A boot came down on the angry insect before it could reach her.
Riley, Insect Life, US.
If in extracting the insect the abdomen be ruptured, serious trouble may ensue from the resulting inflammation.
fixed to the body as in the pupa of a moth, and the likeness of pupa to perfect insect is very close.
Sofia forced her own smile, noticing how Claire's gaze swept over her as if she were an uninvited insect in her bedroom.
Sharp to indicate a stage in the life-history of an insect between two successive castings of the cuticle.
The fertile leaves or sporophylls are generally aggregated on special shoots to form rioweN which may contain one or both kinds The microspores are set free from the sporangiurn and carried generally by wind or insect agency to the vicinity of the macrospore, which never leaves the ovule.
From two to four moults occur, after which the " pronymph " stage is reached, which in the insect is moderately active and possesses wing-rudiments reaching to the second abdominal Segment.
She was very much excited when we went upstairs; so I tried to interest her in a curious insect called a stick-bug.
When these are excited by the settling of an insect on the leaf they slowly bend over and imprison the intruder, which is detained there meanwhile by a sticky excretion poured out by the glands.
France, lx., 1891); in the Bruchidae by Riley (Insect Life, iv., v., 1892-1893; and in the Strepsiptera (Stylopidae) by K.
In 1882 the United States was calculated to have lost 40,000,000 to 60,000,000 from insect and other pests.
After the second larval moult, he passes through a passive stage comparable to the pupa-stadium of an b insect, and during this stage, which occurs inside the root, the reproductive organs are perfected.
Among the vegetable-feeding chafers we usually find that while the perfect insect devours leaves, the larva lives underground and feeds on roots.
When first sucked up by the insect from an infected man it passes into its stomach, and thence makes its way into the thoracic muscles, and there for some time it grows.
Experience with epidemics, dearly bought in the past, has shown that one fruitful cause is the laying open to the inroads of some Fungus or insect, hitherto leading a quiet endemic life in the fields and forests, large tracts of its special food, along which it may range rampant without check to its dispersal, nutrition and reproduction.
The extraordinary forms, colors and textures of the true galls have always formed some of the most interesting of biological questions, for not only is there definite co-operation I between a given species of insect and of plant, as shown by the facts that the same insect may induce galls of different kinds on different plants or organs, while different insects induce different galls on the same plante.g.
The beetles are ovoid in shape, with smooth contours, and the elytra fit over the edges of the abdomen so as to enclose a supply of air, available for use when the insect remains under water.
side, being scooped in bubbles by the terminal segments of the feelers when the insect rises to the surface.
"He saw that they increased in size, divided, and became full of filiform spores, then ruptured and poured out their multitudinous progeny into the bodycavity of their insect host.
The newly hatched insect closely resembles the parent, and the wing-rudiments appear externally on the second and third thoracic segments; but before the final moult the nymph remains quiescent, taking no food.
Immense flocks of gulls were probably attracted to it then as now by its insect life, and its lagoons and streams teemed with aquatic birds.
Aphidesand may be easily penetrated by certain Fungi such as Peziza, Nectria; and when thus attacked, the repeated conflicts between the cambium and callus, on the one hand, trying to heal over the wound, and the insect or Fungus, on the other, destroying the new tissues as they are formed, results in irregular growths; the still uninjured cambium area goes on thickening the branch, the dead parts, of course, remain unthickened, and the portion in which the Fungus is at work may for the time being grow more rapidly.
Anopheles is also a more slender insect, with a smaller head, narrower body and thinner legs.
Similarly, the subsidence of malaria during cold weather and its seasonal prevalence find an adequate explanation in the conditions governing insect life.
The young insect resembles its parent in most points, but the head is disproportionately large; the anterior abdominal spiracles are on the second segment instead of on the first, and the foot has only a single segment.
After another moult the insect passes into the passive nymphal or " pupal " stage, during which it takes no food and rests in some safe hiding-place, such as the soil at the base of its food-plant or the hollow of a leaf-stalk.
After another moult the insect passes into the passive nymphal or " pupal " stage, during which it takes no food and rests in some safe hiding-place, such as the soil at the base of its food-plant or the hollow of a leaf-stalk.
From a hilltop you can see a fish leap in almost any part; for not a pickerel or shiner picks an insect from this smooth surface but it manifestly disturbs the equilibrium of the whole lake.
Thus Asclepiadeae and Orchideae owe their extraordinary floral complexity to adaptation to insect fertilization.
Since the sides of the pit consist of loose sand they afford an insecure foothold to any small insect that inadvertently ventures over the edge.
Thus Asclepiadeae and Orchideae owe their extraordinary floral complexity to adaptation to insect fertilization.
The closed ovary implies a mode of fertilization which is profoundly different, and which was probably correlated with a simultaneous development of insect life.
