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initiative

initiative

initiative Sentence Examples

  • Like it or not, we need to take the initiative and set the record straight.

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  • His power of initiative in poetry was very small, and the range of poetic ground which he could cover strictly limited.

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  • Compressed dry guncotton is easily detonated by an initiative detonator such as mercuric fulminate.

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  • Hence obedience was instinctive and initiative almost undreamt of.

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  • And at the end of March Loisy gave up his lectureship, as he declared, "on his own initiative, in view of the pacification of minds in the Catholic Church."

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  • For such an initiative there must be adequate reason; it must be prepared for in the previous process, and it must be necessary to further progress.

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  • But it was a long time before I ventured to take the initiative, and still longer before I could find something appropriate to say at the right time.

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  • But the only state capable of taking the initiative was Piedmont, and the king still hesitated.

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  • The chamber has the right of initiative in the organization of the annual budget laws and those relative to the numerical strength of the army and navy.

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  • The bill, however, fell absolutely dead, not because it was not a good bill, but because the movement out of which it arose had not popular initiative, and therefore failed to reach the popular imagination.

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  • Much had been done to create an efficient staff, but though the idea of the army corps command was now no new thing, the senior generals entrusted with these commands were far from having acquired the independence and initiative of their French opponents.

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  • The Pacification of Birks had been wrung from the king; and the Scots, seeing that he was preparing for the "Second Bishops' War," took the initiative, and pressed into England so vigorously that Charles had again to yield everything.

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  • This mental attitude, combined with a certain lack of initiative and the weakness of his health, probably prevented him from doing full justice to his splendid powers of experimental research.

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  • Within recent years, owing to the initiative of Colonel English, a method of raising oil by the agency of compressed air has been introduced into the Baku oil-fields.

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  • During the period 1958 to 1961, an initiative called "The Great Leap Forward" was intended to increase the production of grain and other agricultural products.

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  • Society itself must take the initiative by breaking down the barriers of class exclusiveness and reviving a healthy public spirit.

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  • Its conclusions are predetermined, and the initiative of the individual thinker is almost confined, therefore, to formal details in the treatment of his thesis.

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  • Its conclusions are predetermined, and the initiative of the individual thinker is almost confined, therefore, to formal details in the treatment of his thesis.

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  • The presbytery fixes the former for specific business; the latter is summoned by the moderator, either on his own initiative or on the requisition of two or more members of presbytery, for the transaction of business which has suddenly emerged.

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  • A special board may be formed at the request of any union of employers or of workmen, or on the initiative of the Labour department.

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  • A special board may be formed at the request of any union of employers or of workmen, or on the initiative of the Labour department.

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  • The failure of the method based on transits of Venus led to an international effort carried out on the initiative of Sir David Gill to measure the parallax by observations on those minor planets which approach nearest the earth.

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  • Another step in decentralization was taken in 1912 by the subdivision of the former unwieldy territorial division and by the grant of wider initiative to the commissioners of the divisions.

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  • Another step in decentralization was taken in 1912 by the subdivision of the former unwieldy territorial division and by the grant of wider initiative to the commissioners of the divisions.

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  • Fambri was ruined by his enterprise, but other manufacturers, more expert than he, drew profit from his initiative, and founded flourishing factories at Pellestrina and Burano.

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  • His own initiative is more clearly traceable in the Toleration Act, extending liberty of private worship to Dissenters.

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  • But when he left parliamentary affairs behind, and took the field, he showed nearly all the power both of initiative and of endurance which marked his masterpiece, the campaign of 1814.

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  • But when he left parliamentary affairs behind, and took the field, he showed nearly all the power both of initiative and of endurance which marked his masterpiece, the campaign of 1814.

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  • The essence of the fatalistic doctrine is that it assigns no place at all to the initiative of the individual, or to rational sequence of events.

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  • On his sole initiative, without consulting his ministers or the council of the empire, he sent instructions to Hafiz Pasha, commanding the Ottoman troops concentrated at Bir on the Euphrates, to advance into Syria.

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  • The eastern extension claimed by Pretorius was the sequel to endeavours made shortly before, on the initiative of a Scotsman, to develop trade along the rivers leading to Delagoa Bay.

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  • Thus, the initiative in lawmaking lay with the Council of State; but, as its members were all chosen by the First Consul, it is clear that that important duty was vested really in him.

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  • The only point on which he had of his own initiative shown a strong objection to revolutionary measures was in the matter of the civil constitution of the clergy.

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  • All this was to be done, however, under the strict supervision and guidance of the autocratic power, with as little aid as possible from private initiative and with no control whatever of public opinion, because influential public opinion is apt to produce insubordination.

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  • It was on his initiative that this synod condemned the heresy of adoptianism and the worship of images, which had been restored in 787 by the second council of Nicaea; and at the same time that council was declared to have been superfluous.

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  • The developing child goes through Learning Initiative or Guilt (Purpose).

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  • The mining industry is growing rapidly in importance in spite of costly and deficient means of communication, want of capital, and lack of general initiative.

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  • At least that was one way Carmen had shown initiative.

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  • In theory these agreements may result from the spontaneous and pacific initiative of the contracting parties, but in reality their object has almost always been to terminate more or less acute conflicts and remedy more or less disturbed situations.

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  • The Monza labor exchange then took the initiative of proclaiming a general strike throughout Italy (September 15th) as a protest against the government for daring to maintain order.

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  • 8 It was not till 1905 that the zemstvos regained, at least de facto, some of their independent initiative.

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  • On his own initiative he conducted exhaustive inquiries into the conditions of the Sicilian peasants and of the Tuscan metayers, and in 1877 published in co-operation with Signor Leopoldo Franchetti a masterly work on Sicily (La Sicilia, Florence, 1877).

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  • In 1908 an act was passed providing for local option in regard to the sale of intoxicating liquors, by an election to be called an initiative petition, signed by at least 35% of the electors of a county.

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  • Thus as life is transcendent and yet immanent in body, and mind in brain, and both utilize their organs, so God, transcendent and immanent, uses the course of nature for His own ends; and the emergence both of life and mind in that course of nature evidences such a divine initiative as is assumed in the recognition of the possibility of miracles.

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  • It was a time of rapid expansion, marked by great missionary fervour, and may be called the Circuit Period, for even after the circuits were grouped into districts in 1821 they did not lose their privilege of missionary initiative.

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  • The issue of this conflict was determined less by any intrinsic superiority on the part of her enemies than by the blunders committed by a people unable to carry out a consistent foreign policy on its own initiative, and served since Pericles by none but selfish or short-sighted advisers.

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  • The position of assembly was excellently chosen, but unfortunately the Austrians took the initiative.

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  • The only work published by Copernicus on his own initiative was a Latin version of the Greek Epistles of Theophylact (Cracow, 1509).

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  • They consequently forfeited many of the advantages of the initiative.

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  • Whereas at 2.30 absolute destruction seemed the only possible fate of the defeated army, by 6 p.m., thanks to the devoted heroism of the artillery and the initiative of a few junior commanders of cavalry, it had escaped from the enclosing horns of the Prussian attack.

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  • The first attempts to utilize the explosive power of nitroglycerin were made by Nobel in 1863; they were only partially successful until the plan, first applied by General Pictot in 1854, of developing the force of gunpowder in the most rapid manner and to the maximum extent, through initiative detonation, was applied by Nobel to nitroglycerin.

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  • Giry took an energetic part in the Collection de textes relatifs a l'histoire du moyen dge, which was due in great measure to his initiative.

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  • Messalla restored the road between Tusculum and Alba, and many handsome buildings were due to his initiative.

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  • In the conduct of the naval war the official role of Tirpitz was confined to reporting and advising at general headquarters, the actual conduct and initiative in operations being in the hands of the higher command of the navy at Wilhelmshaven, subject to the Emperor's approval or veto.

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  • Bills are introduced by the grand-duke, but the house has also the right of initiative.

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  • The public roads and other works of the province are excellent, and, like those of the rest of the Basque provinces, entirely kept up by local initiative and taxes.

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  • In 1902 thirteen amendments were adopted, including provisions for the initiative, the referendum and the recall.

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  • The merchants combined to prevent the importation of goods which by law would yield the crown a revenue; and the patriots - as the anti-prerogative party called themselves - under the lead of Samuel Adams, instituted regular communication between the different towns, and afterwards, following the initiative of Virginia, with the other colonies, through " committees of correspondence "; a method of the utmost advantage thereafter in forcing on the revolution by intensifying and unifying the resistance of the colony, and by inducing the co-operation of other colonies.

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  • The earliest important undertaking with a view of improving the 'waterway was due to the initiative of Frederick the Great, who recommended the diversion of the river into a new and straight channel in the swampy tract of land known as the Oderbruch, near Ciistrin.

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  • D'Erlon, had on his own initiative ordered the I.

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  • The "obligatory referendum" exists in the case of all laws, while 8000 citizens have the right of "initiative" in proposing bills or alterations in the cantonal constitution.

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  • From this time forward, Kuropatkin allowed his subordinates little or no initiative.

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  • The Russian 35th and 36th regiments (loth European Corps) were caught between two advancing columns, and, thanks to the initiative of one of the column leaders, Okasaki, destroyed.

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  • Under an amendment to the Constitution adopted in 1906 his veto power does not extend to measures referred to the people by the legislative assembly or by initiative and referendum petitions.

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  • 5, sec. i of the state constitution, authorized the initiative and referendum, but twofifths of the entire number of counties must each furnish for initiative petitions signatures amounting in number to 8% of the whole number of votes cast for governor at the election last preceding the filing of the petition; for referendum petitions two-fifths of the counties must each furnish as signers 5% of the legal voters; and any measure referred to the people shall be in full force unless the petition for the referendum be signed by 15% of the legal voters (whose number is that of the total votes cast for governor, &c., as above) of a majority of the whole number of counties, but that in such case the law to be referred shall be inoperative until it is passed at the popular election.

