduction of similar cloth.
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  • In many birds some of the thoracic vertebrae are more or less coOssified, in most pigeons for instance the 15th to 17th; in most Galli the last cervical and the next three or four thoracics are coalesced, &c. The pelvic vertebrae include of course the sacrum.
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  • There is very little grey matter in the cortex of the hemispheres, the surface of which is devoid of convolutions, mostly quite smooth; in others, for instance pigeons, fowls and birds of prey, a very slight furrow might be compared with the Sylvian fissure.
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  • For instance, the Tyranninae are anacromyod, while the closely allied Pipras and Cotingas are katacromyod; both these modifications can be shown to have been derived but recently from the weak mesoand oligomyodian condition which prevails in the majority of the so-called Oligomyodi.
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  • 31 a enlarged in the breeding season; in the sparrow, for instance, from the size of a mustard seed to that 'of a small cherry.
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  • For instance, in the fowl its volume increases about fifty-fold, growing from some 6 in.
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  • So long as the characters of new fossils are only of specific and generic value, it is mostly possible to assign the birds to their proper place, but when these characters indicate new families or orders, for instance Hesperornithes, Ichthyornithes, Palaelodi, their owners are put outside the more tersely constructed classifications applicable to modern birds.
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  • There were, for instance, trogons, secretary-birds, parrots, and other now Ethiopian forms in Miocene France.
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  • For instance, from the lower Miocene beds of Allier and Puy-de-Dome MilneEdwards has described about so species.
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  • They express the main complexes of land with their dependencies in well-chosen terms; for instance the " Neotropical region " stands short for South and Central America with the Antilles.
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  • For instance, the kagu (Rhinochetus) of New Caledonia, a queerly specialized form with Gruine affinities pointing only to South America.
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  • The Patagonian Subregion, most extratropical, is naturally devoid of a good many typically tropical birds, or these are but poorly represented, for instance Caerebidae, Mniotiltidae, Tanagridae, Vireonidae.
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  • In one instance the variation is so excessive that it fully justifies the establishment of a specific distinction.
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  • By the comparison, for instance, of a number of boats, the mind abstracts a certain common quality or qualities in virtue of which the mind affirms the general idea of "boat."
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  • No doubt there was a class that knew only English; there may have been a much smaller class that knew only French; any man who pretended to high cultivation would speak all as a matter of course; Bishop Gilbert Foliot, for instance, was eloquent in all three.
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  • The town is the seat of a sub-prefect, and has a tribunal of first instance, .a chamber of commerce and a communal college among its public institutions.
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  • The parts of the flower are most frequently arranged in fives, or multiples of fives; for instance, a common arrangement is as follows, - five sepals, succeeded by five petals, ten stamens in two sets of five, and five or fewer carpels; an arrangement in fours is less frequent, while the arrangement in threes, so common in monocotyledons, is rare in dicotyledons.
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  • Cleisthenes, for instance, enfranchised many slaves and strangers, a course which certainly formed no part of the platform of Licinius, and which reminds us rather of Gnaeus Flavius somewhat later.
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  • At Sparta we have a third instance of a people shrinking up into a nobility, but it is a people whose position differs altogether from anything either at Rome or at Athens.
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  • In England indeed a variety of causes hindered nobility or gentry from ever obtaining the importance which they obtained, for instance, in France.
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  • The strictness of the principle of admission or exclusion differs at the various German courts, and has tended to be modified by the growth of a new aristocracy of wealth; but a single instance known to the present writer may serve to illustrate the fundamental divergence of German (a fortiori Austrian) ideas from English in this matter.
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  • And he gives as a crowning instance that he exposed himself to the hatred of the informer Cyprianus by preventing the punishment of Albinus, a man of consular rank.
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  • Like this tragedy, The Broken Heart was probably founded upon some Italian or other novel of the day; but since in the latter instance there is nothing revolting in the main idea of the subject, the play commends itself as the most enjoyable, while, in respect of many excellences, an unsurpassed specimen of Ford's dramatic genius.
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  • In many towns most of the skilled labourers and a great many of the unskilled (for instance, the grain-porters at Odessa and elsewhere) are Jews.
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  • When workmen from any province come, for instance, to St Petersburg to engage in the textile industries, or to work as carpenters, masons, &c., they immediately unite in groups of ten to fifty persons, settle in a house together, keep a common table and pay each his part of the expense to the elected elder of the artel.
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  • Horses and other draught animals are reared in the province, and there are several lakes frequented by water-fowl, and streams of clear water flow through it, as for instance the Kyros (Kur) formed by the junction of the Medos and Araxes."
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  • In the first instance he proposed to place the guiding wheels outside the bearing wheels, and the Nanpantan line was laid on this plan with a width of 5 ft.
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  • In the first instance laws were enacted prescribing schedules of maximum freight and passenger rates with stringent penalties against rebates and discriminations.
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  • For instance, if the curve is of S-form, the point of danger is when the train enters the contra-flexure, and it is not an easy matter to assign the best superelevation at all points throughout the double bend.
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  • Therefore the horse-power which must be developed in the cylinders to effect this change of speed is from (21) H.P.280X2240X0 113X59 = _237 55 0 X 32 The rate of working is negative when the train is retarded; for instance, if the train had changed its speed from 41 to 40 m.
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  • First, it must be able to exert a tractive force sufficient to start the train under the worst conditions possible on the railway over which it is to operate - for instance, when the train is stopped by signal on a rising gradient where the track is curved and fitted with a guard-rail.
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  • For instance, it is not very uncommon to find persons who can make loud sounds by partially dislocating and restoring the toe, knee, or other joints, and some experiments made with the Fox girls in 1851 supported the view that they made raps by this method.
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  • In the first instance it is probable that among Christians, as among Jews, every meal, and especially every social meal, was regarded as being in some sense a thank-offering.
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  • In search of materials for this purpose, Pertz made a prolonged tour through Germany and Italy, and on his return in 1823 he received at the instance of Stein the principal charge of the publication of Monumenta germaniae historica, texts of all the more important historical writers on German affairs down to the year 1500, as well as of laws, imperial and regal archives, and other valuable documents, such as letters, falling within this period.
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  • He describes for instance the Sunday games in the village, football, and the struggle for food at great feasts; 1 Script.
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  • In ecclesiastical law, the contempt of the authority of an ecclesiastical court is dealt with by the issue of a writ de contumace capiendo from the court of chancery at the instance of the judge of the ecclesiastical court; this writ took the place of that de excommunicato capiendo in 1813, by an act of George III.
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  • For instance, Mirabeau wrote thus to Sir Samuel Romilly: " I have never been able to read the work of Mr Gibbon without being astounded that it should ever have been written in English; or without being tempted to turn to the author and say, ` You an Englishman ?
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  • For instance, the swampy character of malarial areas is explained by their breeding in stagnant water; the effect of drainage, and the general immunity of high-lying, dry localities, by the lack of breeding facilities; the danger of the night air, by their nocturnal habits; the comparative immunity of the upper storeys of houses, by the fact that they fly low; the confinement of malaria to well-marked areas and the diminution of danger with distance, by their habit of clinging to the breeding-grounds and not flying far.
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  • It has, moreover, been remarked that almost all the animals mentioned were at home in the Egypt of those days, or at least, like the elephant, were to be seen there occasionally, whereas the structure of the hedgehog, for instance, is explained by a reference to the sea-porcupine, better known to fish-buyers on the Mediterranean.
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  • As a typical instance we may take the chapter on the ant-lion - not the insect, but an imaginary creature suggested by Job.
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  • Great Britain, for instance, could never be persuaded that it was as much in her interests as in the interests of Russia to subsidize the antiFrench party in Sweden.
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  • In the above instance the sulphur is supposed to be in the solid rhombic modification, the oxygen and sulphur dioxide being in the gaseous state, and the initial and final systems being at the ordinary temperature.
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  • In the present instance the novel details cannot be lightly brushed aside.
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  • This ruling may be interpreted as part of a campaign directed against the counsellors of Alexander or as an instance of their general principle that intention is equivalent to commission in the eye of the Law.
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  • The emperor Was still disposed to conciliate the Jews; and, at the instance of Agrippa, son of Agrippa I., Cumanus was banished.
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  • They declare their readiness to adapt the law of the synagogue to the law of the land, as for instance in the question of marriage and divorce.
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  • Minor offences (1rX17gµeVillaTa) and civil causes are tried by courts of first instance in each of the five departments.