Ten segments can be distinguished in the tapering abdomen, the ninth frequently bearing a pair of tail-feelers (cerci), and the tenth, attached ventrally to the ninth, having the anal opening at its extremity and performing the function of a posterior limb, supporting and temporarily fixing the tail end of the insect on the surface over which it crawls.
Similarly the newly-hatched larva of an oil-beetle (Meloe) is an active little campodeiform insect, which, hatched from an egg laid among plants, waits to attach itself to a passing bee.
In both these cases the stimulation is followed, not only by movement, but by the secretion of an acid liquid containing a digestive juice, by virtue of which the insect is digested after being killed.
More slowly, but yet in the same way, we may note the change in turgidity of certain cells of the Droscra tentacles, as they close over the imprisoned insect.
The irritation set up by the hatching egg and its resulting larva appears to be the stimulus to development, and net a poison or enzyme injected by the insect.
The illumination is intermittent, and appears to be under the control of the insect's nervous system.
The little triungulins escape on to the body of the bee or wasp; then those that are to survive must leave their host for a non-parasitized insect.
Mosquitoes go through four phases: (1) ovum, (2) larva, (3) nympha, (4) complete insect.
The parasitic cycle has been broken, and the insect is no longer infected.
As a typical instance we may take the chapter on the ant-lion - not the insect, but an imaginary creature suggested by Job.
The majority of authors, however, follow Brauer in dividing the order into two sections, Orthorrhapha and Cyclorrhapha, according to the manner in which the pupa-case splits to admit of the escape of the perfect insect.
In the Orthorrhapha, in the pupae of which the appendages of the perfect insect are usually visible, the pupa-case generally splits in a straight line down the back near the cephalic end; in front of this longitudinal cleft there may be a small transverse one, the two together forming a T-shaped fissure.
But there are several subfamilies of ants whose females have the lancets of the sting useless for piercing, although the poison-glands are functional, their secretion being ejected by the insect, when occasion may arise, from the greatly enlarged reservoir, the reduced sting acting as a squirt.
Havingattained its object the insect withdraws, taking the pollen-masses, and visits another flower.
In such cases the contact of an insect or other body with those processes is sufficient to liberate the pollen often with elastic force, even when the anther itself is not touched.
The object of these movements will be appreciated when it is remembered that, if the pollen-masses retained the original direction they had in the anther in which they were formed, they would, when transported by the insect to another flower, merely come in contact with the anther of that flower, where of course they would be of no use; but, owing to the divergences and flexions above alluded to, the pollen-masses come to be so placed that, when transplanted to another flower of the same species, they come in contact with the stigma and so effect the fertilization of that flower.
Flies, lice, gadflies and mosquitoes are the worst of the insect plagues.
Pear trees may 2, Section of leaf surface showing the also be attacked by a great spores or conidia, c, borne on long variety of insect pests.
Nearly every state in America has its official economic entomologists, and nearly every one of the British crown colonies is provided with one or more able men who help the agricultural community to battle against the insect pests.
The most able exponent of this subject in Great Britain was John Curtis, whose treatise on Farm Insects, published in 1860, is still the standard British work dealing with the insect foes of corn, roots, grass and stored corn.
In Australia Tryon published a work on the Insect and Fungus Enemies of Queensland in 1889.
This oil generally acts as an excellent preventive of this and other insect attacks.
A, Male scale insect; B, female; C, larva; D, female scale; E, male scale.
Large pits are dug across the line of advance of these great insect armies to stop them when in the larval or wingless stage, and even huge bonfires are lighted to check their flight when adult.
One of the most p im ortant ways of keeping insect pests in check is by " spraying " or " washing."
A true insect, or member of the class Hexapoda, may be known by the grouping of its body-segments in three distinct regions - a head, a thorax and an abdomen - each of which consists of a definite number of segments.
The head of an insect carries usually four pairs of conspicuous appendages - feelers, mandibles and two pairs of maxillae, so that the presence of four primitive somites is immediately evident.
Wheeler (1893) and others in various insect embryos, while in the lowest insect order - the Aptera - a pair of minute jaws - the maxillulae - in close association with the tongue are present, as has been shown by H.
In Lankester's terminology, therefore, the head of an insect is " triprosthomerous."
The head-capsule of an insect (figs.
In the relative development and shape of the various segments of the leg there is almost endless variety, dependent on the order to which the insect belongs, and the special function - walking, running, climbing, digging or swimming - for which the limb is adapted.
9, E) that cover the body of an insect have a tactile function.
In various groups of the Hexapoda - aphids and some flesh-flies (Sarcophagi), for example - the egg undergoes development within the body of the mother, and the young insect is born in an active state; such insects are said to be " viviparous."
The offspring of the virgin females are in most of these instances females; but among the bees and wasps parthenogenesis occurs normally and always results in the development of males, the " queen " insect laying either a fertilized or unfertilized egg at will.
