Inscriptions Sentence Examples
It is now known, however, that they were true Arabs - as the proper names on their inscriptions show - who had come under Aramaic influence.
Under the Empire we hear no more of it, and no traces of antiquity, beyond inscriptions, remain.
A large number of milestones and other inscriptions relating to its repair at various times are known.
Inscriptions of Propertii have been found at Assisi.
He also held the offices of librarian of the Bibliotheque du Roi, and of perpetual secretary of the Academie des Inscriptions.Advertisement
Egyptian inscriptions indicate that the physician-priests sent their prescriptions to be dispensed by the priests of Isis when, accompanied by the chanter of incantations and spells, they visited the sick'.
Some of the so-called " Orphic tablets," metrical inscriptions engraved on small plates of gold, chiefly dating from the 4th and 3rd centuries B.C., have been discovered in tombs in southern Italy, Crete and Rome.
The reputation thus gained, confirmed by his translation of Horace (1750), led to his becoming a member of the Academie des Inscriptions (1754) and of the French Academy (1761).
The hieroglyphic inscriptions of Egypt and the cuneiform inscriptions of Assyria are rich in records of the movements and achievements of armies, the conquest of towns and the subjugation of peoples; but though many of the recorded sites have been identified, their discovery by wandering armies was isolated from their subsequent history and need not concern us here.
We know from the Assyrian inscriptions that just at the time which Herodotus assigns to Deioces the Medes were divided into numerous small principalities and subjected to the great Assyrian conquerors.Advertisement
There is a mound; and a few inscriptions are built into a bridge, which here spans the river, carrying the road from Niksar to Tokat.
Khapirti appears as Apir in the inscriptions of Mal-Amir, which fix the locality of the district.
The most important were the Ulai or Eulaeus (Kuran) with its tributary the Pasitigris, the Choaspes (Kerkhah), the Coprates (river of Diz called in the inscriptions), the Hedyphon or Hedypnus (Jerrahi), and the Croatis (Hindyan), besides the monumental Surappi and Ukni, perhaps to be identified with the Hedyphon and Oroatis, which fell into the sea in the marshy region at the mouth of the Tigris.
Among the other chief cities mentioned in the inscriptions may be named Naditu, Khaltemas, Din-sar, Bubilu, Bit-imbi, Khidalu and Nagitu on the sea-coast.
The monuments of many of his successors have been discovered by de Morgan and their inscriptions deciphered by v.Advertisement
All this must have happened about 640 B.C. After the fall of the Assyrian empire Elam was occupied by the Persian Teispes, the forefather of Cyrus, who, accordingly, like his immediate successors, is called in the inscriptions "king of Anzan."
The alcoves were white, seemingly of stone or plaster; but the archways were covered with blue varnish or blue tiles, with beautiful inscriptions in white and gold.
The Academy of Inscriptions of Paris appointed him one of its members, and from the grandduke of Baden he received the dignity of privy councillor.
Samsat itself represents the ancient Samosata, the capital of the Seleucid kings of Commagene (Kuinukh of the Assyrian inscriptions), and here the Persian Royal Road from Sardis to Susa is supposed to have crossed the river.
The right arm was the original bed, and the left arm, on which Babylon was built, the artificial deviation, as is clear from the cuneiform inscriptions.Advertisement
The town lay on the south side of the outer harbour, near the village of Miseno, where remains of a theatre and baths and the inscriptions relating to the town have been found.
He thinks that the variations in the inscriptions of the fifth treatise, which is not found in the best manuscript, are so great that the name of Boetius could not have originally been in the title.
Chemosh (Moab) and Milk (Milcom), the god of Ammon, and in the case of Edom a deity known from the inscriptions as KOs (in Assyrian Kaus).
There can be no reasonable doubt that the Levite here was member of a priestly tribe or order, and this view is confirmed by the discovery of what is really the same word in south Arabian inscriptions.
In one courtyard of this temple are deposited the celebrated ten stone drums which bear poetical inscriptions commemorative of the hunting expeditions of King Suan (827-781 B.C.), in whose reign they are believed, though erroneously, to have been cut; and in another stands a series of stone tablets on which are inscribed the names of all those who have obtained the highest literary degree of Tsin-shi for the last five centuries.Advertisement
A considerable number of short Carian inscriptions has been found, most of them in Egypt.
The oldest stone bears the date 1681 many of the stones were made in England, and bear quaint inscriptions.
The earliest pure Latin inscriptions of the district seem to be C.I.L.
The earliest local inscriptions date from about 300 to 150 B.C. and include the interesting and difficult bronze of Lake Fucinus, which seems to record a votive offering to Angitia, if A(n)ctia, as is probable, was the local form of her name.
They treat with almost unique fullness a few years in the middle of the 9th century B.C., but ignore Assyria; yet only the Assyrian inscriptions explain the political situation (§ 10 seq.), and were it not for them the true significance of the 8th-7th centuries could scarcely be realized (§ 15 seq.).
This tribe, called Bruttii and Brittii in Latin inscriptions, and Bpirrtot on Greek coins and by Greek authors, occupied the south-western peninsula of Italy in historical times, the ager Bruttius (wrongly called Bruttium) corresponding almost exactly to the modern Calabria.
At this time they were speaking Oscan as well as Greek, and two of three Oscan inscriptions in Greek alphabet still testify to the language spoken in the town in the 3rd century B.C. We know, however, that the Bruttians, though at this date speaking the same language (Oscan) as the Samnite tribe of the Lucani, were not actually akin to them.
Under the empire, however, the whole district remained backward and was remarkable for the absence of important towns, as the scarcity of ancient inscriptions, both.
In the extreme east and west of the island the aboriginal Eteocretan" element, however, as represented respectively by the Praesians or Cydonians, still held its own, and inscriptions written in Greek characters show that the old language survived to the centuries immediately preceding the Christian era.
Even in imperial times Greek was largely spoken there, for about as many Greek as Latin inscriptions have been found.
He at once retired to la Roche-Gtiyon, the château of the duchesse d'Enville, returning shortly to Paris, where he spent the rest of his life in scientific and literary studies, being made vice-president of the Academie des Inscriptions et Belleslettres in 1777.
The inscriptions are post-Aegean by many centuries, but they occur in the part of the island known to Homer as that inhabited by the Eteo-Cretans, or aborigines..
Our knowledge of the Indian Hunas is chiefly derived from coins, from a few inscriptions distributed from the Punjab to central India, and from the account of the Chinese pilgrim Hsuan Tsang, who visited the country just a century after the death of Mihiragula.
