How to use Insect in a sentence
A boot came down on the angry insect before it could reach her.
This insect is gregarious and nocturnal.
The fertile leaves or sporophylls are generally aggregated on special shoots to form rioweN which may contain one or both kinds The microspores are set free from the sporangiurn and carried generally by wind or insect agency to the vicinity of the macrospore, which never leaves the ovule.
If in extracting the insect the abdomen be ruptured, serious trouble may ensue from the resulting inflammation.
The little triungulins escape on to the body of the bee or wasp; then those that are to survive must leave their host for a non-parasitized insect.Advertisement
Havingattained its object the insect withdraws, taking the pollen-masses, and visits another flower.
In 1882 the United States was calculated to have lost 40,000,000 to 60,000,000 from insect and other pests.
As a typical instance we may take the chapter on the ant-lion - not the insect, but an imaginary creature suggested by Job.
The majority of authors, however, follow Brauer in dividing the order into two sections, Orthorrhapha and Cyclorrhapha, according to the manner in which the pupa-case splits to admit of the escape of the perfect insect.
In the Orthorrhapha, in the pupae of which the appendages of the perfect insect are usually visible, the pupa-case generally splits in a straight line down the back near the cephalic end; in front of this longitudinal cleft there may be a small transverse one, the two together forming a T-shaped fissure.Advertisement
In Australia Tryon published a work on the Insect and Fungus Enemies of Queensland in 1889.
The Theridiidae eject on to the insect from their spinning mamillae drops of liquid adhesive silk; the Argyopidae, steadying it with the tips of their long front legs, sweep additional strands of silk over it with the legs of the hinder pair; the Agalenidae, attaching a long thread to a point hard by, run round and round the victim in circles, gradually winding it up beyond all hope of breaking loose.
More slowly, but yet in the same way, we may note the change in turgidity of certain cells of the Droscra tentacles, as they close over the imprisoned insect.
The irritation set up by the hatching egg and its resulting larva appears to be the stimulus to development, and net a poison or enzyme injected by the insect.
The illumination is intermittent, and appears to be under the control of the insect's nervous system.Advertisement
But there are several subfamilies of ants whose females have the lancets of the sting useless for piercing, although the poison-glands are functional, their secretion being ejected by the insect, when occasion may arise, from the greatly enlarged reservoir, the reduced sting acting as a squirt.
In such cases the contact of an insect or other body with those processes is sufficient to liberate the pollen often with elastic force, even when the anther itself is not touched.
The most able exponent of this subject in Great Britain was John Curtis, whose treatise on Farm Insects, published in 1860, is still the standard British work dealing with the insect foes of corn, roots, grass and stored corn.
This oil generally acts as an excellent preventive of this and other insect attacks.
Large pits are dug across the line of advance of these great insect armies to stop them when in the larval or wingless stage, and even huge bonfires are lighted to check their flight when adult.Advertisement
One of the most p im ortant ways of keeping insect pests in check is by " spraying " or " washing."
A true insect, or member of the class Hexapoda, may be known by the grouping of its body-segments in three distinct regions - a head, a thorax and an abdomen - each of which consists of a definite number of segments.
The head of an insect carries usually four pairs of conspicuous appendages - feelers, mandibles and two pairs of maxillae, so that the presence of four primitive somites is immediately evident.
In Lankester's terminology, therefore, the head of an insect is " triprosthomerous."
In various groups of the Hexapoda - aphids and some flesh-flies (Sarcophagi), for example - the egg undergoes development within the body of the mother, and the young insect is born in an active state; such insects are said to be " viviparous."Advertisement
The offspring of the virgin females are in most of these instances females; but among the bees and wasps parthenogenesis occurs normally and always results in the development of males, the " queen " insect laying either a fertilized or unfertilized egg at will.
The thoracic segments, as seen in an early stage of the ventral plate, display in a well-marked manner the essential elements of the insect segment.
They differ much according to the kind of insect, and in the adult according to sex.
The cerci, when present, appear in the mature insect to be attached to the tenth segment, but according to Heymons they are really appendages of the eleventh segment, their connexion with the tenth being secondary and the result of considerable changes that take place in the terminal segments.
The gonapophyses are the projections near the extremity of the body that surround the sexual orifices, and vary extremely according to the kind of insect.Advertisement
In the adult state no insect possesses more than six legs, and they are always attached to the thorax; in many Thysanura there are, however, processes on the abdomen that, as to their position, are similar to legs.
The germ band evidently marks the ventral aspect of the developing insect, whose body must be completed by the extension of the embryo so as to enclose the yolk dorsally.
It is therefore a haemocoel, the coelom of the developed insect being represented only by the cavities of the genital glands and their ducts.
On the other hand, we find in the vast majority of the Hexapoda a very marked difference between the perfect insect (imago) and the young animal when newly hatched and for some time after hatching.
Such a young insect is a larva - a term used by zoologists for young animals generally that are decidedly unlike their parents.Advertisement
It is different in its details in different insects and in different stages of the life of the same insect.
The " sclerites " that make up the skeleton of the insect (which skeleton, it should be remembered, is entirely external) are composed of this chitinous excretion.
The growth of an insect is usually rapid, and as the cuticle does not share therein, it is from time to time cast off by moulting or ecdysis.
Concomitant with this separation there is commencement of the formation of a new cuticle within the old one, so that when the latter is cast off the insect appears with a partly completed new cuticle.
Metamorphosis is, from this point of view, the sum of the changes that take place under the cuticle of an insect between the ecdyses, which changes only become externally displayed when the cuticle is cast off.Advertisement
Insect metamorphosis may be briefly described as phenomena of development characterized by abrupt changes of appearance and of structure, occurring during the period subsequent to embryonic development and antecedent to the reproductive state.
The unlikeness of the young insect to its parent is one of the factors that necessitates metamorphosis.
These later stages, comprising the greater part of the larval history, are adapted for an inquiline or a parasitic life, where shelter is assured and food abundant, while the short-lived, active condition enables the newly-hatched insect to make its way to the spot favourable for its future development, clinging, for example, in the case of an oil-beetle's larva, to the hairs of a bee as she flies towards her nest.
After a prolonged aquatic larval and nymphal life-history, the winged insect appears as a sub-imago, whence, after the casting of a delicate cuticle, the true imago emerges.