- In the adult insect the head is insignificant in invagination, and are from their origin distinct from the mesoderm.
that some of the later work on insect embryology has justified the It is now ascertained that the procephalic lobes consist of three growing scepticism in the universal applicability of the " germ-layer divisions, so that the head must certainly be formed from at least theory."
The thoracic segments, as seen in an early stage of the ventral plate, display in a well-marked manner the essential elements of the insect segment.
They differ much according to the kind of insect, and in the adult according to sex.
The cerci, when present, appear in the mature insect to be attached to the tenth segment, but according to Heymons they are really appendages of the eleventh segment, their connexion with the tenth being secondary and the result of considerable changes that take place in the terminal segments.
The gonapophyses are the projections near the extremity of the body that surround the sexual orifices, and vary extremely according to the kind of insect.
In the adult state no insect possesses more than six legs, and they are always attached to the thorax; in many Thysanura there are, however, processes on the abdomen that, as to their position, are similar to legs.
- Morphology of an Insect: the embryo of Gryllotalpa, somewhat diagrammatic. The longitudinal segmented band along the middle line represents the early segmentation of the nervous system and the subsequent median field of each sternite; the lateral transverse unshaded bands are the lateral fields of each segment; the shaded areas indicate the more internally placed mesoderm layer.
The germ band evidently marks the ventral aspect of the developing insect, whose body must be completed by the extension of the embryo so as to enclose the yolk dorsally.
It is therefore a haemocoel, the coelom of the developed insect being represented only by the cavities of the genital glands and their ducts.
On the other hand, we find in the vast majority of the Hexapoda a very marked difference between the perfect insect (imago) and the young animal when newly hatched and for some time after hatching.
Such a young insect is a larva - a term used by zoologists for young animals generally that are decidedly unlike their parents.
during post-embryonic development - no insect being hatched with the smallest external rudiments of those organs - and on the necessity for successive castings or " moults " (ecdyses) of the cuticle.
It is different in its details in different insects and in different stages of the life of the same insect.
The " sclerites " that make up the skeleton of the insect (which skeleton, it should be remembered, is entirely external) are composed of this chitinous excretion.
The growth of an insect is usually rapid, and as the cuticle does not share therein, it is from time to time cast off by moulting or ecdysis.
Concomitant with this separation there is commencement of the formation of a new cuticle within the old one, so that when the latter is cast off the insect appears with a partly completed new cuticle.
Metamorphosis is, from this point of view, the sum of the changes that take place under the cuticle of an insect between the ecdyses, which changes only become externally displayed when the cuticle is cast off.
Insect metamorphosis may be briefly described as phenomena of development characterized by abrupt changes of appearance and of structure, occurring during the period subsequent to embryonic development and antecedent to the reproductive state.
The unlikeness of the young insect to its parent is one of the factors that necessitates metamorphosis.
These later stages, comprising the greater part of the larval history, are adapted for an inquiline or a parasitic life, where shelter is assured and food abundant, while the short-lived, active condition enables the newly-hatched insect to make its way to the spot favourable for its future development, clinging, for example, in the case of an oil-beetle's larva, to the hairs of a bee as she flies towards her nest.
After a prolonged aquatic larval and nymphal life-history, the winged insect appears as a sub-imago, whence, after the casting of a delicate cuticle, the true imago emerges.
An interesting feature is the difference often to be observed between an aquatic larva and pupa of the same insect in the matter of breathing.
The eggs of locusts may remain for years in the ground before hatching; and there may thus arise the peculiar phenomenon of some species of insect appearing in vast numbers in a locality where it has not been seen for several years.
Nevertheless, the constant increase of our knowledge of insect forms renders classification increasingly difficult, for gaps in the series become filled, and while the number of genera and families increases, the distinctions between these groups become dependent on characters that must seem trivial to the naturalist who is not a specialist.
The Lithographic stone of Kimmeridgian age, at Solenhofen in Bavaria, is especially rich in insect remains, cyclorrhaphous Diptera appearing here for the first time.
The Oeningen beds of Baden, of Miocene age, have also yielded an extensive insect fauna, described fifty years ago by O.
Insect wings are specialized outgrowths of certain thoracic segments, and are quite unrepresented in any other class of Arthropods.
The origin of insect wings remains, therefore, a mystery, deepened by the difficulty of imagining any probable use for thoracic outgrowths, comparable to the wingrudiments of the Exopterygota, in the early stages of their evolution.
The only doubt arises from the existence of insect remains, referred to the order Coleoptera, in the Silesian Culm of Steinkunzendorf near Reichenbach.
It has been previously remarked that the phenomena of holometabolism are connected with the development of wings inside the body (except in the case of the fleas, where there are no wings in the perfect insect).
the Apterygogenea of Brauer and others, though we prefer the shorter term Apterygota) - is rendered improbable from the fact that existing Apterygota are related to Exopterygota, not to Endopterygota, and by the knowledge that has been gained as to the morphology and development of wings, which suggest that - if we may so phrase it - were an apterygotous insect gradually to develop wings, it would be on the exopterygotous system.
