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inorganic

inorganic

inorganic Sentence Examples

  • Secondly, in the Algae, which build up their own food from inorganic materials, we have a differentiation.

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  • Plant life, utilizing solar light to combine the inorganic elements of water, soil and air into living substance, is the basis of all animal life.

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  • Plant life, utilizing solar light to combine the inorganic elements of water, soil and air into living substance, is the basis of all animal life.

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  • Just as Kant thus sharply marks off the regions of the inorganic and the organic, so he sets man in strong opposition to the lower animals.

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  • The susceptibilities of some hundreds of inorganic compounds.

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  • The susceptibilities of some hundreds of inorganic compounds.

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  • The cell sap contains various substances in solution such as sugars, inulin, alkaloids, glucosides, organic acids and various inorganic salts.

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  • The order of the inorganic world is explained by properly physical causes.

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  • The order of the inorganic world is explained by properly physical causes.

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  • Rain is by far the most important of the inorganic mobile distributions upon which land forms exercise their function of guidance and control.

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  • Here is treated the history of descriptive inorganic chemistry; reference should be made to the articles on the separate elements for an account of their preparation, properties, &c.

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  • The earliest discoveries in inorganic chemistry are to be found in the metallurgy, medicine and chemical arts of the ancients.

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  • Quantitative Inorganic Analysis.

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  • Quantitative Inorganic Analysis.

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  • From this point of view the processes of nature from the inorganic up to the most complex of the organic become stages in the self-realization of nature.

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  • It is sometimes forgotten, when discussing questions of animal nutrition, that all the food materials of all living organisms are prepared originally from inorganic substances in exactly the same way, in exactly the same place, and by the same machinery, which is the chlorophyll apparatus of the vegetable kingdom.

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  • ously studied by Sir Edward Frankland, who from the investigation, not of simple inorganic compounds, but of the organo-metallic derivatives, determined the kernel of the theory of valency.

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  • Inorganic Chemistry Inorganic chemistry is concerned with the descriptive study o f the elements and their compounds, except those of carbon.

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  • Inorganic Chemistry Inorganic chemistry is concerned with the descriptive study o f the elements and their compounds, except those of carbon.

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  • In conclusion, it is noteworthy that though resorting to utterly fanciful hypotheses respecting the order of the development of the world, Anaximander agrees with modern evolutionists in conceiving the heavenly bodies as arising out of an aggregation of diffused matter, and in assigning to organic life an origin in the inorganic materials of the primitive earth (pristine mud).

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  • Among Lockyer's other works are - The Dawn of Astronomy (1894), to which Stonehenge and other British Stone Monuments astronomically considered (1906) may be considered a sequel; Recent and coming Eclipses (1897); and Inorganic Evolution (1900).

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  • Later his attention was taken up with questions of physical and inorganic chemistry.

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  • Returning to the history of the discovery of the elements and their more important inorganic compounds, we come in 1789 to M.

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  • Among Lockyer's other works are - The Dawn of Astronomy (1894), to which Stonehenge and other British Stone Monuments astronomically considered (1906) may be considered a sequel; Recent and coming Eclipses (1897); and Inorganic Evolution (1900).

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  • But the belief died hard; the synthesis of urea remained isolated for many years; and many explanations were attempted by the vitalists (as, for instance, that urea was halfway between the inorganic and organic kingdoms, or that the carbon, from which it was obtained, retained the essentials of this hypothetical vital force), but only to succumb at a later date to the indubitable fact that the same laws of chemical combination prevail in both the animate and inanimate kingdoms, and that the artificial or laboratory synthesis of any substance, either inorganic or organic, is but a question of time, once its constitution is determined.'.

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  • The supposition that sensation thus rests on a material process of absorption from external bodies naturally led up to the idea that plants and even inorganic subtances are precipient, and so to an indistinct recognition of organic life as a scale of intelligence.

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  • All organic forms are at bottom but one organization, and the inorganic world shows the same formative activity in various degrees or potences.

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  • When the young sporophyte first begins its independent lifewhen, that is, it exists in the form of the embryo in the seedits living substance has no power of utilizing the simple inorganic compounds spoken of.

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  • It is certain that their protoplasm cannot be nourished by inorganic compounds of nitrogen, any more than that of animals.

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  • The theories propounded may be divided into two groups, namely, those ascribing to petroleum an inorganic origin, and those which regard it as the result of the decomposition of organic matter.

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  • Two important principles are illustrated by these thoughts, (1) that there is no absolute distinction between the organic and the inorganic, and (2) that the argument from final causes is no explanation of phenomena.

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  • It is certain that their protoplasm cannot be nourished by inorganic compounds of nitrogen, any more than that of animals.

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  • This process is an upward one, through the formation of the solar system and of our earth with its inorganic bodies, up to the production of man.

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  • In addition, certain inorganic salts, particularly certain compounds of potassium, are apparently necessary, but they seem to take no part in the chemical changes which take place.

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  • Such isomerism, named stereoisomerism (q.v.),hasbeen assiduously developed during recentyears; it prevails among many different classes of organic compounds and many examples have been found in inorganic chemistry.