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  • In 1894 the Porte, at the instance of the powers, nominated a Christian, Karatheodory Pasha, to the governorship, and the Christians, mollified by the concession, agreed to take part in the assembly which soon afterwards was convoked; no steps, however, were taken to remedy the financial situation, which became the immediate cause of the disorders that followed.
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  • The inflexion of the verbs is, on the whole, more regular than in Hebrew: thus, to take one instance, the 3rd plur.
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  • The first known instance of a mitred abbot is Egelsinus of St Augustine's, Canterbury, who received the honour from Pope Alexander II.
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  • The first instance is again a bull of Leo IX.
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  • Hegel therefore, to take an instance, can no more fitly be classed as a mystic than Spinoza can.
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  • This fact will account for the profusion with which some orchids, like the common bee orchis for instance, are found in some seasons and their scarcity in others.
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  • A tribunal of first instance and a communal college are the chief public institutions.
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  • If this ancient civilized race was really allied to the ancestors of the Turks and Huns, it is a remarkable instance of how civilization thrives best by being transplanted at a certain period of growth.
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  • Owing to its position, the Persian state, when it from time to time became a conquering empire, overlapped Asia Minor, Babylon and India, and hence acted as an intermediary for transmitting art and ideas, sending for instance Greek sculpture to India and the cult of Mithra to western Europe.
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  • It is perhaps on account of this intermediate flavour that the literature of Persia - for instance the adaptations of Omar Khayyam - is more appreciated in Europe than that of other Oriental nations.
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  • Such civilization as the Mongols possess is a mixture of Chinese and Indian, the latter derived chiefly through Tibet, but their alphabet is a curious instance of transplantation.
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  • The same arrangement is found in some other Polychaetes; for instance, in Sabellaria there is a single pair of large anterior nephridia, which open by a common pore, followed after an interval by large-funnelled and short nephridia.
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  • As poet-laureate, his occasional verses did not escape adverse criticism; his hasty poem in praise of the Jameson Raid in 1896 being a notable instance.
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  • In other cases he tampers with the documents which he inserts (as, for instance, with the text of Magna Carta).
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  • In 1229 the Order began the conquest of Prussia, founding fortresses at each step to rivet its conquests (for instance, at Thorn, named after Toron in Palestine), much as the AngloNormans had done in their conquest of Wales.
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  • The Huns, for instance, and the Avars appeared in the 6th century, and the Mongols in the 13th.
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  • He defeated the Chatti, annexed the district of the Taunus, and established the Limes as a line of defence; but he suffered defeats at the hands of the Quadi, Sarmatae and ' Marcomanni; in Dacia he received a severe check, and was obliged to purchase peace (90) from Decebalus by the payment of a large sum of money and by guaranteeing a yearly tribute - the first instance in Roman history.
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  • Fontainebleau is the seat of a subprefect and has a tribunal of first instance and a communal college.
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  • It is, for instance, practically impossible to obtain reliable evidence as to the regularity of employment in any industry in the 17th century, and the best approximations and devices we can invent are very poor substitutes for what we really want.
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  • It is important here to note that Clausilia furnishes us with an exceptional instance of the continuity of the shell or secreted product of the primitive shell - sac with the adult shell.
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  • Some persons_ (as, for instance, Carnot, Pasquier, Lavalette and Thiebault) thought him prematurely aged and enfeebled.
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  • That of painting in fresco, for instance, shows the same orderly development from at any rate Period II.
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  • 1908, for instance, he rebuked Lord Cromer for uttering grave words of warning, and ridiculed the bare possibility of an Anglo-German conflict in arms. Early in 1909 he had assisted Mr. Lloyd George in the Cabinet in his unsuccessful endeavour to cut down Mr.
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  • The demiurge of the Mandaeans, and corresponding to the Ialdabaoth of the Ophites, he at the instance of his father frames the earth and men - according to some passages in conjunction with the seven bad planetary spirits.
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  • Hibil, at the instance of the supreme God, also taught men about the world of light and the aeons, and especially gave them to know that not P'tahil but another was their creator and supreme God, who as "the great king of light, without number, without limit," stands far above him.
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  • See for instance that by Philippe de Thaun (Philippus Taonensis), dedicated to Adelaide or Alice, queen of Henry I.
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  • 3 For instance, under the title of " Accipiter " we have to look, not only for the sparrow-hawk and gos-hawk, but for many other birds of the family (as we now call it) removed comparatively far from those species by modern ornithologists.
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  • To some of the Linnaean genera he dare not, however, assign a place, for instance, Buceros, Haematopus, Merops, Glareola (B risson's genus, by the by) and Palamedea.
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  • Still De Blainville made some advance in a right direction, as for instance by elevating the parrots' and the pigeons as " Ordres," equal in rank to that of the birds of prey and some others.
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  • For the rest his classification demands no particular remark; but that in a work of this kind he had the courage to recognize, for instance, such a fact as the essential difference between swallows and swifts lifts him considerably above the crowd of other ornithological writers of his time.
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  • On two occasions, however, there was found in addition, what may be taken for a representation of the first series, a little " noyau " situated between the coracoids - forming the only instance of all three series being present in the same bird.
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  • The herons, for instance, are much more Constrictipedes " than are the larks or the kingfishers, and, so far from the majority of " Inconstrictipedes " being polygamous, there is scarcely any evidence of polygamy obtaining as a habit among birds in a state of nature except in certain of the Gallinae and a very few others.
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  • Kralyevo is a garrison town, with a prefecture, court of first instance, and an agricultural school.
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  • We find it retaining some traces of Byzantine influence in the decorated surfaces of applied marbles, and in the roundels of porphyry and verd antique, while it also retained certain characteristics of Gothic, as, for instance, in the pointed arches of the Renaissance facade in the courtyard of the ducal palace designed by Antonio Rizzo (1499).
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  • The bonds were negotiable, and afford us the earliest instance of the issue of government stock.
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  • As an instance of his method, Bacon gives an investigation into the nature and cause of the rainbow, which is really a very fine specimen of inductive research.
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  • Coulommiers is the seat of a subprefect, and has a tribunal of first instance and a communal college.
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  • The Old South church has many associations; it was, for instance, the meeting-place of the people after the " Boston Massacre " of 1770, when they demanded the removal of the British troops from the city; and here, too, were held the meetings that led up to the " Boston Tea Party " of 1773.
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  • In the trap-door species of Lycosidae, like, for instance, Lycosa opifex of the Russian steppes, the hinge is weak and the lid of the burrow is kept normally shut by being very much thicker and heavier at its free margin opposite the hinge so that it readily falls by its own weight.
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  • In one instance Mr Rivers found one healthy plant in a badly affected field.
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  • Now debts are discharged in the first instance by vouchers.
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  • The official figures are supplemented from time to time by numerous private forecasts, for instance those in " Neild's circular."
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  • In one day, for instance, when the net drop was 33 points and the range of variation 59 points (namely, 8.45 to 7.86), 150 price fluctuations were recorded.
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  • "Futures" are not used in all markets-for instance, they are not to be found at Bremen; and in those in which they are used they play parts of different prominence-at Havre, for instance, the transactions in "futures" are of incomparably less relative importance than they are at Liverpool.
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  • 1 Its methods were stated to be: " To afford information to every country capable of producing cotton, both by the diffusion of printed directions for its cultivation, and sending competent teachers of cotton planting and cleaning, and by direct communication with Christian missionaries whose aid and co - operation it solicits; to supply, gratuitously, in the first instance, the best seeds to natives in every part of the world who are willing to receive them; to give prizes for the extended cultivation of cotton; and The Association published a weekly paper known as The Cotton Supply Reporter.
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  • Ausonius, for instance, apostrophizes the rhetorician Attius Patera as sprung from a race of Druids.
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  • Within a week Ranke received the promise of a post at Berlin, and in less than three months was appointed supernumerary professor in the university of that city, a striking instance of the promptitude with which the Prussian government recognized scientific merit when, as in Ranke's case, it was free from dangerous political opinions.
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  • It is either set in the first instance at some distance from the engine and well, or is subsequently removed sufficiently far away before the drill enters the oil-bearing formation, and until the oil and gas are under control, in order to minimize the risk of fire.
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  • At the inception of the industry kerosene came into the market as a dark yellow or reddish-coloured liquid, and in the first instance, the removal of colour was attempted by treatment with soda lye and lime solution.
