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initiated

initiated Sentence Examples

  • And so toward the end of the year he went abroad to be initiated into the higher secrets of the order.

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  • initiated in Austria a new era for the Jews.

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  • Dropping her arms, she stepped back and wiped her mouth, staring up at him as though he had initiated the incident.

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  • Dusty knew the memory of killing in order to be initiated wasn't something even Bianca could take away from him.

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  • By mutual agreement, announced to Howie by our silence, no discussion about Julie took place unless initiated by Howie himself.

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  • (He referred to the masonic gloves given to a newly initiated Brother to present to the woman he loved.)

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  • This university was founded in 1621 and the university of Buenos Aires in 1821, but although Bonpland and some other European scientists were members of the faculty of Buenos Aires in its early years, neither there nor at Cordoba was any marked attention given to the natural sciences until President Sarmiento (official term, 1868-1874) initiated scientific instruction at the university of Cordoba under the eminent German naturalist, Dr Hermann Burmeister (1807-1892), and founded the National Observatory at Cordoba and placed it under the direction of ' There are two distinct statistical offices compiling immigration returns and their totals do not agree, owing in part to the traffic between Buenos Aires and Montevideo.

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  • The original land-holding aristocracy, which had probably initiated and for a time monopolized commerce, was partly supplanted by prosperous upstarts, and with the general increase of prosperity began to lose its hold upon the community of artisans.

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  • This pope initiated the dangerous policy of playing one hostile force off against another with a view to securing independence.

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  • They initiated a system of obstruction which hampered and delayed the traffic without alto gether suspending it.

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  • Neumann argued that the recrudescence of active persecution was initiated by a deliberate ad hoc rescript issued probably in A.D.

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  • Their report is still extant, and among the movements initiated as a result of their visit was the Circulating School system.

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  • Maybe he wanted to be the one who initiated love making all the time – like that was going to happen.

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  • He founded no system; he contributed nothing of importance to philosophical science; he initiated nothing which has survived him.

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  • Gregory initiated the policy of establish ing an equilibrium between the parties, which was carried ou by his successor Nicholas III.

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  • It had completed national unity, transferred the capital to Rome, overcome the chief obstacles to financial equilibrium, initiated military reform and laid the foundation of the relations between state and church.

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  • The same authority tells us that he was initiated by his father in those field sports, such as hunting and hawking, which formed one of his recreations in after life.

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  • One of the most important was the passing of a golden snake under the clothes of the initiated across their bosom and its withdrawal from below - an old rite of adoption.

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  • Thus the lad was gradually initiated into all the minutiae of administration.

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  • This process of transformation was not exclusively the work of Depretis, but had been initiated as early as 1873, when a portion of the Right under Minghetti had, by joining the Left, overturned the Lanza-Sella cabinet.

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  • A masterly device, initiated by him, was to collect gases over mercury instead of water; this enabled him to obtain gases previously only known in solution, such as ammonia, hydrochloric acid, silicon fluoride and sulphur dioxide.

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  • On the eastern hill of the acropolis, excavations initiated by F.

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  • "Was he initiated yet?" he asked.

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  • But it finally destroyed the Cnossian palace and initiated the "Geometric" Age, with which, for convenience at any rate, we may close the history of Aegean civilization proper.

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  • Demetrius had presented himself in 307 as the liberator, and driven the Macedonian garrison from the Peiraeus; but his own garrisons held Athens thirteen years later, when he was king of Macedonia, and the Antigonid dynasty clung to the points of vantage in Greece, especially Chalcis and Corinth, till their garrisons were finally expelled by the Romans in the name of Hellenic liberty., The new movement of commerce initiated by the conquest of Alexander continued under his successors, though the breakup of the Macedonian Empire in Asia in the 3rd century and the distractions of the Seleucid court must have withheld many advantages from the Greek merchants which a strong central government might have afforded them.

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  • The policy thus initiated upon the precedent laid down by Otto the Great was a remedy for pressing evils.

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  • If this is correct it is easy to see that the changes which take place may be initiated by the original delicate protoplasmic strands which pass through the cellwall.

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  • Mr. Chamberlin initiated me into the mysteries of tree and wild-flower, until with the little ear of love I heard the flow of sap in the oak, and saw the sun glint from leaf to leaf.

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  • He was then deluged with petitions urging him to call it together, and this agitation was opposed by Sir George Jeffreys and Francis Wythens, who presented addresses expressing "abhorrence" of the "Petitioners," and thus initiated the movement of the abhorrers, who supported the action of the king.

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  • Bills may be proposed either by ministers (in the name of the president of the republic), or by private members, and may be initiated in either chamber, but money-bills must be submitted in the first place to the Chamber of Deputies.

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  • The Cretaceous period was initiated by the subsidence of a large area to the south of the Gulf of Carpentaria, whereby a Lower Cretaceous sea spread southward, across western Queensland, western New South Wales and the north-eastern districts of South Australia.

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  • After travelling through many of the Aegean islands, through Sicily, Sardinia and Magna Graecia, everywhere conferring benefits and receiving divine honours, Aristaeus reached Thrace, where he was initiated into the mysteries of Dionysus, and finally disappeared near Mount Haemus.

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  • It is interesting to note that in many species the formation of new cell-walls is initiated before any indication of nuclear division is to he seen.

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  • As a legislative body the powers of the Council are co-ordinate with those of the Duma; in practice, however, it has seldom if ever initiated legislation.6 The Duma of the Empire or Imperial Duma (Gosudarstvennaya Duma), which forms the Lower House of the Russian parliament, consists (since the ukaz of the znd of June 1907) on the 27th of April 1906, while the name and princi p le of autocracy was jealously preserved, the word " unlimited " vanished.

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  • In order to explain the course of the revolution which came to a head in 1905 it is necessary to say a few words about constitutional plans and liberal experiments, initiated from above, which had preceded it.

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  • Another and more drastic reform than that which had been previously initiated (probably at the instigation of Isaiah and Micah) now became necessary to save the state.

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  • (1789-1807), who initiated them, to break down the barriers to the formation of a homogeneous nation.

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  • 12); highly specialized for flight, which, initiated and made possible mainly by the strong development of quill-feathers, has turned the wing into a unique organ.

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  • The kharaj, the jiziye, and the whole feudal system disappeared in theory, although its spirit, and indeed in some respects its practice, still exists in fact, during the reforming period initiated by Sultan Selim III., culminating in the Tanzimat-i-Khairiye (1839) of Abd-ul-Mejid, and the Hatt-iHumayun issued by the same sultan (1856).

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  • In 1905 financial resources had to be found for the special administration of the three European vilayets as insisted upon by the powers, and to this end the Porte initiated negotiations with the latter to increase the import duties by 3%.

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  • He also initiated a.

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  • One great source of Cromwell's strength was the military reforms he had initiated.

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  • He initiated in 1866 the spectroscopic observation of sunspots; applied Doppler's principle in 1869 to determine the radial velocities of the chromospheric gases; and successfully investigated the chemistry of the sun from 1872 onward.

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  • The caliph Omar initiated in the 7th century a code which required Christians and Jews to wear peculiar dress, denied them the right to hold state offices or to possess land, inflicted a poll-tax on them, and while forbidding them to enter mosques, refused them the permission to build new places of worship for themselves.

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  • The schismatic Qaraites initiated or rather necessitated a new Hebrew philology, which later on produced Qimhi, the gaon Saadiah founded a Jewish philosophy, the statesman Hasdai introduced a new Jewish culture - and all this under Mahommedan rule.

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  • µuecv, to shut the eyes; µiuQTns, one initiated into the mysteries), a phase of thought, or rather perhaps of feeling, which from its very nature is hardly susceptible of exact definition.