Pauli, who has published all the known inscriptions of the Heneti, holds that the language is Illyrian, closely connected with Messapian.
Spon brought back many valuable treasures, coins, inscriptions and manuscripts, and in later years published various important works on archaeology, notably his Voyage d'Italie, de Dalmatie, de Grece et du Levant (1678), and a Histoire de la republique de Geneve (1680).
The series of native inscriptions, written in Aramaic, begins a few years after; the earliest bears the date 304 of the Seleucid era, i.e.
Later on a contingent served with the Roman army in Africa, Britain, Italy, Hungary, where grave-stones with Palmyrene and Latin inscriptions have been found; see Lidzbarski, Nordsem.
Another deity whose name occurs in votive inscriptions, is Baal-shamim, i.e.
The architecture was carefully studied by Wood and Dawkins in 1751, whose splendid folio (The Ruins of Palmyra, London, 1753) also gave copies of inscriptions.
In the very early rock inscriptions of Thera (700-600 B.C.), written from right to left, it appears in a form resembling the ordinary Greek X; this form apparently arose from writing the Semitic symbol upside down.
Its form in inscriptions of Melos, Selinus, Syracuse and elsewhere in the 6th and 5th centuries suggests the influence of Aramaic forms in which the head of the letter is opened,9.
The authorities for the Crusades have been collected in Bongars, Gesta Dei per Francos (Hanover, 1611) (incomplete); Michaud, Bibliotheque des croisades (Paris, 1829) (containing translations of select passages in the authorities); the Recueil des historiens des croisades, published by the Academie des Inscriptions (Paris, 1841 onwards) (the best general collection, containing many of the Latin, Greek, Arabic and Armenian authorities, and also the text of the assizes; but sometimes poorly edited and still .incomplete); and the publications of the Societe de l'Orient Latin (founded in 1875), especially the Archives, of which two volumes were published in 1881 and 1884, and the volumes of the Revue, published yearly from 1893 to 1902, and containing not only new texts, but articles and reviews of books which are of great service.
Over against its want of originality must be set the fact, not merely that Syrian culture ultimately spread extensively towards the West, but that the Syrians (as is shown by the inscriptions of Teima, &c.) long before the Christian era exercised over the northern Arabs a perceptible influence which afterwards, about the beginning of the r st century, became much stronger through the kingdom of the Nabataeans.
On recently discovered inscriptions see Amer.
But about the year 1452 he finally retired to Florence, where he was admitted to the burghership, and on the death of Carlo Aretino in 1453 was appointed chancellor and historiographer to the republic. He had already built himself a villa in Valdarno, which he adorned with a collection of antique sculpture, coins and inscriptions.
Its subsequent history is uneventful, though it suffered from the exactions of Verres; and its inscriptions are unimportant.
He composed an autobiography, published under the name of his freedman Phlegon; wrote speeches, fragments of two of which are preserved in inscriptions (a panegyric on his mother-in-law Matidia, and an address to the soldiers at Lambaesis in Africa).
The antiquities include remains of a gateway, a theatre and baths, as well as numerous inscriptions.
There are no Malay manuscripts extant, no monumental records with inscriptions in Malay, dating from before the spreading of Islam in the archipelago, about the end of the 13th century.
The results showed that it must have been one of the most imposing and handsome in India; and it is especially important now from the large number of inscriptions found upon it.
Both pillars and cross-bars were elaborately carved in bas-relief, and most of them bore inscriptions giving either the name of the donor, or the subject of the bas-relief, or both.
By the forms of the letters of the inscriptions, and by the architectural details, the age of the monument has been approximately fixed in the 3rd century B.C. The bas-reliefs give us invaluable evidence of the literature, and also of the clothing, buildings and other details of the social conditions of the peoples of Buddhist India at that period.
Like Fortune, with whom she is often coupled in inscriptions on Roman tombstones, she was also represented with the cornu copiae (horn of plenty).
A few scenes and inscriptions were added by later kings, but the above is practically the history of the temple until Alexander the Great rebuilt the sanctuary itself.
The testimony afforded Sources by inscriptions is often of decisive importance, especially that of commemorative or votive tablets or of boundary = stones found in situ; the value of this evidence is, on the other hand, sometimes neutralized owing to the former removal of building material already used and its in corporation in later structures.
The museums, enriched by a constant inflow of works of art and inscriptions, have been carefully and scientifically arranged, and afford opportunities for systematic study denied to scholars of the past generation.
At either corner of the Propylaea entrance were equestrian statues dedicated by the Athenian knights; the bases with inscriptions have lately been recovered.
Here were discovered the foundations of the celebrated Asclepieum, together with several inscriptions and a great number of votive reliefs offered by grateful invalids and valetudinarians to the god of healing.
The identification, however, cannot be regarded as certain in the absence of inscriptions.
The era of decadence, of honorary statues and fulsome inscriptions, began.
The French Ecole d'Athenes, founded in 1846, is under the scientific direction of the Academie des Inscriptions et Belleslettres.
Zonaras states that the city was destroyed and removed elsewhere, though the old site continued apparently to be inhabited, to judge from the inscriptions found there.
Etruscan tombs have been found on the Isola Bisentina, in the lake; and on the west bank was the town of Visentium, Roman inscriptions belonging to which have been found.
In this capacity he did very useful work, and after the Restoration continued in this post at the request of the duc de Richelieu, his work being recognized by his election as a member of the Academie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres in 1820.
The wide extension of the cult is attributable largely to Syrian merchants; thus we find traces of it in the great seaport towns; at Delos especially numerous inscriptions have been found bearing witness to its importance.
The Mussulman invaders of the Deccan passed it by, not caring to enter its mountain fastnesses and impenetrable forests; though occasional inscriptions show that parts of it had fallen from time to time under the dominion of one or other of the great kingdoms of the north, e.g.
Very interesting examples of Israelite written inscriptions on potsherds, dating from the 9th century B.C. and probably from the reign of Ahab, were found that are of great palaeographical importance.
On the Arab conquest of Egypt in the 7th century, the manufacture was continued, and the protocols were marked at first, as it appears, with inscriptions in both Greek and Arabic, and later in the latter language alone.
The Arab inscriptions are accompanied by curious scrawls on each side, which may be imitated from words used in the Latin inscriptions of the Roman period.
He is nowhere mentioned in the cuneiform inscriptions of the Achaemenidae, although Darius and his successors were without doubt devoted adherents of Zoroastrianism.
The testimony of Assyrian inscriptions relegates him to a far more ancient period.
In these inscriptions Mitra, Varuna, Indra and Nasatya are mentioned as deities of the Iranian kings of Mitani at the beginning of the 14th century - all of them names with which we are familiar from the Indian pantheon.