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  • There was, for instance, the ambition of the adventurer prince, the younger son, eager to carve a principality in the far East, of whom Bohemund is the type; there was the interest of Italian towns, anxious to acquire the products of the East more directly and cheaply, by erecting their own emporia in the eastern Mediterranean.
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  • 2 But the dissensions of the Mahommedans made their attacks unavailing; in 1115, for instance, we find Antioch actually aided by Ilghazi and Tughtigin against Aksunkur of Mosul.
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  • It is a court of the king's peers: it tries cases of dispute between the king and his peers - with regard, for instance, to military service - and it settles the descent of the title of king.
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  • An instance of the latter is furnished by John of Margat, a vassal of the seignory of Arsuf.
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  • They rode incessantly to battle over burning sands, in full armour 1 For instance, the abbey of Mount Sion had large possessions, not only in the Holy Land (at Ascalon, Jaffa, Acre, Tyre, Caesarea and Tarsus), but also in Sicily, Calabria, Lombardy, Spain and France (at Orleans, Bourges and Poitiers).
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  • On the one hand they led to the establishment of emporia in the East - for instance, Acre, and after the fall of Acre Famagusta, both in their day great centres of Levantine trade.
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  • The basis of this growth is partly the story-telling instinct innate in all men, which loves to heighten an effect, sharpen a point or increase a contrast - the instinct which breathes in Icelandic sagas like that of Burnt Njal; partly the instinct of idolization, if it may be so called, which leads to the perversion into impossible greatness of an approved character, and has created, in this instance, the legendary figures of Peter the Hermit and Godfrey of Bouillon (qq.v.); partly the religious impulse, which counted nothing wonderful in a holy war, and imported miraculous elements even into the sober pages of the Gesta.
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  • The Ansarieh, for instance, and no doubt the Druses also, were originally survivals of the Syrian population.
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  • But from his time onwards there has been a continuous stream of admiralty reports, and we begin to find important cases decided on the instance as well as on the prize side.
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  • For instance, the names which they give to certain fruits, such as the duri-an, the rambut-an and the pulas-an, which are indigenous in the Malayan countries, and are not found elsewhere, are all compound words meaning respectively the thorny, the hairy and the twisted fruit.
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  • This is a strong instance of how the wish may be father to the thought even in a fairly critical mind.
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  • Thus he says that the silver which has been changed into gold by the projection of the red elixir is not rendered resistant to the agents which affect silver but not gold, and Albertus Magnus in his De Mineralibus - the De Alchemia attributed to him is spurious - states that alchemy cannot change species but merely imitates them - for instance, colours a metal white to make it resemble silver or yellow to give it the appearance of gold.
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  • About the beginning of the 10th century, however, the view was promulgated that the spontaneous production of helium from radium may be an instance of the transformation of one element into another.
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  • It has tribunals of first instance and of commerce, a board of trade-arbitrators, a lycee, training-colleges and a chamber of arts and manufactures.
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  • At the instance of Pippin, Boniface secured Adalbert's condemnation at the synod of Soissons in 744; but he, and Clement, a Scottish missionary and a heretic on predestination, continued to find followers in spite of legate, council and pope, for three or four years more.
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  • The poet Marc Antonia Flaminio, for instance, congratulates himself in pretty Latin verses on her singing his poems.
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  • Many theories hitherto universally accepted have been called in question or proved to be unsound: the views of Leake, for instance, have been challenged on various points, though many of his conclusions have been justified and confirmed.
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  • Leake, whom Frazer follows, assumed the Pelasgicum to be a fortified space at the western end of the Acropolis; this view necessitates the assumption that the nine gates were built one within the other, but early antiquity furnishes no instance of such a construction; DOrpfeld believes it to have extended from the grotto of Pan to the sacred precinct of Asclepius.
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  • These habitations would naturally in the first instance lie in close proximity to the western approach; after the building of the Pelasgicum they seem to have extended beyond its walls towards the south and south-west - towards the sea and the waters of the Ilissus.
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  • At the instance of Euric's son, Alaric II., an examination was made of the Roman laws in use among Romans in his dominions, and the resulting compilation was approved in 506 at an assembly at Aire, in Gascony, and is known as the Breviary of Alaric, and sometimes as the Liber Aniani, from the fact that the authentic copies bear the signature of the referendarius Anian.
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  • All nations have similar harvest homes, especially with reference to the vintage feasts; as, for instance, the Athenian Oschophoria.
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  • Thus it is on his sole, though in this instance perhaps trustworthy, testimony that the famous letter rests, said to have been sent to Rome in 446 by the despairing Britons, commencing: - "To Agitius (Aetius), consul for the third time, the groans of the Britons."
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  • Georg Ernst Stahl, following in some measure the views held by Johann Joachim Becher, as, for instance, that all combustibles contain a " sulphur " (which notion is itself of older date than Becher's terra pinguis), regarded all substances as capable of resolution into two components,.
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  • For instance, 35'45 parts of chlorine and 79.96 parts of bromine combine with 107.93 parts of silver; and when chlorine and bromine unite it is in the proportion of 35'45 parts of the former to 79.96 parts of the latter.
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  • One other instance may be given; the equation 2NH3=N2+3H2 represents the decomposition of ammonia gas into nitrogen and hydrogen gases by the electric spark, and it not only conveys the information that a certain relative weight of ammonia, consisting of certain relative weights of hydrogen and nitrogen, is broken up into certain relative weights of hydrogen and nitrogen, but also that the nitrogen will be contained in half the space which contained the ammonia, and that the volume of the hydrogen will be one and a half times as great as that of the original ammonia, so that in the decomposition of ammonia the volume becomes doubled.
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  • For instance, sulphuric acid is usually represented by the formula S0 2 (OH) 2, which indicates that it may be regarded as a compound of the group SO 2 with twice the group OH.
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  • This is also the case if two substances are brought together in solution, by the action of which upon each other a third body is formed which is insoluble in the solvent employed, and which also does not tend to react upon any of the substances present; for instance, when a solution of a chloride is added to a solution of a silver salt, insoluble silver chloride is precipitated, and almost the whole of the silver is removed from solution, even if the amount of the chloride employed be not in excess of that theoretically required.
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  • As another instance of this kind, the decomposition of bismuth chloride by water may be cited.
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  • Notwithstanding the inconsistency of his allocation of substances to the different groups (for instance, acetic acid was placed in the vegetable class, while the acetates and the products of their dry distillation, acetone, &c., were placed in the mineral class), this classification came into favour.
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  • Lavoisier, to whom chemistry was primarily the chemistry of oxygen compounds, having developed the radical theory initiated by Guyton de Morveau, formulated the hypothesis that vegetable and animal substances were oxides of radicals composed of carbon and hydrogen; moreover, since simple radicals (the elements) can form more than one oxide, he attributed the same character to his hydrocarbon radicals: he considered, for instance, sugar to be a neutral oxide and oxalic acid a higher oxide of a certain radical, for, when oxidized by nitric acid, sugar yields oxalic acid.
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  • But the belief died hard; the synthesis of urea remained isolated for many years; and many explanations were attempted by the vitalists (as, for instance, that urea was halfway between the inorganic and organic kingdoms, or that the carbon, from which it was obtained, retained the essentials of this hypothetical vital force), but only to succumb at a later date to the indubitable fact that the same laws of chemical combination prevail in both the animate and inanimate kingdoms, and that the artificial or laboratory synthesis of any substance, either inorganic or organic, is but a question of time, once its constitution is determined.'.
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  • Thus in the tri-substitution derivatives six isomers, and no more, are possible when two of the substituents are alike; for instance, six diaminobenzoic acids, C 6 H 3 (NH 2) 2 000H, are known; when all are unlike ten isomers are possible; thus, ten oxytoluic acids, C 6 H 3 -CH 3.
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  • Substituted acetylenes also exhibit this form of condensation; for instance, bromacetylene, BrC: CH, is readily converted into tribrombenzene, while propiolic acid, HC: C. COOH, under the influence of sunlight, gives benzene tricarboxylic acid.
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  • Certain compounds withstand ring decomposition much more strongly than others; for instance,.
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  • But with Der Ring des Nibelungen Wagner devoted himself to a story which any ordinary dramatist would find as unwieldy as, for instance, most of Shakespeare's subjects; a story in which ordinary canons of taste and probability were violated as they are in real life and in great art.
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  • The fact that this theme is commonly called the " Ring-motif " is a glaring instance of what Wagner has had to endure from his friends.
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  • The most notable instance - indeed it is almost the only instance - of the kind in English literature is the Lake School of Poets.