It is almost impossible to believe that any species of insect that has for a long period developed the wings outside the body could change this mode of growth suddenly for an internal mode of development of the organs in question, for, as we have already explained, the two modes of growth are directly opposed.
The eruciform larva of the Orthorrhapha leads on to the headless vermiform maggot of the Cyclorrhapha, and in the latter sub-order we find metamorphosis carried to its extreme point, the muscid flies being the most highly specialized of all the Hexapoda as regards structure, while their maggots are the most degraded of all insect larvae.
To begin with, 1 Though not relating exactly to our present theme, it would be improper to dismiss Nitzsch's name without reference to his extraordinary labours in investigating the insect and other external parasites of birds, a subject which as regards British species was subsequently elaborated by Denny in his Monographia Anoplurorum Britanniae (1842) and in his list of the specimens of British Anoplura in the collection of the British Museum.
Except in the extreme north and south, and on the tops of the highest mountains, where there is no insect life as food supply, spiders are found all over the world, even in isolated oceanic islands.
When an insect strikes the web the spider loosens his hold of the trap-line, thus enveloping the victim in a tangle of threads which would otherwise not come into contact with it.
In several families of spiders, but principally in those like the Clubionidae and Salticidae, which are terrestrial in habits, there are species which not only live amongst ants, but so closely resemble them in their shape, size, colour and actions that it requires a practised eye to distinguish the Arachnid from the insect.
Some species of Dolomedes, indeed, habitually construct a raft by spinning dead leaves together and float over the water upon it watching for an opportunity to dash upon any insect that alights upon its surface.
Swammerdam's Biblia naturae, issued in 1737, fifty years after its author's death, and containing observations on the structure and lifehistory of a series of insect types.
Aristotle and Harvey (De generatione animalium, 1651) had considered the insect larva as a prematurely hatched embryo and the pupa as a second egg.
The fascinating subjects of insect bionomics and life-history were dealt with in the classical memoirs (1734-1742) of the Frenchman R.
While the insect fauna of European countries was investigated by local naturalists, the spread of geographical exploration brought ever-increasing stores of exotic material to the great museums.
Though Riley was especially interested in the bearings of insect life on agriculture and industry - economic entomology (q.
C. Piepers; the bearing of insect habits on theories of selection and use-inheritance by A.
References to the works of the above authors, and to many others, will be found under HEXAPODA and the special articles on various insect orders.
Some idea of the enormous damage wrought by the collective attacks of individually small and weak animals may be gathered from the fact that a conservative estimate places the loss due to insect attacks on cotton in the United States at the astounding figure of $60,000,000 (£12,000,000) annually.
No certain remedy is known for the destruction on a commercial scale of the boll weevil, but every effort has been made in the United States to check the advance of the insect, to ascertain and encourage its natural enemies, and to propagate races of cotton which resist its attacks.
The Egyptian boll worm (Earias insulana) is the most important insect pest in Egypt and occurs also in other parts of Africa.
The size of the animals varies greatly, from forms a few millimetres in length to Gigantorhynchus gigas, which measures from 10 to 65 cms. The adults live in great numbers in the alimentary canal of some vertebrate, usually fish, the larvae are as a rule encysted in the body cavity of some invertebrate, most often an insect or crustacean, more rarely a small fish.
It is then, if lucky, eaten by some crustacean, or insect, more rarely by a fish.
The tough but flexible coarse grey paper (German Fliesspapier), upon which on the Continent specimens are commonly fixed by gummed strips of the same, is less hygroscopic than ordinary cartridge paper, but has the disadvantage of affording harbourage in the inequalities of its surface to a minute insect, Atropos pulsatoria, which commits great havoc in damp specimens, and which, even if noticed, cannot be dislodged without difficulty.
of the precise anatomical, not to say the physiological, knowledge which appears to be displayed by the insect in stinging only the nerve-centres of its prey.
Oranges and pears are seriously damaged by insect and fungus pests.
Insect life is abundant and beautiful.
Cotton has been found to suffer much from insect pests.
The study of these plant and insect remains shows that forests containing a vegetation very similar to that of California and the southern United States, in some instances even the species of trees being all but identical, flourished in 70° N.
There are three distinct and large thoracic segments, whereof the prothorax is narrower than the others; the legs are much shorter and stouter than in the winged insect, with monomerous tarsi terminated by a single claw.
When the aquatic insect has reached its full growth it emerges from the water or seeks its surface; the thorax splits down the back and the winged form appears.
But this is not yet perfect, although it has all the form of a perfect insect and is capable of flight; it is what is variously termed a "pseudimago," "sub-imago" or "pro-imago."
This final moult is effected soon after the insect's appearance in the winged form; the creature seeks a temporary resting-place, the pellicle splits down the back, and the now perfect insect comes forth, often differing very greatly in colours and markings from the condition in which it was only a few moments before.