An interesting feature is the difference often to be observed between an aquatic larva and pupa of the same insect in the matter of breathing.Advertisement
The eggs of locusts may remain for years in the ground before hatching; and there may thus arise the peculiar phenomenon of some species of insect appearing in vast numbers in a locality where it has not been seen for several years.
Nevertheless, the constant increase of our knowledge of insect forms renders classification increasingly difficult, for gaps in the series become filled, and while the number of genera and families increases, the distinctions between these groups become dependent on characters that must seem trivial to the naturalist who is not a specialist.
The Lithographic stone of Kimmeridgian age, at Solenhofen in Bavaria, is especially rich in insect remains, cyclorrhaphous Diptera appearing here for the first time.
Insect wings are specialized outgrowths of certain thoracic segments, and are quite unrepresented in any other class of Arthropods.
The origin of insect wings remains, therefore, a mystery, deepened by the difficulty of imagining any probable use for thoracic outgrowths, comparable to the wingrudiments of the Exopterygota, in the early stages of their evolution.Advertisement
The only doubt arises from the existence of insect remains, referred to the order Coleoptera, in the Silesian Culm of Steinkunzendorf near Reichenbach.
It has been previously remarked that the phenomena of holometabolism are connected with the development of wings inside the body (except in the case of the fleas, where there are no wings in the perfect insect).
It is almost impossible to believe that any species of insect that has for a long period developed the wings outside the body could change this mode of growth suddenly for an internal mode of development of the organs in question, for, as we have already explained, the two modes of growth are directly opposed.
The eruciform larva of the Orthorrhapha leads on to the headless vermiform maggot of the Cyclorrhapha, and in the latter sub-order we find metamorphosis carried to its extreme point, the muscid flies being the most highly specialized of all the Hexapoda as regards structure, while their maggots are the most degraded of all insect larvae.
To begin with, 1 Though not relating exactly to our present theme, it would be improper to dismiss Nitzsch's name without reference to his extraordinary labours in investigating the insect and other external parasites of birds, a subject which as regards British species was subsequently elaborated by Denny in his Monographia Anoplurorum Britanniae (1842) and in his list of the specimens of British Anoplura in the collection of the British Museum.
Except in the extreme north and south, and on the tops of the highest mountains, where there is no insect life as food supply, spiders are found all over the world, even in isolated oceanic islands.
When an insect strikes the web the spider loosens his hold of the trap-line, thus enveloping the victim in a tangle of threads which would otherwise not come into contact with it.
In several families of spiders, but principally in those like the Clubionidae and Salticidae, which are terrestrial in habits, there are species which not only live amongst ants, but so closely resemble them in their shape, size, colour and actions that it requires a practised eye to distinguish the Arachnid from the insect.
Some species of Dolomedes, indeed, habitually construct a raft by spinning dead leaves together and float over the water upon it watching for an opportunity to dash upon any insect that alights upon its surface.
Swammerdam's Biblia naturae, issued in 1737, fifty years after its author's death, and containing observations on the structure and lifehistory of a series of insect types.
Aristotle and Harvey (De generatione animalium, 1651) had considered the insect larva as a prematurely hatched embryo and the pupa as a second egg.
While the insect fauna of European countries was investigated by local naturalists, the spread of geographical exploration brought ever-increasing stores of exotic material to the great museums.
References to the works of the above authors, and to many others, will be found under HEXAPODA and the special articles on various insect orders.
Some idea of the enormous damage wrought by the collective attacks of individually small and weak animals may be gathered from the fact that a conservative estimate places the loss due to insect attacks on cotton in the United States at the astounding figure of $60,000,000 (£12,000,000) annually.
No certain remedy is known for the destruction on a commercial scale of the boll weevil, but every effort has been made in the United States to check the advance of the insect, to ascertain and encourage its natural enemies, and to propagate races of cotton which resist its attacks.
The Egyptian boll worm (Earias insulana) is the most important insect pest in Egypt and occurs also in other parts of Africa.
The size of the animals varies greatly, from forms a few millimetres in length to Gigantorhynchus gigas, which measures from 10 to 65 cms. The adults live in great numbers in the alimentary canal of some vertebrate, usually fish, the larvae are as a rule encysted in the body cavity of some invertebrate, most often an insect or crustacean, more rarely a small fish.
It is then, if lucky, eaten by some crustacean, or insect, more rarely by a fish.
The tough but flexible coarse grey paper (German Fliesspapier), upon which on the Continent specimens are commonly fixed by gummed strips of the same, is less hygroscopic than ordinary cartridge paper, but has the disadvantage of affording harbourage in the inequalities of its surface to a minute insect, Atropos pulsatoria, which commits great havoc in damp specimens, and which, even if noticed, cannot be dislodged without difficulty.
Oranges and pears are seriously damaged by insect and fungus pests.
Insect life is abundant and beautiful.
Cotton has been found to suffer much from insect pests.
There are three distinct and large thoracic segments, whereof the prothorax is narrower than the others; the legs are much shorter and stouter than in the winged insect, with monomerous tarsi terminated by a single claw.
When the aquatic insect has reached its full growth it emerges from the water or seeks its surface; the thorax splits down the back and the winged form appears.
But this is not yet perfect, although it has all the form of a perfect insect and is capable of flight; it is what is variously termed a "pseudimago," "sub-imago" or "pro-imago."
This final moult is effected soon after the insect's appearance in the winged form; the creature seeks a temporary resting-place, the pellicle splits down the back, and the now perfect insect comes forth, often differing very greatly in colours and markings from the condition in which it was only a few moments before.
So far the Hevea plantations in Ceylon and the East have not been seriously troubled by insect or fungoid pests, and those which have occurred have succumbed to proper treatment.
Owing, however, to the close proximity of stigma and anthers, very slight irregularity in the movements of the visiting insect will cause self-pollination, which may also occur by the dropping of pollen from the anthers of the larger stamens on to the stigma.
The insect fauna is very similar to that of Russia; but a few genera, as the Tentyria, do not penetrate into the steppe region of West Siberia, while the tropical Colasposoma, Popilia and Languria are found only in south-eastern Transbaikalia, or are confined to the southern Amur.
The irregular construction of the flower is connected with fertilization by insect agency.