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  • South Dakota was the first American state to adopt the initiative and referendum.

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  • Then finally she discovered (December 13) at the time of the coup d'etat, that he had, of his own initiative, given assurances of approval to Count Walewski, which were not in accord with the views of the cabinet and with the "neutrality which had been enjoined" by the queen.

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  • Entirely on her own initiative, and moved by admiration for the fine achievements of "her brave Irish" during the war, the queen announced her intention of paying a long visit to Dublin; and there, accordingly, she went for the month of April 1900, staying in the Viceregal Lodge, receiving many of the leaders of Irish society, inspecting some 50,000 school children from all parts of Ireland, and taking many a drive amid the charming scenery of the neighbourhood of Dublin.

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  • In 1907 the legislature proposed an amendment providing for the application of initiative and referendum to statutory laws and constitutional amendments; two years later the legislature passed a substitute resolution, which omits the clause regarding amendments of the constitution, and which, if passed by the legislature of 2922 will be put to popular vote at the general election of 1912.

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  • The king is an autocrat in practice as well as in theory, he has an absolute power .of veto, and the initiative of measures rests largely with him.

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  • By the latest enactments (one dating from 1905) 2500 citizens can claim a vote ("facultative referendum") as to any legislative project, or can exercise the "right of initiative" as to any such project or as to the revision of the cantonal constitution.

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  • In 1891 they introduced the "Initiative" into the cantonal constitution, and in 1892 the principle of proportional representation so far as regards the grand conseil, while Th.

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  • In purely political matters also both initiative and fulfilment came entirely from the Crown, and to the last of the Jagiellos Poland owed the important acquisition of Livonia and the welding together of her loosely connected component parts into a single state by the Union of.

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  • The king of Saxony, as grand-duke, took the initiative in all legislative matters; but the administration was practically controlled by the French.

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  • In 1439, in the reign of Zara Yakub, a religious discussion between an Abyssinian, Abba Giorgis, and a Frank had led to the despatch of an embassy from Abyssinia to the Vatican; but the initiative in the Roman Catholic missions to Abyssinia was taken, not by Rome, but by Portugal, as an incident in the struggle with the Mussulmans for the command of the trade route to India by the Red Sea.

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  • - Chickasaw Bayou and Fredericksburg ended the Federal initiative in the west and the east; the Army of the Cumberland under Rosecrans alone could claim a victory.

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  • In 1876, on the initiative of General Chanzy, then governor-general, that official was accorded the right to correspond direct with all the ministers in Paris.

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  • This was sufficient to absorb the attention of the general-in-chief, who left the guardianship of the east and west to the initiative of the generals established at Bona and Oran.

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  • In the war against Austria, Bernadotte led the Saxon contingent at the battle of Wagram, on which occasion, on his own initiative he issued an order of the day, attributing the victory principally to the valour of his Saxons, which Napoleon at once disavowed.

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  • The matter was decided by one of the Swedish couriers, Baron Karl Otto Morner, who, entirely on his own initiative, offered the succession to the Swedish crown to Bernadotte.

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  • By his initiative Italian naval industry, almost non-existent in 1873, made rapid progress.

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  • It was no time for brilliant initiative or adventurous politics; the need was to avoid Scylla and Charybdis, and a via media had to be found in church and state, at home and abroad.

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  • He was transparent in character, chivalrous, kindly, firm, eloquent and sagacious; his purity of motive and unselfishness commanded absolute confidence; he had originality and initiative in dealing with new and difficult circumstances, and great aptitude for business details.

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  • He was not, however, destined to compass the downfall of the Sullan regime; the crisis of the Slave War placed the Senate at the mercy of Pompey and Crassus, who in 70 B.C. swept away the safeguards of senatorial ascendancy, restored the initiative in legislation to the tribunes, and replaced the Equestrian order, i.e.

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  • The initiative was taken by Archbishop Parker, about 1563-1565, who, according to Strype (Parker i.

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  • This powerful upstart was the natural enemy of the nobility, who suffered much at his hands, though it is very difficult to determine whether the initiative in these prosecutions proceeded from him or his master.

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  • In 1904 the formation of a municipally supported gallery of modern art (mainly due to the initiative and generosity of Mr Hugh Lane) was signalized by an exhibition including the pictures intended to constitute the nucleus of the gallery.

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  • The charter contains initiative and referendum provisions, provides for the recall of any elective city official, and prohibits the granting of any franchise for a longer term than twenty years.

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  • Some states have recently allowed a prescribed number of voters to propose, by what is called the Initiative, amendments which are submitted to the vote of all the citizens without the intervention of the legislature.

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  • When a commercial crisis occurs much may depend on his initiative.

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  • He has, through his secretary of state, immediate direction of all negotiations with such countries, and an unfettered initiative in all foreign affairs.

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  • He was a great builder, Rouen, Mont St Michel, Pontoise and Gaillon owing many noble buildings to his initiative.

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  • If he bore in silence the odium that fell upon him owing to the break-up of the collection of the Louvre, it was because he knew that it would be fatal to allow it to be known that the first initiative in the matter had come from the king.

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  • For the next two years comparatively little was heard of the Babis, but on the 15th of August 1852 three of them, acting on their own initiative, attempted to assassinate Nasiru'd-Din Shah as he was returning from the chase to his palace at Niyavaran.

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  • It was a time of government on martinet principles, under which all freedom of thought and all private initiative were as far as possible suppressed vigorously by the administration.

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  • It was due to the initiative of the young tsar Nicolas II., who, in his famous rescript of the 24th of August 1898, stated that he thought that the then moment was " very favourable for seeking, by means of international discussion, the most effectual means of assuring to all peoples the benefits of a real and durable peace."

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  • Thirdly, the signatory powers agree that it shall not be regarded as an unfriendly act if one or more powers, strangers to the dispute, on their own initiative offer their good offices or mediation to the states in disagreement, or even during hostilities, if war has already broken out.

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  • Nevertheless, I should consider it a crime against humanity not to sincerely co-operate in an initiative having for object a simultaneous reduction of armaments of the great powers.

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  • Italian practice has always aimed at the maintenance of peace; therefore, I am happy to be able to say that our delegates at the coming Hague Conference will be instructed to further the English initiative."

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  • The only existing case of contractual reduction of armaments is, that of the Disarmament Agreement of the 28th of May 1902 between the Chilian and Argentine republics, adopted " owing to the initiative and good offices of His Britannic Majesty," which is as follows: Art.

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  • The Inter-Parliamentary Union, which dates back to 1887, owes its origin to the initiative of the late Sir W.

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  • The whole system of Peter was deliberately directed against the chief evils from which old Muscovy had always suffered, such as dissipation of energy, dislike of co-operation, absence of responsibility, lack of initiative, the tyranny of the family, the insignificance of the individual.

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  • Saxon architecture owes nearly everything to his initiative, and Bede was one of his pupils.

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  • In 1845 he was made director of an observatory established there through his initiative, and also in 1859 superintendent of the Dudley observatory at Albany.

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  • His own administration had been wrecked, through no initiative of his, by the dissensions over the fiscal question.

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  • hausen in 1840 through his initiative; he executed comprehensive magnetic surveys 1849-1858; announced the magnetic decennial period irk 1850, and his discovery of earth-currents in 1862.

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  • In only two things could they take the initiative, helpfulness and mercy; the deserving poor and the destitute were to receive instant relief; but no member could give anything to his relatives without consulting the heads of the society.

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  • They gave answers to such questions as were submitted to them; the machinery moved when set in motion from outside; but the popes did not attempt to interfere on their own initiative.

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  • When he did exercise it, it was far more frequently at the request of bishops or princes, or of the faithful, than of his own initiative.

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  • Besides the indent business there is, of course, purely merchant business by Manchester exporters, who buy on their own initiative at what they consider to be opportune times or on recommendations from their houses or correspondents abroad.

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  • Accordingly the Silesian estates never again chose to exercise initiative save on rare occasions, and from 1550 Silesia passed almost completely under foreign administration.

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  • While he was still lecturing on natural philosophy at Queenwood College, his magnetic investigations made him known in the higher circles of the scientific world, and through the initiative of Sir E.

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  • (3) The lack of initiative: in a land where the joint family system is everywhere and all powerful, individualism and will-power are at a discount.

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  • He tried to reconcile political parties by granting from his own initiative a liberal constitution (April 6, 1901), introducing for the first time in the constitutional history of Servia the system of two chambers (skupshtina and senate).

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  • The obligatory Referendum obtains in the case of all laws, and of decrees relating to an expenditure of over half a million francs, while 12,000 citizens have the right of initiative in the case of legislative projects, and 15,000 may demand the revision of the cantonal constitution.

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  • Under the constitution the king, as hereditary sovereign, possessed full executive powers, and the initiative in proposing laws.

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  • There is, however, no word of any qualities of will or initiative.

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  • "Philip was not a man of violent initiative, the planner of daring and fateful operations; otherwise there 1 Wenck, P .

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  • in China; challenged Russia as to her intentions in Manchuria, securing a promise to evacuate the country on the 8th of October 1903; and in 1904 again urged "the administrative entity" of China and took the initiative in inducing Russia and Japan to "localize and limit" the area of hostilities.