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  • Organic Chemistry While inorganic chemistry was primarily developed through the study of minerals - a connexion still shown by the French appellation chimie minerale - organic chemistry owes its origin to the investigation of substances occurring in the vegetable and animal organisms. The quest of the alchemists for the philosopher's stone, and the almost general adherence of the iatrochemists to the study of the medicinal characters and preparation of metallic compounds, stultified in some measure the investigation of vegetable and animal products.

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  • It is true that by the distillation of many herbs, resins and similar substances, several organic compounds had been prepared, and in a few cases employed as medicines; but the prevailing classification of substances by physical and; superficial properties led to the correlation of organic and inorganic compounds, without any attention being paid to their chemical composition.

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  • In addition, certain inorganic salts, particularly certain compounds of potassium, are apparently necessary, but they seem to take no part in the chemical changes which take place.

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  • This view was accepted in 1817 by Leopold Gmelin, who, in his Handbuch der Chemie, regarded inorganic compounds as being of binary composition (the simplest being oxides, both acid and basic, which by combination form salts also of binary form), and organic compounds as ternary, i.e.

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  • The laws which govern particles of matter in the inorganic world govern them likewise if they are joined into an organism.

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  • The detailed exhibition of the organizing activity of nature in the several processes of the organic and inorganic world rests on a number of fanciful and unscientific ideas.

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  • The general vegetable protoplasm has not the capacity of being nourished by inorganic substances which are denied to the living substance of the animal world.

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  • Thenard discovered hydrogen dioxide, one of the most interesting inorganic compounds known, which has since been carefully investigated by H.

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  • The term allotropy has also been applied to inorganic compounds, identical in composition, but assuming different crystallographic forms. Mercuric oxide, sulphide and iodide; arsenic trioxide; titanium dioxide and silicon dioxide may be cited as examples.

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  • The exact delimitation of inorganic and organic chemistry engrossed many minds for many years; and on this point there existed considerable divergence of opinion for several decades.

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  • Berzelius, in 1813 and 1814, by improved methods of analysis, established that the Daltonian laws of combination held in both the inorganic and organic kingdoms; and he adopted the view of Lavoisier that organic compounds were oxides of compound radicals, and therefore necessarily contained at least three elements - carbon, hydrogen and oxygen.

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  • A consequence of this empirical division was that marsh gas, ethylene and cyanogen were regarded as inorganic, and at a later date many other hydrocarbons of undoubtedly organic nature had to be included in the same division.

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  • The doctrine of copulae was discarded, and in 1859 emphasis was given to the view that all organic compounds were derivatives of inorganic by simple substitution processes.

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  • His fame rests upon his exposition of the principles necessary to chemistry as a secience, but of his contributions to analytical inorganic chemistry little can be said.

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  • Roscoe and Schorlemmer, Inorganic Chemistry (3rd ed., Non-metals, 1905; Metals, 1907); R.

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  • It would seem that, on the whole, nitrogen compounds in the ocean (whether existing in the organic or inorganic forms) remain constant in amount.

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  • In the end much inorganic nitrogen salts must be added to the sea both in the above way and as the result of the putrefaction of the dead substance of terrestrial animals and plants.

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  • The laws which govern particles of matter in the inorganic world govern them likewise if they are joined into an organism.

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  • The exact delimitation of inorganic and organic chemistry engrossed many minds for many years; and on this point there existed considerable divergence of opinion for several decades.

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  • The mechanical laws, to which external things were subject, were conceived as being valid only in the inorganic world; in the organic and mental worlds these mechanical laws were conceived as being disturbed or overridden by other powers, such as the influence of final causes, the existence of types, the work of vital and mental forces.

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  • Might one suggest that organisms seem at least to be a working up of inorganic matter for new ends, viz.

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  • Now, as the materials which plants absorb are carbon dioxide from the air, and various inorganic compounds from the soil, together with water, it is clear that if this view is correct, vegetable protoplasm must be fed in a very different way from animal, and on very different materials.

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  • Before leaving this phase of inorganic chemistry, we may mention other historical examples of allotropy.

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  • After having been somewhat neglected for the greater attractions and wider field presented by organic chemistry, the study of the elements and their inorganic compounds is now' rapidly coming into favour; new investigators are continually entering the lists; the beaten paths are being retraversed and new ramifications pursued.

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  • Williamson showed how alcohol and ether were to be regarded as derived from water by substituting one or both hydrogen atoms by the ethyl group; he derived acids and the acid anhydrides from the same type; and from a comparison of many inorganic and the simple organic compounds he concluded that this notion of a " water-type " clarified, in no small measure, the conception of the structure of compounds.

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  • There is more inorganic nitrogen in the sea near the land than in mid-ocean and there is more at the sea bottom than near the surface; finally, there is more in the later winter than at any other season.

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  • All albumins are laevo-rotatory; and on incineration a small amount of inorganic ash is invariably left.

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  • Ostwald, Principles of Inorganic Chemistry (3rd Eng.

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  • It is noteworthy that he sought to establish the identity of organic and inorganic matter by help of the facts of vegetal and animal nutrition.