To reach the honey in the spur of the flower, the insect must thrust its proboscis into the flower close under the globular head of the stigma.
It resembles Juncaceae in the general plan of the flower, which, however, has become much more elaborate and varied in the form and colour of its perianth in association with transmission of pollen by insect agency; a link between the two orders is found in the group of Australian genera referred to above under Asphodeloideae.
In strong contrast to the poverty of Brazil in the larger mammals is the astonishing profusion of insect life in every part of the country.
The fish moth, a steel-grey slimy active fish-shaped insect, is found in every house and is very destructive.
Insect life is perhaps poorer and less varied than in Brazil, but in the 14 orders of insects there are no less than 98 families, each including many genera and species.
The flowers are hermaphrodite and regular, with the same number and arrangement of parts as in the order Liliaceae, from which they differ in the inconspicuous membranous character of the perianth, the absence of honey or smell, and the brushlike stigmas with long papillae-adaptations to wind-pollination as contrasted with the methods of pollination by insect agency, which characterize the Liliaceae.
Similarly Karl Hoffmann of Wiirzburg wasted his appreciations of the newer schools of developmental biology in fanciful notions of human diseases as reversions to normal stages of lower animals; scrofula being for him a reversion to the insect, rickets to the mollusc, epilepsy to the oscillaria, and so forth.
The irritation is caused by the rostrum of the insect being inserted into the skin, from which the blood is rapidly pumped up. A third human louse, known as the crab-louse (Phthirius pubis) is found amongst the hairs on other parts of the body, particularly those of the pubic region, but probably never on the head.
To destroy the seeds, &c., of weeds, and the larvae of insect pests, a fire is often lighted, kept from the ground itself by intervening wood logs, or the seed-bed is thoroughly steamed.
Stored tobacco is liable to be attacked and ruined by the " cigarette beetle," a cosmopolitan insect of very varied tastes, feeding not only on dried tobacco of all kinds, including snuff, but also on rhubarb, cayenne pepper, tumeric, ginger, figs and herbarium specimens.
The cochineal insect is found on the cactus which grows in abundance in the vicinity, and the town is known throughout Ecuador for its manufacture of boots and shoes, and for a cordage made from cabuya, the fibre of the agave plant.
As growth proceeds the integument is periodically cast; and at the final moult the perfect winged insect appears.
The cercaria swims freely for a time and either encysts directly on grass or weeds or it enters a second host which may be another mollusc, an insect, crustacean or fish, and then encysts.
The adjective "beetle-browed," and similarly "beetling" (of a cliff), are derived from the name of the insect.
The coloration of tsetse-flies is sombre and inconspicuous; the brownish or greyish-brown thorax usually exhibits darker longitudinal markings, and when the insect is at rest the abdomen or hinder half of the body is entirely concealed by the brownish wings.
In all tsetse-flies the proboscis in the living insect is entirely concealed by the palpi, which are grooved in their inner sides and form a closely fitting sheath for the piercing organ; the base of the proboscis is expanded beneath into a large onion-shaped bulb, which is filled with muscles.
The head of the insect contains a muscular pharynx by means of which the blood from the wound inflicted by the proboscis (labium) is pumped into the alimentary canal and the so-called sucking-stomach.
The most probable supposition is that the cup is simply an excrescence or "enation" from the mouth of the flower-tube, and is connected with the fertilization of the flowers by insect agency.
The insect life of Japan broadly corresponds withthat of temperate regions in Europe.
About 100 species of these rather archaic snakes are known; in adaptation to their burrowing life and worm and insect diet, they have undergone degradation.
The larvae known as caddis-worms are aquatic. The mature females lay their eggs in the water, and the newly-hatched larvae provide themselves with cases made of various particles such as grains of sand, pieces of wood or leaves stuck together with silk secreted from the salivary glands of the insect.
Through this temporary protection the active pupa, which closely resembles the mature insect, subsequently bites a way by means of its strong mandibles, and rising to the surface of the water casts the pupal integument and becomes sexually adult.
Fertilization is effected by insects, especially by bees, which are directed in their search by the colour and fragrance of the flowers; but some pollen must also be transported by the wind to the female flowers, especially in arctic species which, in spite of the poverty of insect life, set abundant fruit.
Insect life is represented by plant-bugs, locusts, crickets, grasshoppers, cockroaches, dragon-flies, butterflies, numerous varieties of moths, bees and mosquitoes.
Some of the best oranges in the world are grown, and exported; but sufficient care is not taken to keep down insect pests, and to replace old trees.
Plantations of the nopal and the tuna, which are called nopaleries, are established for the purpose of rearing this insect, the Coccus Cacti, and these often contain as many as 50,000 plants.
The native country of the insect is Mexico, and it is there more or less cultivated; but the greater part of our supply comes from New Granada and the Canary Islands.
Gall-fly grubs are provided with vegetable food through the eggs being laid by the mother insect within plant tissues.
A diggingwasp hunts for insect prey and buries it with the egg, while a true wasp feeds her brood with captured insects, as a bird her fledglings.
The development of a true insect society among the Hymenoptera is dependent on a differentiation among the females between individuals with well-developed ovaries (" queens ") whose special function is reproduction; and individuals with reduced or aborted ovaries (" workers ") whose duty is to build the nest, to gather food and to tend and feed the larvae.
The ovipositor is long and prominent, enabling the female insect to lay her eggs in the wood of trees, where the white larvae, whose legs are excessively short, tunnel and feed.
Fabre states that the lastnamed insect uses a stone for the temporary closing of her burrow, and the Peckhams have seen a female Ammophila take a stone between her mandibles and use it as a hammer for pounding down the earth over her finished nest.
The habit of some genera is to catch the prey before making their tunnel, but more frequently the insect digs her nest, and then hunts for prey to put into it.
In the adult there is a pair of such glands opening ventrally on the hindmost thoracic segment, or at the base of the abdomen; but in the young insect the glands are situated dorsally and open to the exterior on a variable number of the abdominal terga.
Some of these - the Hydrometridae or pond-skaters, for example - move over the surface-film, on which they are supported by their elongated, slender legs, the body of the insect being raised clear of the water.
Consequently when the insect dives, an air-bubble forms around it, a supply of oxygen is thus secured for breathing and the water is kept away from the spiracles.