Four stones with Ogam inscriptions have been found at different places.
The name Piyadassi is the official epithet always used by Asoka in his inscriptions when speaking of himself.
They are to be distinguished from Christian catacombs only by the character of their decorations, the absence of Christian symbols and the language of their inscriptions.
The interments are not nearly so numerous as in other catacombs, nor are there any vestiges of painting, sculpture or inscriptions.
The loculi in this lower portion were intact, with inscriptions of the 2nd century still in their places, proving that the niche in which that picture was painted must have been considerably older than the lowering of the floor.
Many inscriptions and a great quantity of minor objects have been found.
The more conspicuous buildings are the ancient Gothic cathedral (restored in 1866, and again in 1870 after the interior was destroyed by fire), with its lofty tower, the cavalry barracks, the ex-convent of the Capuchins at a little distance from the city, and the seminary in which are preserved the famous Oscan inscription known as the Cippus Abellanus (from Abella, the modern Avella, q.v.) and some Latin inscriptions relating to a treaty with Nola regarding a joint temple of Hercules.
Vignola, and contains some ancient inscriptions.
Not far off, similar relics were found at Sobunar, Zlatiste and Debelobrdo; iron and bronze ornaments, vessels and weapons, often of elaborate design, occur in the huts and cemeteries of Glasinac, and in the cemetery of Jezerine, where they are associated with objects in silver, tin, amber, glass, &c. Among the numerous finds made in other districts may be mentioned the discovery, at Vrankamer, near Bihac, of 98 African coins, the oldest of which dates from 300 B.C. Many vestiges of Roman rule survive, such as roads, mines, ruins, tombs, coins, frescoes and inscriptions.
Cicero speaks of it as a prcsperous country town, which had not as yet fallen into the hands of large proprietors; and inscriptions show that under the empire it was still flourishing.
The door is formed by a lofty arch of the pointed form guarded on both sides with red bands exquisitely sculptured and having numerous inscriptions.
Such attractions as the buildings possess are due rather to the richly coloured tiles with which many of them are adorned, or to inscriptions, like the Kufic inscription, dated A.D.
Wooden coffins, with skeletons wrapped in coarse hairy cloth, and both pagan and Christian tombstones with runic inscriptions have been found.
In addition to remains of architecture and sculpture, some of them of high merit, there have been found many inscriptions, throwing light on the cures attributed to the god.
North of the Tholos is the long portico described in inscriptions as the Abaton; it is on two different levels, and the lower or western portion of it had two storeys, of which the upper one was on a level with the ground in the eastern portion.
Here the invalids used to sleep when consulting the god, and the inscriptions found here record not only the method of consulting the god, but the manner of his cures.
Some of the inscriptions are contemporary dedications; but those which give us most information are long lists of cases, evidently compiled by the priests from the dedications in the sanctuary, or from tradition.
We learn the practice of later times from some dedicated inscriptions.
Inscriptions and coins show that its civilization consisted of a layer of Roman ideas and customs superimposed on Celtic tribal characteristics.
The place of its performance at Rome was near the site of St Peter's, in the excavations of which several altars and inscriptions commemorative of taurobolia were discovered.
See Esperandieu, Inscriptions de Lectoure (1892), pp. 94 ff.; Zippel, Festschrift zum Doctorjubilaeum, Ludwig Friedlander, 1895, p. 489 f.; Showerman, The Great Mother of the Gods, Bulletin of the University of Wisconsin, No.
After taking sketches of the most interesting objects and copying a number of inscriptions, he returned to Smyrna through Caria and Lydia.
Eminent as a philosopher, Ravaisson was also an archaeologist, and contributed articles on ancient sculpture to the Revue Archeologique and the Memoires de l'Academie des Inscriptions.
The probably non-Semitic name Agade occurs in a number of inscriptions 2 and is now well attested as having been the name of an important ancient capital.
There have been discovered (1907) the remains of this ditch protected by a low wall or a stone dyke; some of the boundary stones which marked its course, and inscriptions mentioning it, have also been found.
The Berber tribes, whose racial unity is attested by their common spoken language and by the comparatively numerous Berber inscriptions that have come down to us, bore in ancient times the generic names of Numidians, Gaetulians and Moors or Maurusiani.
Each of these ruins has been visited by archaeologists who have copied inscriptions, described the temples, triumphal arches, porticos, mausoleums and the other monuments which are still standing, collected statues or other antiquities; and in many cases they have actually excavated.
In 1850 Leon Renier was officially instructed to collect all the inscriptions in Algeria which should be found by the military expeditionary columns.
A little later General Faidherbe published his Collection complete des inscriptions numidiques (1870).
Under the name of Mouru this place is mentioned with Bakhdi (Balkh) in the geography of the Zend-Avesta (Vendidad, ed Spiegel, 1852-1863), which dates probably from at least 1200 B.C. Under the name of Margu it occurs in the cuneiform (Behistun) inscriptions of the Persian monarch Darius Hystaspis, where it is referred to as forming part of one of the satrapies of the ancient Persian Empire.
The earliest Latin inscriptions are of Ciceronian date.
His archaeological and mythological Memoire sur Venus (1775),(1775), which has been ranked with similar works of Heyne and Winckelmann, gained him admission to the Academie des Inscriptions (1778).
Its importance at Rome may be judged from the abundance of monumental remains - more than 75 pieces of sculpture, loo inscriptions, and ruins of temples and chapels in all parts of the city and suburbs.
In 1763 he was elected an associate of the Academy of Inscriptions, and began to arrange for the publication of the materials he had collected during his eastern travels.
Important inscriptions were found at Geronthrae (Gerald), notably five long fragments of the Edictum Diocletiani, and elsewhere.
He is frequently invoked in hymns and in votive and other inscriptions of Babylonian and Assyrian rulers, but we do not learn of many temples to him outside of Kutha.
He also wrote numerous articles, and, after his election as a member of the Academie des Inscriptions et BellesLettres (1740), a number of Memoires which appeared in the Recueil of this society.
In later times the cult of a god Satrapes occurs in Syrian inscriptions from Palmyra and the Hauran; by Pausanias vi.
Thomsen, Inscriptions de l'Orkhon (Helsingfors, 1900) they are dried before they reach north-western Mongolia.
There was another form of obelisk, also tapering, but more squat than the usual type, with two of the sides narrow and terminating in a rounded top. One such of Senwosri I., covered with sculpture and inscriptions, lies at Ebgig in the Fayum.