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  • In 1849 the Great Central (then the Manchester, Sheffield and Lincolnshire) railway initiated a scheme of reclamation and dock-construction.

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  • His first plan was to continue the work, already initiated by his predecessor Tourny, of making a fresh survey of the land (cadastre), in order to arrive at a juster assessment of the taille; he also obtained a large reduction in the contribution of the province.

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  • " Talmida," "initiated") or priest is ordained by a bishop and two priests or by four priests after a long and extremely painful period of preparation.

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  • At this period the supply of the raw material was insufficient to admit of any important development in the industry, and before the drilling of artesian wells for petroleum was initiated by Drake the " coal-oil " or shale-oil industry had assumed considerable proportions in the United States.

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  • Lavoisier, to whom chemistry was primarily the chemistry of oxygen compounds, having developed the radical theory initiated by Guyton de Morveau, formulated the hypothesis that vegetable and animal substances were oxides of radicals composed of carbon and hydrogen; moreover, since simple radicals (the elements) can form more than one oxide, he attributed the same character to his hydrocarbon radicals: he considered, for instance, sugar to be a neutral oxide and oxalic acid a higher oxide of a certain radical, for, when oxidized by nitric acid, sugar yields oxalic acid.

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  • The one pleasing aspect of his life is his patronage of the arts, and in his days a new architectural era was initiated in Rome with the coming of Bramante.

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  • By his own example of simplicity of life, he put to shame the luxury and extravagance of the Roman nobles and initiated in many respects a marked improvement in the general tone of society.

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  • Even Leibnitz,' who initiated a more modern point of view, follows the tradition in thus confining the scope of mathematics properly so called, while apparently conceiving it as a department of a yet wider science of reasoning.

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  • The Anatolian railway company, apparently unable to handle the concession above described, initiated fresh negotiations which resulted in the Bagdad railway convention (March 5, 1903).

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  • the fourteen battalions which had initiated this attack were outnumbered by three to one, and drifted away from the battlefield.

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  • Seeing further efforts hopeless, Scharnhorst in the duke's name initiated the retreat and the troops withdrew N.W.

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  • It took Blucher time to extricate his troops from the confusion into which the battle had thrown them, and the garrison of Leipzig and the troops left on the right bank of the Elster still resisted obstinately - hence no direct pursuit could be initiated and the French, still upwards of 10o,000 strong, marching rapidly, soon gained distance enough to be reformed.

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  • They show a singularly minute acquaintance with the ceremonies of pagan religion, and there are indications that Clement himself had been initiated in some of the mysteries (Protrept.

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  • The measurements of freezing points of solutions at the extreme dilution necessary to secure complete ionization is a matter of great difficulty, and has been overcome only in a research initiated by E.

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  • This was followed at the close of the same year by the discovery of the magnetic condition of all matter, a discovery which initiated a prolonged and fruitful study of paramagnetic and diamagnetic phenomena, including magnecrystallic action and " magnetic conducting power," now known as permeability.

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  • Negotiations were initiated in 1905 for the definite location of the boundary with Dutch Guiana.

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  • Pascal and P. de Fermat had initiated he brought very nearly to perfection; but the demonstrations are so involved, and the omissions in the chain of reasoning so frequent, that the Theorie analytique (1812) is to the best mathematicians a work requiring most arduous study.

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  • Most serious of all was the pressure between Bloemfontein and the Vaal, where the Free Staters, under De Wet and other commanders, had initiated the guerrilla as soon as Botha and the Transvaalers retired over the Vaal and ceased to defend them by regular operations.

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  • Before this Lord Roberts had initiated a movement from Pretoria to sweep down to Komati Poort on the Portuguese frontier, in which Buller, advancing across country from the south, was to co-operate.

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  • Certain features of Paulicianism noted by Photius and Petrus Siculus are omitted in Esc. One of these is the Christhood of the fully initiated, who as such ceased to be mere "hearers" (audientes) and themselves became vehicles of the Holy Spirit.

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  • The number of field battalions was nearly doubled, two-thirds of the artillery received breech-loading rifled guns, the infantry had for some years had the breech-loading "needlegun," and steps were initiated to train an adequate number of staff officers to a uniform appreciation of strategical problems, based on Moltke's personal interpretation of Clausewitz's Vom Kriege.

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  • Nevertheless the necessary movements were initiated by orders at noon on the 2nd of July, and one phrase in these saved the situation.

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  • That the division of labour, which may seem to disintegrate the calling of the physician, really unites it, is well seen in the clinical laboratories which were initiated in the later 19th century, and which are destined to a great future.

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  • From the new regard given by physiologists and pathologists to the study of origins, and in the new hopes of thus dealing with disease at its springs, not in individuals only but in cities and nations, issued the great school of Preventive Medicine, initiated in England - E.

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  • By these means also, in the hands of Hughlings-Jackson, and more conclusively by experimental research initiated by G.

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  • The care and education of idiots, initiated by Guggenbuhl and others, is making way in England, and if as yet insufficient, is good of its kind.

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  • Fraunhofer further initiated the specification of refraction and dispersion in terms of certain lines of the spectrum, and even attempted an investigation of the effect of chemical composition on the relative dispersion produced by glasses in different parts of the spectrum.

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  • In 1848 Bontemps was obliged to leave France for political reasons and came to England, where he initiated the optical glass manufacture at Chance's glass works near Birmingham, and this firm ultimately attained a considerable reputation in the production of optical glass, especially of large disks for telescope objectives.

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  • The next and most important forward step in the progress of optical glass manufacture was initiated by Ernst Abbe and carried out jointly by him and 0.

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  • Five of the initiated must be present, all of whom should be learned in the faith.

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  • A severe persecution was initiated against the Alberti and other families, who were disfranchised and exiled.

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  • In former days, when refining sugar or " sugar baking " was supposed to be a mystery only understood by a few of the initiated, there was a place in the refinery called the " secret room," and this name is still used in some refineries, where, however, it applies not to any room, but to a small copper cistern, constructed with five or six or more divisions or small canals, into which all the charcoal cisterns discharge their liquors by pipes led up from them to the top of the cistern.

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  • While the plant came to Europe through Spain, the habit of smoking was initiated and spread through English example.

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  • He thus initiated what was known as the "New Departure" Democratic movement.

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  • initiated a few public works there, and above all restored the cathedral, which had been partly destroyed by fire in 1595.

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  • It is said that Philip fell in love with her in Samothrace, where they were both being initiated into the mysteries (Plutarch, Alexander, 2).

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  • Concerning tht five schools into which the NO is divided, their characteristics and their differencesthese are matters of interest to the initiated alone.

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  • Large part of the mountaineers took up Monothelism and initiated the national distinction of the Maronites, which begins to emerge in the history of the 7th century.

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  • In the closing years of Alexander's reign events in Poland cast their shadow before them, and in answer to political conspiracies Novosiltsov, formerly adviser to the Grand Duke Constantine as governor of Poland, upon his transfer to Lithuania initiated the persecution of liberal thought.

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  • An agricultural reform initiated by the provisional Government aims at the distribution of the fallow lands of the large estates and the better exploitation of the land.

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  • An "anti-suicide bureau" was opened in 1907, and at Boxted, near Colchester, a scheme for Small Holdings has been initiated.

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  • The Rosicrucians, their Rites and Mysteries, by Hargrave Jennings (three editions, 1870-87); The Real History of the Rosicrucians, founded on their own Manifestoes and on Facts and Documents collected from the Writings of Initiated Brethren, by A.

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  • Efforts to make peace, initiated by Pope Innocent VI., came to nothing, though the English commons were now weary of the war.

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  • to their front) could be initiated, therefore the whole mass passed the night where they stood until daylight disclosed that the French had retreated.