When at rest the wings of Homoptera slope roofwise across the back of the insect.
In some coccids - the " mealy-bugs " (Dactylopius, &c.) for example - the secretion forms a white thread-like or plate-like covering which the insect carries about.
The insect is fixed by this rostrum, which is inserted into the root of the vine for the purpose of sucking the sap. The abdomen consists of seven segments, and these as well as the anterior segments bear four rows of small tubercles on their dorsal surface.
The insect is fixed by its proboscis, but moves its abdomen about and lays thirty to forty yellow eggs in small clusters.
If, however, the insect were content with this method of reproduction the disease could be isolated by surrounding the infected patches with a deep ditch full of some such substance as coal-tar, which would prevent the insects spreading on to the roots of healthy vines.
As the summer wears on a second form of insect appears amongst the root-dwellers, though hatched from the same eggs as the form described above.
After several moults the rudiments of two pairs of wings appear, and then the insect creeps up to the surface of the earth, and on to the vine.
In very damp or cold weather the insect remains in the ground near the surface, and deposits its eggs there.
He carefully studied also the history of the ant and was the first to show that what had been commonly reputed to be "ants' eggs" are really their pupae, containing the perfect insect nearly ready for emersion, whilst the true eggs are far smaller, and give origin to "maggots" or larvae.
Barley is liable to smut and the other fungus diseases which attack wheat, and the insect pests which prey on the two plants are also similar.
The pleasant climate has certain drawbacks; the coastal farmer finds that blights and insect pests thrive in the comparative absence of hard frosts.
Insect life is relatively not abundant; the air is brisk and bright with ample sunshine.
As some compensation for its paucity of useful animals and food plants, New Zealand was, of course, free from wild carnivora, has no snakes, and only one poisonous insect, the katipo, a timid little spider found on certain sea-beaches.
The technical name, Notonecta, meaning "back-swimmer," alludes to the habit of the insect of swimming upside down, the body being propelled through the water by powerful strokes of the hind legs, which are fringed with hair and, when at rest, are extended laterally like a pair of sculls in a boat.
As is the case with other water-bugs, this insect is predaceous and feeds upon aquatic grubs or worms. The body is richly supplied with long hairs, which serve to entangle bubbles of air for purposes of respiration.
A government Department of Agriculture, created in 1904, affords help to the farmers in various ways, notably in combatting insect plagues, in experimental farms, and in improving the breed of horses, sheep and cattle.
The exciting cause of the hypertrophy, in the case of the typical galls, appears to be a minute quantity of some irritating fluid, or virus, secreted by the female insect, and deposited with her egg in the puncture made by her ovipositor in the cortical or foliaceous parts of plants.
The escape of the insect takes place on the spontaneous bursting of the walls of the vesicle, probably when, after viviparous (thelytokous) reproduction for several generations, male winged insects are developed.
Lichtenstein has established the fact that from the egg of the Aphis of Pistachio galls, Anopleura lentisci, is hatched an apterous insect (the gall-founder), which gives birth to young Aphides (emigrants), and that these, having acquired wings, fly to the roots of certain grasses (Bromus sterilis and Hordeum vulgare), and by budding underground give rise to several generations of apterous insects, whence finally comes a winged brood (the pupifera).
The former, which is a somewhat less favourable method than the latter, is effected by air-currents, insect agency, the actual contact between stigmas and anthers in neighbouring flowers, where, as in the family Compositae, flowers are closely crowded, or by the fall of the pollen from a (From Darwin's by permission.) FIG.
The flowers have an attractive floral envelope, are scented and often contain honey or a large amount of pollen by these means the insect is enticed to visit it.
In Broom there is an explosive machanism; the pressure of the insect visitor on the keel of the corolla causes a sudden release of the stamens and the scattering of a cloud of pollen over its body.
Insect life is ricn in northern Melanesia; in southern Melanesia it is less so; in Fiji numerous kinds of insects occur, while individual numbers are small.
In the rest of the islands the insect fauna is poor.
Every part of the material universe - man, woman, insect, tree, stone, or whatever it be - is the dwelling of an eternal spirit that is working out its destiny, and while receiving reward and punishment for the past is laying up reward and punishment for the future.
The evolution of insect life in driving animals from feeding ranges and in the spread of disease probably has been a prime cause of extinction.
The insect fauna of Mexico covers a very wide range of genera and species which, like the other forms of animal life, is largely made up of migratory types.
In the south they are larger and better nourished, owing to the permanent character of the pasturage, but are less vigorous because of the heat and insect plagues.
The, cochineal insect was once an important commercial product, but the industry has fallen into decay.
The " ni-in " (also known as " axe ") is a small scale insect belonging to the genus Coccus, found in Yucatan, Oaxaca, Vera Cruz, Michoacan and other southern states, where it inhabits the spondia trees and produces a greasy substance called " ni-inea," which is much used by the natives as a varnish, especially for domestic utensils, as it resists fire as well as water.
The cultivation of osiers is attended with many disturbing causes - winter floods, spring frosts, ground vermin and insect pests of various kinds, sometimes working great havoc to the crop.
One very helpful factor in determining which is the principal carrier of any form is the coincidence of the zone of a particular insect with that of any disease.
The life of the parasites while in the insect is characterized by an alternation of active periods, during which multiplication goes on, with resting-periods, when the Trypanosomes become attached to the epithelial cells of the host.
The indifferent parasites exhibit an alternation of resting, attached phases with active periods, during which they multiply actively and become very abundant in the insect.
Peas in large areas are grown free from serious trouble with insect pests.
Some of the families - the stone-flies, for example - have the young insect much like the adult, growing its wings visibly outside the thoracic segments, and active at all stages of its life.
Hagen not to be functional in the adult insect - they are merely survivals from the aquatic nymphal stage.
The powdered root of P. roseum and other species is used in the manufacture of insect powders.
From two to three weeks after the completion of the cocoon the enclosed insect is ready to escape; it moistens one end of its self-made prison, thereby enabling itself to push aside the fibres and make an opening by which the perfect moth comes forth.
That the silkworm is subject to many serious diseases is only to be expected of a creature which for upwards of 4000 years has been propagated under purely artificial conditions, and these most frequently of a very insanitary nature, and where, not the healthy life of the insect, but the amount of silk it could be made to yield, was the object of the cultivator.