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  • It was through his initiative, too, that the convention of KlosterSeven was signed (loth of September 1757), and on the 4th of May 1758 he concluded a still more promising treaty with France, whereby, in consideration of Denmark's holding an army-corps of 24,000 men in Holstein till the end of the war, to secure Hamburg, Lubeck and the Gottorp part of Holstein from invasion, France, and ultimately Austria also, engaged to bring about an exchange between the king of Denmark and the cesarevitch, as regards Holstein.

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  • There has been some discussion as to the fairness of the treatment accorded by Pascal to his rivals, but no question of the fact that his initiative led to a great extension of our knowledge of the properties of the cycloid, and indirectly hastened the progress of the differential calculus.

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  • Mr Roosevelt brought the whole subject before Congress in his message of the 3rd of December 1901, and thereby started what seemed likely to be a new sphere of Federal initiative and control.

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  • At the close of 1755 his offer of an alliance War, was acceded to; and in the following year, hoping ~ by vigorously taking the initiative to prevent his enemies from united action, he invaded Saxony, and began the Seven Years War (q.v.), the result of which was to confirm Prussia in the possession of Silesia.

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  • In 1813 King Frederick William, after an agony of hesitation, was forced by I War of the patriotic initiative of General Yorck, who concluded, L,ibera~ with the Russians the convention of Tauroggen on his own responsibility, and by the pressure of public opinion supported by Queen Louise and by Hardenberg, to enter into an alliance with Russia.

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  • Metternich had been allowed to take the initiative in negotiating with the princes of the Confederation of the Rhine, and the price of their adhesion to the cause of the allies had been the guarantee by Austria of their independent sovereignty.

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  • A system so inelastic, and so deadening to all initiative, could have but one result.

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  • On the initiative of Great, Britain a conference between the representatives of the great powers and Turkey was held in London, itnd resulted in the signing of a convention in March 1885.

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  • In June 1890 the assent of the powers was obtained to th conversion of the Preference (Privileged), Domains and Daira loans on the following conditions, imposed at the initiative of the French government:

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  • European initiative suggests measures to be executed by Egyptian agency, while European supervision controls the manner in which they are executed.

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  • Seeing the importance of taking the initiative, and if possible, of securing Saxony, he suddenly, on the 24th of August 1756, crossed the frontier of that country, and shut in the Saxon army between Pirna and Konigstein, ultimately compelling it, after a victory gained over the Austrians at Lobositz, to surrender.

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  • To his initiative was chiefly due the Factory Act of 1875, which established a ten-hours day for women and.

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  • These changes included the transference of the initiative in university legislation from the sole authority of the heads of houses to an elected and representative body, the opening of college fellowships and scholarships to competition by the removal of local and other restrictions the non-enforcement at matriculation of subscription to the Thirty-nine Articles, and various steps for increasing the usefulness and influence of the professoriate.

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  • The initiative was taken by the French in the 12th and 13th centuries, and the Germans followed in the 14th and 15th; while the Book of Wa y es to Jerusalem of John de Maundeville (c. 1336) attained extreme popularity, and was translated into almost all the vernacular languages.

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  • A law of 1901 provided for a system of initiative whereby any question of public policy might be submitted to popular vote upon the signature of a written petition therefor by onetenth of the registered voters of the state; such a petition must be filed at least 60 days before the election day when it is to be voted upon, and not more than three questions by initiative may be voted on at the same election; to become operative a measure must receive a majority of all votes cast in the election.

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  • But in view of the extreme importance of the matter, and especially of the evidence that, for some cause or other (which may or may not be the examination system), intellectual interest and initiative seem to diminish in many cases very markedly during school and college life in England, the whole subject seems to call for a searching and impartial inquiry.

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  • p. 264, referring to Neapolis)- and that on his own initiative.

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  • Since 1875, 1000 citizens can claim a popular vote (facultative Referendum) on all bills, or can exercise the right of initiative whether as to laws or the revision of the cantonal constitution.

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  • The "obligatory Referendum" obtains in the case of all laws, while 1500 citizens have the right of "initiative" whether as to laws or the revision of the cantonal constitution.

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  • With the latter may be compared presentday movements like the initiative and referendum, and not a few discussions of national debts.

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  • The draining and tilling of submerged or uncultivated land on a large scale, the promotion of agriculture in every way, in particular by the digging of channels, and the regulation of the system of taxation, were carried out on his initiative.

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  • During a last moment of returning consciousness, and by the advice of the whole council, who had been joined on their own initiative by the Whig dukes Argyll and Somerset, she placed the lord treasurer's staff in the hands of the Whig duke of Shrewsbury, and measures were immediately taken for assuring the succession of the elector.

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  • Hempl's initiative was followed by Professor Gundermann of Giessen, who announced in November 1897' that he had discovered the source of the runic alphabet, the introduction of which he declares preceded the first of the phonetic changes known as the " Teutonic sound-shifting," since < = g is used for k, X = x for g, a Theta-like symbol for d, while zd is used for st.

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  • These are the universality of the Gospel, the jealousy of national Judaism, and the Divine initiative manifest in the gradual stages by which men of Jewish birth were led to recognize the Divine will in the setting aside of national restrictions, alien to the universal destiny of the Church.

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  • In1606-1611the trading classes of Nizhniy took an active part in the expeditions against the revolted serfs, and it was a Nizhniy dealer in cattle, Kozma Minin Sukhorukov, who took the initiative in sending an army for the delivery of Moscow from the Poles in 1612.

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  • The city had been founded on too elaborate and extensive a plan to be left to the initiative and unaided resources of its citizens.

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  • But progress can leave little room to individual initiative, if it must always.

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  • This improvement, due to English initiative, has been adopted amongst the essential forms of financial administration on the continent.

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  • On the other hand, there has been a compensating advantage in the fact that improved machinery has been demanded for this class of work, and the British manufacturer has been stimulated by the American manufacturers, who have taken the initiative in the change of methods in printing.

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  • A proof is the mysterious rapid extinction of savages the moment that their group-life is broken up; they are individually so many lost sheep, without self-reliance or initiative.

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  • West Africa him associated with Clarke as one of the most active members of the Newport church, and as the date of the organization is uncertain, there is some reason to suspect that he was a constituent member, and that asabaptized man he took the initiative in baptizing and organizing.

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  • All the useful reforms introduced between 1730 and 1740 are to be attributed to his initiative.

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  • In this, as in every other Gustavus matter, Gustavus himself took the initiative.

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  • The king possessed the initiative; but the estates had the right of objecting to the measures of the government at the close of each session.

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  • Crown Prince Gustaf, who during the illness of King Oscar was appointed regent, took the initiative of renewing the negotiations between the two countries, and on the 5th of April in a combined Swedish and Norwegian council of state made a proposal for a reform both of the administration of diplomatic affairs and of the consular service on the basis of full equality between the two kingdoms, with the express reservation, however, of a joint foreign minister - Swedish or Norwegian - as a condition for the existence of the union.

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  • Up to 1870 the government was in the hands of a small oligarchy of Santiago families, but the president enjoyed large powers of initiative.

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  • The ministers were not responsible to the Crown in a way that ministers of a European government are: they rarely took any initiative, and generally referred their affairs to the grand vizir or to the shah for final decision.

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  • The old initiative and self-reliance of the nation, already shaken by years of disaster, were now completely undermined, and the people submitted without show of resistance to a theocracy disguised as absolute monarchy.

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  • But the regicide Buiga and his associates probably acted on their own initiative.

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  • The inclusion in the charter of the principle of the " initiative and referendum " enables a percentage of the voters to compel the submission of measures to public approval.

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  • Naturally, then, they took the lead, collectively-in form at least, though really the initiative lay with one or two of their own number, Peter in particular.

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  • The case was essentially the same as on the various mission-fields to-day, where the position of the "missionary" is at first one of great spiritual initiative and authority, limited only by his own sense of the fitness of things, in the light of local usages.

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  • The war with Spain, in which he had urged the cabinet to take the initiative, proved inevitable; but he scorned to use the occasion for "altercation and recrimination," and spoke in support of the government measures for carrying on the war.

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  • But uncertainty as to Bulgarian movements and dispositions was not yet cleared up. In any case, the seizure of the initiative at a moment when the Serbian I.

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  • But the result of a day's fighting, which was marked by initiative and combination of effort in the subordinate commanders, was to hustle the Turkish V.

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  • On the other side, confusion in the command and other causes made the general advance slow and disjointed; the initiative was soon lost, and the battle became one of the parallel fronts along the 1 This is all the more remarkable as the Bulgarian I.

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  • But the Bulgarians, in order to relieve pressure and to keep their hold upon Western opinion, seized the initiative again while the regrouping was in process and the Greeks had hardly yet entered the Struma and Strumitsa valleys.

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  • The constitution admits of amendment by an affirmative vote of two-thirds of the members of each house of the legislature, followed at the next succeeding spring or autumn election by an affirmative vote of a majority of the electors voting upon the question; or an amendment may be proposed by an initiative petition signed by more than 20% of the total number of electors who voted for secretary of state at the preceding election, and such an amendment (unless disapproved by a majority vote in a joint meeting of the two houses of the legislature) is submitted to popular 2 In 1909 telegraph and telephone companies were put under the supervision of the same board.

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  • The initiative came from those cardinals who had one after the other seceded either from Gregory XII.

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  • A county council may also prepare a scheme on its own initiative.

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  • In September 1908 a constitutional amendment was adopted providing for referendum and initiative by the people.

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  • Almost as he gave the signal for the whole line to charge, the sorely pressed Hospitallers rode out upon the enemy on their own initiative.

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  • But Hewitt was too old and Wilson was lacking in initiative; the opportunity was lost, and no attempt was made to do more than clear the cantonments.

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  • At Florence he was at last persuaded, on the initiative of Piero Soderini, to undertake for his native city a work of painting as great as that with which he had adorned Milan.