The construction of the building at this southwestern corner shows that there was some sacred object that had to be bridged over by a huge block of marble; this we know from inscriptions to have been the Cecropeum or tomb of Cecrops.
Several Roman inscriptions are built into it, and many others that have been found indicate the ancient importance of the place, which, though it does not appear in early history, is vouched for by Cicero and Strabo.'
He consequently was admitted a member both of the Academy of Inscriptions and of the Academy of Sciences; and in 1697 he became perpetual secretary to the latter body.
In ancient inscriptions it often means those souls who are enjoying eternal happiness, or the martyrs.
It has a quaint old-fashioned appearance, many ancient houses in High Street bearing inscriptions and dates.
Charpentier regarded as absurd the use of Latin in monumental inscriptions, and to him was entrusted the task of supplying the paintings of Lebrun in the Versailles Gallery with appropriate legends.
Damasus showed great zeal in discovering the tombs of martyrs, adorning them with precious marbles and monumental inscriptions.
The inscriptions he composed himself, in mediocre verse, full of Virgilian reminiscences.
Inscriptions found at Nippur, where extensive excavations were carried on during 1888-1900 by Messrs Peters and Haynes, under the auspices of the University of Pennsylvania, show that Bel of Nippur was in fact regarded as the head of an extensive pantheon.
The preliminary work on the Carolingian diplomas involved such lengthy and costly researches that the Academie des Inscriptions et BellesLettres took over the expenses after Giry's death.
The cross of Tuam, re-erected in modern times, bears inscriptions in memory of Turlogh O'Conor, king of Ireland, and O'Hoisin, successively (1128) abbot of St Jarlath's Abbey and archbishop (1152) of Tuam, when the see was raised.
The early Pamphylians, like the Lycians, had an alphabet of their own, partly Greek, partly "Asianic," which a few inscriptions on marble and coins preserve.
The true use of engraving is to add interest to vessels by means of coats of arms, crests, monograms, inscriptions and graceful outlines.
If before this application of the molten glass the metallic leaf, whilst resting on the thin film of blown glass, was etched with a sharp point, patterns, emblems, inscriptions and pictures could be embedded and rendered permanent by the double coating of glass.
They are the broken bases of drinking vessels containing inscriptions, emblems, domestic scenes and portraits etched in gold leaf.
Two inscriptions in Cufic characters surround the vase, but they, it would seem, are merely ornamental and destitute of meaning.
The Cilicians appear as Khilikku in Assyrian inscriptions, and in the early part of the first millennium B.C. were one of the four chief powers of western Asia.
In the early inscriptions of Lagash the whole district is known as Gu-Edinna, the Sumerian equivalent of the Semitic Kisad Edini.
In Semitic times Urra was pronounced Uri and confounded with uru, " ciiy "; as a geographical term, however, it was replaced by Akkadu (Akkad), the Semitic form of Agadewritten Akkattim in the Elamite inscriptions - the name of the elder Sargon's capital, which must have stood close to Sippara, if indeed it was not a quarter of Sippara itself.
The authenticity of his list of 10 antediluvian kings who reigned for 120 sari or 432,000 years, has been partially confirmed by the inscriptions; but his 8 postdiluvian dynasties are difficult to reconcile with the monuments, and the numbers attached to them are probably corrupt.
Meanwhile (1877-1881) the French consul, de Sarzec, had been excavating at Tello, the ancient Lagash, and bringing to light monuments of the pre-Semitic age, which included the diorite statues of Gudea now in the Louvre, the stone of which, according to the inscriptions upon them, had been brought from Magan, the Sinaitic peninsula.
Meanwhile Nabonidus has established a camp at Sippara, near the northern frontier of his kingdom, his son - probably the Belshazzar of Invasion other inscriptions - being in command of the arm by Cyrus.
In addition to the Kings' List, other important chronological data consist of references in the classical authorities to the chronological system of Berossus; chronological references to earlier kings occurring in the later native inscriptions, such as Nabonidus's estimate of the period of Khammurabi (or Hammuribi); synchronisms, also furnished by the inscriptions, between kings of Babylon and of Assyria; and the early Babylonian date-lists.
A second group of systems may be said to consist of those proposed by Lehmann-Haupt, Marquart, Peiser, and Rost, for these writers attempted to get over the discrepancies in the data by emending some of the figures furnished by the inscriptions.
There are numerous inscriptions of the highest historical value.
As usually happens when a new class of antiquities is announced, it was soon found that the " Hamathite " inscriptions did not stand alone.
Skene and George Smith at Jerablus, on the middle Euphrates, led to excavations being undertaken there, in 1878, by the British Museum, and to the discovery of certain Hamathite inscriptions accompanying sculptures, a few of which were brought to London.
Sculptured wall-dados, but no Hittite inscriptions.
Also inscriptions in early Phrygian character and language, found in 1894.
Andaval and Bor; inscriptions incised on sculptured stelae of kings (?), probably from Tyana (Ekuzli Hissar).
Ivriz; rock-sculpture of king adoring god, with three inscriptions in relief.
Arslan-Tepe, near Ordasu (two hours from Malatia); large mound whence two sculptured stelae or wall-blocks with inscriptions in relief have been unearthed (now in Constantinople and the Louvre).
The expedition sent out by Cornell University in 1907 found several Hittite inscriptions on rocks near Darende in the valley of the Tokhma Su.
Hittite, cuneiform and old Aramaean monuments were found with many small objects, most of which have been taken to Berlin; but no Hittite inscriptions came to light.
Sculptured stelae, honorific or funerary, all with pyramidal or slightly rounded upper ends, and showing a single regal or divine figure or two figures, have come to light at Bor, Marash, Sinjerli, Jerablus, Babylon, &c. These, like most of the rock-panels, are all marked as Hittite by accompanying pictographic inscriptions.
So far, the majority of our Hittite inscriptions, like those first found at Hamah, are in relief (cameo); but the incised characters, first observed in the Tyana district, have since been shown, by discoveries at Marash, Babylon, &c., to have had a wider range.
It has usually been assumed that the incised inscriptions, being the more conventionalized, are all of later date than those in relief; but comparison of Egyptian inscriptions, wherein both incised and cameo characters coexisted back to very early times, suggests that this assumption is not necessarily correct.
The longer inscriptions are disposed in horizontal zones or panels, divided by lines, and, it seems, they were to be read boustrophedon, not only as regards the lines (which begin right to left) but also the words, which are written in columnar fashion, syllable below syllable, and read downwards and upwards alternately.
His system, however, like all others, is built in the main upon hypotheses incapable at present of quite satisfactory verification, such, for example, as the conjectural reading " Gargamish " for a group of symbols which recurs in inscriptions from Jerablus and elsewhere.