The winged insect differs considerably in form from its sub-aquatic condition.
So far the Hevea plantations in Ceylon and the East have not been seriously troubled by insect or fungoid pests, and those which have occurred have succumbed to proper treatment.
Owing, however, to the close proximity of stigma and anthers, very slight irregularity in the movements of the visiting insect will cause self-pollination, which may also occur by the dropping of pollen from the anthers of the larger stamens on to the stigma.
The insect fauna is very similar to that of Russia; but a few genera, as the Tentyria, do not penetrate into the steppe region of West Siberia, while the tropical Colasposoma, Popilia and Languria are found only in south-eastern Transbaikalia, or are confined to the southern Amur.
The irregular construction of the flower is connected with fertilization by insect agency.
To reach the honey in the spur of the flower, the insect must thrust its proboscis into the flower close under the globular head of the stigma.
greenish colour, so that they offer no attractions to insect visitors and their form is correspondingly regular.
It resembles Juncaceae in the general plan of the flower, which, however, has become much more elaborate and varied in the form and colour of its perianth in association with transmission of pollen by insect agency; a link between the two orders is found in the group of Australian genera referred to above under Asphodeloideae.
In strong contrast to the poverty of Brazil in the larger mammals is the astonishing profusion of insect life in every part of the country.
The fish moth, a steel-grey slimy active fish-shaped insect, is found in every house and is very destructive.
Insect life is perhaps poorer and less varied than in Brazil, but in the 14 orders of insects there are no less than 98 families, each including many genera and species.
The flowers are hermaphrodite and regular, with the same number and arrangement of parts as in the order Liliaceae, from which they differ in the inconspicuous membranous character of the perianth, the absence of honey or smell, and the brushlike stigmas with long papillae-adaptations to wind-pollination as contrasted with the methods of pollination by insect agency, which characterize the Liliaceae.
Similarly Karl Hoffmann of Wiirzburg wasted his appreciations of the newer schools of developmental biology in fanciful notions of human diseases as reversions to normal stages of lower animals; scrofula being for him a reversion to the insect, rickets to the mollusc, epilepsy to the oscillaria, and so forth.
The irritation is caused by the rostrum of the insect being inserted into the skin, from which the blood is rapidly pumped up. A third human louse, known as the crab-louse (Phthirius pubis) is found amongst the hairs on other parts of the body, particularly those of the pubic region, but probably never on the head.
To destroy the seeds, &c., of weeds, and the larvae of insect pests, a fire is often lighted, kept from the ground itself by intervening wood logs, or the seed-bed is thoroughly steamed.
Stored tobacco is liable to be attacked and ruined by the " cigarette beetle," a cosmopolitan insect of very varied tastes, feeding not only on dried tobacco of all kinds, including snuff, but also on rhubarb, cayenne pepper, tumeric, ginger, figs and herbarium specimens.
The cochineal insect is found on the cactus which grows in abundance in the vicinity, and the town is known throughout Ecuador for its manufacture of boots and shoes, and for a cordage made from cabuya, the fibre of the agave plant.
EARWIG, an insect belonging to the Forficulidae, a family usually referred to the Orthoptera, but sometimes regarded as typifying a special order, to which the names Dermaptera, Dermatoptera and Euplexoptera have been given, in allusion to certain peculiarities in the structure of the wings in the species that possess them.
This insect is gregarious and nocturnal.
As growth proceeds the integument is periodically cast; and at the final moult the perfect winged insect appears.
in expanse, and forms one of the most noisome and injurious of insect pests.
Carpenter, Insects: their Structure and Life (1899); Charles Lester Marlatt, Household Insects (U.S. Eepartment of Agriculture, revised edition, 1902); Leland Ossian Howard, The Insect Book (1902).
The cercaria swims freely for a time and either encysts directly on grass or weeds or it enters a second host which may be another mollusc, an insect, crustacean or fish, and then encysts.
The adjective "beetle-browed," and similarly "beetling" (of a cliff), are derived from the name of the insect.
The coloration of tsetse-flies is sombre and inconspicuous; the brownish or greyish-brown thorax usually exhibits darker longitudinal markings, and when the insect is at rest the abdomen or hinder half of the body is entirely concealed by the brownish wings.
In all tsetse-flies the proboscis in the living insect is entirely concealed by the palpi, which are grooved in their inner sides and form a closely fitting sheath for the piercing organ; the base of the proboscis is expanded beneath into a large onion-shaped bulb, which is filled with muscles.
The head of the insect contains a muscular pharynx by means of which the blood from the wound inflicted by the proboscis (labium) is pumped into the alimentary canal and the so-called sucking-stomach.
fusca show that the insect is able to ingest considerably more than (sometimes more than twice) its own weight of blood, which would appear to be the only food, and must be drawn from the tissues of a victim.