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  • It is noteworthy that he sought to establish the identity of organic and inorganic matter by help of the facts of vegetal and animal nutrition.

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  • The two books mentioned remained unnoticed by the reading public, and Lotze first became known to a larger circle through a series of works which aimed at establishing in the study of the physical and mental phenomena of the human organism in its normal and diseased states the same general principles which had been adopted in the investigation of inorganic phenomena.

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  • He argues, from the principle quicquid est in effectibus esse et in causis, that the elements and the whole world have sensation, and thus he appears to derive the organic part of nature out of the so-called " inorganic."

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  • But his most important work was in inorganic and thermal chemistry.

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  • In 1858 he pointed out the isomorphism of the fluostannates and the fluosilicates, thus settling the then vexed question of the composition of silicic acid; and subsequently he studied the fluosalts of zirconium, boron, tungsten, &c., and prepared silicotungstic acid, one of the first examples of the complex inorganic acids.

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  • Over and above the bacterial intoxications we have a very extreme degree of fatty degeneration, widely distributed throughout the tissues, which is produced by certain organic and inorganic poisons; it is seen especially in phosphorus and chloroform poisoning.

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  • He regarded all bodies, organic and inorganic, as composed of the three elements - spirit, sulphur and salt, the first being only found abundantly in animal bodies.

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  • Kolbe had an important share in the great development of chemical theory that occurred about the middle of the 19th century, especially in regard to the constitution of organic compounds, which he viewed as derivatives of inorganic ones, formed from the latter - in some cases directly - by simple processes of substitution.

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  • He published a Lehrbuch der organischen Chemie in 1854, smaller textbooks of organic and inorganic chemistry in 1877-1883, and Zur Entwickelungsgeschichte der theoretischen Chemie in 1881.

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  • OH) 2, obtained by decomposing silicon hexachloride with icecold water, is an unstable solid which is readily decomposed by the inorganic bases, with evolution of hydrogen and production of a silicate.

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  • The inorganic materials within it supply some of the chief substances utilized by plants for their development and growth, and from plants animals obtain much of their sustenance.

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  • His contributions to inorganic chemistry were numerous, including investigations on the compounds of antimony, aluminium, silicon, &c., on the separation of nickel and cobalt, and on the analysis of mineral waters, but they are outweighed in importance by his work on organic substances.

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  • CYANIDE, in chemistry, a salt of prussic or hydrocyanic acid, the name being more usually restricted to inorganic salts, i.e.

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  • The food is alike in both cases; it consists of water, certain inorganic salts, carbohydrates and proteins.

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  • Both animals and plants take their water and inorganic salts directly as such.

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  • The relatively rigid nature of the plant cell-wall, and the attenuated inorganic food-supply of plants, make possible and necessary a form of growth in which the greatest surface is exposed to the exterior, and thus the plant body is composed of flattened laminae and elongated branching growths.

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  • To this inconceivably slowly-growing deposit of inorganic material over the ocean floor there is added an overwhelmingly more rapid contribution of the remains of calcareous and siliceous planktonic and benthonic organisms, which tend to bury the slower accumulating material under a blanket of globigerina, pteropod, diatom or radiolarian ooze.

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  • His text-books on practical chemistry, inorganic and organic chemistry, written in conjunction with Prof. Kipping, are in general use.

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  • On the decay of these structures the phosphates are returned to the inorganic world, thus completing the cycle.

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  • Hofmann's work covered a wide range of organic chemistry, though with inorganic bodies he did but little.

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  • It includes states which are united temporarily - cases of inorganic unity, to use Jellinek's expression.

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  • To make room for these we have to remember that the atomic nucleus has remained entirely undefined and beyond our problem; so that what may occur, say when two molecules come into close relations, is outside physical science - not, however, altogether outside, for we know that when the vital nexus in any portion of matter is dissolved, the atoms will remain, in their number, and their atmospheres, and all inorganic relations, as they were before vitality supervened.

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  • But natural substances are inorganic and organic; and a man is an organic substance composed of an organic body (6pyavLKOv vwµa) as matter, and a soul (i ' vxii) as essence, which is the primary actuality of an organic body capable of life q'w1 i).

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  • Here you find articles in the encyclopedia on topics related to inorganic chemistry.

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  • He published many textbooks of chemistry, organic and inorganic, which were republished in England and were translated abroad.

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  • of matter from the inorganic to the organic world, moleschott and back again, and he urged this metabolism against the hypothesis of vital force.

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  • He supposes that all organisms have developed from the simple cell, and that this has its origin by spontaneous generation, to explain which he propounds the " carbon-theory," that protoplasm comes from inorganic carbonates.

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  • Lastly, when a theory of the world supposes a noumenal power, a resistent and persistent force, which results in an evolution, defined as an integration of matter and a dissipation of motion, which having resulted in inorganic nature and organic nature, further results without break in consciousness, reason, society and morals, then such a theory will be construed as materialistically as that of Haeckel by the reader, whatever the intention of the author.

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  • The study of evolution, without considering how many conditions are required for " the integration of matter and the dissipation of motion " to begin, and the undoubted discoveries which have resulted from the study of inorganic and organic evolution, have led men to expect too much from this one law of Nature.