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  • Initiated from childhood in all the arts of diplomacy at what was then the focus of civilization, and as much a warrior by nature as his imperial kinsman Manuel, Bela showed himself from the first fully equal to all the difficulties of his peculiar position.

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  • In his hands the history of Florence became a text on which at fitting seasons to deliver lessons in the science he initiated.

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  • Those initiated in the mysteries were taught to distinguish two streams in the lower world, one of memory and one of oblivion.

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  • Stanley's discovery of the course of the Congo initiated the movement for the partition of the continent, was declined.

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  • It is not even safe, according to these two fathers, to commit too much to writing; and Clement undertakes not to reveal in writing many secrets known to the initiated among his readers; otherwise the indiscreet eye of the heathen may rest on them, and he will have cast his pearls before swine.

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  • He even writes thus: " 0 ye initiated ones, with purified sense of hearing, shall ye accept in your souls these truly sacred mysteries, nor divulge them to any of the uninitiated....

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  • I have been initiated by Moses the friend of God in the great mysteries."

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  • The difficulties which surrounded him in the execution of his office at this time of the gravest unrest culminated in 1775, and the action of the 19th of April at Lexington initiated the American War of Independence.

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  • He was the first stranger who received the privileges of citizenship. He was reckoned one of the Seven Sages, and it is said that he was initiated into the Eleusinian mysteries.

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  • Under the auspices of Charlemagne and Louis the Pious he initiated a scheme for federating into one great order, with himself as abbot general, all the monasteries of Charles's empire, and for enforcing throughout a rigid uniformity in observance.

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  • It has to be said that in the course of the middle ages, especially the later middle ages, grave disorders arose in many convents; and this doubtless led, in the reform movements initiated by the councils of Constance and Basel, and later of Trent, to the introduction of strict enclosure in Benedictine convents, which now is the almost universal practice.

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  • Walker, himself a prominent member of the party whose contention he states: "The reservation by the states of all rights not granted to the general government makes it fairly a matter of question whether purely statistical inquiries, other than for the single purpose of apportioning representation, could be initiated by any other authority than that of the states themselves.

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  • partial revivals of a warmer piety occurred in certain circles; and among the Independents in particular the new type of hymnody initiated by Isaac Watts (1707) helped not a little.

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  • The influence of Herzl's pamphlet, the progress of the movement he initiated, the subsequent modifications of his plans, are told at length in the article Zionism.

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  • The bitterness which this occurrence provoked was intensified by a political reaction which was initiated about the same time under Kenneritz.

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  • During his brief reign at Naples, Joseph effected many improvements; he abolished the relics of feudalism, reformed the monastic orders, reorganized the judicial, financial and educational systems, and initiated several public works.

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  • The Hungarians (Magyars) declined to surrender the territories inhabited by Slovaks, and it was necessary to call in the military help of the Czechs before the last Hungarian troops, who had initiated a reign of terror in Slovakia, could be driven out of the land.

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  • In this year began the " Tariff Reform " movement initiated by Mr Joseph Chamberlain, but Free Trade retained a strong hold on the British electorate, and the return of the overwhelming Radical majority to parliament in 1906 involved its retention under the fiscal policy of that party.

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  • In 181 2 he was sent by Napoleon as ambassador to Constantinople, where he carried on the policy initiated by Sebastiani.

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  • Thus Demosthenes in his speech "On the crown" accused Aeschines of having "purified the initiated and wiped them clean with (not from) mud and pitch."

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  • The prime mover of the great rebellion of 1648, which shook the Polish state to its very foundations, was the Cossack Bohdan Chmielnicki (q.v.), who had been initiated in all the plans of Wladislaus IV.

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  • Puttkammer was the chosen instrument of the Clerical Conservative policy initiated by Bismarck when the Socialist peril made it expedient to conciliate the Catholic Centre.

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  • But Hooker could at least make himself obeyed, and when Lee initiated his second invasion of the North a month after the battle of Chancellorsville, the Army of the Potomac was as resolute as ever.

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  • Biblical criticism is part of a wider critical movement, but it is noticeable how, from stage to stage, Biblical scholars adopted the various critical methods which as applied to other literatures have been proved valid, rather than themselves initiated them.

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  • Archaeology has not yet found the key to every unopened door; but it has already done enough to justify the surmise that if criticism had not already disintegrated the traditional theories of the Old Testament, archaeology in the latter half of the 19th century would itself have initiated the process.

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  • 25, of the burial-places of the two apostles); and tradition clearly distinguished the fierce outbreak at Rome that followed on the fire of the city in July 64 from any permanent disabilities of the Christians in the eye of the law which the persecution may have initiated.

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  • Meanwhile the labour traffic, which had been initiated, so far as the, Pacific islands were concerned, by an unsuccessful attempt in 1847 to employ New Hebridean labourers on a settlement near the present township of Eden in New South Wales, had attained considerable proportions, had been improperly exploited and, as already indicated, had led the natives to retaliation, sometimes without discernment, a notorious example of this (as was generally considered) being the murder of Bishop Patteson in 1871.

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  • The Federal Army of the Potomac, advancing from the sea and the river Pamunkey over the Chickahominy on Richmond, had come to a standstill after the battle of Seven Pines (or Fair Oaks), and General Robert Lee, who succeeded Joseph Johnston in command of the Confederates, initiated the series of counter attacks upon it which constitute the "Seven Days."

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  • possessed a secret and mysterious knowledge, in no way accessible to those outside, which was not to be proved or propagated, but believed in by the initiated, and anxiously guarded as a secret.

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  • In Gnosticism as in the other mystic religions we find the same contrast of the initiated and the uninitiated, the same loose organization, the same kind of petty sectarianism and mystery-mongering.

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  • Its adherents feel themselves to be the isolated, the few, the free and the enlightened, as opposed to the sluggish and inert masses of mankind degraded into matter, or the initiated as opposed to the uninitiated, the Gnostics as opposed to the " Hylici " (Wiwi); at most in the later and more moderate schools a middle place was given to the adherents of the Church as Psychici (1/vXtKoi).

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  • It was not till after the middle of the 19th century that a long and desperate resistance to foreign intervention under the leadership of Benito Juarez infused new life into the masses and initiated the creation of a new nationality.

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  • The common soldiers were promoted for acts of daring, and the children of chiefs were regularly trained to war, and initiated by being sent into battle with veterans, with whose aid the youth took his first prisoner, but his future rise depended on how many captives he took unaided in fight with warlike enemies; by such feats he gained the dignity of wearing coloured blankets, tassels and lip-jewels, and reached such military titles as that of " guiding eagle."

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  • The Church of England, which had put forth the version of 1611, fitly initiated the work, but for its performance most wisely invited the help of the sister churches.

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  • Sensory Automatism is the term given by students of psychical research to a centrally initiated hallucination.

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  • In conjunction with Raja Rammohan Roy he initiated the movement of religious reform which took shape as the Adi Brahmo Somaj.

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  • Kocvcovia), the fellowship between believers and union with Christ; Lord's Supper, so called from the manner of its institution; Sacrament as a consecration of material elements; the Mystery (in Eastern churches) because only the initiated participated; the Sacrifice as a rehearsal of Christ's passion.

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  • The rest of the rite was called missa fidelium, because only the initiated remained.

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  • It was an austere religion, inculcating self-restraint, courage and honesty; it secured peace of conscience through forgiveness of sins, and abated for those who were initiated in its mysteries the superstitious terrors of death and the world to come.

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  • The barbaric elements were judiciously screened from view as a "mystery"; they were, indeed, here and there explicitly disavowed even by the initiated.