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  • Sometimes the joint-king is merely titular, an infant of tender years, as for instance Antiochus Eupator, the son of Antiochus Epiphanes, or Ptolemy Eupator, the son of Ptolemy Philometor.
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  • In their outlying possessions the Ptolemies may have suffered as much local independence as the Seleucids; the internal government of Jerusalem, for instance, was left to the high priests.
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  • At the Seleucid court there seems to be an instance of it in 195, when the heirapparent, Antiochus, married his sister Laodice.
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  • Under each of these great heads of departments was a host of lower officials, those, for instance, who held to the province a relation analogous to that of the head of the department of the realm.
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  • The first proved instance of a cult of the latter kind is that instituted at.
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  • So far we can point to no instance of a cult of the living sovereign (though the cities might institute such locally) being established by the court for the realm.
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  • They made a greater display of brilliant metal and gorgeous colour than the Roman armies, for instance.
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  • The condemnation of the " heretics " by the Patriarch led to their repudiation by the community of Vatopedi, and at the instance of the Russian ambassador at Constantinople the refractory monasteries were subjected to a rigorous blockade.
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  • No instance has ever been met with of the complete development of the right tusk associated with a rudimentary condition of the left.
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  • As an extreme instance of the misleading character of the scale given on maps embracing a wide area we may refer to a map of a hemisphere.
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  • These maps are based upon information collected during many years at the instance of King Roger.
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  • Canning carried against Buxton and his friends a motion to the effect that the desired ameliorations in the condition and treatment of the slaves should be recommended by the home government to the colonial legislatures, and enforced only in case of their resistance, direct action being taken in the single instance of Trinidad, which, being a crown colony, had no legislature of its own.
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  • As a lawyer his greatest public efforts were his lectures (1799) at Lincoln's Inn on the law of nature and nations, of which the introductory discourse was published, and his eloquent defence (1803) of Jean Gabriel Peltier, a French refugee, tried at the instance of the French government for a libel against the first consul.
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  • At Rome there was certainly some kind of industry in papyrus, the charta Fanniana, already referred to, being an instance in illustration.
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  • The town is the seat of a bishop, a prefecture, a court of assizes, and has tribunals of first instance and of commerce, a chamber of commerce, training colleges, a lycee for boys, a communal college for girls, and a branch of the Bank of France.
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  • At the instance of an English nobleman he prepared an account of the religious customs of the Synagogue, Riti Ebraici (1637).
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  • This seems to have been the only instance of an intercolonial provision for the return of fugitive slaves; there were, indeed, not infrequent escapes by slaves from one colony to another, but it was not until after the growth of anti-slavery sentiment and the acquisition of western territory, that it became necessary to adopt a uniform method for the return of fugitive slaves.
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  • The wooden ploughstick, for instance - taking the country as a whole - has never been displaced.
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  • Arrears of debt, for instance, were made recoverable for one year only, instead of the ten years.
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  • There was less inducement for the Orthodox inhabitants to emigrate, because almost 2 This is the first recorded instance of such an alliance.
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  • - the same influence, for instance, as the Italians, who had an imposing numerical force.
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  • What followed presents perhaps the finest instance of tlNapoleonic method.
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  • Agen is the seat of a bishop. It is the seat of a court of appeal and a court of assizes, and has tribunals of first instance and of commerce and a chamber of commerce.
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  • For instance, Ryder found that the Upernivik glacier had an average velocity of only 33 ft.
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  • Christianity was introduced by Leif Ericsson at the instance of Olaf Trygvasson, king of Norway, in r000 and following years.
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  • This is exactly the structure of the plum or apricot, and differs from that of the almond, which is identical in the first instance, only in the circumstance that the fleshy part of the latter eventually becomes dry and leathery and clacks open along a line called the suture.
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  • On the whole, oceanographical research was being taken up most actively in Europe, but much important work was also begun in America, for instance the fine hydrographical research in the Pacific by the Scripps Institute of the university of California.
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  • Samples of water are collected periodically from a number of places in a large sea-area (the North or Norwegian seas, or the English Channel, for instance) at the surface, bottom and a number of intermediate levels.
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  • Many economic changes probably occurred in consequence of the variations in tide-generating force, as, for instance, the decline in the mediaeval Baltic herring fisheries controlled by the Hanseatic League.
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  • The meaning of this singular contrast between the two animals may be that we have here an instance of an interesting gradation in evolution.
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  • Accordingly the conception of the ark must be based in the first instance upon the beliefs of the particular clans or tribes whose sacred object it was.
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  • In aqueous solutions, for instance, a few hydrogen (H) and hydroxyl (OH) ions derived from the water are always present, and will be liberated if the other ions require a higher decomposition voltage and the current be kept so small that hydrogen and hydroxyl ions can be formed fast enough to carry all the current across the junction between solution and electrode.
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  • For instance, to take the two solutions to which we have already referred, we have of ions between molecules at the instants of molecular collision only; during the rest of the life of the ions they were regarded as linked to each other to form electrically neutral molecules.
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  • For instance, the colour of a salt solution is the colour obtained by the superposition of the colours of the ions and the colour of any undissociated salt that may be present.
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  • As for copes, in some places they were ordered to be worn, and were worn at the Holy Communion, 4 while elsewhere they were thrown into the bonfires with the rest.5 The difficulty seems to have been not to suppress the chasuble, of the use of which after 1559 not a single authoritative instance has been adduced, but to save the surplice, which the more zealous Puritans looked on with scarcely less disfavour.
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  • Vigorous measures are now taken in many plantations to remove all old wood and to extract stumps of old trees, which in the first instance it was considered unnecessary to remove.
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  • Vulcanization takes place in this instance without the action of heat; but it is usual to subject the goods for a short time to a temperature of 40° C. after their removal from the solution, in order to drive off the liquid which has been absorbed, and to ensure a sufficient action of the chloride of sulphur.
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  • 15 supports the view that proselytes were actively sought by the Pharisees, and the famous Didache was probably in the first instance a manual for instructing proselytes in the principles of Judaism.
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  • The town is the seat of a sub-prefect, and has a tribunal of first instance, a chamber of commerce and a communal college.
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  • For instance, those of a ternary form involve two classes which may be geometrically interpreted as point and line co-ordinates in a plane; those of a quaternary form involve three classes which may be geometrically interpreted as point, line and plane coordinates in space.
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  • Since this date, it has, on the whole, diminished, although large outputs occurred in isolated years, for instance, a production of 40,000 tons in 1893 was followed by 60,000 tons in 1896 and 40,000 in 1897.
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  • Ammonium nitrate and nitrite, for instance, intensify the action of a water on lead.
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  • Lead unites readily with almost all other metals; hence, and on account of its being used for the extraction of (for instance) silver, its alchemistic name of saturnus.
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  • On the Jewish Decalogue, for instance, follows the law, and on the law the rabbinical schools.
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  • In certain cases, as, for instance, in an iron ring wrapped uniformly round with a coil of wire through which a current is passing, the induction is entirely within the metal; there are, consequently, no free poles, and the ring, though magnetized, constitutes a poleless magnet.
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  • An important instance in which the calculation can be made is that of an elongated ellipsoid of revolution placed in a uniform field H o, with its axis of revolution parallel to the lines of force.
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  • For each of the metals tabulated in the first column all the effects hitherto observed have the same sign; there is no single instance in which some are positive and others negative.
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  • The critical temperature of iron, for instance, is raised more than ioo° by the addition of, a little carbon and tungsten.
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  • The single pair of palpiform appendages in front of the mouth has been found in one instance to be antenniform, whilst the numerous post-oral appendages in the same genus were bi-ramose.
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  • From the front of this region new segments are produced in the first instance, and are added during growth to the existing series.
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  • As capital of an arrondissement, Bastia is the seat of a tribunal of first instance and a sub-prefect, while it is also the seat of the military governor of Corsica, of a court of appeal for the whole island, of a court of assizes, and of a tribunal and a chamber of commerce, and has a lycee, a branch of the Bank of France, and a library with between 30,000 and 40,000 volumes.
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  • Some authorities, however, as for instance Gibbon, have supposed them to refer to the same person.
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  • It is as follows: "Tribonian was a man of great natural powers, and had attained as high a culture as any one of his time; but he was greedy of money, capable of selling justice for gain, and every day he repealed or enacted some law at the instance of people who purchased this from him according to their several needs..