The most probable supposition is that the cup is simply an excrescence or "enation" from the mouth of the flower-tube, and is connected with the fertilization of the flowers by insect agency.
The insect life of Japan broadly corresponds withthat of temperate regions in Europe.
About 100 species of these rather archaic snakes are known; in adaptation to their burrowing life and worm and insect diet, they have undergone degradation.
The larvae known as caddis-worms are aquatic. The mature females lay their eggs in the water, and the newly-hatched larvae provide themselves with cases made of various particles such as grains of sand, pieces of wood or leaves stuck together with silk secreted from the salivary glands of the insect.
Through this temporary protection the active pupa, which closely resembles the mature insect, subsequently bites a way by means of its strong mandibles, and rising to the surface of the water casts the pupal integument and becomes sexually adult.
Fertilization is effected by insects, especially by bees, which are directed in their search by the colour and fragrance of the flowers; but some pollen must also be transported by the wind to the female flowers, especially in arctic species which, in spite of the poverty of insect life, set abundant fruit.
Insect life is represented by plant-bugs, locusts, crickets, grasshoppers, cockroaches, dragon-flies, butterflies, numerous varieties of moths, bees and mosquitoes.
Some of the best oranges in the world are grown, and exported; but sufficient care is not taken to keep down insect pests, and to replace old trees.
The cochineal insect is nurtured on a species of Opuntia (0.
Plantations of the nopal and the tuna, which are called nopaleries, are established for the purpose of rearing this insect, the Coccus Cacti, and these often contain as many as 50,000 plants.
The native country of the insect is Mexico, and it is there more or less cultivated; but the greater part of our supply comes from New Granada and the Canary Islands.
The head of a hymenopterous insect bears three simple eyes (ocelli) on the front and vertex in addition to the large compound FIG.
Gall-fly grubs are provided with vegetable food through the eggs being laid by the mother insect within plant tissues.
A diggingwasp hunts for insect prey and buries it with the egg, while a true wasp feeds her brood with captured insects, as a bird her fledglings.
The development of a true insect society among the Hymenoptera is dependent on a differentiation among the females between individuals with well-developed ovaries (" queens ") whose special function is reproduction; and individuals with reduced or aborted ovaries (" workers ") whose duty is to build the nest, to gather food and to tend and feed the larvae.
The ovipositor is long and prominent, enabling the female insect to lay her eggs in the wood of trees, where the white larvae, whose legs are excessively short, tunnel and feed.
Fabre states that the lastnamed insect uses a stone for the temporary closing of her burrow, and the Peckhams have seen a female Ammophila take a stone between her mandibles and use it as a hammer for pounding down the earth over her finished nest.
The habit of some genera is to catch the prey before making their tunnel, but more frequently the insect digs her nest, and then hunts for prey to put into it.
animal tissue from which the insect is sucking.
In the adult there is a pair of such glands opening ventrally on the hindmost thoracic segment, or at the base of the abdomen; but in the young insect the glands are situated dorsally and open to the exterior on a variable number of the abdominal terga.
Some of these - the Hydrometridae or pond-skaters, for example - move over the surface-film, on which they are supported by their elongated, slender legs, the body of the insect being raised clear of the water.
Consequently when the insect dives, an air-bubble forms around it, a supply of oxygen is thus secured for breathing and the water is kept away from the spiracles.
When at rest the wings of Homoptera slope roofwise across the back of the insect.
- Apple Scale Insect (Mytilaspis pomorum).
In some coccids - the " mealy-bugs " (Dactylopius, &c.) for example - the secretion forms a white thread-like or plate-like covering which the insect carries about.
The insect is fixed by this rostrum, which is inserted into the root of the vine for the purpose of sucking the sap. The abdomen consists of seven segments, and these as well as the anterior segments bear four rows of small tubercles on their dorsal surface.
The insect is fixed by its proboscis, but moves its abdomen about and lays thirty to forty yellow eggs in small clusters.
In this way the insect increases with appalling rapidity: it has been calculated that a single mother which dies after laying her eggs in March would have over 25,000,000 descendants by October.
If, however, the insect were content with this method of reproduction the disease could be isolated by surrounding the infected patches with a deep ditch full of some such substance as coal-tar, which would prevent the insects spreading on to the roots of healthy vines.
As the summer wears on a second form of insect appears amongst the root-dwellers, though hatched from the same eggs as the form described above.
After several moults the rudiments of two pairs of wings appear, and then the insect creeps up to the surface of the earth, and on to the vine.
In very damp or cold weather the insect remains in the ground near the surface, and deposits its eggs there.
- Wingless Female pro birth to a female insect without wings, which resembles the rootdwelling forms, but has pointed antennae.
He carefully studied also the history of the ant and was the first to show that what had been commonly reputed to be "ants' eggs" are really their pupae, containing the perfect insect nearly ready for emersion, whilst the true eggs are far smaller, and give origin to "maggots" or larvae.