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  • The statute by which this change was initiated was the Lands Clauses Consolidation Act 1845; and the policy has been continued by a series of later statutes which, together with the act of 1845, are now grouped under the generic title of the Lands Clauses Acts.

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  • During the Protectorate they were visited by a detachment of Cromwell's troops, who initiated the inhabitants into various industrial arts and new methods of agriculture.

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  • It was developed from classes initiated in 1859 by the Miners' Association, and a three years' course of instruction is provided.

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  • An extensive system of sewers was constructed by the City Improvements Co., an English corporation, which initiated the work in 1853; and a separate system of rain-water drains.

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  • The government initiated the policy of saving life.

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  • In the 140 years since Warren Hastings initiated British rule in India, there have been nineteen famines and five severe scarcities.

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  • Kundt,' who initiated this line of investigation, came to the conclusion that the absorption spectra of certain organic substances like cyanin and fuchsin were displaced towards the red by the solvent, and that the displacement was the greater the greater the dispersive power of the solvent.

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  • He now found a new friend in the Swiss adventurer, Francois Lefort, a shrewd and jovial rascal, who not only initiated him into all the mysteries of profligacy (at the large house built at Peter's expense in the German settlement), but taught him his true business as a ruler.

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  • As it was, the only result of that will was a tragedy initiated by Elizabeth and consummated by James.

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  • The Danish settlements at the end of the 9th century and the defensive system initiated by King Alfred gave birth to a new series of fortified towns, from which the boroughs of the middle ages are mainly descended.

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  • Above all he had to meet the difficulties caused by the arrival of the warriors of the First Crusade, which had been in a great degree initiated owing to the representations of his own ambassadors, though the help which he wanted from the West was simply mercenary forces and not the immense hosts which arrived to his consternation and embarrassment.

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  • Josephus himself made trial of the sect of Essenes in his youth; but from his own statement it appears that he must have been a very short time with them, and therefore could not have been initiated into the inner mysteries of the society (De vita sua, 2).

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  • According to Prince Bismarck's own account of the matter, as given in his Gedanken and Erinnerungen, these negotiations were initiated by the chancellor, who, between the 5th and 9th of November 1870, entertained pourparlers with Archbishop Ledochowski on the question of the territorial interests of the pope.

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  • 126) he declares that the Kulturkampf was mainly initiated by him as a Polish question.

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  • As nuncio in Brussels he had become acquainted with the trans-Alpine world, and had been initiated into the working of the machinery of modern politics and modern parliamentary government.

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  • The cause of missions in the universities has been fostered greatly by the Student Volunteer Missionary Movement, initiated in America in 1886, and organized in England in 1892.

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  • The war with China in 1894 marked a new chapter and initiated a time of intense national activity; education and work for women went forward rapidly.

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  • Barranquilla was originally founded in 1629, but attracted no attention as a commercial centre until about the middle of the 19th century, when efforts were initiated to secure the trade passing through Cartagena.

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  • Religion is restricted among the Nosairis to the initiated, who must be adults over fifteen years of age and of Nosairi parentage.

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  • The initiated are divided into two classes, the sheiks, who are recruited from the families of sheiks only, and the ordinary members.

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  • During the first half of the 15th century numerous and effective efforts at reform were initiated in all the orders without exception, and in every part of Europe.

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  • The duke as a devout Catholic desired to purge the state of heresy, and initiated repressive measures against the Waldenses, but after some severe and not very successful fighting he ended by allowing them a measure of religious liberty in those valleys (156r).

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  • In 1877, except to the initiated, tea meant China tea., India and Java were producing a little, but practically for use only in Great Britain and Holland.

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  • He took an active part in the army reform initiated by Charles VII., and the establishment of military posts for the suppression of brigandage.

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  • From our present point of view we may therefore regard this work of Hellenism as one continuous process, initiated by the Macedonians and carried on under Roman protection, and ask in the first place what the institution of a Greek city implied.

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  • significant than to us who have been initiated into the mysteries of this art from our childhood.

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  • A movement initiated among the leading Moslems led in 1908 to the establishment as a private enterprise of a national Egyptian university devoted to scientific, literary and philosophical studies.

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  • The worship of the other gods was officially recognized until his fifth year, but then a sweeping reform was initiated by which apparently the new cult alone was permitted.

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  • For two years the Dual Control governed Egypt, and initiated the work of progress that England was to continue alone.

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  • From these, as in the eye, ear, and other sense organs, tonus is constantly initiated.

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  • To take one's watch from the pocket and look at it when from a familiar clock-tower a familiar bell strikes a familiar hour, is an instance of a habitual action initiated by a sense perception outside attentive consciousness.

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  • The Kongelov is dated and subscribed the 14th of November 1665, but was kept a profound secret, only two initiated persons knowing of its existence until after the death of Frederick III., one of them being Kristoffer Gabel, the king's chief intermediary during the revolution, and the other the author and custodian of the Kongelov, Secretary Peder Schumacher, better known as Griffenfeldt.

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  • The result testifies to the confidence inspired by Alfred's character and generalship, and to the efficacy of the military reforms initiated by him.

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  • The codification of the laws initiated in 1801 was never carried out during his reign; nothing was done to improve the intolerable status of the Russian peasantry; the constitution drawn up by Speranski, and passed by the emperor, remained unsigned.

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  • Bernard himself initiated this policy by building a castle at Talgarth on the Upper Wye, but in 1091 he moved southwards, defeated the regulus of Brycheiniog, Bleddyn ab Maenarch, and his brother-in-law Rhys ap Tewdwr, the prince of south-west Wales, and with materials obtained from the Roman fort of Caer Bannau, built a castle at Brecon, which he made his caput baroniae.

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  • The principle on which they are established may be briefly stated thus: towns with a minimum population of Boo can, on a poll demanded by the ratepayers showing a majority in favour of it, acquire the status of a police burgh subject to representations from neighbouring burghs, a proviso devised to check the growth of " parasitic " burghs in the immediate vicinity of a great centre of population and industry, enjoying all the public improvements initiated by their powerful neighbour and yet contributing nothing towards the cost and upkeep of them.

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  • Malcolm's brother, William the Lion (1165-1214), initiated the French alliance, fondly ascribed to the time of Charlemagne.

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  • But the Renaissance, like the religious revivals initiated in Italy, arrived in Scotland weak and weary; hence the church did not share in the new enthusiasms of the faith of St Francis, and art was trampled on by the magnates who hated poetry and painting.

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  • After 1745 the men of letters of the country continued with intense eagerness the movement initiated by John Knox, when he wrote in English, not in the old Scots that he learned at his mother's knee.

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  • The first Protestant mission to the Gulf was initiated by Henry Martyn in 1811; his Arabic New Testament appeared in 1816.

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  • The same society initiated the scientific exploration of the mounds of Palestine.

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  • His historic fame came from the Christian Schoolmen, whom he almost initiated into the system of Aristotle, and who, but vaguely discerning the expositors who preceded, admired in his commentaries the accumulated results of two centuries of labours.

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  • Apart from these the act of 1850 respecting improvements in towns initiated consultative committees.

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  • able for the measure which his predecessor had initiated, but which he willingly carried into execution, for giving entire liberty to the press.

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  • He was brought up in a neighbourhood bordering on the open country, and from his earliest years he found a companion in nature; he was also early initiated into the reading of poetry and romance, hearing Spenser and Scott in childhood, and introduced to old ballads by his mother.

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  • Although the southern Italians had long been ruled by foreigners, it was the Angevin domination which thoroughly denationalized them, and initiated that long period of corruption, decadence and foreign slavery which only ended in the 19th century.