Messerschmidt, editor of the best collection of Hittite texts up to date, made a tabula rasa of all systems of decipherment, asserting that only one sign out of two hundred the bisected oval, determinative of divinity - had been interpreted with any certainty; and in view of this opinion, coupled with the steady refusal of historians to apply the results of any Hittite decipherment, and the obvious lack of satisfactory verification, without which the piling of hypothesis on hypothesis may only lead further from probability, there is no choice but to suspend judgment for some time longer as to the inscriptions and all deductions drawn from them.
Archaeology (1903), and " Hittite Inscriptions, translated and annotated," ibid.
After the Ethiopian yoke had been shaken off by Egypt, about 660 B.C., Ethiopia continued independent, under kings of whom not a few are known from inscriptions.
The royal inscriptions are written in the hieroglyphic character and the Egyptian language, which, however, in the opinion of experts, steadily deteriorate after the separation of Ethiopia from Egypt.
About the time of Ergamenes, or (according to some authorities) before, a vernacular came to be employed in inscriptions, written in a special alphabet of 23 signs in parallel hieroglyphic and cursive forms. The cursive is to be read from right to left, the hieroglyphic, contrary to the Egyptian method, in the direction in which the figures face.
Notices in Greek authors are collected by P. Paulitschke, Die geographische Erforschung des afrikanischen Continents (Vienna, 1880); the inscriptions were edited and interpreted by G, Maspero, Revue archeol.
These are all long inscriptions giving details of wars, &c. The sixth is later than the rest, which are to be attributed to the most flourishing period of the kingdom, the 4th and 5th centuries A.D.
Verneau discovered in the ravines of Las Balos some genuine Libyan inscriptions.
Without exception the rock inscriptions have proved to be Numidic. In two of the islands (Teneriffe and Gomera) the Guanche type has been retained with more purity than in the others.
No inscriptions have been found in these two islands, and therefore it would seem that the true Guanches did not know how to write.
From these facts it would seem that the Numidians, travelling from the neighbourhood of Carthage and intermixing with the dominant Semitic race, landed in the Canary Islands, and that it is they who have written the inscriptions at Hierro and Grand Canary.
He was a member of the Institute from its foundation, and in 1816, at the reorganization, became a member of the Academie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres.
A few short Pisidian inscriptions have been published by Ramsay in Revue des etudes anciennes (18 95, pp. 353-3 62).
No inscriptions in these other languages are known.
It was in early times a place of some importance, as is indicated by the remains of a prehistoric enceinte and by the discovery of several Messapian inscriptions.
This identification has been confirmed by the discovery of a series of boundary inscriptions, apparently marking the limit of the city's lands, which have been found cut in rock - outcrops partly surrounding the site.
They read in every case nu 1 0nn, "the boundary of Gezer," with the name Alkios in Greek, probably that of the governor under whom the inscriptions were cut.
He succeeded his father as professor of medieval French literature at the College de France in 1872; in 1876 he was admitted to the Academy of Inscriptions and in 1896 to the French Academy; and in 1895 he was appointed director of the College de France.
In 1889 he succeeded, again under Turkish escort, in reaching Marib, where he obtained, during a stay of thirty days, a large number of new Himyaritic inscriptions.
Duwan and found ancient ruins and inscriptions near the village of Hajren; thence he proceeded north-eastward to Hauta in the main valley, where he was hospitably received by the Kaiti sultan, and sent on to his deputy at Shibam.
Both parties visited many sites where Himyaritic remains and inscriptions were found, but the hostile attitude of the natives, more particularly of the Seyyids, the religious hierarchy of Hadramut, prevented any adequate examination, and much of archaeological interest undoubtedly remains for future travellers to discover.
Having successfully completed his investigations and sent copies of inscriptions and drawings of the tombs to Renan in Paris, he determined to push on farther into the desert.
To archaeology also his services were of equal importance, for, besides copying numerous inscriptions in the district between Hail and Tema, he succeeded in gaining possession of the since famous Tema stone, which ranks with the Moabite stone among the most valuable of Semitic inscriptions.
From Hail Huber followed nearly in Doughty's track to Aneza and thence across central Nejd to Mecca and Jidda, where he despatched his notes and copies of inscriptions.
The road is a mere camel track across the desert, the chief places passed are Ma`an on the Syrian border, a station on the old Sabaean trade route to Petra, and Medain Salih, the site of the rock-cut tombs and inscriptions first brought to notice by Doughty.
In Yemen and Hadramut especially these ruins abound, and in some cases inscriptions seem to be still in situ.
Inscriptions are still found in some of these in the south.
Their importance was afterwards emphasized by Glaser's publication of two long inscriptions concerning their restoration in the 5th and 6th centuries A.D.
The 19th century has brought to the museums of Europe (especially to aondon, Paris, Berlin and Vienna) a number of inscriptions in the languages of Minea and Saba, and a few in those of Hadramut and Katabania (Qattabania).
These inscriptions are generally on limestone or marble or on tablets of bronze, and vary from a few inches to some feet in length and height.
In some cases the originals have been brought to Europe, in other cases only squeezes of the inscriptions.
Very many of them are votive inscriptions and contain little more than the names of gods and princes or private men.
The gems of onyx, carnelian and agate are later and bear various figures, and in some cases Arabic inscriptions.
At the same time the facts that the inscriptions are undated until a late period, that few are historical in their contents, and for the most part yield only names of gods and rulers and domestic and religious details, and that our collection is still very incomplete, have led to much serious disagreement among scholars as to the reconstruction of the history of Arabia in the pre-Christian centuries.
All scholars, however, are agreed that the inscriptions reach as far back as the 9th century B.C. (some say to the 16th) and prove the existence of at least four civilized kingdoms during these centuries.
The limits of the kingdom of Katabania are not known, but it has its own inscriptions.
The inscriptions go back to 800 B.C. or earlier, and the same applies to the kingdom.
A queen of this people (the " Queen of Sheba ") is said (1 Kings x.) to have visited Solomon about 950 B.C. There is, however, no mention of such a queen in the inscriptions.
Ten such rulers are mentioned in the inscriptions.
The names of seventeen of these kings are known from the inscriptions.
Some twenty-five kings are known from the inscriptions; of these twenty are known to be related to one another.
As inscriptions in the Minaean language are found in al-`Ula in north Arabia, it is probable that they had colonies in that district.
It is curious that the Sabaean inscriptions contain no mention of the Minaeans, though this may be due to the fact that very few of the inscriptions are historical in content.
Twenty-six kings of this period are known from the inscriptions, some of which are dated.