Barley is liable to smut and the other fungus diseases which attack wheat, and the insect pests which prey on the two plants are also similar.
The pleasant climate has certain drawbacks; the coastal farmer finds that blights and insect pests thrive in the comparative absence of hard frosts.
Insect life is relatively not abundant; the air is brisk and bright with ample sunshine.
As some compensation for its paucity of useful animals and food plants, New Zealand was, of course, free from wild carnivora, has no snakes, and only one poisonous insect, the katipo, a timid little spider found on certain sea-beaches.
WATER-BOATMAN, an aquatic hemipterous insect of the family Notonectidae, of which the best known species (Notonecta glauca) is a prominent feature in the pond-life of Great Britain.
The technical name, Notonecta, meaning "back-swimmer," alludes to the habit of the insect of swimming upside down, the body being propelled through the water by powerful strokes of the hind legs, which are fringed with hair and, when at rest, are extended laterally like a pair of sculls in a boat.
As is the case with other water-bugs, this insect is predaceous and feeds upon aquatic grubs or worms. The body is richly supplied with long hairs, which serve to entangle bubbles of air for purposes of respiration.
A government Department of Agriculture, created in 1904, affords help to the farmers in various ways, notably in combatting insect plagues, in experimental farms, and in improving the breed of horses, sheep and cattle.
The exciting cause of the hypertrophy, in the case of the typical galls, appears to be a minute quantity of some irritating fluid, or virus, secreted by the female insect, and deposited with her egg in the puncture made by her ovipositor in the cortical or foliaceous parts of plants.
The moss-like covering of the "bedeguars" of the wild rose, the galls of a Cynipid, Rhodites rosae, represents leaves which have been developed with scarcely any parenchyma between their fibro-vascular bundles; and the " artichoke-galls " or " oak-strobile," produced by Aphilothrix L., which insect arrests the development of the acorn, consists of a cupule to which more or less modified leaf-scales are attached, with a peduncular, oviform, inner ga11.4 E.
" For figures and descriptions of insect and gall, see Entomologist, iv.
- a, Aleppo " blue " gall; b, ditto in section, showing central cavity for grub; c, Aleppo " white " gall, perforated by insect; d, the same in section (natural size).
The escape of the insect takes place on the spontaneous bursting of the walls of the vesicle, probably when, after viviparous (thelytokous) reproduction for several generations, male winged insects are developed.
Lichtenstein has established the fact that from the egg of the Aphis of Pistachio galls, Anopleura lentisci, is hatched an apterous insect (the gall-founder), which gives birth to young Aphides (emigrants), and that these, having acquired wings, fly to the roots of certain grasses (Bromus sterilis and Hordeum vulgare), and by budding underground give rise to several generations of apterous insects, whence finally comes a winged brood (the pupifera).
The former, which is a somewhat less favourable method than the latter, is effected by air-currents, insect agency, the actual contact between stigmas and anthers in neighbouring flowers, where, as in the family Compositae, flowers are closely crowded, or by the fall of the pollen from a (From Darwin's by permission.) FIG.
8) which facilitate adhesion to some part of the insect's body, and a relatively small stigma with a sticky surface.
The flowers have an attractive floral envelope, are scented and often contain honey or a large amount of pollen by these means the insect is enticed to visit it.
The form, colour and scent of the flower vary widely, according to the class of insect whose ' See A.
In Broom there is an explosive machanism; the pressure of the insect visitor on the keel of the corolla causes a sudden release of the stamens and the scattering of a cloud of pollen over its body.
c. Pinch-trap flowers, as in the family Asclepiadaceae, where the proboscis, claw or bristle of the insect is caught in the clip to which the pairs of pollinia are attached.
1806) was the first to study the pollination of flowers and to draw attention to the necessity of insect visits in many cases; he gave a clear account of cross-pollination by insect aid.
insect visits in nearly Soo species of plants.
Insect life is ricn in northern Melanesia; in southern Melanesia it is less so; in Fiji numerous kinds of insects occur, while individual numbers are small.
In the rest of the islands the insect fauna is poor.
Every part of the material universe - man, woman, insect, tree, stone, or whatever it be - is the dwelling of an eternal spirit that is working out its destiny, and while receiving reward and punishment for the past is laying up reward and punishment for the future.
The evolution of insect life in driving animals from feeding ranges and in the spread of disease probably has been a prime cause of extinction.
The insect fauna of Mexico covers a very wide range of genera and species which, like the other forms of animal life, is largely made up of migratory types.
In the south they are larger and better nourished, owing to the permanent character of the pasturage, but are less vigorous because of the heat and insect plagues.
The, cochineal insect was once an important commercial product, but the industry has fallen into decay.
The " ni-in " (also known as " axe ") is a small scale insect belonging to the genus Coccus, found in Yucatan, Oaxaca, Vera Cruz, Michoacan and other southern states, where it inhabits the spondia trees and produces a greasy substance called " ni-inea," which is much used by the natives as a varnish, especially for domestic utensils, as it resists fire as well as water.