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  • Dunkirk is the seat of a sub-prefect; its public institutions include tribunals of first instance and of commerce, a board of trade-arbitrators, an exchange, a branch of the Bank of France and a communal college; and it has a school of drawing, architecture and music, a library and a rich museum of paintings.
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  • An instance under the last head occurred in 1831, when it was referred to the king of the Netherlands as sole arbitrator to fix the north-eastern boundary of the state of Maine.
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  • What, for instance, is meant by the phrase " national independence " in this connexion?
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  • In Germany, for instance, there are several categories of counts: (1) the mediatized princely counts (gefiirstete Grafen), who are reckoned the equals in blood of the European sovereign houses, an equality symbolized by the "closed crown" surmounting their armorial bearings.
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  • 30 a Founded in 1682, at the instance of Sir George Mackenzie, king's advocate under Charles II., and then dean of the faculty, it is regarded as the national library, and is one of the five entitled by the Copyright Act to receive a copy of every work published in Great Britain.
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  • Argentan is the seat of a sub-prefect, has a tribunal of first instance and a communal college.
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  • It also has tribunals of first instance and of commerce, a chamber of commerce, a board of trade-arbitrators, an exchange and a branch of the Bank of France.
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  • During all this time he was on terms of intimate friendship with the president, over whom he undoubtedly exerted a powerful, but probably not, as is often said, a dominating influence; for instance he is generally supposed to have won the president's support for the Kansas-Nebraska Bill of 1854.
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  • Although the division of the country into terraces separated by ranges of hills is clearly marked in various districts, as for instance between Durban and Colenso, the province is traversed by many secondary chains, as well as by spurs of the Drakensberg.
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  • In 1843, for instance, no fewer than 50,000 Zulus crossed the Tugela seeking the protection of the white man.
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  • But this is precisely an instance of the hypostatization of abstractions in exposing which the chief strength and value of Nominalism lie.
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  • Fresh translations of Aristotle and Averroes had already been made from the Arabic (IIepi ret ivropiat from the Hebrew) by Michael Scot, and Hermannus Alamannus, at the instance of the emperor Frederick II.; so that the whole body of Aristotle's works was at hand in Latin translations from about 1210 to 1225.
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  • Thomism, which was destined to become the official philosophy of the Roman Catholic Church, became in the first instance the accepted doctrine of the Dominican order, who were presently joined in this allegiance by the Augustinians.
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  • The other lowland lakes, as, for instance, the Palics near Szabadka, and the Velencze in the county of Feller, are much smaller.
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  • The sand of some of the rivers, as for instance the Maros, Szamos, Koros and Aranyos, is auriferous.
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  • These are courts of first instance.
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  • (3) Royal Tables (12 in number), which are courts of second instance, established at Budapest, Debreczen, Gyor, Kassa, Kolozsvar, Maros-Vasarhely, Nagyvarad, Pecs, Pressburg, Szeged, Temesvar and Zagrab.
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  • A clause also guarantees all nobles against arbitrary arrest and punishment at the instance of any powerful person.
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  • Stephen Bathory, voivode of Transylvania and count of the Szeklers, for instance, ruled Transylvania like a Turkish pasha, and threatened to behead all who dared to complain of his exactions; " Stinking carrion," he said, was better than living Szeklers.
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  • The diet, which met at Buda in hot haste, proclaimed the young king 2 dictator, 1 The Opus tripartitum juris consuetudinarii regni Hungariae was drawn up by Verbbczy at the instance of the diet in 1507.
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  • One most striking instance of how completely he changed the current of the national mind may here be given.
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  • Once more, at the instance of Batthyany, the emperor intervened; and on the 10th an imperial edict stripped Jellachich of all his offices.
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  • At his instance the diet not only refused to vote supplies for the troops of the ban of Croatia, but only consented to pass a motion for sending reinforcements to the army in Italy on condition that the anti-Magyar races in Hungary should be first disarmed.
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  • On the retirement of Beust in 1871, Andrassy was appointed his successor, the first instance, since Hungary came beneath the dominion of the Habsburgs, of an Hungarian statesman being entrusted with the conduct of foreign affairs.
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  • Magyar history is indebted to Paul Jaszay for his careful working out of certain special periods, as, for instance, in his A Magyar nemzet napjai a legregibb idOtOl az arany bullaig (Days of the Hungarian nation from the earliest times to the date of the Golden Bull).
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  • After 1872, in addition to its regular organs, it issued Hungarian translations of several popular scientific English works, as, for instance, Darwin's Origin of Species; Huxley's Lessons in Physiology; Lubbock's Prehistoric Times; Proctor's Other Worlds than Ours; Tyndall's Heat as a Mode of Motion, &c. Versions were also made of Cotta's Geologie der Gegenwart and Helmholtz's Populcire Vorlesungen.
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  • The most characteristic members of the order are twining plants with generally smooth heart-shaped leaves and large showy white or purple flowers, as, for instance, the greater bindweed of English hedges, Calystegia sepium, and many species of the genus Ipomaea, the largest of the order, including the "convolvulus major" of gardens, and morning glory.
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  • The bracts are usually scale-like, but sometimes foliaceous, as for instance in Calystegia, where they are large and envelop the calyx.
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  • In the delicate task of apportioning his own large share of merit, he certainly does not err on the side of modesty; but it would perhaps be as difficult to produce an instance of injustice, as of generosity in his estimate of others.
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  • This instance of abnegation is the more worthy of record that it formed a marked exception to Laplace's usual course.
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  • This appears to have been due in the first instance to Albert Girard (1595-1632), who extended Vieta's results in various branches of mathematics.
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  • Suppose, for instance, that we wish to know how much will be left out of ios.
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  • In (i.), for instance, we want to find the amount by which ios.
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  • To say, for instance, that X is equal to A -B, is the same thing as to say that X is a quantity such that X and B, when added, make up A; and the above five statements of necessary connexion between two statements of equality are in fact nothing more than definitions of the symbols -, m of, =,, and loga.
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  • If, for instance, we state that A=X - B, this is really a statement that X=Ad-B.
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  • The statement, for instance, that 32 - x = 25, is really a statement that 32 is the sum of x and 25.
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  • If, for instance, we are told that 15= 4 of (x- 2), what is meant is that (I) there is a number u such that x=u+2, (2) there is a number v such that u=4 times v, and (3) 15=3 times v.
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  • We replace 4(x3), for instance, by 4x4.3, because we know that, whatever the value of x may be, the result of subtracting 3 from it and multiplying the remainder by 4 is the same as the result of finding 4x and 4.3 separately and subtracting the latter from the former.
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  • For multiplication, for instance, we have the statement that, if P and Q are two quantities, containing respectively p and q of a particular unit, then p X Q = q X P; or the more abstract statement that p X q= q X p.
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  • In the case of addition, for instance, suppose that we are satisfied that in a+b+c+d+e we may take any two, as b and c, together (association) and interchange them (commutation).
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  • Suppose, for instance, that n=5, so that we take five factors (A+a) (B+b) (C+c) (D+d) (E+e) and find their product.
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  • Consider, for instance, the term AbcDe, in which the small letters are bce.
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  • Some writers, for instance, use the symbol n, in place, in some cases, of n (r), and, in other cases, of n (r).
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  • If, for instance, we inquire as to the time taken to reach a given height by a body thrown upwards with a given velocity, we find that the time increases as the height decreases.
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  • For instance, by equating coefficients of or in the expansions of (I +x) m+n and of (I dx) m .
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  • In � 41 (ii.), for instance, the coefficient of A n - r a r in the expansion of (Ada) (A+a) n - 1 has been called (n, .); and it has then been shown that (ii) = (n _ I) d (i).
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  • (v.) The further extension to fractional values (positive or negative) of n depends in the first instance on the establishment of a method of algebraical evolution which bears the same relation to arithmetical evolution (calculation of a surd) that algebraical division bears to arithmetical division.
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  • In calculating 1/2, for instance, we proceed as if 2.0000...
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  • Suppose, for instance, that we require to calculate (23/13).
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  • The idea of continuity must in the first instance be introduced from the graphical point of view; arithmetical continuity being impossible without a considerable extension of the idea of number (� 65).
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  • We cannot, for instance, say that the fraction C _2 I is arithmetically equal to x+I when x= I, as well as for other values of x; but we can say that the limit of the ratio of x 2 - I to x - I when x becomes indefinitely nearly equal to I is the same as the limit of x+ On the other hand, if f(y) has a definite and finite value for y = x, it must not be supposed that this is necessarily the same as the limit which f (y) approaches when y approaches the value x, though this is the case with the functions with which we are usually concerned.