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  • Early in 1891 he succeeded Crispi as premier and minister of foreign affairs by forming a coalition cabinet with a part of the Left under Nicotera; his administration proved vacillating, but it initiated the economies by which Italian finances were put on a sound basis and also renewed the Triple Alliance.

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  • Her Epitre au dieu d'amour (1399) is a defence of women against the satire of Jean de Meun, and initiated a prolonged dispute with two great scholars of her time, Jean de D M iontreuil (d.

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  • He initiated practically nothing without the consent of Abu Jahm, who was thus the real ruler.

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  • As regards the first object the mere fact of joining the society and becoming an "initiated fellow" was supposed to involve a certain kind of intellectual and social brotherhood, though not implying anything in the nature of an economic union.

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  • Initiated priests, after remaining silent in his temple for seven days, receive a new name and thus become ordained.

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  • He consolidated and increased the estates of the church, exercised the powers of a count, denounced simony and initiated financial reforms. The presence of this powerful and active personality, who was moreover a close friend of the emperor, was greatly resented by the Saxon duke, Bernard II., who regarded him as a spy sent by Henry into Saxony.

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  • The era of excavation initiated by Dr Schliemann on the grand scale has increased our knowledge of Greek inscriptions beyond anything that was earlier dreamt of.

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  • The defeat of the emperor Romanus (1071) initiated a change in the condition of Asia Minor which was to be complete and lasting.

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  • According to the Basava-purana he early in life renounced his caste and went to reside at Kalyana, then the capital of the Chalukya kingdom, and later on at Sangamesvara near Ratnagiri, where he was initiated into the Vira Saiva faith which he subsequently made it his life's work to propagate.

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  • This was the attitude of the Italians when the Renaissance, which they had initiated as a thing of beauty, began to operate as a thing of power beyond the Alps.

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  • But its virtual independence was established in the 7th century, when a line of tyrants arose and initiated an anti-Dorian policy.

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  • In the 17th century a reform called the Barefooted Trinitarians was initiated, which became a distinct order and is the only one that survives.

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  • The same scruple against flesh-eating is conveyed in the beautiful confession, in the Cretans of Euripides, of one who had been initiated in the mysteries of Orpheus and became a "Bacchos."

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  • A fully initiated Manichaean would not even cut his own salad, but employed a catechumen to commit on his behalf this act of murder, for which he subsequently shrived him.

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  • In the Syriac churches, even as late as the 4th century, the married state seems to have been regarded as incompatible with the perfection of the initiated.

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  • The second dates from Volta's discovery to the discovery by Faraday in 1831 of the induction of electric currents and the creation of currents by the motion of conductors in magnetic fields, which initiated the era of modern electrotechnics.

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  • Davy, and improvements initiated by Wollaston and Robert Hare (1781-1858) of Philadelphia.

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  • In 1525 he went to Rome for the Jubilee, and two years of ter returned to England and was initiated by Thomas Cromwell into the mysteries of statesmanship, that master telling him that the main point consisted in discovering and following the will of princes, who are not bound by the ordinary code of honour.

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  • Where society is most primitive it is most democratic, as in Australia, and magico-religious powers are possessed by the whole body of fully initiated males, age, however, conferring increase of sacred lore and consequently of authority; whilst even at this stage the experts tend to form an inner circle of rulers.

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  • It was initiated by Queen Catherine de' Medici, regent during the minority of her son Charles IX.

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  • Wide attention was attracted to Swedish educational methods principally by the introduction of the system of Sloyd (slojd), initiated at the Naas seminary near Gothenburg, and concerned with the teaching of manual occupations, both for boys and for girls.

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  • Telegraphic communication between all the important towns of the republic, initiated in 1855 with a line between Santiago and Valparaiso, is maintained by the state, which in 1903 owned 93 06 m.

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  • Believing that he had now secured the support of the majority in congress on behalf of any measures he decided to put forward, the new president initiated a policy of heavy expenditure on public works, the building of schools, and the strengthening of the naval and military forces of the republic. Contracts were given out to the value of 6,000,000 for the construction of railways in the southern districts; some 10,000,000 dollars were expended in the erection of schools and colleges; three cruisers and two sea-going torpedo boats were added to the squadron; the construction of the naval port at Talcahuano was actively pushed forward; new armament was purchased for the infantry and artillery branches of the army, and heavy guns were acquired for the purpose of permanently and strongly fortifying the neighbourhoods of Valparaiso, Talcahuano and Iquique.

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  • Zeus or Jupiter), in practice yields place to his attendant deities, who work in the world and are able to lead the believer, who has been initiated and keeps the commandments of purity, to salvation.

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  • He received instruction in mathematics from Hobbes, and was early initiated into all the vices of the age by Buckingham and Percy.

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  • The first, signed only, among the ministers, by Arlington and Clifford, the rest not being initiated, on the 10th of May 1670, provided for the return of England to Rome and the joint attack of France and England upon Holland, England's ally, together with Charles's support of the Bourbon claims to the throne of Spain, while Charles received a pension of £ 200,000 a year.

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  • To all appearances the same policy afterwards pursued so recklessly and disastrously by James was now cautiously initiated by Charles, who, however, not being inspired by the same religious zeal as his brother, and not desiring " to go on his travels again," would probably have drawn back prudently before his throne was endangered.

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  • It was Diniz who initiated the needful reforms. He earned his title of the rei lavrador or "farmer king " by introducing improved methods of cultivation and founding agricultural schools.

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  • adhered to the matrimonial policy initiated by Diniz.

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  • cimento da Inquisicdo em Portugal followed and confirmed the position of its author as the leading modern historian of the Peninsula, and he further initiated and edited the important series Portugaliae Monumenta historica.

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  • Most of all did it profit by the statesmanship of Aratus, who initiated its expansive policy, until in 228 it comprised Arcadia, Argolis, Corinth and Aegina.

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  • After Philopoemen's death the aristocrats initiated a strongly philo-Roman policy, declared war against King Perseus and denounced all sympathizers with Macedonia.

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  • It was initiated by an act of the parliament of the North German Confederation (Nov.

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  • Those who are able to read the history in the light of what occurred later may perhaps be convinced that no policy whatever initiated after 1766 could have prevented or even materially delayed the declaration of American independence; but to the politicians of that time the coming event had not yet cast so dark a shadow before as to paralyse all action, and if any man could have allayed the growing discontent of the colonists and prevented the ultimate dismemberment of the empire, it would have been Lord Chatham.

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  • Initiated on July 2, and developed on a large scale on the 3rd, the counter-attack of the Serbian III.

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  • During his long term of office he abolished the grist tax, extended the suffrage, completed the railway system, aided Mancini in forming the Triple Alliance, and initiated colonial policy by the occupation of Massawa; but, at the same time, he vastly increased indirect taxation, corrupted and destroyed the fibre of parliamentary parties, and, by extravagance in public works, impaired the stability of Italian finance.

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  • Rene had the confidence of Charles VII., and is said to have initiated the reduction of the men-at-arms set on foot by the king, with whose military operations against the English he was closely associated.

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  • On the arrival of a second urgent summons shortly afterwards he obeyed, and was then at a house at Lambeth, probably in January 1604, initiated by Catesby together with John Wright into the plot to blow up the parliament house.

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  • (i.) Crystal-gazing is a world-wide method of divining, which is analogous to dreams, save that the vision is voluntarily initiated, though little, if at all, under the control of the scryer.

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  • In the same year new harbour works and lighting arrangements were undertaken on a large scale, and a movement was initiated for the revival of shipbuilding.

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  • In 1675 he initiated the works for draining the foul tidal swamps; and, failing the consent of the Company to the erection of a regular hospital, he turned the law court into an infirmary.

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  • The practice initiated by the more liberal Phanariotes of sending Rumanian students to the French, German and Italian universities tended in the same direction.