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  • No speech of his is perhaps more famous than that in which he claimed the initiative in recognizing the independence of the revolted Spanish colonies in South America in 1823 - "I resolved that, if France had Spain, it should not be Spain with the Indies.

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  • That he was slow, and perhaps too tender-hearted, in handling armed masses for action may be admitted, and though admirable for defensive war and a safe strategist, he showed himself unfitted to take the highly essential initiative, both because of temperament and his habitual exaggeration of obstacles and opposing numbers.

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  • To, Klain's initiative can be traced most of the work of the three.

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  • Radulescu (1802-1872), a man of immense activity, of great power of initiative and of still greater imagination.

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  • An amendment which was adopted (177,615 for; 147,290 against) in November 1908, and came in effect on the 4th of December 1908, provides for initiative and referendum applying to statutory law and to constitutional amendments, but emergency measures, and appropriations for the state government, for state institutions, and for public schools are exempt from referendum.

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  • Initiative petitions, signed by at least 8% of the legal voters in each two-thirds (at least) of the congressional districts of the state, must be filed not later than four months before the election at which the measure is to be voted upon.

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  • Apollo's oracles, which he did not deliver on his own initiative but as the mouthpiece of Zeus, were infallible, but the human mind was not always able to grasp their meaning; hence he is called Loxias (" crooked," "ambiguous").

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  • He resented the initiative in Reconstruction taken by Lincoln, and later by Johnson, as an encroachment upon the powers of Congress.

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  • In 1908 two laws proposed by initiative petition were passed, stopping all fishing by night and fishing in the navigable channels of the lower river, limiting the length of seines to be used in the lower river and abolishing the use of gear by fishermen of the upper river - the mouth of the Sandy river, in Multnomah county, being the dividing line between the upper and lower Columbia.

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  • This constitution may be amended: by a majority of the popular vote at a regular general election, if the amendment has been passed by a majority vote of all the elected members of each house of the legislature; or by an initiative petition; or by a constitutional convention, which may not be called, however, unless the law providing for it is approved by popular vote.

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  • This provision for the initiative and the referendum was made effective by a legislative act of 1903.

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  • The power of the initiative was first exercised by the people of Oregon in 1904, when they proposed and enacted a local option liquor law and a direct primary law.

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  • In June 1906 five laws and five amendments to the constitution, proposed by initiative petitions, and one law on which the referendum was ordered by petition, were submitted to a popular vote.

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  • An amendment giving women the right to vote was defeated, and among those adopted was one providing for the initiative upon special and local laws and parts of laws, and another giving cities and towns the exclusive right to enact or amend their own charters, subject only to the constitution and the criminal laws.

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  • At the election in June 1908 the number of initiative and referendum measures amounted to nineteen, and the ballot required forty-one separate marks and was over 22 ft.

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  • The measures to be voted on consisted of eleven laws or constitutional amendments proposed by initiative petition, four constitutional amendments referred to the people by the legislature, and four laws upon which the voters had ordered a referendum.

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  • Chamberlain) was a prominent advocate of the initiative, the referendum and the direct election of United States senators; and that a wing of the Republican party worked for the choice of the Democratic candidate by the people in the hope that the (Republican) legislature would not ratify the popular choice and so would nullify the direct primary law.

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  • In 1906, for example, the people by the initiative secured a law forbidding public officers from accepting free passes from railways.

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  • The initiative and the referendum are employed in municipal ordinances as well as in state laws; towns and cities make their own provisions as to "the manner of exercising the initiative and referendum powers as to their own municipal legislation"; but "not more than 10% of the legal voters may be required to order the referendum nor more than 15% to propose any measure by the initiative, in any city or town."

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  • Cotton, The Codes and Statutes of Oregon (2 vols., San Francisco, 1902); and Frank Foxcroft, "Constitution Mending and the Initiative," in the Atlantic Monthly for June 1906.

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  • This assembly elaborated 102 canons, which did not become part of the Western law till much later, on the initiative of Pope John VIII.

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  • Hence arise infinite and inextricable difficulties which obstruct the study of canon law; an immense field for controversy and litigation; a thousand perplexities of conscience; and finally contempt for the laws."' We know how the Vatican council had to separate without approaching the question of canonical reform; but this general desire for a recasting of the ecclesiastical code was taken up again on the initiative of Rome.

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  • 17, 1717) between Spain, Savoy and Austria, by which the first-named acceded to the principles of the Triple Alliance; the treaty of peace between Holland and France (May 16, 1 795); the first "Hague Convention," the outcome of the "peace conference" assembled on the initiative of the emperor Nicholas II.

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  • In this account nothing is said of confession; but it would appear that in early days the sins were made known to the congregation, and in notorious cases they would take the initiative and expel the offender.

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  • Up to this time the initiative and the bulk of outrages lay assuredly heavily on the pro-slavery side; hereafter they became increasingly common and more evenly divided.

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  • But the initiative of demanding justice had passed from thecrown to the Commons.

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  • In May 1828, on the initiative of Lord John Russell, the Test and Corporation Acts were repealed; in the same session a Corn Bill, differing but little from those that Wellington had hitherto opposed, was passed; and finally, after a strenuous agitation which culminated in the election of OConnell for Clare, and in spite of the obstinate resistance of King George IV., the Catholic Emancipation Bill was passed (April 10, 18 29) by a large majority.

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  • Pufendorf, on the contrary, rejected all idea of foreign intervention, and advocated that of national initiative.

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  • The substance of the relations between the emperor and himself, he declared, rested on mutual good-will, and added: "I must lay it down most emphatically that the prerogative of the emperor's personal initiative must not be curtailed, and will not be curtailed, by any chancellor..

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  • keep the initiative for the king, subject to confirmation by the Chamber.

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  • The Girondins addressed themselves to provincials who had lost the power of initiative.

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  • The Ancients had a suspensory veto, but no initiative in legislation.

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  • From the theological standpoint every individual is predestined either by his natural birthright to evil or by Divine Grace to good, and the absolute foreknowledge and omnipotence of God excludes even the possibility of any initiative on the part of the individual by means of which he might influence God's timeless choice.

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  • If the attack is to be finally repulsed it will be imperatively necessary for the libertarian to maintain that no full explanation of the physical universe can ever gain assent which does not take account of the reality and influence within the material world of human power of initiative and freedom.

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  • Any proof, in the scientific sense, that a man's acts are due to his power of free initiative would be from the nature of the case impossible.

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  • 2 It can be justly charged against Calvin in this matter that he took the initiative in bringing on the trial of Servetus, that as his accuser he prosecuted the suit against him with undue severity, and that he approved the sentence which condemned Servetus to death.

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  • individualis, that which is not divided, an individual), in political philosophy, the theory of government according to which the good of the state consists in the well-being and free initiative of the component members.

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  • Besides transferring private bill legislation to Dublin on the Scottish plan, to which no one in Ireland objected, it was proposed to hand over the internal expenditure of Ireland to a financial council consisting half of nominated and half of elected members, and to give an Irish assembly the initiative in public Irish bills.

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  • From this time onward, in face of a growing opposition, anxiety for the future of his regime occupied the first place in the emperor's thoughts, and paralysed his initiative.

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  • At this period, on the initiative of the 4th earl of Clarendon, then foreign secretary, an understanding was come to between the British and French governments by which it was agreed that each power should respect the independence of Madagascar; and the future of the country appeared to be bound up in the gradual consolidation of the central Hova authority over the whole island.

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  • His chiefs in the earlier years left him to take the initiative in all measures of reform, and supported him in their own interest.

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  • The duke has considerable powers of initiative and veto.

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  • It was on the initiative of Portuguese living in England that Queen Elizabeth, in 1588, granted a patent to "certain merchants of Exeter and others of the west parts and of London for a trade to the river of Senega and Gambra in Guinea."

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  • Like their private life, their public life, no longer stimulated by struggles and difficulties, had become sluggish; their power of initiative was enfeebled.

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  • It caused a slackening of that spirit of communal initiative which had awakened in the midst of unprecedented disasters.

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  • While Richelieu was opposing the designs of the pope and of the Spaniards in the Valtellina, while he was arming the duke of Savoy and subsidizing Mansfeld in Germany, Henri, duc de Rohan, and his brother Benjamin de Rohan, duc de Soubise, the Protestant chiefs, took the initiative in a fresh revolt despite the majority of their party (1625).

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  • But commerce, like industry, was made to rely only on the instigation of the state, by the intervention of officials; here, as throughout thenational life, private initiative was kept in subjection and under suspicion.

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  • But these were only provisionary and desperate expedients, superposed upon the old routine, a further charge in addition to those already existing; and this entirely mechanical system, destructive of private initiative and the very sources of public life, worked with difficulty even in time of peace.

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  • The Directory had to make a stand or perish, and with it the Republic. The directors had thought France might retain a monopoly second in numbers and in initiative.

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  • With the exception of Talleyrand, after 1808 he would have about him only mediocre people, without initiative, prostrate at the feet of the giant:

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  • Their artists have no choice of subjects and no initiative.

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  • But whether it was on his own initiative or not, there can be no doubt as to the hopes which they built on his arrival (see Daudet, Louis XVIII.

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  • A few weeks later Newman started, apparently on his own initiative, the Tracts for the Times, from which the movement was subsequently named "Tractarian."

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  • But allowance must be made for the mere advantage of initiative which belonged to any party that organized the government - the differences between Hamilton and Jefferson, in this question of neutrality, being almost purely factitious.

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  • French companies rested more than did their rivals on false principles; they were more fettered by the royal power, and had less initiative of their own, and therefore had less chance of surviving.