The term labrum is used in zoology, of a lip or lip-like part; in entomology it is applied specifically to the upper lip of an insect, the lower lip being termed labium.
Each egg is contained in a separate, curiously formed, seed-like capsule, provided with a lid which is raised to allow the escape of the newly-hatched insect.
Honey bees are protected from a large number of insect enemies because they sting and are distasteful.
This at least is the method of disguise suggested by examination of the dried insect; but representatives of the same or an allied species found in Mashonaland were observed in the living state to be green with the antlike parts represented in black pigment.
In one of these (Heteronotus trinodosus), the dorsal area of the forepart of the thorax is developed into a plate which projects backwards over the body of the insect, which retains its normal form, and conceals all but the head, wings and, legs.
This insect comes from Central America.
The structural modifications required to convert a spider into the image of an ant are of a more complicated character than those that serve the same purpose in an insect.
In the majority of ant-imitating spiders the forepart of the cephalothorax is constricted on each side to resemble the neck of the insect, and in many cases the similarity is increased by the presence of a stripe of white hairs which has the optical effect of cutting out an extra piece of integument, exactly as occurs in analogous cases in insects.
Narrowing of the posterior portions of the spider's cephalothorax and sometimes of the anterior end of the abdomen reproduces the slender waist of the ant, and frequently transverse bands of hairs represent the segmentation of this region in the insect.
An important phenomenon connected with insect mimicry is the convergence of several species in the same area towards a common type of coloration and shape, exhibited by one or more than one protected form.
An example of the latter occurs in Singapore where the vicious red spinning-ant (Oecophylla smaragdina) is mimicked by the larva of a Noctuid moth and by spiders belonging to two distinct families, namely, Saltiicus plataleoides (Salticidae) and Amyciaea forticeps (Thomisidae), there being no reason to suppose that either the moth larva or the spiders are protected forms. Mimetic aggregations of species similar to those mentioned above have been found in other countries; but the instances cited are sufficient to show how widespread are the influences of mimicry and how profoundly it has modified the insect fauna of various parts of the world.
It should be noted that butterflies are the chief agents in securing the continued existence of such alpine flowers as depend on insect fertilization, the other insect fertilizers being mostly wanting at great heights.
Of birds, parrots are the most characteristic. Insect life is abundant.
Caymans, water-hogs (capinchos), several kinds of deer (Cervus paludosus the largest), ounces, opossums, armadillos, vampires, the American ostrich, the ibis, the jabiru, various species popularly called partridges, the pato real or royal duck, the Palamedea cornuta, parrots and parakeets, are among the more notable forms. Insect life is peculiarly abundant; the red stump-like ant-hills are a feature in every landscape, and bees used to be kept in all the mission villages.
In the second case the outer series (calyx of sepals) is generally green and leaf-like, its function being to protect the rest of the flower, especially in the bud; while the inner series (corolla of petals) is generally white or brightly coloured, and more delicate in structure, its function being to attract the particular insect or bird by agency of which pollination is effected.
The insect, &c., is attracted by the colour and scent of the flower, and frequently also by honey which is secreted in some part of the flower.
Thus the reflection of a person in a mirror is known as his "image"; in popular usage one person is similarly described as "the very image" of another; so in entomology the term is applied in its Latin form imago to an insect which, having passed through its larval stages, has achieved its full typical development.
When fullsized they leave the water and spend a quiescent pupal stage on the land before metamorphosis into the sexually mature insect.
The insect inhabitants of Ecuador, like the birds, include a large number of genera and species, but no complete entomological survey of the country has ever been made, and our knowledge in this respect is insufficient to warrant a detailed description.
By the aid of this the larva makes its way into the soft body of some insect larva, Ephemerids, Chironomids, or even of Molluscs, and encysts in the muscles or fat body.
The insect, which may have become an imago with the Gordian larva still in it, is then eaten by a carnivorous insect or by a fish, and the contained Gordian larva becomes elongate and mature in its second host.
But it was the insect which John used to eat; it is still eaten by the fellahin.
Verhoeff has discussed the rise of the "social" from the "solitary" condition, and points, out that for the formation of an insect community three conditions are necessary - a nest large enough for a number of individuals, a close grouping of the cells, and an association between mother and daughters in the winged state.
In the course of the 17th century the port became the great 1 Dr Carlos Finlay of Havana, arguing from the coincidence between the climatic limitation of yellow fever and the geographical limitation of the mosquito, urged (1881 sqq.) that there was some relation between the disease and the insect.
The insect tribes in India may be truly said to be innumerable.
Amongst those which are useful are the bee, the silk-worm, and the insect that produces lac. Clouds of locusts occasionally appear, which leave no trace of green behind them, and give the country over which they pass t he appearance of a desert.
The so-called Ailanthus silk produced by Saturnia cynthia is woven at Lai-yang into a strong fabric; and the manufacture of the peculiar kind of wax obtained from the la-shu or wax-tree insect is largely carried on in the vicinity.
Mosquitoes and sand-flies are the chief insect pests, and in some districts are very troublesome.
The insect is from half-an-inch to an inch in length, and from one to two lines broad, the female being broader in the abdomen and altogether larger than the male.
The insect fauna of limestone caves both in Europe and North America is largely composed of Aptera, especially Collembola.
The Phylloxera vastatrix is an insect belonging to the green fly tribe, which destroys the roots and leaves of the growing plant by forming galls and nodosities.
A director of agriculture was appointed in 1896, and leaflets are issued pointing out improvements within the means of the villager, and how to deal with plant diseases and insect pests.
This, like the excretion of the sundew and other insectivorous plants, contains a digestive ferment (or enzyme) which renders the nitrogenous substances of the body of the insect soluble, and capable of absorption by the leaf.
When a fly is captured, the viscid excretion becomes strongly acid and the naturally incurved margins of the leaf curve still further inwards, rendering contact between the insect and the leaf-surface more complete.
The molluscan fauna is fairly rich, and insect fauna much more so, even in the north.
The insect life of these strangely associated regions is likewise greatly restricted by adverse climatic conditions, a considerable part of the northern desert being absolutely barren of animal and vegetable life, while the climate of Tierra del Fuego and the southern coast is highly unfavourable to terrestrial animal life, for which reason comparatively few species are to be found.