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  • Sturdza, who completed the restoration of order by strong military measures and afterwards initiated remedial legislation.

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  • The staple product is short, but experiments have been initiated in the Santa Marta region to improve it.

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  • Partly in consequence of the serious economic situation the renewed movement for the closer union of the various South African colonies, formally initiated by Dr Jameson in 1907, received the support of the Cape parliament.

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  • For this purpose, if there are no rain-gauges on the drainage area in question, an estimate may be formed from numerous gaugings throughout the country, most of which are published in British Rainfall, initiated by the late Mr G.

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  • This initiated Whittier's literary career.

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  • v.), that the votaries of Isis and Mithras were initiated per lavacrum, " through a font," and that in the Ludi Apollinares et Eleusinii, i.e.

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  • The most notable and estimable feature of his political conduct was his relation to Queen Victoria, whom he initiated into the duties of sovereign with the most delicate tact and the most paternal and conscientious care.

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  • In 1640, however, at the earnest invitation of Duke Ernest the Pious, he removed to Gotha as court preacher and general superintendent in the execution of important reforms which had been initiated in the ecclesiastical and educational establishments of the duchy.

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  • Some authorities see in it a descriptive epithet, derived from Arabic darasa (those who read the Book), or darisa (those in possession of Truth) or du g s (the clever or initiated); but more connect it with the name of the first missionary, Ismael Darazi.

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  • and instigating these against the malcontents of his own people, brought enmities, which had been growing for a century, to a head, and initiated a devastating internecine warfare which was to continue for twenty years.

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  • Divorce is easy and can be initiated by the woman; but remarriage of the pair can only be effected by the good offices of a proxy (as in Moslem societies, after a third divorce).

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  • He regards the Stoics as having initiated a philosophical theology, and gives numerous references for the " three theologies " which they distinguished.

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  • The vigorous practical life of the modern school of High Church Anglicanism, initiated by John Keble, W.

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  • C. Moberly this becomes an assertion that Christ has initiated a redemptive process of selfhumiliation, which we can prolong in ourselves by the help of sacraments if we choose; while W.

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  • The sea grew shallow, the deposits became conglomeratic and shaly, volcanic eruptions began, and the present folds of the Apennines were initiated.

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  • It is noteworthy that in England the Socinian controversy, initiated by Biddle, preceded the Arian controversy initiated by Samuel Clarke's Scripture Doctrine of the Trinity (1712).

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  • deadliness was so keen that, when they were at length able to control the secular administration, they rapidly overcame their aversion to bloodshed, and initiated that long series of religious.

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  • In his treatise, Libri sententiarum, mainly based on Augustinian doctrine, we find a distinct softening of the antithesis between nature and grace and an anticipation of the union of Aristotelian and Christian thought, which was initiated by Albert the Great and completed by Thomas Aquinas.

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  • The Reformation which Luther initiated may be viewed on several sides, even if we consider only its ethical principles and effects.

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  • This is the line of thought which Shaftesbury (1671-1713) may be said to have initiated.

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  • His acquaintance with trigonometry, a branch of science initiated by 1 G.

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  • of practical amelioration was initiated by John Flamsteed Flamsteed, the first astronomer royal, and has never since been lost sight of.

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  • And this comprehensive work was merely preparatory to the International Catalogue and Chart, the production of which was initiated by the resolutions of the Paris Photographic Congress of 1887.

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  • Nebular chemistry was initiated by the same investigator when, on the 29th of August 1864, he observed the bright-line spectrum of a planetary nebula in Draco.

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  • It thenes was a day of solemn and happy memories, a day devoted, in the celebration of the Great Mysteries, to sacred joy, - the day on which the glad procession of the Initiated returned from Eleusis to Athens.

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  • They rarely initiated or amended a bill of any kind, never a revenue measure.

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  • Mrs Langloh Parker, of course, was not initiated (indeed, no white man has gone through the actual and very painful rites), but confidences were made to her with great secrecy.

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  • The belief being esoteric, a secret of the initiated, necessarily escaped casual inquirers.

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  • The first was the rite of daubing the initiated with clay.'

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  • But it is probable that the local myths of various cities and temples, of the " sacred chapters " which were told by the priests to travellers and in the mysteries to the initiated, were older in form than the epic and national myths.

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  • They know about " men who brought the sun," but their doctrines are revealed in mysteries, and Qing, the informant of Mr Orpen (Cape Monthly Magazine, July 1874), " did not dance that dance " - that is, had not been initiated into all the secret doctrines of his tribe.

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  • Among the western Baluba, or Bashilange, a remarkable politico-religious revolution took place at a comparatively recent date, initiated by a secret society termed Bena Riamba or " Sons of Hemp," and resulted in the subordination of the old fetishism to a cult of hemp, in accordance with which all hemp-smokers consider themselves brothers, and the duty of mutual hospitality, &c., is acknowledged.

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  • The prosperity of modern Birmingham dates from 1875 and 1876, when these admirably administered reforms were initiated, and by his share in them Mr Chamberlain became not only one of its most popular citizens but also a man of mark outside.

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  • Gyges (q.v.) put him to death and established the dynasty of the Mermnads, 687 B.C. Gyges initiated a new policy, that of making Lydia a maritime power; but towards the middle of his reign the kingdom was overrun by the Cimmerii.

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  • He was initiated into the Mysteries, though into which is not stated (Or.

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  • At Strassburg in 1788 he met Charlotte de Boecklin, who initiated him into the writings of Jacob Boehme, and inspired in his breast a semi-romantic attachment.

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  • The Protestant movement, initiated at Constantinople by American missionaries in 1831, was opposed by the patriarchs and Russia.

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  • The royal procession, for which the meeting is peculiarly famous, was initiated by George IV.

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  • The initiated went through rites of purification, and practised a degree of asceticism; but for many the festival was believed to be an occasion for dark orgies.

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  • The Albigensian theologians and ascetics, the Cathari or perfecti, known in the south of France as bons hommes or bons chretiens, were few in number; the mass of believers (credentes) were perhaps not initiated into the Catharist doctrine; at all events, they were free from all moral prohibition and all religious obligation, on condition that they promised by an act called convenenza to become " hereticized " by receiving the consolamentum, the baptism of the Spirit, before their death or even in extremis.

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  • At a later date attempts were made to separate the two halves of the objective by modifying the eye-piece; this led to the construction of stereoscopic eye-pieces, initiated by R.

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  • Alex was more amiable - possibly because he initiated the trip.

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  • Maybe he wanted to be the one who initiated love making all the time – like that was going to happen.

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  • The India exchange was initiated to explore and challenge perceptions of India.

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  • More recently, studies on the role of immediate early gene expression in excitatory amino acid-induced neurotoxicity have been initiated.

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  • fractional reserve banking has, since the outset of western industrialization, initiated production for the purpose of trade and exchange.

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  • Included was much good-humoured banter between the teams and with the presenters and really initiated the buzz seen at proceeding CUHCS events.

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  • After becoming Prime Minister secret talks were initiated with the IRA in an attempt to stop the bloodshed in the Province.

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  • Use forces already in theater (3 x 6,000 ), continuous air campaign, initiated by an Iraqi casus belli.

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  • It is now generally accepted that the loss of stratospheric ozone is caused by chemical reactions initiated by chlorofluorocarbons.

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  • Two years ago, the ROC initiated a pilot program to allow conscientious objectors to fulfill their military service obligation in the diplomatic corps.

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  • countdown sequence initiated Phase 2 Shelter retracted and missile erected.

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  • When Lady Sheba was initiated into her first coven, she hand-copied The Book of Shadows.

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  • Member for Manchester, Withington initiated the debate and we have only 30 minutes for it.