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  • He was a soldier of infinite personal courage and daring, of striking military energy, initiative and resource; a high, pure and single character, dwelling much in the region of the unseen.

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  • courage, if little decision and initiative.

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  • The process was even hastened; for the emperor's stern discipline crushed out all independence of initiative and silenced all honest criticism.

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  • On the other hand, his presence was sufficient to hamper the initiative of Prince Wittgenstein, the nominal commander-in-chief; for Nicholas was constitutionally incapable of leaving him a free hand.

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  • Like it or not, we need to take the initiative and set the record straight.

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  • Why didn't Katie take some initiative to get the fire going in the dairy?

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  • At least that was one way Carmen had shown initiative.

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  • accustomed energy and initiative.

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  • Futures has been organized by Design Initiative in association with ' V ' and Merseyside acme.

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  • He reported that the Lancashire Strategic Initiative will now include aerospace.

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  • Economic initiative of feeling a little might see angelfish.

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  • GRASP is the first internationally co-ordinated initiative to save the great apes.

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  • In the 1990s, on Gigante's initiative, an abortive attempt was made to reopen the old 18th-century excavations.

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  • audiovisual presentation introducing a new initiative from the Strategic Forum for Construction.

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  • To grease the wheels for change, the director for retail banking threw his support behind the initiative.

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  • A ' soil bioengineering ' initiative with the University of Dundee is studying vegetation as an ecological solution for slope stabilization.

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  • cropGen is an information initiative designed to make the case for crop biotechnology.

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  • centerpiece of this initiative, charts the landscape of emerging technologies and produces the NMC's annual Horizon Report.

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  • chamber concertnew series of chamber music concerts mounted by Crwth at Swansea Museum is an initiative to be cherished.

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  • The initiative has received Trust-wide support, with active involvement from the Chief Executive, Divisional Managers and lead clinicians.

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  • We have seen This in the 11 th commandment initiative and now through our involvement with the 'virtual church ' .

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  • commend the achievements of the family friendly initiative.

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  • The global compact The Global Compact is an initiative of UN Secretary General Kofi Annan.

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  • concordat with the private sector and Private Finance Initiative (PFI ).

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  • conforms to level A of the W3C project (Web Accessibility Initiative or WAI) for accessibility.

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  • An initiative to set up a new e-learning standards conformance authority for the UK has been launched.

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  • The California State Supreme Court upheld the constitutionality of Proposition 21, a juvenile crime initiative, passed by voters in 2000.

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  • corncrake initiative and the reintroduction of red kites and sea eagles to Scotland have been well publicized.

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  • It is an initiative to challenge the oil industry throughout the 100 day countdown to Kyoto climate conference in december 1997.

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  • cowboy builders initiative would revive public trust in the industry.

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  • This did reduce crime over the period of the Initiative.

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  • Art & images for Easter crucifixion Images The Ecole Initiative Range of crucifixion image.

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  • The present dearth of referral practices North of the border makes this the ideal time to aggressively pursue this initiative.

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  • Secure by design: a UK police initiative designed to help create safer, more secure environments.

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  • Our CCTV initiative aims to improve public safety and confidence whilst actively deterring crime.

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  • Battersea Healthy Living Initiative and local NHS dietitians are offering a new course to Battersea residents who need to lose weight.

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  • It took no initiative, no grand scheme, no ministerial diktat.

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  • A personal story about a community initiative to provide respite care for profoundly disabled children in Tower Hamlets, London, UK.

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  • There can be no clearer illustration than Labor's hugely discredited waiting list initiative.

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  • dole scroungers ", or Reagan's Strategic Defense Initiative.

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  • This was usually at the initiative of bilateral and multilateral donors who followed their own procedures.

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  • dour affair, with neither team taking the initiative.

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  • The Demining 2010 Initiative, through US leadership, will seek to coordinate these efforts.

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  • ell initiative is being managed and coordinated by CILT on behalf of the DfES.

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  • Secure by design: a UK police initiative designed to help create safer, more secure environments.

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  • exciting initiative, which encourages more young people to become involved in sport in their local communities.

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  • finance initiative scheme.

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  • And as sportswear brands face flack from Oxfam over labor issues, budget clothing retailer Primark joins the Ethical Trading Initiative.

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  • But the initiative has drawn flak from some quarters in the open source community, judging from the responses posted on Port 25 blogs.

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  • The Group recommended that considerable thought be given to the role of incentives in any participatory forestry initiative.

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  • The initiative is already pushing forward the frontiers of basic science.

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  • go-between role is that of the Liverpool and Manchester Design Initiative.

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  • GRASP is the first internationally co-ordinated initiative to save the great apes.

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  • groundbreaking initiative which you can find more about by clicking on the link.

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  • hip-hop star has launched a new voting initiative called Citizen Change in a bid to make voting popular again.

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  • The Initiative also includes an Internet incubator Fund to stimulate the creation of new regional Incubators that will support and nurture new e-businesses.

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  • indebted poor country initiative.

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  • President Bush launched the international initiative in Krakow, Poland, in May 2003.

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  • Group warmly welcomed the initiative in involving the public in this planning application.

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  • The Health and Safety Executive (HSE) has announced a national initiative to promote safe use of ladders.

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  • initiative in conjunction with the World Health Organization.

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  • A new national initiative, it is aimed at encouraging parents to spend just a few minutes a day reading aloud to their children.

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  • The scheme is a new initiative from national energy charity NEA.

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  • Step into Sport is an exciting initiative, which encourages more young people to become involved in sport in their local communities.

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  • From the start the project was established as a collaborative initiative within each cluster.

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  • initiative with minimum supervision.

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  • The second phase, known as Compass, is the procurement of a managed service through a private finance initiative contract.

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  • In this unpredictable, regional evolution can be heard the death knell for Mr Bush's " Greater Middle East Initiative.

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  • launched the international initiative in Krakow, Poland, in May 2003.

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  • The whole initiative toward personalizing learning has to be done in online environments.

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  • One initiative that has already been implemented as part of the decibel legacy is the Creative Advisors Scheme.

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  • linguistics experts are involved in an ambitious joint initiative with the BBC to find out why we speak the way we do.

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  • Russia's swift seizure of the arms control initiative helped shift the logjam.

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  • low-cost home ownership via an initiative with the CML.

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  • operation manhunt is a pro-active intelligence-led initiative set up to tackle distraction burglary in Hertfordshire and the surrounding regions.

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  • motherhood initiative " went down the wrong track " .

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  • First, the Division needs to extend its initiative in Developmental Biology into cellular neurobiology, with particular emphasis on stem cell research.

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  • Yet another initiative is franchising, which involves copious training and on-going support, aimed at industry newcomers.

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  • nurture initiative for 2000 was the Pumphouse, an informal venue that embraces experimentation, spontaneity and nurturing of new talent.

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  • Microsoft is about to launch a major initiative on pen tablet computers with a new operating system.

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  • But, after three years Initiative at the Edge support, the bleak outlook has swung bright.

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  • overseeVM successfully oversaw the withdrawal of army units, but the initiative was not even-handed.

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  • Executives are not abandoned penniless in the Rift Valley as a test of initiative.

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  • I should like the Minister to develop her excellent initiative from last July to ensure that even fewer low-income pensioners receive self-assessment forms.

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  • operation pentameter, an initiative of the Association of Chief Police Officers, rescued 84 women, including a girl of 14.

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  • Chain reaction Companies in Nottinghamshire are benefiting from an initiative which helps them to promote better environmental performance to their suppliers.

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  • personable nature and are willing to use your initiative, you'll thrive.

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  • pioneering initiative in the US that reverses the traditional secondment model.

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  • We are looking for graduates and post-graduates who can demonstrate practical problem-solving skills, maturity, and evidence of teamwork and initiative.

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  • This is obviously preferable to you having to take the initiative to ask them!

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  • All these initiative are having a major effect on the way directors view business probity.

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  • Such an initiative on the part of the bride is unusual and suggests a metaphoric profundity that will be examined below.

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  • Nils Franke, piano tutor to the Music in Professional Practice Initiative, will lead his piano quintet in playing the Mendelssohn.

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  • reduce crime over the period of the Initiative.

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  • For several years, critics of Britain's private finance initiative have been puzzled by its extraordinary resilience.

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  • secure by design: a UK police initiative designed to help create safer, more secure environments.

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  • A visit would not have prospered, not least because of the widespread conviction in Washington that Wilson's peace initiative was largely self-serving.

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  • This is an interesting and challenging role and would suit a confident self-starter, willing to work with others and on their own initiative.

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  • Non-Exec bulletin Shared services bulletin sent to NHS directors of finance to provide updates on the progress of the National Shared Services Initiative.

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  • Private Morrow worked on entirely on his own initiative, all the time being under extremely heavy shellfire from the German guns.

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  • shellfish fisheries sector itself was expected to take the initiative in managing the implementation of low impact measures.

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  • The Strategic Defense Initiative, or Star Wars, became a shibboleth for Reagan, the believer in Armageddon.

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  • sinner that repenteth, you might reasonably think, for this was always a wholly misconceived policy initiative.

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  • LEADER+ This is an initiative that supports small-scale, innovative projects addressing local rural development issues.

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  • spearheading an initiative to promote the use of arts in healthcare.

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  • Late payments by the GMB also stymied farmers ' initiative to grow maize.

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  • Members of the General Assembly lack initiative, and are too subservient in the face of American power.

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  • IBM announce $ 100 million research initiative to build the world's fastest supercomputer.

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  • The Force remains fully supportive of the Bikesafe initiative, with over 60 riders participating in the events during 2005.