I saw neither bird, quadruped, reptile, nor insect."
These conditions subsist with but few modifications, if any, from the Straits northward to the 42nd parallel, the extreme humidity, abnormal rainfall and dark skies being unfavourable to the development of insect life, while the Andes interpose an impassable barrier to migration from the countries of the eastern coast.
It consists of the females of Coccus cacti, an insect of the family Coccidae of the order Hemiptera, which feeds upon various species of the Cactaceae, more especially the nopal plant, Opuntia coccinellifera, a native of Mexico and Peru.
The male of the cochineal insect is half the size of the female, and, unlike it, is devoid of nutritive apparatus; it has long white wings, and a body of a deep red colour, terminated by two diverging setae.
The female is apterous, and has a dark-brown plano-convex body; it is found in the proportion of 150 to 200 to one of the male insect.
The dead body of the mother insect serves as a protection for the eggs until they are hatched.
The dried insect has the form of irregular, fluted and concave grains, of which about 70,000 go to a pound.
There are large and gorgeous species of Papilio, Nymphalidae, Morphidae and Danaidae, and the more favoured localities are described as being only second to South America in the display of this form of beauty and variety in insect life.
Silkworms have been bred with success in some departments, and the cochineal insect is found wherever the conditions are favourable for the cactus.
This secretion is caused by the puncture of an insect, Coccus manniparus.
The nuts which are infested by this insect are usually the first to fall to the ground; the larva then bores a round hole through the nut shell, by means of its jaws, and creeps out.
It hides itself in the ground during the winter, and in the spring it passes into the pupa stage, from which it emerges about August as the full-grown insect.
As, moreover, the wings travel at a much higher speed than any wind that blows, they are superior to and control the wind; they enable the insect to dart through the wind in whatever direction it pleases.
The elytra serve as protectors to the wings when the wings are folded upon the back of the insect, and as they are extended on either side of the body more or less horizontally when the insect is flying they contribute to flight indirectly, in virtue of their being carried forward by the body in motion.
The manner in which the wings of the insect traverse the air, so as practically to increase the basis of support, raises the whole subject of natural flight.
It is necessary, therefore, at this stage to direct the attention of the reader somewhat fully to the subject of flight, as witnessed in the insect, bird and bat, a knowledge of natural flight preceding, and being in some sense indispensable to, a knowledge of artificial flight.
This physiologist in 1867 2 showed that all natural wings, whether of the insect, bird or bat, are screws structurally, and that they act as screws when the y are made to vibrate, from the fact that they twist in opposite directions during the down and up strokes.
An insect with wings thus hinged may, as far as steadiness of body is concerned, be not inaptly compared to a compass set upon gimbals, where the universality of motion in one direction ensures comparative fixedness in another."
The wing in the insect is more flattened than in the bird; and advantage is taken on some occasions of this circumstance, particularly in heavy-bodied, small-winged, quick-flying insects, to reverse the pinion more or less completely during the down and up strokes."
Although the figure-of-8 represents with considerable fidelity the twisting of the wing upon its axis during extension and flexion, when the insect is playing its wings before an object, or still better when it is artificially fixed, it is otherwise when the down stroke is added and the insect is fairly on the wing and progressing rapidly.
The wing of the bird, like that of the insect, is concavo-convex, and more or less twisted upon itself when extended, so that the anterior or thick margin of the pinion presents a different degree of curvature to that of the posterior or thin margin.
That this shape is intimately associated with flight is apparent from the fact that the rowing feathers of the wing of the bird are every one of them distinctly spiral in their nature; in fact, one entire rowing feather is equivalent - morphologically and physiologically - to one entire insect wing.
The terms forward and back strokes are here employed with reference to the head of the insect.
The rotation of the rowing feathers on The rapidity of travel of the insect wing is in some cases enormous.
To meet these peculiarities the insect, bird and bat are furnished with extensive flying surfaces in the shape of wings, which they apply with singular velocity and power to the air, as levers of the third order.
The area of the insect, bird and bat, when the wings are fully expanded, is greater than that of any other class of animal, their weight being proportionally less.
As already stated, however, it ought never to be forgotten that even the lightest insect, bird or bat is vastly heavier than the air, and that no fixed relation exists between the weight of body and expanse of wing in any of the orders.
He is of opinion that the insect abstracts from the air by means of the inclined plane a component force (composant) which it employs to support and direct itself.
In effect (according to Marey) the wing of an insect has not the power of equal resistance in every part.
He endeavoured to construct an artificial insect on the plan advocated by Borelli, Strauss-Diirckheim and Chabrier, but signally failed, his insect never having been able to lift more than a third of its own weight.
In these primeval forests the vegetation is excessively rank; passage has to be forced through thick underwood and creeping plants, between giant trees, whose foliage shuts out the sun's rays; and the land teems with animal and insect life of every form and colour.
Bird and insect life is abundant.
Insect life is somewhat less remarkable; but besides a distinctive genus of Orthoptera (Jaquetia Hospodar), there are several kinds of weevils (Curculionidae) said to be peculiar to Rumania.
In bird and insect life Colombia is second only to Brazil.
A crocodile would be a terrible insect; I should have no difficulty, however, in giving it that name.
The insect fauna is truly multitudinous.
But the word " Insect " had become limited since the days of Linnaeus to the Hexapod Pterygote forms, to the exclusion of his Aptera.
The insect life comprises many brilliantly-coloured beetles, butterflies (about eight hundred species of which are known), moths, locusts, spiders and flies, and also noxious spiders, with scorpions and centipedes.
The chief being among the supernatural characters of Bushman mythology is the insect called the Mantis.'
On the west coast the " ananzi " or spider takes the place of the mantis insect among the Bushmen.
Yehl's powers of metamorphosis and of flying into the air are the common accomplishments of sorcerers, and he is a rather crude form of first father, " culture-hero " and creator.2 Among the Karok Indians we find the great hero and divine benefactor in the shape of, not a raven, nor an eagle-hawk, nor a mantis insect, nor a spider, but a coyote.
According to Qing, creation was the work of Cagn (the mantis insect), " he gave orders and caused all things to appear."
The Sanskrit word is krimi, which has given kermes, the cochineal insect, whence "crimson."