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  • This guidance has been developed from a review of local landscape designations initiated in 2003.

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  • This initiated a discussion about a tune to be chosen by the fans.

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  • B n. 1 A person initiated into esoteric doctrines.

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  • The case concerns a 2002 DNA dragnet initiated by police in Baton Rouge, Louisiana during a serial rape-murder investigation.

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  • Marriages, initiated by elders, were arranged with the help of an ' aunt ' or the ' priest ' .

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  • exogenous shocks from centrally initiated policies may not be amenable to local control.

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  • He initiated informal contacts with leftist guerrillas in neighboring Colombia.

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  • inarticulate moan and initiated a driving rhythm.

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  • initiated an investigation by the company.

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  • initiated by elders, were arranged with the help of an ' aunt ' or the ' priest ' .

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  • initiated into the secrets of ancient India as you have never before seen it.

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  • initiated manually or automatically in accordance with a defined schedule.

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  • initiated promptly, a chronic course becomes very likely and the illness may become intractable.

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  • All respondents stated that networked learning had been centrally initiated and affected the whole of the institution.

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  • initiated locally but was influenced by the new global ideological orientation.

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  • initiated when violence appears imminent.

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  • initiated that involves experiments and numerical simulations.

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  • initiated to empower more people to get involved with radical video production and screening.

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  • initiated by the government.

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  • In mink, early transmission of TME by subcutaneous inoculation had led to the proposal that natural transmission might be initiated via wounds.

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  • An MoD spokesman said it had initiated an inquiry to establish whether or not the laptop was official MoD equipment.

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  • Surveillance is initiated and some of the female members of the family elect to have prophylactic mastectomy.

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  • This could lead to earlier epidemics of disease initiated from seed- or soil-borne oospores.

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  • In June 1997 DERA initiated concept studies into using UAVs for transport, naval airborne early warning (AEW) and maritime patrol.

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  • Background In April 2001 CIRA initiated an on-line quiz between pubs in two villages in the North East of England.

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  • rapid-fire exchange of opposing muscle contractions is initiated, from the core to the extremities.

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  • reconstituted in vitro, and structural work has been initiated elsewhere.

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  • Asynchronous replication (offline) is possible, which can be initiated by the user or controlling client.

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  • research programs have been initiated, (e.g.

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  • saltation cannot be initiated within the vegetation, because of the zero wind velocity at the surface.

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  • With Genzyme, we have initiated a Phase I/IIa clinical study to evaluate CAT-192 as a possible treatment for patients with diffuse scleroderma.

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  • Some objective testing of these essentially subjective judgments have been initiated through cooperation with other persons.

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  • The Inner Grove is for those who wish to be taught and initiated into Awen's own druid tradition.

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  • two-phase flow in pipe line systems has been initiated.

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  • unleash fully the advantages the earlier digitisation had initiated.

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  • viewdata service included showing some programs initiated from user terminals.

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  • It's been more than 10 years now since the United States initiated the embargo against Iraq and started patrolling no-fly zones.

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  • In 1857 the sepoy garrison of the place initiated the mutiny of that year in Patna district, but after a conflict with the European troops were forced to retire from the town, and subsequently laid siege to Arrah.

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  • In later days he used to refer with pride to his services on this occasion, when he was first initiated into the wiles of Oriental diplomacy.

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  • Those instruments of which the tones and compass are most suitable for polyphonic melody are for the most part high in pitch; a circumstance which, in conjunction with the practice (initiated by the monodists and ratified by science and common sense) of reckoning chords upwards from the bass, leads to the conclusion that the instruments which hold the main threads in the design shall be supported where necessary by a simple harmonic filling-out on some keyed instrument capable of forming an unobtrusive background.

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  • After the death of Faustina and the pacification of Syria, Aurelius proceeded, on his return to Italy, through Athens, and was initiated in the Eleusinian mysteries, the reason assigned for his doing so being that it was his custom to conform to the established rites of the countries he visited.

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  • Those who were initiated into the mysteries of Eleusis found a deep meaning in the myth, which was held to teach the principle of a future life, founded on the return of Persephone to the upper world, or rather on the process of nature by which seed sown in the ground must first die and rot before it can yield new life (see Mystery).

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  • In his inaugural address (4th March 1909) President Taft announced himself as favouring the maintenance and enforcement of the reforms initiated by President Roosevelt (including a strict enforcement of the Sherman Anti-Trust Act, an effective measure for railway rate regulation, and the policy of conservation of natural resources); the revision of the tariff on the basis of affording protection to American manufactures equal to the difference between home and foreign cost of production; a graduated inheritance tax; a strong navy as the best guarantee of peace; postal savings banks; free trade with the Philippine Islands; and mail subsidies for American ships.

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  • Early in the 15th century John Hus - under the inspiration of Wycliffe - initiated at Prague the revolt against the Roman Catholic Church.

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  • From the Parthian frontier he travelled through Asia Minor and the islands of the Aegean to Athens (autumn, 125), where he introduced various political and commercial changes, was initiated at the Eleusinia, and presided at the celebration of the greater Dionysia.

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  • The Directory thought it time to act; the bureau central had accumulated through its agents, notably the ex-captain Georges Grisel, who had been initiated into Babeuf's society, complete evidence of a conspiracy for an armed rising fixed for Floreal 22, year IV.

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  • In secular politics he energetically forwarded the process of feudalization which had been initiated by his immediate predecessors.

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  • Hence, for purposes of psychological interpretation it seems necessary to assume that instinctive behaviour, including the stimulation by which it is initiated and conditioned, affords that naive awareness which forms an integral part of what may be termed the primordial tissue of experience.

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  • Negotiations were initiated in 1910 for the prolongation of the concession of the tobacco monopoly, which reaches its term in 1913.

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  • - The monetary system presents a spectacle of perplexing confusion, which is a remnant of the complete chaos which prevailed before the reforms initiated in 1844 by Sultan Abd-ul-Mejid.

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  • Coulomb's researches provided data for the development of a mathematical theory of magnetism, which was indeed initiated by himself, but was first treated in a complete form by Poisson in a series of memoirs published in 1821 and later.

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  • Turning now to the consideration of the word " apocryphal " itself, we find that in its earliest use it was applied in a laudatory sense to writings, (I) which were kept secret because they were the vehicles of esoteric knowledge which was too profound or too sacred to be imparted to any save the initiated.

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  • The names, areas, and populations of the states, together with the names and populations of their capitals, are as follows: Communications.-Railway construction in Brazil dates from 1852, when work was initiated on the Maua railway running from the head of the bay of Rio de Janeiro to the foot of the Serra where Petropolis is situated.

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  • Not only is the influence of bacteria in the causation of many of them newly revealed, but it is now recognized also that, even in skin diseases not initiated by microbic action, microbes play a considerable and often a determining part in their perpetuation; and that the rules of modern aseptic surgery are applicable with no little success to skin therapeutics.

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  • We have learned that "constitutional" causes play a smaller part in them than was supposed, that a large number of diseases of the skin, even if initiated by general disorder, are or soon become local diseases, being, if not initiated by local infection yet perpetuated thereby, so that, generally speaking, they are to be cured by local means.

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  • The chief ceremony initiated by Guru Govind Singh was the Khanda ka Pahul or baptism by the sword.

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  • In the form germania it has acquired the significance of "thieves' Latin" or "thieves' cant," and is applied to any jargon supposed to be understood only by the initiated.

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  • This dialectic, initiated by Euclides, became more and more opposed to the testimony of experience; in the hands of Eubulides and Alexinus it degenerated into hairsplitting, mainly in the form of the reductio ad absurdum.