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  • Starting a $ 5.5 million initiative to improve influenza surveillance in Asia.

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  • sustain the momentum behind this initiative.

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  • symbiosis initiative in the world to be launched on a national scale.

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  • Smartwater property marking -- a property marking initiative free to every Burngreave resident to deter theft.

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  • For the purposes of this initiative ' street crime ' includes robbery and snatch theft.

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  • This position would suit a time served tradesman, who is able to work on their own initiative.

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  • tripartite committee to implement this initiative.

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  • underlined the significance of this exercise and expressed their full support to the initiative.

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  • varyaching in these is varied to suit the group of learners in the class but there are more opportunities for individual initiative and investigation.

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  • Serials Review Examples of recent collaborative ventures between the two libraries include the Serials Review project funded by SHEFC under the Regional Strategic Initiative.

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  • wake of that disaster, some members of the order decided, on their own initiative, to revive the British branch.

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  • war crimes initiative was first disclosed by the Los Angeles Times.

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  • The initiative will also provide better public access to the waterfront by opening up areas and providing waterside walks where appropriate.

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  • A future initiative coming soon will be the provision of steering wheel locking devices to motorists.

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  • wired Region initiative might benefit their activity.

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  • wrested back the initiative.

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  • In theory these agreements may result from the spontaneous and pacific initiative of the contracting parties, but in reality their object has almost always been to terminate more or less acute conflicts and remedy more or less disturbed situations.

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  • Since 1866 his authority in Balliol had been really paramount, and various reforms in college had been due to his initiative.

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  • The presbytery fixes the former for specific business; the latter is summoned by the moderator, either on his own initiative or on the requisition of two or more members of presbytery, for the transaction of business which has suddenly emerged.

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  • The bill, however, fell absolutely dead, not because it was not a good bill, but because the movement out of which it arose had not popular initiative, and therefore failed to reach the popular imagination.

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  • Here, too, everything was due to his personal initiative.

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  • Actual construction was completed to Burnoi (220 versts) when Bolshevism came to crush all enterprise and initiative.

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  • He contributed £600 to the proposed Irish campaign and £500 for raising forces in England - large sums from his small estate - and on his own initiative in July 1642 sent arms of the value of £ioo down to Cambridge, seized the magazine there in August, and prevented the king's commission of array from being executed in the county, taking these important steps on his own authority and receiving subsequently indemnity by vote of the House of Commons.

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  • But the only state capable of taking the initiative was Piedmont, and the king still hesitated.

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  • Diplo- ~e1~s the matic records fail to substantiate the accusations of g lack of initiative and instability of political criterion currently brought against him by contemporaries.

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  • What resistance could Italy have offered had the German chancellor, seconded by Austria, and assuredly supported by France, called upon Italy to revise the Law of Guarantees in conformity with Catholic exigencies, or had he taken the initiative of making papal independence the subject of an international conference?

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  • For the moment Germany was to hold aloof lest any active initiative on her part should displease the Vatican, of whose help Bismarck stood in need.

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  • The Monza labor exchange then took the initiative of proclaiming a general strike throughout Italy (September 15th) as a protest against the government for daring to maintain order.

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  • 8 It was not till 1905 that the zemstvos regained, at least de facto, some of their independent initiative.

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  • education, and even secondary education, a privilege of the wealthier classes; neglect of primary education, coupled with suppression by the ministry of public instruction of all initiative, private and public, in the matter of disseminating education among the illiterate classes - these were the distinctive features of the educational policy of the last twenty years of the 19th century.

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  • All this was to be done, however, under the strict supervision and guidance of the autocratic power, with as little aid as possible from private initiative and with no control whatever of public opinion, because influential public opinion is apt to produce insubordination.

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  • It extends the initiative of the Commission from the investigation of complaints to the investigation of rates on its own motion; authorizes it to suspend rates in advance of their going into effect, pending an investigation which may be continued for ten months, and to establish through routes; and provides for a special commission, appointed by the President, to investigate questions pertaining to the issuance of railway securities.

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  • They, having the great opportunity of initiative, organized it in all its branches, giving it an administrative machinery that in the main endures to-day; established the doctrine of national neutrality toward European conflicts (although the variance of Federalist and Republican opinion on this point was largely factitious); and fixed the practice of a liberal construction of the Constitution,) - not only by Congress, but above all by the United States Supreme Court, which, under the lead of John Marshall (who had been appointed chief-justice by Pres.

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  • On his own initiative he conducted exhaustive inquiries into the conditions of the Sicilian peasants and of the Tuscan metayers, and in 1877 published in co-operation with Signor Leopoldo Franchetti a masterly work on Sicily (La Sicilia, Florence, 1877).

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  • The Pacification of Birks had been wrung from the king; and the Scots, seeing that he was preparing for the " Second Bishops' War," took the initiative, and pressed into England so vigorously that Charles had again to yield everything.

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  • The mining industry is growing rapidly in importance in spite of costly and deficient means of communication, want of capital, and lack of general initiative.

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  • Thus, the initiative in lawmaking lay with the Council of State; but, as its members were all chosen by the First Consul, it is clear that that important duty was vested really in him.

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  • Britain, it was true, acting on the initiative of George Canning, had seized the Danish fleet, thus forestalling an action which Napoleon certainly contemplated; but on the other hand Denmark now allied herself with him; and while in Lombardy he heard of the triumphant entry of his troops into Lisbon - an event which seemed to prelude his domination in the Iberian Peninsula and thereafter in the Mediterranean.

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  • Fambri was ruined by his enterprise, but other manufacturers, more expert than he, drew profit from his initiative, and founded flourishing factories at Pellestrina and Burano.

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  • In 1908 an act was passed providing for local option in regard to the sale of intoxicating liquors, by an election to be called an initiative petition, signed by at least 35% of the electors of a county.

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  • The doctrine of Evolution, instead of increasing the difficulty of conceiving the possibility of miracle, decreases it; for it presents to us the universe as an uncompleted process, and one in which there is no absolute continuity on the phenomenal side; for life and mind are inexplicable by their physical antecedents, and there is not only room for, but need of, the divine initiative, a creative as well as conservative co-operation of God with nature.

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  • Thus as life is transcendent and yet immanent in body, and mind in brain, and both utilize their organs, so God, transcendent and immanent, uses the course of nature for His own ends; and the emergence both of life and mind in that course of nature evidences such a divine initiative as is assumed in the recognition of the possibility of miracles.

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  • For such an initiative there must be adequate reason; it must be prepared for in the previous process, and it must be necessary to further progress.

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  • In 1909 the state legislature provided for a commission form of government which took effect in April 1910; a council of five, elected by the city at large, has only legislative powers; the mayor appoints members of a utilities commission, a park commission and a board of public works, and all officers except the city auditor and treasurer; and the charter provides for the initiative, the referendum and the recall.

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  • (See WASHINGTON CON FERENCE.) The initiative taken by President Harding in calling the conference, and the extent of its success, intensified the feeling which had been steadily growing during the first session of his administration, that he possessed qualities peculiarly adapted to the political conditions of the moment.

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  • Within recent years, owing to the initiative of Colonel English, a method of raising oil by the agency of compressed air has been introduced into the Baku oil-fields.

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  • It was a time of rapid expansion, marked by great missionary fervour, and may be called the Circuit Period, for even after the circuits were grouped into districts in 1821 they did not lose their privilege of missionary initiative.

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  • The issue of this conflict was determined less by any intrinsic superiority on the part of her enemies than by the blunders committed by a people unable to carry out a consistent foreign policy on its own initiative, and served since Pericles by none but selfish or short-sighted advisers.

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  • John Walker, to whose initiative the charts published by the admiralty are indebted for the perspicuous, firm and yet artistic execution, which facilitate their use by the mariner, was also the author of the maps published by the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge (1829-1840).

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  • He also realized - as was shown by the triumphant re-election of Mr Kruger to the presidency of the Transvaal in February 1898 - that the Pretoria government would never on its own initiative redress the grievances of the "Uitlanders."

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  • The great powers of the intendant were, however, merged in those of the governorgeneral in 1853; and the captain-general having been given by royal order in 1825 (several times later explicitly confirmed, and not revoked until 1870) the absolute powers (to be assumed at his initiative and discretion) of the governor of a besieged city, and by a royal order of 1834 the power to banish at will persons supposed to be inimical to the public peace; and being by virtue of his office the president and dominator of all the important administrative boards of the government, held the government of the island, and in any emergency the liberty and property of its inhabitants, in his hand.

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  • The French bondholders, who hold by far the largest proportion of Turkish securities, took the principal initiative in this matter, and, after protracted negotiations with the Turkish government and the other " syndicates " of bondholders, they succeeded, in 1903, in obtaining the following modifications of the original decree of Muharrem.

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  • Hence obedience was instinctive and initiative almost undreamt of.

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  • Much had been done to create an efficient staff, but though the idea of the army corps command was now no new thing, the senior generals entrusted with these commands were far from having acquired the independence and initiative of their French opponents.

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  • The position of assembly was excellently chosen, but unfortunately the Austrians took the initiative.

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  • The only point on which he had of his own initiative shown a strong objection to revolutionary measures was in the matter of the civil constitution of the clergy.

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  • The rapid advance of Belgium in industrial and manufacturing prosperity, due largely to the stimulus of William's personal initiative, did nothing to bring north and south together, but rather increased their rivalry and jealousy, for the Dutch provinces had neither manufactures nor ironand coal-mines, but were dependent on agriculture and sea-borne commerce for their welfare.

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  • And at the end of March Loisy gave up his lectureship, as he declared, "on his own initiative, in view of the pacification of minds in the Catholic Church."