Of the Christian Abyssinian kings in Arabia tradition tells of four, one only of whom is mentioned in inscriptions.
Pahlavi inscriptions' found on crosses at St Thomas's Mount near Madras and at Kottayam in Travancore, are evidence both of the antiquity of Christianity in these places (7th or 8th century), and for the semi-patripassianism (the apparent identification of all three persons of the Trinity in the sufferer on the cross) which marked the Nestorian teaching.
The hieroglyphs and inscriptions in Meroitic belong mostly to the first six centuries A.D.; the existing Nubian MSS.
He was elected member of the Academie des Inscriptions et Belles Lettres in 1859, and became a member of the staff of the Recueil des historiens de la France, collaborating in vols.
The coin inscriptions usually give only the name of the town, e.g.
It occupies a site of great antiquity, as the cuneiform inscriptions on the neighbouring rocks testify; it stands on the site of the old Armenian town of Pakovan.
The cuneiform inscriptions are on the rock pinnacles above the town, with some rock chambers, indicating a town or fortress of the Vannic period.
Augustus gave it the name of Colonia Julia Pisana; his grandsons Gaius and Lucius were patrons of the colony, and after their death monuments were erected in their honour, as is recorded in two long inscriptions still extant.
The inscriptions are in French and Arabic.
It is built of Roman materials from Minturnae, including several inscriptions and sculptures.
Remains of a Roman thermal establishment exist near the principal spring, the so-called Lago della Regina (which is continually diminishing in size owing to the deposit left by the water), and dedicatory inscriptions in honour of the waters have been found.
The most conspicuous of these is the king of Hamath who in the inscriptions of Sargon (722-705 B.C.) is called Yaubi'di and Ilubi'di (compare Jehoiakim-Eliakim).
Azriyau of Jaudi, also, in inscriptions of Tiglath-Pileser (745-728 B.C.), who was for merly supposed to be Azariah (Uzziah) of Judah, is probably a king of the country in northern Syria known to us from the Zenjirli inscriptions as Ja'di.
Inscriptions mentioning the ForoClodienses have come to light on the spot; and an inscription of the Augustan period, which probably stood over the door of a villa, calls the place Pausilypon - a name justified by the beauty of the site.
The walls, largely the work of Ala ed-Din I., are preserved in great part and notable for the number of ancient inscriptions built into them.
The earliest Semitic records give its form as y or more frequently k or The form is found in the earliest inscriptions of Crete, Attica, Naxos and some other of the Ionic islands.
At Rishire, some miles south of Bushire, and near the summer quarters of the British resident and the British telegraph buildings, there are extensive ruins among which bricks with cuneiform inscriptions have been found, showing that the place was a very old Elamite settlement.
Many inscriptions of the Christian era have been found, some as late even as the 7th century.
They had geometric patterns with birds, trees, &c., and bore inscriptions in mosaic with the names of the donors.
The Museo Lapidario contains a fine collection of Roman and Etruscan inscriptions and sculpture, mostly collected and published by Scipione Maffei in the 18th century.
Inscriptions testify to its importance - among others one which indicates that it was the headquarters of the collectors of the 5% inheritance tax under the Empire in Italy beyond the Po.
Since 1909, however, the various sections have left to the Academie des Inscriptions et Belles Lettres the entire direction of the Journal, while still paying the annual subsidy.
Jewish thinkers would have been attracted by the emphatic assertion of the creatorship of the One God in the royal Persian inscriptions more than by the traditional cosmogony.
In very early inscriptions the funerary prayers in the tombs are addressed to him almost exclusively, and he always took a leading place in them.
They were both buried in the parish church at Battersea, where a monument with medallions and inscriptions composed by Bolingbroke was erected to their memory.
An approach to literature was made in the Annales Maximi, records of private families, funeral orations and inscriptions on busts and tombs such as those of the Scipios in XVI.
The famous inscriptions with hymns to Apollo accompanied by musical notation were found on stones belonging to this treasury.
The polygonal terrace wall at the back, on being cleared, proves to be covered with inscriptions, most of them concerning the manumission of slaves.
An immense number of inscriptions have been found in the excavations, and many works of art, including a bronze charioteer, which is one of the most admirable statues preserved from ancient times.
The temple which was seen by Pausanias, and of which the foundations were found by the excavators, was the one of which the building is recorded in inscriptions of the 4th century.
It is the more surprising that in the whole of its territory no inscriptions, either Greek or Latin, have ever been found, those that are recorded by some writers being fabrications.
Next come the various kinds of inhumation graves, the most important of which are rock-hewn chambers, many of which contain well-preserved paintings of various periods; some show close kinship to archaic Greek art, while others are more recent, and one, the Grotta del Tifone (so called from the typhons, or winged genii of death, represented) in which Latin as well as Etruscan inscriptions appear, belongs perhaps to the middle of the 4th century B.C. Fine sarcophagi from these tombs, some showing traces of painting, are preserved in the municipal museum, and also numerous fine Greek vases, bronzes and other objects.
Its antiquities include traces of the city walls of rectangular blocks of travertine, remains of an amphitheatre of the time of Tiberius, a temple, theatre and baths (?), and numerous inscriptions.
Two inscriptions of Roman times make the identity of Pirene certain, if there could be any doubt in the face of the exact agreement of Pausanias's description with the structure.
Two inscriptions in the Old Corinthian alphabet came to light.
But, on the whole, inscriptions before the Roman times were almost entirely lacking.
His Sundays were spent in the catacombs in discovering graves of the martyrs and deciphering inscriptions.
The inscriptions, on the other hand, are numerous, and give an idea of its importance.
The scope of the archaeologist's studies must include every department of the ancient history of man as preserved in antiquities of whatever character, be they tumuli along the Baltic, fossil skulls and graven bones from the caves of France, the flint implements, pottery, and mummies of Egypt, tablets and bas-reliefs from Mesopotamia, coins and sculptures of Greece and Rome, or inscriptions, waxen tablets, parchment rolls, and papyri of a relatively late period of classical antiquity.
The key to the mysteries of Egyptian history had indeed been found, thanks to the recent efforts of Thomas Young and Champollion, but the deciphering of inscriptions had not yet progressed far enough to give more than a vague inkling of what was to follow.
There were numerous sceptics, however, who did not hesitate to assert that the import of the message so obviously locked in these curious inscriptions must for ever remain an absolute mystery.
Here, it was said, were inscriptions written in an unknown character and in a language that for at least two thousand years had been absolutely forgotten.
This made the problem of deciphering Persian inscriptions a relatively easy one.