    0
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  • For instance, when n is large, n!
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  • Suppose, for instance, that y=x 2; then to every rational value of x there corresponds a rational value of y, but the converse does not hold.
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  • But the symbols of ordinary algebra do not necessarily denote numbers; they may, for instance, be interpreted as coplanar points or vectors.
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  • For instance, x+y = x+xy and xy = x(x+y) are reciprocal.
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  • For instance, if n= 4, E r = e l e 3, Es= e 2 e 3 e 4, we have IErIE8 = (-e2e4) (- e 1) = ele2e4 = l e3, consequently, by the rule of regressive multiplication, eie3�e2e3e4 = e3.
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  • For instance, there are the symbols A, D, E used in the calculus of finite differences; Aronhold's symbolical method in the calculus of invariants; and the like.
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  • The unknown was called yavattavat, and if there were several, the first took this appellation, and the others were designated by the names of colours; for instance, x was denoted by y�nd y by lea (from kalaka, black).
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  • Bar-le-Duc has tribunals of first instance and of commerce, a board of trade arbitrators, a lycee, a training-college for girls, a chamber of commerce, a branch of the Bank of France and an art museum.
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  • The special commission, after hearing the views of Trumbic and Bratianu, recommended a line which as nearly as possible balanced the Serb and Rumanian minorities left to Rumania and Yugoslavia respectively, and secured to the latter the essentially Serb districts of Torontal county: but at the instance of the French this line was modified to include Vrsac (Versecz) and Bela Crkva (Weisskirchen) in Yugoslavia.
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  • The Pan-Serb section of opinion in Belgrade, encouraged in this instance by some of the army chiefs for strategic reasons, has always coveted northern Albania: and the Montenegrin Unionists, led by Radovie, made every effort to secure the adoption of their full claim by the Yugoslav delegation.
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  • 1921, when at the instance of the Supreme Council it was handed over to Hungary.
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  • But this instance is really fully explained (as the present writer has shown) by the theory of natural selection acting on congenital fortuitous variations.
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  • The view that instinct is the hereditarily fixed result of habit derived from experience long dominated all inquiry into the subject, but we may now expect to see a renewed and careful study of animal instincts carried out with the view of testing the applicability to each instance of the pure Darwinian theory without the aid of Lamarckism.
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  • It is scarcely necessary to remark that in all such cases the calculation applies in the first instance to homogeneous light, and that, in accordance with Fourier's theorem, each homogeneous component of a mixture may be treated separately.
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  • Many trees have been introduced and considerable plantations made, as for instance on the slopes between Johannesburg and Pretoria.
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  • Courts of first instance are presided over by magistrates, the whole colony being divided into sixteen magisterial wards.
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  • On the eastern border a similar policy of expansion was followed by the Boers, and in this instance with more success.
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  • Belley is the seat of a bishopric and a prefect, and has a tribunal of first instance.
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  • Aurillac is the seat of a prefect, and its public institutions include tribunals of first instance and of commerce, a chamber of commerce, a lycee, training-colleges and a branch of the Bank of France..
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  • A similar instance of the recognition of rising genius by a poet whose own day was past is found in the account given of the visit of Accius to the veteran Pacuvius.
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  • The latter is the more probable motive, and we recognize in this the first instance of that impulse to visit the scenes familiar to them through literature which afterwards acted on many of the great writers of Rome.
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  • On its thoroughness depends the removal of small quantities of products other than the nitrates, for instance, some sulphates and products from impurities contained in the original cellulose.
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  • At Calabozo, for instance, the mean is about 88°, though the maximum in summer is not far from 100°.
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    0
  • The judicial organization of the states includes in each a supreme court of three members, a superior court, courts of first instance, district courts and municipal courts.
    0
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  • In this respect the greatest efforts have naturally been made by Hamburg; but Magdeburg, Dresden, Meissen, Riesa, Tetschen, Aussig and other places have all done their relative shares, Magdeburg, for instance, providing a commercial harbour and a winter harbour.
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  • In 1147 he went on crusade, and after his return renounced Bavaria at the instance of the new king Frederick I.
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  • If, for instance, we find that instead of the natural number of Malpighian bodies in the kidney there are only half that number, then we are entitled to say that this defect represents disease of structure; and if we find that the organ is excreting a new substance, such as albumen, we can affirm logically that its function is abnormal.
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  • The female organs of certain cryptogams, for instance, exert a positive chemiotactic action upon the spermatozoids, and probably, as Pfeffer suggests, the chemical agent which exerts the influence is malic acid.
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  • Certain free mobile cells within the body, such as blood-leucocytes, as well as others which are fixed, as for instance the endothelium of the hepatic capillaries, have the property of seizing upon some kinds of particulate matter brought within their reach.
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  • A very remarkable instance of an acquired means of protecting a wound against parasitical invasion is to be found in granulations.
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  • When, for instance, the cause of septic infection had been revealed, the prophylaxis of the disease became a possibility.
    0
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  • An instance of the latter is the work of Robert Willan (1757-1812) on diseases of the skin - a department of medicine in which abstract and hypothetical views had been especially injurious.
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  • Thus the digestive function, in its largest sense, is now seen to consist, not only in preparation and supply, but in no small measure also of protective and antidotal conversions of the matters submitted to it; coincidently with agents of digestion proper are found in the circuit of normal digestion "anti-substances" which neutralize or convert peptones in their poisonous phases; an autochthonous ferment, such as rennet for instance, calling forth an anti-rennet, and so on.
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  • By similar methods nature, unassisted, betrays herself but too often; in many instances - probably originating primarily in the nervous tissues themselves - the course of disease is observed to follow certain paths with remarkable consistency, as for instance in diseases of particular tracts of the spinal cord.
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  • Diseases of the latter kind are especially interesting, as in them we see that parts of the nervous structure, separated in space, may nevertheless be associated in function; for instance, wasting of a group of muscles associated in function may depend on a set of central degenerations concurring in parts whose connexion, in spite of dissociation in space, we thus perceive.
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  • Toxins may thus become so closely keyed into their corresponding atom groups, as for instance in tetanus, that they are no longer free to combine with the antitoxin; or, again, an antitoxin injected before a toxin may anticipate it and, preventing its mischievous adhesion, dismiss it for excretion.
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  • In the sphere of physiology and in the interpretation of associated arterial diseases much obscurity still remains; as, for instance, concerning the nature of the toxic substances which produce those bilateral changes in the kidneys which we call Bright's disease, and bring about the "uraemia" which is characteristic of it.
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  • Thus, for instance, in his account of the transition from savage to civilized life, he assumes at v.
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  • Bright colour, in truth, is wanting, though attempts are made in a few important modern erections to supply it, a notable instance being the Savoy Hotel buildings (1904) in the Strand.
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  • In the West End of London the majority of important street-names are naturally of a later derivation than those in the ancient City, though Charing Cross is an instance of an exception.
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  • As an instance he states that the commissioners of the poll-tax reported that there were only two-thirds as many contributaries in 1381 as in 1377.
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  • Dr Creighton points out that the number given by certain chroniclers of the deaths from the early pestilences in London are incredible; such for instance as the statement that forty or fifty thousand bodies were buried in Charterhouse churchyard at the time of the Black Death in 1348-1349.
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  • An instance of this is seen in the election of Edmund Ironside, although the Witan outside London had elected Canute.
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  • The remarkable instance of this after the Conquest was the election of Stephen, but William the Conqueror did not feel secure until he had the sanction of the Londoners to his kingship, and his attitude towards London when he hovered about the neighbourhood of the city for a time shows that he was anxious to obtain this sanction freely rather than by compulsion.
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  • Athelstan's acceptance of the London-made law for the whole kingdom, as pointed out by Mr Gomme, is another instance of the independence of the Londoner.
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  • There is only one instance in the city records of a sheriff of Middlesex being mentioned as distinct from the sheriffs, and this was in 1283 when Anketin de Betteville and Walter le Blond are described as sheriffs of London, and Gerin as sheriff of Middlesex.
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  • The advantage gained in the first instance by the surprise was lost, and the Turkish r9th Div.
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  • Masses of war material and food supplies were in the first instance removed, then most of the animals were got away, lastly portions of the troops began to embark and to proceed to Imbros or Mudros.
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  • The chief instance is his careful interweaving of the accounts of the births and early years of John the Baptist and of Jesus.