The cultivation of osiers is attended with many disturbing causes - winter floods, spring frosts, ground vermin and insect pests of various kinds, sometimes working great havoc to the crop.
One very helpful factor in determining which is the principal carrier of any form is the coincidence of the zone of a particular insect with that of any disease.
The life of the parasites while in the insect is characterized by an alternation of active periods, during which multiplication goes on, with resting-periods, when the Trypanosomes become attached to the epithelial cells of the host.
The indifferent parasites exhibit an alternation of resting, attached phases with active periods, during which they multiply actively and become very abundant in the insect.
Peas in large areas are grown free from serious trouble with insect pests.
Some of the families - the stone-flies, for example - have the young insect much like the adult, growing its wings visibly outside the thoracic segments, and active at all stages of its life.
They resemble the Orthoptera more nearly than do any other group of the Linnean Neuroptera, having the anal area of the hind-wings folding fanwise beneath the costal area and the whole hind-wing covered by the forewing when the insect is at rest, though the forewing is not firmer in texture than the hind-wing, as is the case in the Orthoptera.
Hagen not to be functional in the adult insect - they are merely survivals from the aquatic nymphal stage.
The two families included in this order agree with the Plecoptera in the young insect resembling the parent, but they are all terrestrial After C. L.
The powdered root of P. roseum and other species is used in the manufacture of insect powders.
But the fibres used for manufacturing purposes are exclusively produced by the mulberry silk-moth of China, Bombyx mori, and a few other moths closely allied to that insect.
According to a tradition the eggs of the insect and the seed of the mulberry tree were carried to India by a Chinese princess concealed in the lining of her head dress.
From two to three weeks after the completion of the cocoon the enclosed insect is ready to escape; it moistens one end of its self-made prison, thereby enabling itself to push aside the fibres and make an opening by which the perfect moth comes forth.
That the silkworm is subject to many serious diseases is only to be expected of a creature which for upwards of 4000 years has been propagated under purely artificial conditions, and these most frequently of a very insanitary nature, and where, not the healthy life of the insect, but the amount of silk it could be made to yield, was the object of the cultivator.
The term labrum is used in zoology, of a lip or lip-like part; in entomology it is applied specifically to the upper lip of an insect, the lower lip being termed labium.
jaws under Hexapoda); in the presence of a large number of excretory (Malpighian) tubes; in the firm texture of the forewings; in the presence of appendages (cerci) on the tenth abdominal segment; and in the absence of a metamorphosis, the young insect after hatching closely resembling the parent.
I) which the insect uses in arranging the hindwings beneath the elytra.
The hindwings have a firm costal area, and a more delicate anal area which folds fanwise, so that they are completely covered by the forewings when the insect rests.
Each egg is contained in a separate, curiously formed, seed-like capsule, provided with a lid which is raised to allow the escape of the newly-hatched insect.
Honey bees are protected from a large number of insect enemies because they sting and are distasteful.
(4) Guy Marshall once offered to a baboon a distasteful butterfly (Acraea anemosa), holding the insect in such a way as to display its bright red and black markings to the monkey.
This at least is the method of disguise suggested by examination of the dried insect; but representatives of the same or an allied species found in Mashonaland were observed in the living state to be green with the antlike parts represented in black pigment.
In one of these (Heteronotus trinodosus), the dorsal area of the forepart of the thorax is developed into a plate which projects backwards over the body of the insect, which retains its normal form, and conceals all but the head, wings and, legs.
This insect comes from Central America.
The structural modifications required to convert a spider into the image of an ant are of a more complicated character than those that serve the same purpose in an insect.
In the majority of ant-imitating spiders the forepart of the cephalothorax is constricted on each side to resemble the neck of the insect, and in many cases the similarity is increased by the presence of a stripe of white hairs which has the optical effect of cutting out an extra piece of integument, exactly as occurs in analogous cases in insects.
Narrowing of the posterior portions of the spider's cephalothorax and sometimes of the anterior end of the abdomen reproduces the slender waist of the ant, and frequently transverse bands of hairs represent the segmentation of this region in the insect.
An important phenomenon connected with insect mimicry is the convergence of several species in the same area towards a common type of coloration and shape, exhibited by one or more than one protected form.
An example of the latter occurs in Singapore where the vicious red spinning-ant (Oecophylla smaragdina) is mimicked by the larva of a Noctuid moth and by spiders belonging to two distinct families, namely, Saltiicus plataleoides (Salticidae) and Amyciaea forticeps (Thomisidae), there being no reason to suppose that either the moth larva or the spiders are protected forms. Mimetic aggregations of species similar to those mentioned above have been found in other countries; but the instances cited are sufficient to show how widespread are the influences of mimicry and how profoundly it has modified the insect fauna of various parts of the world.
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