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  • The only work published by Copernicus on his own initiative was a Latin version of the Greek Epistles of Theophylact (Cracow, 1509).

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  • The failure of the method based on transits of Venus led to an international effort carried out on the initiative of Sir David Gill to measure the parallax by observations on those minor planets which approach nearest the earth.

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  • The chamber has the right of initiative in the organization of the annual budget laws and those relative to the numerical strength of the army and navy.

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  • The essence of the fatalistic doctrine is that it assigns no place at all to the initiative of the individual, or to rational sequence of events.

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  • It is recognized that the moral individual must have some kind of initiative, and yet since God is omnipotent and omniscient man must be conceived as in some sense foreordained to a certain moral, mental and physical development.

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  • Even those theologians, however, who have laid special stress on the limitations of the human will have repudiated the strictly fatalistic doctrine which is characteristic of Oriental thought and is the negation of all human initiative (see Predestination; Augustine, Saint; Will).

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  • Again, his inaction during those memorable twelve years (1401-1413) when the Turkish empire, after the collapse at Angora (1402), seemed about to be swallowed up by " the great wolf " Tamerlane, was due entirely to the malice of the Holy See, which, enraged at his endeavours to maintain the independence of the Magyar church against papal aggression (the diet of 1404, on Sigismund's initiative, had declared bulls bestowing Magyar benefices on foreigners, without the royal consent, pernicious and illegal), saddled him with a fresh rebellion and two wars with Venice, resulting ultimately in the total loss of Dalmatia (c. 1430).

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  • or even to the diet, for the necessary reforms. Society itself must take the initiative by breaking down the barriers of class exclusiveness and reviving a healthy public spirit.

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  • During 1918, the initiative among the Yugosla y s of the Monarchy fell more and more into the hands of the Slovenes, led by Father Korosec since the premature death of Monsignor Krek.

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  • The eastern extension claimed by Pretorius was the sequel to endeavours made shortly before, on the initiative of a Scotsman, to develop trade along the rivers leading to Delagoa Bay.

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  • They consequently forfeited many of the advantages of the initiative.

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  • The enforced halt was unfortunate; it not only resulted in a bad outbreak of enteric, but it gave the Boers time to recuperate, and by the beginning of April they again took the initiative.

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  • Compressed dry guncotton is easily detonated by an initiative detonator such as mercuric fulminate.

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  • Fortunately, however, the initiative of the Prussian subordinates was sufficient to meet the strain.

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  • Whereas at 2.30 absolute destruction seemed the only possible fate of the defeated army, by 6 p.m., thanks to the devoted heroism of the artillery and the initiative of a few junior commanders of cavalry, it had escaped from the enclosing horns of the Prussian attack.

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  • The first attempts to utilize the explosive power of nitroglycerin were made by Nobel in 1863; they were only partially successful until the plan, first applied by General Pictot in 1854, of developing the force of gunpowder in the most rapid manner and to the maximum extent, through initiative detonation, was applied by Nobel to nitroglycerin.

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  • His power of initiative in poetry was very small, and the range of poetic ground which he could cover strictly limited.

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  • Giry took an energetic part in the Collection de textes relatifs a l'histoire du moyen dge, which was due in great measure to his initiative.

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  • The initiative of Abbe and Schott, which was greatly aided by the resources for scientific investigation available at the Physikalische Reichsanstalt (Imperial Physical Laboratory), led to such important developments that similar work was undertaken in France by the firm of Mantois, the successors of Feil, and somewhat later by Chance in England.

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  • On his sole initiative, without consulting his ministers or the council of the empire, he sent instructions to Hafiz Pasha, commanding the Ottoman troops concentrated at Bir on the Euphrates, to advance into Syria.

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  • This mental attitude, combined with a certain lack of initiative and the weakness of his health, probably prevented him from doing full justice to his splendid powers of experimental research.

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  • His own initiative is more clearly traceable in the Toleration Act, extending liberty of private worship to Dissenters.

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  • Among the many reforms introduced under his guidance were a workmen's compensation law; a survey of occupational diseases with recommendations for health insurance; the elimination of the sweatshop; the establishment of a state industrial commission for dealing with questions of labour and capital; the provision of a minimum wage and a nine-hour day for women; mothers' pensions; ratification of the proposed woman suffrage amendment; the budget system for state expenditures; pure food laws; a " blue sky " law for protecting investors from unscrupulous promoters; the initiative and referendum; a Corrupt Practices Act; the indeterminate sentence for convicts; improvement of rural schools; the establishment of a state tuberculosis hospital and the extension of safety devices on railways and in mines.

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  • the settlement of America); under free initiative it is the most powerful factor in social adjustment (e.g.

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  • For about half an hour great crowds of riders, hidden by dense clouds of dust, drifted aimlessly about the plain, till at length the charge of a single squadron of the Oldenburg Dragoons (who had joined in on their own initiative) delivered on the outer French flank, brought the whole mass into motion north-eastward, and, both sides sounding the rally,Ithe engagement gradually ceased.

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  • Messalla restored the road between Tusculum and Alba, and many handsome buildings were due to his initiative.

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  • His life at Rugby was marked by great energy and bold initiative.

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  • In November 1906 the people of the state voted (17,248 for; 2162 against) in favour of the provision of a system of advisory initiative and advisory referendum; and in March 1907 the general assembly passed an act providing initiative and referendum in the municipal affairs in the city of Wilmington.

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  • It was on his initiative that this synod condemned the heresy of adoptianism and the worship of images, which had been restored in 787 by the second council of Nicaea; and at the same time that council was declared to have been superfluous.

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  • It has been customary to attribute the creation of the German navy to the Kaiser William II., and it is true that in large part the initiative for successive increases, and the demagogic appeals by which they were supported, originated with the Emperor.

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  • In the conduct of the naval war the official role of Tirpitz was confined to reporting and advising at general headquarters, the actual conduct and initiative in operations being in the hands of the higher command of the navy at Wilhelmshaven, subject to the Emperor's approval or veto.

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  • Bills are introduced by the grand-duke, but the house has also the right of initiative.

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  • The public roads and other works of the province are excellent, and, like those of the rest of the Basque provinces, entirely kept up by local initiative and taxes.

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  • In 1902 thirteen amendments were adopted, including provisions for the initiative, the referendum and the recall.

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  • The merchants combined to prevent the importation of goods which by law would yield the crown a revenue; and the patriots - as the anti-prerogative party called themselves - under the lead of Samuel Adams, instituted regular communication between the different towns, and afterwards, following the initiative of Virginia, with the other colonies, through " committees of correspondence "; a method of the utmost advantage thereafter in forcing on the revolution by intensifying and unifying the resistance of the colony, and by inducing the co-operation of other colonies.

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  • The earliest important undertaking with a view of improving the 'waterway was due to the initiative of Frederick the Great, who recommended the diversion of the river into a new and straight channel in the swampy tract of land known as the Oderbruch, near Ciistrin.

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  • D'Erlon, had on his own initiative ordered the I.

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  • The "obligatory referendum" exists in the case of all laws, while 8000 citizens have the right of "initiative" in proposing bills or alterations in the cantonal constitution.

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  • From this time forward, Kuropatkin allowed his subordinates little or no initiative.

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  • The Russian 35th and 36th regiments (loth European Corps) were caught between two advancing columns, and, thanks to the initiative of one of the column leaders, Okasaki, destroyed.

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  • Under an amendment to the Constitution adopted in 1906 his veto power does not extend to measures referred to the people by the legislative assembly or by initiative and referendum petitions.

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  • 5, sec. i of the state constitution, authorized the initiative and referendum, but twofifths of the entire number of counties must each furnish for initiative petitions signatures amounting in number to 8% of the whole number of votes cast for governor at the election last preceding the filing of the petition; for referendum petitions two-fifths of the counties must each furnish as signers 5% of the legal voters; and any measure referred to the people shall be in full force unless the petition for the referendum be signed by 15% of the legal voters (whose number is that of the total votes cast for governor, &c., as above) of a majority of the whole number of counties, but that in such case the law to be referred shall be inoperative until it is passed at the popular election.

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  • South Dakota was the first American state to adopt the initiative and referendum.

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  • Then finally she discovered (December 13) at the time of the coup d'etat, that he had, of his own initiative, given assurances of approval to Count Walewski, which were not in accord with the views of the cabinet and with the "neutrality which had been enjoined" by the queen.

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  • Entirely on her own initiative, and moved by admiration for the fine achievements of "her brave Irish" during the war, the queen announced her intention of paying a long visit to Dublin; and there, accordingly, she went for the month of April 1900, staying in the Viceregal Lodge, receiving many of the leaders of Irish society, inspecting some 50,000 school children from all parts of Ireland, and taking many a drive amid the charming scenery of the neighbourhood of Dublin.

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  • In 1907 the legislature proposed an amendment providing for the application of initiative and referendum to statutory laws and constitutional amendments; two years later the legislature passed a substitute resolution, which omits the clause regarding amendments of the constitution, and which, if passed by the legislature of 2922 will be put to popular vote at the general election of 1912.

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  • The king is an autocrat in practice as well as in theory, he has an absolute power .of veto, and the initiative of measures rests largely with him.

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  • By the latest enactments (one dating from 1905) 2500 citizens can claim a vote ("facultative referendum") as to any legislative project, or can exercise the "right of initiative" as to any such project or as to the revision of the cantonal constitution.

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  • In 1891 they introduced the "Initiative" into the cantonal constitution, and in 1892 the principle of proportional representation so far as regards the grand conseil, while Th.

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  • In purely political matters also both initiative and fulfilment came entirely from the Crown, and to the last of the Jagiellos Poland owed the important acquisition of Livonia and the welding together of her loosely connected component parts into a single state by the Union of.