Working with some inscriptions from Persepolis which were found to contain references to Darius and Xerxes, Grotefend had established the phonetic values of certain of the Persian characters, and his successors were perfecting the discovery just about the time when the new Assyrian finds were made.
There was reason to suppose that the inscriptions were identical in meaning; and fortunately it proved, when the inscriptions were made accessible to investigation through the efforts of Sir Henry Rawlinson, that the Persian inscription contained a large number of proper names.
For example, the Greek names Ptolemaios and Kleopatra became a part of the Egyptian language and appeared regularly in Egyptian inscriptions after Alexander's general became king of Egypt.
The study of these different inscriptions has utterly revolutionized our knowledge of Oriental history.
Until corroboration was found in the Egyptian inscriptions themselves, not only were Manetho's lists in doubt, but scepticism had been carried to the point of denying that Manetho himself had ever existed.
Some most archaic inscriptions have been indeed found by the explorers in Crete, but these for the present serve scarcely any other purpose than to prove the antiquity of the art of writing among a people who were closely in touch with the inhabitants of Hellas proper.
No fragment of these papyri, indeed, carries us further back than the age of the Ptolemies; but the Greek inscriptions on the statues of Rameses II.
The Cretan inscriptions belong to a far older epoch, and are written in two non-Grecian scripts of undetermined affinities.
The point is of no very great significance, however, since no one has pretended that the Western civilization compared with the Eastern in point of antiquity; and in any event, no amount of negative evidence weighs a grain in the balance against the positive evidence of the Cretan inscriptions.
From the inscriptions found at Tello, it appears that Lagash was a city of great importance in the Sumerian period, some time probably in the 4th millennium B.C. It was at that time ruled by independent kings, Ur-Nina and his successors, who were engaged in contests with the Elamites on the east and the kings of Kengi and Kish on the north.
Indian literature supplies few data for the period, and the available information has been collected chiefly from notices in Chinese annals, from inscriptions found in India, and above all from coins.
Such of the inscriptions on their coins as are not in Greek or an Indian language are in a form of Persian written in Greek uncials.
Inscriptions of the king himself are not extant; his grandson mentions his buildings in Susa.
This statement is proved correct by the inscriptions; all the former kings name only Auramazda (Ahuramazda), but Artaxerxes II.
The chronographers generally retain the name Ochus, and in the Babylonian inscriptions he is called "Umasu, who is called Artakshatsu."
A conception of the size of the whole necropolis may be gathered from the fact that nearly three thousand Etruscan inscriptions have come to light from Clusium and its district alone, while the part of Etruria north of it as far as the Arno has produced barely five hundred.
Among the later tombs bilingual inscriptions are by no means rare, and both Etruscan and Latin inscriptions are often found in the same cemeteries, showing that the use of the Etruscan language only died out gradually.
A large number of the inscriptions are painted upon the tiles which closed the niches containing the cinerary urns.
Caterina near the railway station, the inscriptions of which seem to go back to the 3rd century, another 1 m.
Mustiola stood, which goes back to the 4th century, including among its inscriptions one bearing the date A.D.
It was of little importance, and is only mentioned by geographers and in inscriptions.
Among a people of roadmakers, Trajan was one of the greatest, and we have definite evidence from inscriptions that some of the military roads in this region were constructed by him.
Fortunately the inscriptions of the time are abundant and important.
The inscriptions of the reign, and the Dacian campaigns, have been much studied in recent years, in scattered articles and monographs.
Inscriptions show that it was a place of some importance under the empire, and it is mentioned as occupied by the Lombards.
Subsequently he became a pupil of Lepsius and Brugsch, and devoted himself to the study of Egyptian inscriptions.
The value of his work consists not only in the stores of material which he collected, but also in the success with which he dealt with many of the problems raised by the inscriptions.
Inside and out, the whole of the temple is covered with scenes and inscriptions in crowded characters, of ceremonial and religious import; the decoration is even carried into a remarkable series of hidden passages and chambers or crypts made in the solid walls for the reception of its most valuable treasures.
He compiled chronological lists of the archons and Olympiads, and made a collection of Attic inscriptions, the first of its kind in Greece.
Remains of the ancient city walls and of an amphitheatre still exist, and a number of inscriptions have been found there.
Jewish catacombs with inscriptions in Hebrew, Greek and Latin show the importance of the Jewish population here in the 4th and 5th centuries after Christ.
Two inscriptions are adduced as evidence for the existence of a younger Lysanias - Beckh, C.I.G.
The Latin name of Sicum is adopted in public inscriptions; but the city cannot be identified with the Roman colony of Sicum, which was probably situated farther south.
In 1888 he was elected member of the Academie des Inscriptions et BellesLettres, and was afterwards appointed director of the French school of archaeology at Rome.
It is rarely mentioned in Roman history and often confused with Lanuvium or Lanivium in the text both of authors and of inscriptions.
The necropolis, too, has been discovered, but not systematically excavated; but objects of the first Iron age, including a sword of Aegean type (thus confirming the tradition), have been found; also remains of a building with Doric columns of an archaistic type, remains of later buildings in brick, and inscriptions, some of them of considerable interest.
Inscriptions record repairs to the breakwater by Antoninus Pius in 139 in fulfilment of a promise made by Hadrian before his death.
Inscriptions show that it was divided into regiones.
It was not constructed before the reign of Vespasian, for inscriptions record that it was built by the Colonia Flavia.
Among the inscriptions one of the most interesting is the letter of the Tyrian merchants resident at Puteoli to the senate of Tyre, written in 174, asking the latter to undertake the payment of the rent of their factory, and the reply of the senate promising to do so.
In this there are colossal figures of hands, each of which has its regions marked out by inscriptions.
Like the graining or " milling " on the edge of many coins, the inscriptions were intended to put a stop to the practice of clipping and filing coins, which was prevalent in the 16th and 17th centuries.
The early history of Sufetula is preserved only in certain inscriptions.
The ruins of this temple, with inscriptions which identify it, have been discovered and preserved at Mavrodilisi, in the provinces of Boeotia and Attica.
No remains are visible, but a considerable number of inscriptions have been found.
He rendered great service to the Academie des Inscriptions et Belles Lettres, of which he had been elected a member in 1857.
The modern town presents no features of interest; there is a collection of antiquities and pictures, with a considerable number of Roman inscriptions.
Many of these names are found on the inscriptions or in the Arabic geographers - Sheba (Saba'), Hazarmaveth (Hadramut), Abimael (Abime`athtar), Jobab (Yuhaibib, according to Halevy), Jerah (Warah of the geographers), Joktan (Arab Qahtan; wagata=gahata).