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  • Such mentally endowed substances might be called souls; but, as he distinguished between perception and apperception or consciousness, and considered that perceptions are often unconscious, he preferred to divide monads into unconscious entelechies of inorganic bodies, sentient souls of animals, and rational souls, or spirits, of men; while he further concluded that all these are derivative monads created by God, the monad of monads.

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  • But his substitute was his own hypothesis of panpsychism, from which he deduced a "cosmorganic " evolution from a " cosmorganic " or original condition of the world as a living organism into the inorganic, by the principle of tendency to stability.

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  • It is not necessary for him to follow Schopenhauer, Hartmann and Fechner in endowing the material universe with will or any other mental operation, because his phenomenalism already reduces inorganic nature to mere objects of experiencing subjects.

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  • In short, his whole voluntarism means that, while the inorganic world is mere object, all organization is congealed will, and all thinking is apperceptive will.

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  • On the whole, his voluntarism, though like that of Schopenhauer and Hartmann, is not the same; not Schopenhauer's, because the ideating will of Wundt's philosophy is not a universal irrational will; and not Hartmann's, because, although ideating will, according to Wundt's phenomenalism, is supposed to extend through the world of organisms, the whole inorganic world remains a mere object of unitary experience.

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  • Wundt does not allow that we know beyond experience any souls of earth, or any other inorganic being.

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  • He maintained that the physical and the psychical are two orders which are parallel without interference; that the physical or objective order is merely phenomena, or groups of feelings, or " objects," while the psychical or subjective order is both a stream of feelings of which we are conscious in ourselves, and similar streams which we infer beyond ourselves, or, as he came to call them, " ejects "; that, if we accept the doctrine of evolution at all, we must carry these ejective streams of feelings through the whole organic world and beyond it to the inorganic world, as a " quasimental fact "; that at bottom both orders, the physical phenomena and the psychical streams, are reducible to feelings; and that therefore there is no reason against supposing that they are made out of the same " mind-stuff," which is the thing-in-itself.

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  • Besides a large number of animal and vegetable substances, many precipitates formed in the course of inorganic chemical reactions are non-crystalline and appear in the colloidal state, instances are the sulphides of antimony and arsenic and the hydroxides of iron and alumina.

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  • Comey, Dictionary of Solubilities (Inorganic) (1896); A.

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  • Seidell, Dictionary of the Solubilities of Inorganic and Organic Substances (1907).

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  • Custom has to some extent restricted its use to inorganic chemistry; the corresponding property of organic compounds being generally termed isomerism.

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  • Mimicry is a special form of protective resemblance, differing from ordinary protective resemblance as exemplified by the similarity of the resting goat-sucker to a piece of bark or of leafand stick-insects to the objects after which they are named, in that the imitated object belongs to the animal kingdom and not to the vegetable kingdom or to inorganic nature.

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  • To inorganic acids, except hydrochloric, it is highly resistant, ranking well with tin in this respect; but alkalis dissolve it quickly.

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  • Educated at the Museum of Natural History, he was successively professor of toxicology (1886) and of inorganic chemistry (1889) at the School of Pharmacy, and of general chemistry at the Sorbonne (1900).

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  • - These are of two classes, organic and inorganic - the former being of animal and vegetable, the latter of mineral origin.

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  • The following are inorganic manures: Ammonia is the most powerful and one of the most important of the constituents of manures generally, since it is the chief source whence plants derive their nitrogen.

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  • It is largely supplied in all the most fertilizing of organic manures, but when required in the inorganic state must be obtained from some of the salts of ammonia, as the sulphate, the muriate or the phosphate, all of which, being extremely energetic, require to be used with great caution.

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  • Potash and soda are also valuable inorganic manures in the form of carbonates, sulphates, silicates and phosphates, but the most valuable is the nitrate of potash.

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  • But it was the achievement of Wailer alone, in 1828, to break down the barrier held to exist between organic and inorganic chemistry by artificially preparing urea, one of those substances which up to that time it had been thought could only be produced through the agency of "vital force."

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  • Most of his work, however, lay in the domain of inorganic chemistry.

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  • Constitution of the Diazo Compounds.-P. Griess (Ann., 1866, 137, p. 39) considered that the diazocompounds wereformed by theaddition of complex groupings of the type C 6 H 4 N 2 - to the inorganic acids; whilst A.

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  • This connexion of isomerism with resistant linking, and of this with high valency, explains, in considerable measure, why inorganic compounds afforded, as a rule, no phenomena of this kind until the systematic investigation of metallic compounds by Werner brought to light many instances of isomerism in inorganic compounds.

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  • Whereas carbon renders isomerism possible in organic compounds, cobalt and platinum are the determining elements in inorganic chemistry, the phenomena being exhibited especially by complex ammoniacal derivatives.

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  • The constitution of these inorganic isomers is still somewhat questionable; and in addition it seems that polymerism, metamerism and stereoisomerism play a part here, but the general feature is that cobalt and platinum act in them with high valency, probably exceeding four.

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  • Inorganic and other waste matters are stored in the leaf-tissue and thus got rid of by the plant.