After a brief existence the pupa emerges from the ground, and, holding on to a plant stem by means of its powerful front legs, sets free the perfect insect through a slit along the median dorsal line of the thorax.
One species only is found in England, where it is restricted to the southern counties but is an insect not commonly met with.
Insect life is remarkably abundant and varied.
Poets, philosophers, historians and naturalists (among whom may be mentioned Virgil, Aristotle, Cicero and Pliny) have eulogized the bee as unique among insects, endowed by nature with wondrous gifts beneficial to mankind in a greater degree than any other creature of the insect world.
There are many equally beneficial societies, framed on different lines, existing in Germany, France, Russia and Switzerland, but they are mainly co-operative bodies instituted for the general benefit of members, who are without exception either bee-keepers on a more or less extensive scale, or scientists interested in the study of insect life.
Nothing seems to be lost, nor can any part of the bee's work be accounted labour in vain; the very wax from which the insect builds the store-combs for its food and the cells in which its young are hatched and reared is valuable to mankind in many ways, and is regarded to-day no less than in the past ages as an important commercial product.
The hive bee is, moreover, the only insect known to be capable of domestication, so far as labouring under the direct control of the bee-master is concerned, its habits being admirably adapted for embodying human methods of working for profit in our present-day life.
Bearing this in mind the reader will understand that so much of the natural history of the honey-bee as is necessary for elucidating the practical part of our subject may be comprised in (I) the life of the insect, (2) its mission in life, and (3) utilizing to the utmost the brief period during which it can labour before being worn out with toil.
These last possess ovaries like the queen, but shrunken and aborted so as to render the insect normally incapable of eggproduction.
Under normal conditions the insect will live for three, four or sometimes five years, but the stimulation given, together with I FIG.
From the quantity of sand and mud always found in the alimentary canal of these animals, it is supposed that these ingredients must be necessary to the proper digestion of their insect food.
Closely related to the typical aphides is Phylloxera vastatrix, the insect which causes enormous loss by attacking the leaves and roots of vines.
Frogs and toads occur wherever insect food is procurable, and their distribution is a world-wide one, with the exception of many islands.
Gum tragacanth is used in calico-printing as a thickener of colours and mordants; in medicine as a demulcent and vehicle for insoluble powders, and as an excipient in pills; and feltsetting and mending beetles and other insect specimens.
Among the lowest races the culture-hero commonly wears a bestial guise, is a spider (Melanesia), an eagle hawk (in some myths and south-east Australia), a coyote (north-west America), a dog or raven (Thlinkeet), a mantis insect (Bushman), and so forth, yet is endowed with human or even super-human qualities, and often shades off into a permanent and practically deathless god.
The insect showed the phenomenon of long-lived luminescence.
In America, animal tests conducted with a mixture of a nerve gas antidote and insect repellent indicated nerve damage.
Lemon oil is also highly antiseptic, making it ideal for gargling or applying to minor cuts, scrapes or insect bites.
Control measures will include insect attractants, pesticides and the Sterile Insect Technique.
It has just set standards for wood that will help control movement of the longhorn beetle, a deadly tree insect.
It functions to bind the vitamin biotin, which is required for many insect pests.
All insect bites can usually be treated with an antiseptic cream.
The fusion toxin was active against two insect pests of rice, leaf folder and yellow stem borer.
The single most important insect is the cocoa pod borer of SE Asia.
When an insect bites your horse and penetrates the skin a red, itchy bump of some sort will occur.
Instead of being made of bone, insect skeletons are made of a hard material called chitin.
The number one museum insect pest worldwide is the webbing clothes moth.
Bat droppings are similar to small mammals but on closer inspection are very crumbly due to the insect contents.
Herculex I protects against several insect pests, including European and southwestern corn borer, western bean cutworm and black cutworm.
Sandflies near the river can also be a nuisance at times, tho they are easily deterred with insect repellent.
The European earwig is a common insect of fields, woods and gardens.
A cheaper and safer alternative to chemical control has proved highly effective against several key insect pests.
Man at sea is an insect on a splinter, now engulfed, now scared to death.
In addition, the upland lakes support a species poor but notable upland insect fauna.
How to recognize head lice The adult head louse is a small gray or brown insect, about the size of a match head.
A number of insect species feed on scentless mayweed.
Maria Sibylla Merian ' (born in Frankfurt, 1647 1717) was the first known person to record observations on insect metamorphosis.
They are only checking levels of insect life and not soil microbiology, or mammal life in the area.
If you are sure the bird is an insect eater raw mince or tinned cat food can be mixed in.
The head of the male insect has strongly protruding eyes, branched antennae and degenerate, biting mouthparts.
Proboscis The adapted mouthparts of various insect groups such as flies and butterflies.
Although a brook may appear crystal-clear, it nevertheless transports more than enough organic matter to feed a multitude of insect inhabitants.
Has swept across another insect oddball too tired to.
When removed, apply antiseptic ointment or powder but monitor daily for contamination or insect infestation.
Some cooking herbs even have properties that repel common insect pests and garden diseases, which is an added benefit to your vegetables.
Does the Council provide a service for treating insect pests?
Research is being done on the possibility of introducing European insect predators in order to control the growing invasion.
Their aerial flying displays they catch their insect prey on the wing are amazing to watch.
Yes, each insect has a very long proboscis, designed to reach deep into flowers to the nectar.
Looking down at the palm of her hand, she saw an insect with a long proboscis, oozing blood, her own blood.
Once cleaned our polymer protectant will make insect removal easier.
Try to bring some insect repellent or a net.
I should have bought some insect repellent I think.
The appeal of natural repellents Recent research has identified particular plant extracts which could help to keep insect pests at bay.
We supply a variety of insect and mosquito repellents and killers.
Insect life is abundant with many common species of butterfly such as wall and meadow brown, ringlet and gate keeper.
Sun cream, insect repellent, lip salve, wet wipes, sewing kit.
The female scale insect produces between 500--2000 eggs over many days, and then dies.
The adult insect has a coriaceous scutellum, rugulose apically, usually without a shallow medial depression.
It keeps to the bottom - grubbing for insect larvae - worms and small shellfish.
Aquatic insect larvae like mosquito and midge larvae have slender elongated worm like bodies.