On the other hand, the names of some famous nations mentioned on the inscriptions are lacking, from which it may be concluded that they did not rise to prominence till a later date.
The biblical picture of the Sabaean kingdom is confirmed and supplemented by the Assyrian inscriptions.
The Catabanes produce frankincense and Hadramut myrrh, and there is a trade in these and other spices with merchants who make the journey from Aelana (Elath, on the Gulf of `Akaba) to Minaea in seventy days; the Gabaeans (the Gaba'an of the inscriptions, Pliny's Gebanitae) take forty days to go to Hadramut.
This abstract of the history of Yemen from ancient sources can now be verified and supplemented from inscriptions.
Following this hint, Seetzen, in 1810, was able to send to Europe, from porphyry blocks near Yarim, the first copies of Sabaean inscriptions.
But the inscriptions found by Wellsted in 1834 at Hisn Ghorab were deciphered by Gesenius and Rodiger.
Soon after this the courageous explorer Arnaud discovered the ancient Mariab, the royal city of the Sabaeans, and at great risk copied fifty-six inscriptions and took a plan of the walls, the dam, and the temple to the east of the city.
These, with other inscriptions on stone and on bronze plates brought home by Englishmen, found a cautious and sound interpreter in Osiander.
Then Joseph Halevy made his remarkable journey through the Jauf, visiting districts and ruins which no European foot had trod since the expedition of Gallus, and returned with almost Boo inscriptions.
The alphabet of the Sabaean inscriptions is most closely akin to the Ethiopic, but is purely consonantal, without the modifications in the consonantal forms which Ethiopic has devised to express vowels.
This alphabet, which is probably the parent of the South-Indian character, is undoubtedly derived from the so-called Phoenician alphabet, the connecting link being the forms of the Sala inscriptions and of the Thamudaean inscriptions found by Doughty and Euting.
A sign for uv also probably existed, but does not occur in the known inscriptions.
The Thamudaean inscriptions are locally nearer to Phoenicia, and the letters are more like the Phoenician; this character therefore appears to be the link connecting Phoenician with Sabaean writing.
The language of the inscriptions is South Semitic, forming a link between the North Arabic and the Ethiopic, but is much nearer the former than the latter.
Of the two dialects commonly called Sabaean and Minaean the latter might be better called Hadramitic, inasmuch as it is the dialect of the inscriptions found in Hadramut, and the Minaeans seem undoubtedly to have entered the Jauf from Ijadramut.
The inscriptions not only give names of nations corresponding to those in the Bible and in classical authors, but throw a good deal of fresh light on the political history of Yemen.
The inscriptions and coins give the names of more than forty-five Sabaean kings.
The chronology is still vague, since only a few very late inscriptions are dated by an era and the era itself is not certain.
The last, as we know from the Axum inscriptions, are the latest, and those with the title " mukrab " must be the earliest.
The inscriptions of the latest period present a series of dates-669, 640, 582, 573, 385 - of an unknown era.
The inscriptions throw considerable light not only on the Sabaeans but on other South-Arabian nations.
The Minaeans, whose importance has been already indicated, appear in the inscriptions as only second to the Sabaeans, and with details which have put an end to much guesswork, e.g.
South-west of Ma'in, on the west of the mountain range and commanding the road from San'a to the north, lies Baraqish, anciently Yathil, which the inscriptions and Arabic geographers always mention with Main.
The inscriptions have yielded the names of twenty-seven Minaean kings, who were quite independent, and, as it would seem, not always friends of the Sabaeans, for neither dynasty mentions the other on its inscriptions, while minor kings and kingdoms are freely mentioned by both, presumably when they stood under the protection of the one or the other respectively.
All this suggests a close connexion between the Minaeans and Hadramut; and from the Minaean inscriptions we know that the Gebanites were at one time a Minaean race, and stood in high favour with the queen of Ma`in.
In the `Ola inscriptions we read the names of Minaean kings and gods.
The inscriptions seem to indicate that the monarchies of South Arabia were hereditary, the son generally following the father, though not seldom the brother of the deceased came between, apparently on the principle of seniority, which we find also in North Arabia.
Some inscriptions name, besides the king, an eponymus, whose office seems to have been priestly, his titles being dhu harif, eponymus and rashuw, " sacrificer."
All royal inscriptions are signed by him at the beginning and the end, and he appears with the king on coins.
In spite of the many ruins of temples and inscriptions, the religion of the Sabaeans is obscure.
Three gods of the inscriptions are named in the Koran - Wadd, Yaghuth and Nasr. In the god name Ta'lab there may be an indication of tree-worship. The many minor deities may be passed over; but we must mention the sanctuary of Riyam, with its images of the sun and moon, and, according to tradition, an oracle.
In 1836 he was elected a member of the Academy of Inscriptions, and in 1837 he published (with an introduction the conclusions of which would not now all be endorsed) a translation of a Provencal poem on the Albigensian war.
Calculating from the present rate of deposit of alluvium at the head of that gulf, Eridu should have been founded as early as the seventh millennium B.C. It is mentioned in historical inscriptions from the earliest times onward, as late as the 6th century B.C. From the evidence of Taylor's excavations, it would seem that the site was abandoned about the close of the Babylonian period.
Both gateways and railing are elaborately covered with bas-reliefs and inscriptions.
The latter give the names of the donors of particular portions of the architectural ornamentation, and most of them are written in the characters used before and after the time of Asoka in the middle of the 3rd century B.C. The monuments are Buddhist, the bas-reliefs illustrate passages in the Buddhist writings, and the inscriptions make use of Buddhist technical terms. Some of the smaller topes give us names of men who lived in the Buddha's time, and others give names mentioned among the missionaries sent out in the time of Asoka.
The monuments at Sanchi are now under the charge of the archaeological department; they are being well cared for, and valuable photographs have been taken of the bas-reliefs and inscriptions.
No ruins are visible, the mounds of the old city being for the most part hidden under modern buildings; but the slopes of the limestone hills behind it are pierced with an infinity of rock-cut tombs, some of which were large and decorated with sculptures, paintings and long inscriptions.
We owe to its realization by them the constitution and nomenclature of the twelve signs of the zodiac. Assyrian cylinders and inscriptions indicate for the familiar series of our text-books an antiquity of some four thousand years.
Numerous indications accordingly point to a corresponding primitive zodiac. Setting aside as doubtful evidence derived from interpretations of cuneiform inscriptions, we meet, in connexion with Mithraic and Mylittic legends, reminiscences of a zodiac and religious calendar in which the Bull led the way.'
See Egypt, Language; Cuneiform; Inscriptions and Writing.