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  • p. 60) as water 84 09, organic matter 13.38, and inorganic matter 1.53 - that of the leaves being water 87.14, organic matter 11.27 and inorganic matter 1.59.

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  • Immersed as they usually are in a medium containing in solution the inorganic substances which they require for their nutrition, the absorption of these takes place throughout their whole extent.

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  • Ann., 1828, 12, p. 253) is of theoretical importance, since it was the first organic compound obtained from inorganic materials.

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  • Several of the ancients had a vague belief in continuity between the inorganic and the organic and in the modifying or variation-producing effects of the environment.

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  • In the broadest way variation in organisms is primarily the necessary result of the absence of uniformity in the distribution of physical forces on the globe, in fact is a mere necessary response to the variation of inorganic conditions.

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  • Perceiving a molecular isonomy between them and the inorganic compounds of the metals from which they may be formed, he saw their true molecular type in the oxygen, sulphur or chlorine compounds of those metals, from which he held them to be derived by the substitution of an organic group for the oxygen, sulphur, &c. In this way they enabled him to overthrow the theory of conjugate compounds, and they further led him in 1852 to publish the conception that the atoms of each elementary substance have a definite saturation capacity, so that they can only combine with a certain limited number of the atoms of other elements.

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  • A large number of salts, both of inorganic and organic acids, have been described by Sir W.

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  • Certain markings on slates and sandstones, such as the "fucoids" of Scandinavia and Scotland, the Phycoides of the Fichtelgebirge, Eophyton and other seaweed-like impressions, may indeed be the casts of fucoid plants; but it is by no means sure that many of them are not mere inorganic imitative markings or the tracks or casts of worms. Oldhamia, a delicate branching body, abundant in the Cambrian of the south-east of Ireland, is probably a calcareous alga, but its precise nature has not been satisfactorily determined.

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  • Probably the doctrine that the divinity (5ait.cwv) passes from element to element, nowhere finding a home, is a mystical way of teaching the continued identity of the principles which are at the bottom of every phase of development from inorganic nature to man.

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  • Perkin for an immense range of inorganic and organic bodies.

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  • Haeckel distinguished autogeny and plasmogeny, applying the former term when the formative fluid in which the first living matter was supposed to arise was inorganic and the latter when it was organic, i.e.

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  • For the chemistry of copper and its compounds see the references in the article Chemistry: Inorganic. Toxicologic and hygienic aspects are treated in Tschirsch's Das Kupfer vom Standpunkt der gerichtlichen Chemie, Toxikologie and Hygiene (Stuttgart, 1893).

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  • Their inorganic character naturally permitted later generations to bring them up to date, and accretions of this kind may be suspected in I Tim.

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  • So condensed and coarsened is the indwelling air-current of inorganic bodies that no trace of elasticity or life remains; it cannot even afford them the power of motion; all it can do is to hold them together Su va us), and, in technical language, Pneuma is present in stone or metal as a retaining principle (g t;ts=hold), explaining the attributes of continuity and numerical identity (rvvE X i) «al 1)vw J .zEva) which even these natural substances possess.

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  • A certain warmth, akin to the vital heat of organic being, seems to be found in inorganic nature: vapours from the earth, hot springs, sparks from the flint, were claimed as the last remnant of Pneuma not yet utterly slackened and cold.

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  • Here the work of reason is assimilated to the force which binds together the parts of an inorganic body and resists their separation.

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  • as able to carry on one particular series of fermentations or decompositions only, and since they require no organic food materials, or at least are able to work up nitrogen or carbon from inorganic sources, he regards them as primitive forms in this respect and terms them Prototrophic. They may be looked upon as the nearest existing representatives of the primary forms of life which first obtained the power of working up non-living into living materials, and as playing a correspondingly important role in the evolution of life on our globe.

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  • A multitude of minor and simpler organic compounds, of which carbohydrates and fats are the best known, occur in different protoplasm in varying forms and proportions, and are much less isolated from the inorganic world.

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  • Finally, protoplasm contains various inorganic substances, such as salts and water, the latter giving it its varying degrees of liquid consistency.

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  • We must now examine in more detail the differences which exist or have been alleged to exist between living organisms and inorganic bodies.

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  • Confusion has arisen in regard to this point from attempts to compare organized bodies with crystals, the comparison having been suggested by the view that as crystals present the highest type of inorganic structure, it was reasonable to compare them with organic matter.

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  • Differences between crystals and organized bodies have no bearing on the problem of life, for organic substance must be compared with a liquid rather than with a crystal, and differs in structure no more from inorganic liquids than these do amongst themselves, and less than they differ from crystals.

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  • But inorganic liquids also grow in the latter mode, as when a soluble substance is added to them.

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  • Although these are the most obvious characters of life, they cannot be detected in quiescent seeds, which we know to be alive, and they are displayed in a fashion very like life by inorganic foams brought in contact with liquids of different composition.

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  • Irritability, again, although a notable quality of living substance, is not peculiar to it, for many inorganic substances respond to external stimulation by definite changes.