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  • In 1797, at the instance of English statesmen, he published a translation of a history of French finance by Francois d'Ivernois (1757-1842), an eminent Genevese exile naturalized and knighted in England, extracts from which he had previously given in his journal.
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  • The royal glass manufactory of La Granja de San Ildefonso was founded about 1725; in the first instance for the manufacture of mirror plates, but subsequently for the production of vases and table-ware in the French style.
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  • Silver vapour is blue, potassium vapour is green, many others (mercury vapour, for instance) are colourless.
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  • A bar of zinc, for instance, as obtained by casting, is very brittle; but when heated to 100° or 150° C. it becomes sufficiently plastic to be rolled into the thinnest sheet or to be drawn into wire.
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  • Thus, for instance, to% aluminium bronze is scratched by an ordinary steel knife-blade, yet the sets of needles used for perforating postage stamps last longer if made of aluminium bronze than if made of steel.
    0
    0
  • Thus, for instance, chemically pure iron in the ingot has the specific gravity 7.844; when it is rolled out into thin sheet, the value falls to 7.6; when drawn into thin wire, to 7.75.
    0
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  • Iron, for instance, is converted first into FeC1 21 ultimately into FeCl 3, which practically means a mixture of the two chlorides, or pure FeC1 3 as a final product.
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  • The state has two Amtsgerichte (courts of first instance) at Bremen and Bremerhaven respectively, and a superior court, Landgericht, at Bremen, whence appeals lie to the Oberlandesgericht for the Hanseatic towns in Hamburg.
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  • Passed through a red-hot tube, benzene vapour yields hydrogen, diphenyl, diphenylbenzenes and acetylene; the formation of the last compound is an instance of a reversible reaction, since Berthelot found that acetylene passed through a red-hot tube gave some benzene.
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  • The active encouragement of King Edward VIL., at whose instance in 1902 he was invited officially to be present at the coronation ceremony, marked the completeness of the change; and when, in 1905, the "general" went on a progress through England, he was received in state by the mayors and corporations of many towns.
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  • All substance in nature falls into one of the two classes, solid and fluid; a solid substance, the land, for instance, as contrasted with a fluid, like water, being a substance which does not flow of itself.
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  • If the distribution of the thrust is not uniform, as, for instance, on a vertical or inclined face or wall of a reservoir, then P/A represents the average pressure over the area; and the actual pressure at any point is the average pressure over a small area enclosing the point.
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  • This is the characteristic distinguishing between a solid and a liquid; as, for instance, between land and water.
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  • Consider, for instance, the operation of casting a hemispherical bell, in fig.
    0
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  • For instance, with n = I in equation (9), the relative stream function is obtained for a sphere of radius a, by making it, y' =1y+2Uy 2 = 2U(r 2 -a 3 /r) sin?
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  • 35 A circular vortex, such as a smoke ring, will set up motion symmetrical about an axis, and provide an illustration; a half vortex ring can be generated in water by drawing a semicircular blade a short distance forward, the tip of a spoon for instance.
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  • To give a simple instance, hanging to the stereographic projection by putting tan 20=x, ill give a possible state of motion of the axis of the body; and the otion of the centre may then be inferred from (22).
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  • Practically the entire code of 7Ethelberht, for instance, is a tariff of fines for crimes, and the same subject continues to occupy a great place in the laws of Hlothhere and Eadric, Ine and Alfred, whereas it appears only occasionally in the treaties with the Danes, the laws of Withraed, Edward the Elder, lEthelstan, Edgar, Edmund and Ethelred.
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  • Fortunately, in the case of a large number of names occurring on business documents as the interested parties or as scribes or as witnesses - and it is through these documents that we obtain the majority of the Babylonian-Assyrian proper names - we have variant readings, the same name being written phonetically in whole or part in one instance and ideographically in another.
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  • In April 1480 a balia was formed, and its most important act was the creation at Lorenzo's instance of the Council of Seventy; it was constituted for five years, but it became permanent, and all its members were Lorenzo's friends.
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  • This perilous expedition, a monumental instance of courage and loyalty, had no substantial result.
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  • The portrait of Archbishop Warham at Lambeth, for instance, shows a rochet with fairly wide sleeves narrowing towards the wrists, where they are confined by fur cuffs.
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  • 5 1 ° 55' In former centuries vines were cultivated to the north of this region, as, for instance, in Holland, in Belgium largely, and in England, where they might still be grown.
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  • A vine, for instance, that produces bunches of grapes at each joint is preferable to one in which there are several barren joints, as a larger quantity can be grown within a smaller area.
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  • As an instance of the influence of climatic conditions combined with high cultivation the cane lands of the Sandwich Islands may be cited.
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  • The philosophers from whom Croce learned most are Vico, the author of the Scienza nuova, and Hegel, but the thought of all other thinkers flows in his writings, in conformity with its historical character, and for this reason may, for instance, be found in it traces of some of Hegel's most active opponents, such as Herbart.
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  • In some, for instance, France, Austria-Hungary and Italy, the cultivation is a state monopoly, and in other countries the crop is subject to heavy excise duties.
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  • If the zinc is present as blende, this operation offers considerable difficulties, because in the roasting process the zinc sulphide passes in the first instance into sulphate, which demands a high temperature for its conversion into oxide.
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  • Thus for instance when any feudal institution (be it Gothic, Norman, or Anglo-Saxon) eludes our deciphering faculty from the imperfect records of its use and operation, then we endeavour conjecturally to amend our knowledge by watching the circumstances in which that institution arose."
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  • He went to Marseilles with his wife and subsequently to Florence, where at the instance of General La Marmora he undertook to write an account of the Italian army.
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  • Nolde gives an instance from his own experience of a camel rider covering 62 m.
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  • A conspicuous instance was the exclusion of Cologne from 1471 until its obedience in 1476, but the penalty had been earlier imposed, as in the case of Brunswick, on towns which overthrew their patrician governments.
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  • In this instance the ultimate success of the corporation greatly strengthened the Obscurantist and reactionary element throughout Austria.
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  • The Viennese school of painting is of modern origin; but some of its members, for instance, Hans Makart (1840-1884), have acquired a European reputation.
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  • The judiciary is composed of a supreme court, superior courts and courts of first instance, and justices of the peace.
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    0
  • The courts of first instance are established in the capitals of provinces and their judges are chosen by the superior courts of the districts in which they are located.
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    0
  • By the new line the distance between Salzburg, for instance, and Trieste, is lessened by 160 m.
    0
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  • Many of the chief characteristics of the ancient Greek heroes are reproduced in those of the Teutonic North, the parallel being in some cases very striking; Siegfried, for instance, like Achilles, is vulnerable only in one spot, and Wayland Smith, like Hephaestus, is lame.
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  • Take, for instance, the description of some of Arthur's knights in the Welsh tale of Kilhwch and Olwen (in the Mabinogion).
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  • It was probably the noise of these sermons that caused the friar's temporary removal from Florence at the instance of Piero de' Medici.
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  • The first thing done at his instance was to relieve the starving populace within and without the walls; shops were opened to give work to the unemployed; all taxes, especially those weighing on the lower classes, were reduced; the strictest administration of justice was enforced, and all men were exhorted to place their trust in the Lord.
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  • The causticity of alkaline bodies was explained at that time as depending on the presence in them of the principle of fire, "phlogiston"; quicklime, for instance, was chalk which had taken up phlogiston, and when mild alkalis such as sodium or potassium carbonate were causticized by its aid, the phlogiston was supposed to pass from it to them.
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  • This is the only instance before the 3rd century in which a first-rate Roman military command was given to a Greek.
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  • In Bugula, for instance, a calcareous avicularium of this type is attached by a narrow neck to each zooecium.
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  • In 1561 he was appointed professor in the Collegium Sapientiae at Heidelberg, where in 1563 at the instance of the elector-palatine, Frederick III., he drew up the Catechism in co-operation with Kaspar Olevian.
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  • A noticeable feature of the story is the uncertainty as to the hero's parentage; the mother is always a lady of rank, a queen in her own right, or sister of kings (as a rule of the Grail kings); but the father's rank varies, he is never a king, more often merely a valiant knight, and in no instance does he appear to be of equal rank with his wife.
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  • Thus, for instance, near Nikko in the upper valley of the Daiya-gawa, and in several other places in the neighboring mountains, a granite-porphyry appears with large, pale, flesh-colored crystals of orthoclase, dull triclinic feispar, quartz and hornblende.
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  • If we take for instance the skins of animals that are striped or spotted, we have the best possible illustration of natures methods in this direction.