The tightness of the weave makes the smock impervious to insect bites.
A rotting log can become a world of insect life and a home for beetles, including the increasingly uncommon stag beetle.
A young starling begs to be fed by the adult on the insect treat fat block.
On Wednesday afternoon, I held a tarantula in my hands at the insect house.
When an insect lands on a sundew, its legs and wings get caught on the sticky tipped tentacles like flies on fly paper.
The insect garden area has had too turbulent a history for these conservative ancient ones.
Within thirty minutes I had the perfect specimen, lying on its back exposing the whole underside of the insect.
Beautiful scenary is assured with wonderfully varied animal, bird, insect and plant life, some of which is unique and indiginous.
For insect bites dab on malt vinegar or hold the cut side of half an onion against the stings.
To earn his freedom Lucas must learn how to live among the colony and sur vive the perils of the insect world.
Does normal UV light insect zappers work or could they be adapted?
The stud y of the insect life of the peninsula opens a splendid field for scientific research, and the profusion and variety of insects found in these forests probably surpass those to be met with anywhere else in the world.
Below it is the conducting surface (B) of glassy epidermal cells, with short downward-directed points, which facilitate the descent, but impede the ascent of an insect.
The secretion wets an insect very rapidly, but, so far as is known, seems to be completely destitute of digestive power - indeed, rather to accelerate decomposition.
The sporophylls (stamens and carpels) are generally associated with other leaves, known as the perianth, to form a flower; these subsidiary leaves are protective and attractive in function and their development is correlated with the transport of pollen by insect agency (see ANGI0sPERM5; POLLINATION, and FLOWER).
It may be that they procure it from decomposing organic matter in the soil, or they may get it by absorption from other plants to which they attach themselves, or they may in rare cases obtain it by preying upon insect life.
It is among the Invertebrata that epidemics of destruction are referred to, though we should bear in mind that it is only the difference in numerical proportion that prevents our speaking of an epidemic of elephants or of rabbits, though we use the term when speaking of blight insects; there is little consistency in the matter, as it is usual to speak of an invasion or scourge of locusts, caterpillars, &c. Insect injuries are very varied in degree and in kind.
Such cankers often commence in mere insect punctures, frosted buds, cracks in the cortex, &c., into which a germinating spore sends its hypha.
He found that the development of a gall is due to a temporary modification of the part affected, not, as is generally thought, in consequence of the deposition of an egg by the insect, but of the injection of a poisonous substance which has the effect of stimulating the protoplasm to develop a gall instead of normal structure.
The fifth abdominal segment has a pair of strong dorsal hook-like processes, by means of which the larva supports itself in the burrow which it excavates in the earth, the great head blocking the entrance with the mandibles ready to seize on any unwary insect that may venture within reach.
In 1894, however, Sir Patrick Manson, arguing with greater precision by analogy from his own discovery of the cause of filariasis and the part played by mosquitoes, suggested that the malarial parasite had a similar intermediate host outside the human body, and that a suctorial insect, which would probably be found to be a particular mosquito, was required for its development.
The pupa either shows the appendages of the perfect insect, though these are encased in a sheath and adherent to the body, or else it is entirely concealed within the hardened and contracted larval integument, which forms a barrel-shaped protecting capsule or puparium.
The position of this orifice, as we have seen, is at the base of the lip and of the column, so that the insect, if of sufficient size, while bending its head to insert the proboscis into the spur, almost of necessity displaces the pollen-masses.
The movements of the pollen-masses may readily be seen with the naked eye by thrusting the point of a needle into the base of the anther, when the disks adhere to the needle as they would do to the antenna of an insect, and may be withdrawn.
In many cases a more complex ear is developed, which may be situated in strangely diverse regions of the insect's body.
Growth And Metamorphosis After hatching or birth an insect undergoes a process of growth and change until the adult condition is reached.
Metamorphosis among the Hexapoda depends upon the universal acquisition of wings After Howard, Insect Life, vol.
Further, although the wing-rudiments appear externally in an early instar of an exopterygotous insect, the earliest instars are wingless and wing-rudiments have been previously developing beneath the cuticle, growing however outwards, not inwards as in the larva of an endopterygote.
At whatever spot an insect becomes entangled in the frame, the vibration set up by its struggles is transmitted along the nearest radiating thread to the centre and thence up the trap line to the shelter where the occupant lurks awaiting the signal.
No sooner is the vibration perceived than the spider descends with all speed to the centre, and by feeling the ends of the radiating lines learns which is ashake and rapidly, without the possibility of mistake, makes its way to the entangled insect.
Examples of Selenops (Clubionidae) lie flat and absolutely still on the bark of trees, to which their coloration assimilates, and spring like a flash of light upon any insect that touches their legs; the Lycosidae dart swiftly upon their prey; and the Salticidae, which compared with other spiders have keen powers of vision, stealthily stalk it to within leaping distance, then, gathering their legs together, cover the intervening space with a spring and with unerring aim seize it and bury their fangs in its body.
While some observers have studied in detail the structure and life-history of a few selected types (insect anatomy and development), others have made a more superficial examination of large series of insects to classify them and determine their relationships (systematic entomology), while others again have investigated the habits and life-relations of insects (insect bionomics).
While the insect fauna of European countries was investigated by local naturalists, the spread of geographical exploration brought ever-increasing stores of exotic material to the great museums, and specialization - either in the fauna of a small district or in the world-wide study of an order or a group of families - became constantly more marked in systematic work.
Under normal conditions in warm climates many of the species are perennials, but, in the United States for example, climatic conditions necessitate the plants being renewed annually, and even in the tropics it is often found advisable to treat them as annuals to ensure the production of cotton of the best quality, to facilitate cultural operations, and to keep insect and fungoid pests in check.
That the insect is likely to prove adaptable is perhaps indicated by the fact that in 1906 it made a northward advance of about 60 m.
The abdomen consists of ten segments, the tenth furnished with long and slender multi-articulate tails, which appear to be only two in number at first, but an intermediate one gradually develops itself (though this latter is often lost in the winged insect).
Some of these will be stricter, and some laxer; but on the whole all tend to "aggravate" the law - down to the point of forbidding the faithful to wear a girdle, or to kill a noxious insect on the Sabbath.
Development of larva and seed go on togeth