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  • Instability, again, which lies at the root of Spencer's definition "continuous adjustment of internal relations to external relations" is displayed by living matter in very varying degrees from the apparent absolute quiescence of frozen seeds to the activity of the central nervous system, whilst there is a similar range amongst inorganic substances.

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  • It is to be noticed, however, that green plants have the power of building up living substance from inorganic material, and there is a certain analogy between the building up of new living material only in association with pre-existing living material, and the greater readiness with which certain inorganic reactions take place if there already be present some trace of the result of the reaction.

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  • The real distinction between living matter and inorganic matter is chemical.

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  • Living substance always contains proteid, and although we know that proteid contains only common inorganic elements, we know neither how these are combined to form proteid, nor any way in which proteid can be brought into existence except in the presence of previously existing proteid.

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  • Preyer has criticized such views, grouping them under the phrase "theory of cosmozoa," and has suggested that living matter preceded inorganic matter.

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  • It is remarkable that all the insectivorous plants agree in inhabiting damp heaths, bogs, marshes and similar situations where water is abundant, but where they are not brought into contact with the plenteous supply of inorganic nitrogenous food as are the roots of terrestrial plants.

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  • Xenocrates's theory of inorganic nature was substantially identical with the theory of the elements which is propounded in the Timaeus, 53 C seq.

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  • Moreover, if a natural water is so liable to pathogenic pollution as to demand filtration of this kind, it ought at once to be discarded for an initially pure supply; not necessarily pure in an apparent or even in a chemical sense, for water may be visibly coloured, or may contain considerable proportions both of organic and inorganic impurity, and yet be tasteless and free from pathogenic pollution.

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  • van Leeuwenhoek discovered bacteria, and it was soon found that however carefully organic matter might be protected by screens, or by being placed in stoppered receptacles, putrefaction set in, and was invariably accompanied by the appearance of myriads of bacteria and other low organisms. As knowledge of microscopic forms of life increased, so the apparent possibilities of abiogenesis increased, and it became a tempting hypothesis that whilst the higher forms of life arose only by generation from their kind, there was a perpetual abiogenetic fount by which the first steps in the evolution of living organisms continued to arise, under suitable conditions, from inorganic matter.

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  • Such intermediate stages may have existed in the past, and the modern refutation of abiogenesis has no application to the possibility of these having been formed from inorganic matter at some past time.

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  • In inorganic chemistry its principal applications are based on its solvent power for metals, and its power of expelling other acids from their salts.

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  • By improved (From Thorpe's Inorganic Chemistry.) Sulphuric Acid Plant.

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  • Whether inorganic salts are directly absorbed has been a matter of much discussion; it has, however, been directly proved by the experiments of Kunkel (Archiv fiir die gesamte Physiologie des Menschen and der Tiere, lxi.) and Gaule.

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  • He believes that inorganic iron saves the organic iron of the food by combining with the sulphur, and improves anaemia by protecting the organic food iron.

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  • Wharfinger states that in chlorosis the specific action of iron is only obtained by administering those inorganic preparations which give a reaction with the ordinary reagents; the iron ions in a state of dissociation act as a catalytic agent, destroying the hypothetical toxin which is the cause of chlorosis.

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  • Stewart, Recent Advances in Physical and Inorganic Chemistry, 1909).

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  • In the narrow sense "oxidation" may be regarded as the combination of a substance with oxygen, and conversely, "reduction" as the abstraction of oxygen; in the wider sense oxidation includes not merely the addition of oxygen, but also of other electro-negative elements or groups, or the removal of hydrogen or an electro-positive element or group. In inorganic chemistry oxidation is associated in many cases with an increase in the active valency.

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  • The extract of henbane is rich in nitrate of potassium and other inorganic salts.

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  • Here there has not necessarily been any replacement of organic by inorganic material; the whole leaf, for example, may remain, though reduced to a carbonaceous film.

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  • Inorganic bodies, such as metals, may enter into albuminous combinations which may greatly modify their effects, and organic substances may be split up into simpler compounds by oxidation or reduction, or may be rendered more complex by synthesis.

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  • Certain writers in despair have adopted an alphabetical arrangement of the subject, while others have divided it up into inorganic, vegetable and animal substances.

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  • absorption spectroscopy to inorganic chemistry.

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  • The sum of ammonia and particulate ammonium (total inorganic ammonium, TIA) is also to be measured daily at these sites.

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  • lead arsenate is an inorganic compound of arsenic and found to be useful in the purpose of killing pests.

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  • A market basket survey of inorganic arsenic in food.

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  • JECFA has also set a PTWI for inorganic arsenic (but not for organic or for total arsenic ).

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  • inorganic borate pretreated roof tile battens, fascias etc may be available in certain parts of the country.

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  • One lettuce sample contained inorganic bromide at levels 22 times the safety level [2] for young children.

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  • This choice is based on their wish to work alongside St Andrews ' world-renowned inorganic chemists.

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  • To provide practice in answering some basic concepts in inorganic chemistry through assessed problem sheets.

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  • combinatorial optimization of a neutral receptor that binds inorganic anions in aqueous solution.

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  • Sunlight usually provides the energy for the production of organic compounds from inorganic compounds.