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  • He holds a high place in the history of humanism by the foundation of the College de France; he did not found an actual college, but after much hesitation instituted in 1530, at the instance of Guillaume Bude (Budaeus), Lecteurs royaux, who in spite of the opposition of the Sorbonne were granted full liberty to teach Hebrew, Greek, Latin, mathematics, &c. The humanists Bude, Jacques Colin and Pierre Duchatel were the king's intimates, and Clement Marot was his favourite poet.
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  • They are, for instance, no longer found in Europe and North Asia, but only in Africa and in portions of the Indian and Indo-Malayan regions.
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  • There are tribunals of first instance and of commerce, a board of trade-arbitrators, a chamber of commerce, an exchange (occupying the former cathedral of St Etienne), and an important branch of the Bank of France.
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  • In course of time a large number of similar publications were issued, some illustrated, for instance: Illustrierte Zeitung (Leipzig, 1843), Berliner Illustrierte Zeitung (1892), Die Woche (1899) the last the most widely circulated of the kind, 500,000 being printed.
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  • It is hard to explain this solitary instance of shabby conduct in a thoroughly generous man towards a person to whom he was unalterably attached and who fully deserved his affection.
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  • On the 22nd of July he succeeded Fetid Pasha as grand vizier, but on the 6th of August was replaced by Kiamil Pasha, a man of more liberal views, at the instance of the young Turkish committee.
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  • Meanwhile the first two parts were reprinted as a feuilleton in Heathcote's Intelligencer, perhaps the earliest instance of the appearance of such a work in such a form.
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  • He is, in fact, an instance of the tendency, which has so often been remarked by other nations in the English, to drag in moral distinctions at every turn, and to confound everything which is novel to the experience, unpleasant to the taste, and incomprehensible to the understanding, under the general epithets of wrong, wicked and shocking.
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  • Luther, for instance, would not tolerate Zwingli's view on the Lord's Supper, while Zwingli was willing to fraternize with him notwithstanding this difference."
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  • It was nevertheless proscribed in the next year at the instance of the Montagnard deputy Albitte, for an anti-anarchical hemistich (Des lois et non du sang!); Fenelon (1793) was suspended after a few representations; and in 1794 his Timoleon, set to Etienne Mehul's music, was also proscribed.
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  • Fabius Quintilianus, or Quintilian (c. 35-95), is brought forward by Juvenal as a unique instance of a thoroughly successful man of letters, of one not belonging by birth to the rich or official class, who had risen to wealth and honours through literature.
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  • In all these biographies there is internal evidence of confusion; many of the incidents related are elsewhere told of other persons, and certain of them are quite irreconcilable with his character, so far as it can be judged of from his writings and from the opinions expressed of him by his contemporaries; we may safely reject, for instance, the legends that he set fire to the library of the Temple of Health at Cnidos, in order to destroy the evidence of plagiarism, and that he refused to visit Persia at the request of Artaxerxes Longimanus, during a pestilential epidemic, on the ground that he would in so doing be assisting an enemy.
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  • The result was that, in the cases of Naxos and Thasos, for instance, the league's resources were employed not against the Persians but against recalcitrant Greek islands, and that the Greek ideal of separate autonomy was outraged.
    0
    0
  • For instance, some species of Philodendron have a growth like that of ivy, with feeding roots penetrating the soil and clasping roots which fix the plant to its support.
    0
    0
  • Thus for instance the capacity in free space of a sphere 2 metres in diameter would be 100/900,000 = 1/9000 of a microfarad.
    0
    0
  • To find the total heat of a substance in any given state defined by the values of p and 0, starting from any convenient zero of temperature, it is sufficient to measure the total heat required to raise the substance to the final temperature under a constant pressure equal to p. For instance, in the boiler of a steam engine the feed water is pumped into the boiler against the final pressure of the steam, and is heated under this constant pressure up to the temperature of the steam.
    0
    0
  • In this case the work of expansion, pdv, is expended in the first instance in producing kinetic energy of motion of parts of the gas.
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    0
  • The metropolitans now commonly assumed the title of archbishop to mark their preeminence over the other bishops; at the same time the obligation imposed upon them, mainly at the instance of St Boniface, to receive thepallium from Rome, definitely marked the defeat of their claim to exercise metropolitan jurisdiction independently of the pope.
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  • They varied in size in different counties; those of Yorkshire, for instance, being very much larger than those of Lincolnshire.
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    0
  • Tree-worship again is a constantly recurring feature, seen, for instance, in the permanently sacred character of the ficus Ruminalis and the caprcus of the Campus Martius, and above all in the oak of luppiter Feretrius, on which the spolia opima were hung after a victory.
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  • On one occasion a curious set of incidents were described, which happened to be vividly present to the mind of a sceptical stranger who chanced to be in the room during the experiment; events unknown to the inquirer in this instance.
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  • There, in Phrygia, the cry for a strict Christian life was reinforced by the belief in a new and final outpouring of the Spirit - a coincidence which has been observed elsewhere in Church history - as, for instance, among the early Quakers and in the Irvingite movement.
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  • This species swarms in some years in prodigious numbers; in Pennant's time amazing shoals appeared in the fens of Lincolnshire every seven or eight years, No instance of a similar increase of this fish has been observed in our time, and this possibly may be due to the diminished number of suitable breeding-places in consequence of the introduction of artificial drainage.
    0
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  • For instance, in 1891 the emigration from the provinces of West Prussia and Posen was extraordinarily heavy10.9 and Io 4 per mille respectively-but the excess of births over deaths was 19.6 per mille.
    0
    0
  • In the United States, for instance, out of a population of 76,303,387 (in 1900), there were 26,147,407 persons who were either foreign-born or who had one or both parents foreignborn.
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  • It is said, for instance, that an adult slave used to be valued at from $800 to $1000, so that every adult immigrant may be looked upon as worth that sum to the country.
    0
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  • The United States, for instance, has felt some inconvenience from the constant addition of foreigners to its electorate and its population.
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  • In the United States, for instance, it was shown in 1890 that more than 21.5 per cent.
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  • For instance, New York has made large contributions to the population of Ohio, Michigan, Illinois, Wisconsin, Iowa and so on.
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  • In 1656 he was appointed governor of Tripoli; but before he had set out to his new post he was nominated to the grand vizierate at the instance of powerful friends.
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  • Fazil Ahmed Kuprili (1635-1676), son of the preceding, succeeded his father as grand vizier in 1661 (this being the first instance of a son succeeding his father in that office since the time of the Chenderelis).
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  • One cannot avoid the suspicion that in this instance the Hebrew chronicler purposely phrased his account to convey the impression that Sennacherib's tragic end was but the slightly delayed culmination of the punishment inflicted for his attack upon the "chosen people."
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  • An instance is given, in L' Art de verifier les dates, of a date in which the year is reckoned from the 18th of March; but it is probable that this refers to the astronomical year, and that the 18th of March was taken for the day of the vernal equinox.
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  • The chronological reckoning of Julius Africanus formed also the basis of the era of Antioch, which was adopted by the Christians of Syria, at the instance of Panodorus, an Egyptian monk, who flourished about the beginning of the 4th century.
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  • This practice continued to prevail till the 17th century, when, at the instance of the Jesuit Schall, president of the tribunal of mathematics, they adopted the European method of dividing the day into twenty-four hours, each hour into sixty minutes, and each minute into sixty seconds.
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  • 27 with a view to capturing the heights of Bourlon Wood in the first instance.
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  • Chaumont is the seat of a prefect and of a court of assizes, and has tribunals of first instance and of commerce, a lycee, training colleges, and a branch of the Bank of France.
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  • He recommended him in 1580 as a "maitre des requetes" (master of requests); and Henry of Navarre, at the instance of Rohan, addressed two letters to Henry III.
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  • The plenipotentiaries of Great Britain, France, Austria, Russia, Sardinia and Turkey recorded in a protocol, at the instance of Lord Clarendon, their joint wish that "states between which any misunderstanding might arise should, before appealing to arms, have recourse so far as circumstances might allow (en tant que les circonstances l'admettraient) to the good offices of a friendly power."
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  • In the same year, 1520, Machiavelli, at the instance of the cardinal Giulio de' Medici, received commission from the officers of the Studio pubblico to write a history of Florence.
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  • A certain number of them hold courts of chancery, general sessions, oyer and terminer, and an orphans' court; the six together constitute the supreme court, but the judge from whose decision appeal is made may not hear the appealed case unless the appeal is made at his own instance.
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