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  • The king of Saxony, as grand-duke, took the initiative in all legislative matters; but the administration was practically controlled by the French.

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  • He was above all concerned to nip in the bud any tendencies in the bureaucracy to revolt, and it was on his initiative that, on the 4th of January 1882, a royal ordinance laid it down as the duty of all officials to give the government their unconditional support at political elections.

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  • In 1439, in the reign of Zara Yakub, a religious discussion between an Abyssinian, Abba Giorgis, and a Frank had led to the despatch of an embassy from Abyssinia to the Vatican; but the initiative in the Roman Catholic missions to Abyssinia was taken, not by Rome, but by Portugal, as an incident in the struggle with the Mussulmans for the command of the trade route to India by the Red Sea.

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  • - Chickasaw Bayou and Fredericksburg ended the Federal initiative in the west and the east; the Army of the Cumberland under Rosecrans alone could claim a victory.

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  • In 1876, on the initiative of General Chanzy, then governor-general, that official was accorded the right to correspond direct with all the ministers in Paris.

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  • This was sufficient to absorb the attention of the general-in-chief, who left the guardianship of the east and west to the initiative of the generals established at Bona and Oran.

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  • In the war against Austria, Bernadotte led the Saxon contingent at the battle of Wagram, on which occasion, on his own initiative he issued an order of the day, attributing the victory principally to the valour of his Saxons, which Napoleon at once disavowed.

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  • The matter was decided by one of the Swedish couriers, Baron Karl Otto Morner, who, entirely on his own initiative, offered the succession to the Swedish crown to Bernadotte.

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  • By his initiative Italian naval industry, almost non-existent in 1873, made rapid progress.

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  • It was no time for brilliant initiative or adventurous politics; the need was to avoid Scylla and Charybdis, and a via media had to be found in church and state, at home and abroad.

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  • He was transparent in character, chivalrous, kindly, firm, eloquent and sagacious; his purity of motive and unselfishness commanded absolute confidence; he had originality and initiative in dealing with new and difficult circumstances, and great aptitude for business details.

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  • He was not, however, destined to compass the downfall of the Sullan regime; the crisis of the Slave War placed the Senate at the mercy of Pompey and Crassus, who in 70 B.C. swept away the safeguards of senatorial ascendancy, restored the initiative in legislation to the tribunes, and replaced the Equestrian order, i.e.

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  • The initiative was taken by Archbishop Parker, about 1563-1565, who, according to Strype (Parker i.

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  • This powerful upstart was the natural enemy of the nobility, who suffered much at his hands, though it is very difficult to determine whether the initiative in these prosecutions proceeded from him or his master.

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  • In 1904 the formation of a municipally supported gallery of modern art (mainly due to the initiative and generosity of Mr Hugh Lane) was signalized by an exhibition including the pictures intended to constitute the nucleus of the gallery.

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  • It was restricted only by the conservatism of the Roman, by the condition that the initiative must always be taken by a magistrate, by the de facto authority of the senate, and by the magisterial veto which the senate often had at its command (see Senate).

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  • The charter contains initiative and referendum provisions, provides for the recall of any elective city official, and prohibits the granting of any franchise for a longer term than twenty years.

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  • Some states have recently allowed a prescribed number of voters to propose, by what is called the Initiative, amendments which are submitted to the vote of all the citizens without the intervention of the legislature.

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  • When a commercial crisis occurs much may depend on his initiative.

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  • This is the Initiative.

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  • He has, through his secretary of state, immediate direction of all negotiations with such countries, and an unfettered initiative in all foreign affairs.

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  • He was a great builder, Rouen, Mont St Michel, Pontoise and Gaillon owing many noble buildings to his initiative.

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  • If he bore in silence the odium that fell upon him owing to the break-up of the collection of the Louvre, it was because he knew that it would be fatal to allow it to be known that the first initiative in the matter had come from the king.

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  • On the 4th of April was signed the Protocol of St Petersburg, an instrument which - as events were to prove - fettered the free initiative not of Russia, but of Great Britain (see Turkey: History; Greece: HistOry).7 After the death of the duke of York on the 5th of December 1826 the post of commander-in-chief was conferred upon Wellington.

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  • For the next two years comparatively little was heard of the Babis, but on the 15th of August 1852 three of them, acting on their own initiative, attempted to assassinate Nasiru'd-Din Shah as he was returning from the chase to his palace at Niyavaran.

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  • It was a time of government on martinet principles, under which all freedom of thought and all private initiative were as far as possible suppressed vigorously by the administration.

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  • It was due to the initiative of the young tsar Nicolas II., who, in his famous rescript of the 24th of August 1898, stated that he thought that the then moment was " very favourable for seeking, by means of international discussion, the most effectual means of assuring to all peoples the benefits of a real and durable peace."

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  • Thirdly, the signatory powers agree that it shall not be regarded as an unfriendly act if one or more powers, strangers to the dispute, on their own initiative offer their good offices or mediation to the states in disagreement, or even during hostilities, if war has already broken out.

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  • Nevertheless, I should consider it a crime against humanity not to sincerely co-operate in an initiative having for object a simultaneous reduction of armaments of the great powers.

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  • Italian practice has always aimed at the maintenance of peace; therefore, I am happy to be able to say that our delegates at the coming Hague Conference will be instructed to further the English initiative."

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  • The only existing case of contractual reduction of armaments is, that of the Disarmament Agreement of the 28th of May 1902 between the Chilian and Argentine republics, adopted " owing to the initiative and good offices of His Britannic Majesty," which is as follows: Art.

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  • The Inter-Parliamentary Union, which dates back to 1887, owes its origin to the initiative of the late Sir W.

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  • The whole system of Peter was deliberately directed against the chief evils from which old Muscovy had always suffered, such as dissipation of energy, dislike of co-operation, absence of responsibility, lack of initiative, the tyranny of the family, the insignificance of the individual.

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  • Saxon architecture owes nearly everything to his initiative, and Bede was one of his pupils.

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  • In 1845 he was made director of an observatory established there through his initiative, and also in 1859 superintendent of the Dudley observatory at Albany.

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  • His own administration had been wrecked, through no initiative of his, by the dissensions over the fiscal question.

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  • hausen in 1840 through his initiative; he executed comprehensive magnetic surveys 1849-1858; announced the magnetic decennial period irk 1850, and his discovery of earth-currents in 1862.

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  • In only two things could they take the initiative, helpfulness and mercy; the deserving poor and the destitute were to receive instant relief; but no member could give anything to his relatives without consulting the heads of the society.

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  • They gave answers to such questions as were submitted to them; the machinery moved when set in motion from outside; but the popes did not attempt to interfere on their own initiative.

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  • When he did exercise it, it was far more frequently at the request of bishops or princes, or of the faithful, than of his own initiative.

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  • Besides the indent business there is, of course, purely merchant business by Manchester exporters, who buy on their own initiative at what they consider to be opportune times or on recommendations from their houses or correspondents abroad.

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  • Accordingly the Silesian estates never again chose to exercise initiative save on rare occasions, and from 1550 Silesia passed almost completely under foreign administration.

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  • While he was still lecturing on natural philosophy at Queenwood College, his magnetic investigations made him known in the higher circles of the scientific world, and through the initiative of Sir E.

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  • in 1571 and reorganized by Sixtus V., has as its object the examination and the condemnation or interdiction of bad or dangerous books which are submitted to it, or, since the constitution "Sapienti," of those which it thinks fit to examine on its own initiative (see Index).

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  • (3) The lack of initiative: in a land where the joint family system is everywhere and all powerful, individualism and will-power are at a discount.

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  • He tried to reconcile political parties by granting from his own initiative a liberal constitution (April 6, 1901), introducing for the first time in the constitutional history of Servia the system of two chambers (skupshtina and senate).

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  • The obligatory Referendum obtains in the case of all laws, and of decrees relating to an expenditure of over half a million francs, while 12,000 citizens have the right of initiative in the case of legislative projects, and 15,000 may demand the revision of the cantonal constitution.

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  • Under the constitution the king, as hereditary sovereign, possessed full executive powers, and the initiative in proposing laws.

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  • There is, however, no word of any qualities of will or initiative.

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  • "Philip was not a man of violent initiative, the planner of daring and fateful operations; otherwise there 1 Wenck, P .

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  • in China; challenged Russia as to her intentions in Manchuria, securing a promise to evacuate the country on the 8th of October 1903; and in 1904 again urged "the administrative entity" of China and took the initiative in inducing Russia and Japan to "localize and limit" the area of hostilities.

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  • It was through his initiative, too, that the convention of KlosterSeven was signed (loth of September 1757), and on the 4th of May 1758 he concluded a still more promising treaty with France, whereby, in consideration of Denmark's holding an army-corps of 24,000 men in Holstein till the end of the war, to secure Hamburg, Lubeck and the Gottorp part of Holstein from invasion, France, and ultimately Austria also, engaged to bring about an exchange between the king of Denmark and the cesarevitch, as regards Holstein.

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  • There has been some discussion as to the fairness of the treatment accorded by Pascal to his rivals, but no question of the fact that his initiative led to a great extension of our knowledge of the properties of the cycloid, and indirectly hastened the progress of the differential calculus.

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  • conservation of natural resources by federal initiative and control), to which he gave so much impetus and encouragement, brought the extension of irrigation works in the United States to the front in American statecraft (see Vrooman, Mr Roosevelt, Dynamic Geographer, 1909).

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  • Mr Roosevelt brought the whole subject before Congress in his message of the 3rd of December 1901, and thereby started what seemed likely to be a new sphere of Federal initiative and control.

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