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  • Crossfire Gmelin - physical and chemical properties of inorganic and organometallic compounds.

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  • McCance, R.A. and Shipp, H.L. (1933) The magnesium and other inorganic constituents of some marine invertebrates.

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  • The optimum standards for tracing inorganic contaminants in soil, sediment, water, oil, plants and food materials.

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  • decompose in the soil leading to residues of inorganic bromides.

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  • esterify mentioned in Chapter 20 that an alcohol can be esterified with an inorganic acid just as well as with a carboxylic acid.

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  • Do not use inorganic fertilizers exclusively for years on end.

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  • fluorine compounds include inorganic gases and particles, and about a dozen organic compounds.

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  • The results will provide a baseline of inorganic and organic urban geochemistry of the city.

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  • The copper element distribution map, shown here, is one example of the analysis of the inorganic geochemistry of the sediment.

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  • Beeck's Silicate Masonry Paint is an exterior purely inorganic paint, free of artificial resins, solvents and biocides.

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  • Research includes all kind of materials but mainly inorganic.

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  • inorganic arsenic in food.

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  • inorganic phosphate in January are comparable to those of the Atlantic input signal.

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  • inorganic fertilizers are thought to affect crop quality.

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  • inorganic chemistry is also huge.

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  • inorganic bromide at levels 22 times the safety level [2] for young children.

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  • inorganic fertilizers exclusively for years on end.

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  • Elaine: dissolved inorganic N and P have been analyzed.

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  • Carbon dioxide and inorganic ions are thus made available for re-use.

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  • lectureship in inorganic chemistry at UCL to begin at the end of her fellowship.

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  • The main distinction is between organic mercury and inorganic mercury.

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  • Inorganic iron supplements can cause dark brown to black bowel motions.

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  • They gather inorganic nitrogen from the soil and convert it into protein as a means of storing it.

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  • The focus of my work at CEH is on the inorganic nutrients in rivers.

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  • His research interests include organic, inorganic and biological chemistry.

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  • pentavalent inorganic arsenic.

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  • The values of dissolved inorganic phosphate in January are comparable to those of the Atlantic input signal.

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  • LEDs in which the semiconductor materials are polymers instead of inorganic materials such as gallium phosphide would be cheaper and easier to manufacture.

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  • photolysis rates of ozone and other inorganic and organic species will be updated in line with latest absorption cross-section and quantum yield data.

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  • A database of Raman spectra of inorganic pigments is maintained here.

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  • dissolved inorganic pollutants such as ammonia in solution and sodium chloride can be separated successfully.

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  • prebiotic earth were inorganic ones.

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  • The effect of inorganic salts, including nitrates, was agreed to be worth further study.

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  • Abstract A range of macroporous inorganic solids, with unique, sponge-like structures were synthesized by templating sea urchin skeletal plates.

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  • New mechanisms Organic solar cells work differently from conventional inorganic semiconductor solar cells.

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  • Such perturbations have the potential to modify total nutrient concentrations and inorganic: organic nutrient stoichiometry, particularly in areas of reduced exchange.

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  • Research Keywords Chemical crystallography, structural systematics, supramolecular crystals, polymorphism, charge density studies, inorganic sulfides.

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  • The two books mentioned remained unnoticed by the reading public, and Lotze first became known to a larger circle through a series of works which aimed at establishing in the study of the physical and mental phenomena of the human organism in its normal and diseased states the same general principles which had been adopted in the investigation of inorganic phenomena.

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  • The mechanical laws, to which external things were subject, were conceived as being valid only in the inorganic world; in the organic and mental worlds these mechanical laws were conceived as being disturbed or overridden by other powers, such as the influence of final causes, the existence of types, the work of vital and mental forces.

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  • To this attitude he offered uncompromising opposition, and by the synthetical production of numerous hydrocarbons, natural fats, sugars and other bodies he proved that organic compounds can be formed by ordinary methods of chemical manipulation and obey the same laws as inorganic substances, thus exhibiting the "creative character in virtue of which chemistry actually realizes the abstract conceptions of its theories and classifications - a prerogative so far possessed neither by the natural nor by the historical sciences."

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  • Might one suggest that organisms seem at least to be a working up of inorganic matter for new ends, viz.

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  • We must content ourselves by referring to the progress of physical (including chemical) theory, which has led to the great generalization of the conservation of energy; to the discovery of the fundamental chemical identity of the matter of our planet and of other celestial bodies, and of the chemical relations of organic and inorganic bodies; to the advance of astronomical speculation respecting the origin of the solar system, &c.; to the growth of the science of geology which has necessitated the conception of vast and unimaginable periods of time in the past history of our globe, and to the rapid march of the biological sciences which has made us familiar with the simplest types and elements of organism; finally, to the development of the science of anthropology (including comparative psychology, philology, &c.), and to the vast extension and improvement of all branches of historical study.

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  • In conclusion, it is noteworthy that though resorting to utterly fanciful hypotheses respecting the order of the development of the world, Anaximander agrees with modern evolutionists in conceiving the heavenly bodies as arising out of an aggregation of diffused matter, and in assigning to organic life an origin in the inorganic materials of the primitive earth (pristine mud).

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  • The supposition that sensation thus rests on a material process of absorption from external bodies naturally led up to the idea that plants and even inorganic subtances are precipient, and so to an indistinct recognition of organic life as a scale of intelligence.

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  • He argues, from the principle quicquid est in effectibus esse et in causis, that the elements and the whole world have sensation, and thus he appears to derive the organic part of nature out of the so-called " inorganic."

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  • Robinet, in his treatise De la nature, worked out the same conception of a gradation in organic existence, connecting this with a general view of nature as a progress from the lowest inorganic forms of matter up to man.

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  • He prepares the way, too, for a doctrine of evolution by his monistic idea of the substantial similarity of all things, inorganic and organic, bodily and spiritual, and still more by his conception of a perfect gradation of existence from the lowest " inanimate " objects, whose essential activity is confused representation, up to the highest organized beingman - with his clear intelligence.'

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  • Just as Kant thus sharply marks off the regions of the inorganic and the organic, so he sets man in strong opposition to the lower animals.

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  • From this point of view the processes of nature from the inorganic up to the most complex of the organic become stages in the self-realization of nature.

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  • All organic forms are at bottom but one organization, and the inorganic world shows the same formative activity in various degrees or potences.

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  • The detailed exhibition of the organizing activity of nature in the several processes of the organic and inorganic world rests on a number of fanciful and unscientific ideas.

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  • This process is an upward one, through the formation of the solar system and of our earth with its inorganic bodies, up to the production of man.

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  • It does not conceive of the organic as succeeding on the inorganic, or of conscious life 2 Hegel somewhere says that the question of the eternal duration of the world is unanswerable: time as well as space can be predicated of finitudes only.

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  • Secondly, in the Algae, which build up their own food from inorganic materials, we have a differentiation.

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  • Now, as the materials which plants absorb are carbon dioxide from the air, and various inorganic compounds from the soil, together with water, it is clear that if this view is correct, vegetable protoplasm must be fed in a very different way from animal, and on very different materials.

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  • When the young sporophyte first begins its independent lifewhen, that is, it exists in the form of the embryo in the seedits living substance has no power of utilizing the simple inorganic compounds spoken of.

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  • The general vegetable protoplasm has not the capacity of being nourished by inorganic substances which are denied to the living substance of the animal world.

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  • Plants are furnished with a constructive mechanism by which they are enabled to fabricate the food on which they live from the inorganic, gaseous and liquid matters which they absorb.

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  • It is sometimes forgotten, when discussing questions of animal nutrition, that all the food materials of all living organisms are prepared originally from inorganic substances in exactly the same way, in exactly the same place, and by the same machinery, which is the chlorophyll apparatus of the vegetable kingdom.

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  • The cell sap contains various substances in solution such as sugars, inulin, alkaloids, glucosides, organic acids and various inorganic salts.

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  • Rain is by far the most important of the inorganic mobile distributions upon which land forms exercise their function of guidance and control.

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  • The method of stating the rational constitution of bodies by comparison with water he believed capable of wide extension, and that one type, he thought, would suffice for all inorganic compounds, as well as for the best-known organic ones, the formula of water being taken in certain cases as doubled or tripled.

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  • The theories propounded may be divided into two groups, namely, those ascribing to petroleum an inorganic origin, and those which regard it as the result of the decomposition of organic matter.

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  • Two important principles are illustrated by these thoughts, (1) that there is no absolute distinction between the organic and the inorganic, and (2) that the argument from final causes is no explanation of phenomena.

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  • Later his attention was taken up with questions of physical and inorganic chemistry.

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  • Here is treated the history of descriptive inorganic chemistry; reference should be made to the articles on the separate elements for an account of their preparation, properties, &c.

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  • ously studied by Sir Edward Frankland, who from the investigation, not of simple inorganic compounds, but of the organo-metallic derivatives, determined the kernel of the theory of valency.

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  • Such isomerism, named stereoisomerism (q.v.),hasbeen assiduously developed during recentyears; it prevails among many different classes of organic compounds and many examples have been found in inorganic chemistry.

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  • Constitutional formulae become of preponderating importance when we consider the more complicated inorganic and especially organic compounds.

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  • The earliest discoveries in inorganic chemistry are to be found in the metallurgy, medicine and chemical arts of the ancients.

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  • Returning to the history of the discovery of the elements and their more important inorganic compounds, we come in 1789 to M.

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  • Thenard discovered hydrogen dioxide, one of the most interesting inorganic compounds known, which has since been carefully investigated by H.

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  • Before leaving this phase of inorganic chemistry, we may mention other historical examples of allotropy.

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  • The term allotropy has also been applied to inorganic compounds, identical in composition, but assuming different crystallographic forms. Mercuric oxide, sulphide and iodide; arsenic trioxide; titanium dioxide and silicon dioxide may be cited as examples.

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  • After having been somewhat neglected for the greater attractions and wider field presented by organic chemistry, the study of the elements and their inorganic compounds is now' rapidly coming into favour; new investigators are continually entering the lists; the beaten paths are being retraversed and new ramifications pursued.

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