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  • He was a man of great ability, both military and administrative, and initiated a new system of policy in Assyria which he aimed at making the head of a centralized empire, bound together by a bureaucracy who derived their power from the king.

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  • Mysticism, moreover, which had no lack of noteworthy supporters in the 14th and 15th centuries, and the various new departures in thought initiated by individual theologians such as Nicolaus Cusanus (d.

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  • Thus interpreted, the Appalachian forms of to-day may be ascribed to three cycles of erosion: a nearly complete Mesozoic cycle, in which most of the previously folded and faulted mountain masses were reduced in Cretaceous time to a peneplain or lowland of small relief, surmounted, however, in the north-east and in the south-west by monadnocks of the most resistant rocks, standing singly or in groups; an incomplete Tertiary cycle, initiated by the moderate Tertiary upwarping of the Mesozoic peneplain, and of sufficient length to develop mature valleys in the more resistant rocks of the crystalline belt or in the horizontal strata of the plateau, and to develop late mature or old valleys in the weaker rocks of the stratified belt, where the harder strata were left standing up in ridges; and a brief post-Tertiary cycle, initiated by an uplift of moderate amount and in progress long enough only to erode narrow and relatively immature valleys.

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  • In this province, therefore, we find a part of one of those ancient mountain regions, initiated by crustal deformation, but reduced by long continued erosion to a peneplain of modern relief, with occasional surmounting monadnocks of moderate height not completely consumed during the peneplanation of the rest of the surface.

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  • The health of animals branch, through which are administered the laws relating to the contagious diseases of animals, and the control of quarantine and inspection stations for imported animals, undertakes also valuable experiments on the diseases of farm live-stock, including glanders in horses, tuberculosis in cattle, &c. The policy of slaughtering horses reacting to the mallein test has been successfully initiated by Canada, the returns for 1908 from all parts of the country indicating a considerable decrease from the previous year in the number of horses destroyed and the amount of compensation paid.

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  • had given place to the Bond nominee ministry with Mr Merriman as premier (see Cape Colony: History), but the movement initiated by Jameson had received the support of the Bond as well as that of the Botha administration.

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  • The Italian school was founded by SA de Miranda (q.v.), a man of noble character who, on his return in 1526 from a six years' stay in Italy, where he had foregathered with the leading writers of the day, initiated a reform of Portuguese literature which amounted to a revolu- tistas.

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  • Internal difficulties, low transport capabilities, and the necessity of garrisoning almost all parts of Albania and Macedonia to prevent local risings, added to the customary slackness in administration and training and the customary dishonesty in supply and equipment matters, resulted in the putting into the field of two armies which were numerically inferior, unequally trained, and poorly equipped - possessing indeed few assets beyond the solid fighting-worth of the individual Mahommedan Turk .2 With all this, however, the prestige of a great Power facing a group of small states, whose mutual hatred and rivalries had only just been composed, stood high, especially in Germany where the positive effects of the Turkish army reforms initiated by von der Goltz and others were overrated.

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  • Of buildings and institutions the most notable is Chelsea Royal Hospital for invalid soldiers, initiated by Charles II.

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  • Shortly afterwards he was initiated into the plot, after taking an oath of secrecy, meeting Catesby, Thomas Winter, Thomas Percy and John Wright at a house behind St Clement's (see Gunpowder Plot and Catesby, Robert).

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  • Israelite historians viewed these events as a great religious revolution inspired by Elijah and initiated by Elisha, as the overthrow of the worship of Baal, and as a retribution for the cruel murder of Naboth the Jezreelite (see Jezebel).

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  • By shaking the blade rhythmically, a rapid-fire exchange of opposing muscle contractions is initiated, from the core to the extremities.

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  • The final step in the transposition reaction has been reconstituted in vitro, and structural work has been initiated elsewhere.

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  • In response to these concerns several large health effects research programs have been initiated, ( e.g.

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  • Saltation cannot be initiated within the vegetation, because of the zero wind velocity at the surface.

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  • The boys and younger girls are initiated through a ceremony involving shea nut oil and the marking of a cross on their bodies.

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  • When the company realized what had happened it commissioned consultants who initiated a skimmer pump remediation system in consultation with the regulatory authorities.

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  • The origin of BSE was a practice initiated by farm feed giants: the inclusion of slaughterhouse waste in animal feeds.

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  • Dune succession may be initiated by strandline plants which trap small amounts of sand during the growing season.

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  • The Inner Grove is for those who wish to be taught and initiated into Awen 's own Druid tradition.

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  • A study of highly viscous, two-phase flow in pipe line systems has been initiated.

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  • Hosting the collection on an Internet server would be the way to unleash fully the advantages the earlier digitisation had initiated.

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  • In parallel, the early demonstrations of what became the Prestel viewdata service included showing some programs initiated from user terminals.

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  • Initiated by Voices in the Wilderness, the Iraq Peace Team (IPT) exists to stand in solidarity with the peoples of Iraq.

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  • It 's been more than 10 years now since the United States initiated the embargo against Iraq and started patrolling no-fly zones.

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  • They first initiated multiple measurements of a luteinizing hormone (LH) within the patient's urine.

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  • Orijen initiated a voluntary recall of their cat food because cats were becoming ill, experiencing paralysis and dying.

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  • Is there a grace period on the interest for the balance transfer, or does interest start accruing the same day the balance transfer is initiated?

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  • Generally, the accounts are declined because of the high rate of charge backs initiated for the transactions, whether they are fraudulent or not.

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  • Debt settlement is either initiated by the borrower or creditor.

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  • Avoid giving out personal information over the phone unless you initiated the call.

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  • There must be an actual separation or divorce initiated before spousal support can be ordered.

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  • Disputes initiated this way are usually resolved two weeks faster than those that are mailed in.

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  • As a result, a class action lawsuit has been initiated against Smiley Miley Inc. and Interactive Media Marketing.

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  • New technology initiated a new format for intimidation and harassment of other teens.

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  • Cavachons learn best when the training is initiated very early on, and the training must be consistent.

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  • Other recalls were initiated over a lack of important nutrients.

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  • In the 1950s Ace Hardware initiated the first "self-service" store in Merrillville, Indiana.

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  • Can be given to new sorority sisters after initiated.

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  • We initiated a project to bring solar energy to the building where we make Eco Lips which turned into the largest solar program in the state.

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  • The person with the mood swings may not be aware of how their mood has, or has not, changed since the sleep apnea treatment was initiated.

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  • At the end of each zone, a bonus level is initiated.

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  • Whether that's because communities needed a scapegoat or a video game did spark the violence, it's clear that violence within a video game initiated a desire to cause destruction.

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  • Fermentation is initiated at a constant temperature of 55 - 65 degrees C for a period of time, set by the desired taste of the wine.

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  • It offers unlimited minutes for calls initiated through your home Wi-Fi network.

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  • The child should receive prompt evaluation so necessary preventive therapies can be initiated.

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  • After the child's condition has stabilized, rehabilitation is initiated.

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  • Therapy is usually initiated as soon as possible after a stroke and is often the most intense in the early stages of recovery.

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  • If a cause was identified, the underlying condition should be treated, and anticoagulant or low-dose aspirin therapy may be initiated, depending on the child's diagnosis.

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  • The second phase of treatment is then initiated.

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  • Full-term infants rarely require an exchange transfusion if intense phototherapy is initiated in a timely manner.

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  • A diagnosis should be made, and drug therapy initiated, only by a qualified professional experienced in this condition.

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  • Gentle massage and range-of-motion (ROM) exercises usually are initiated immediately, even in infants with very mild brachial plexopathy.

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  • If the infant becomes unconscious, CPR should be initiated.

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  • Typically, family therapy is initiated to address a specific problem, such as an adolescent with a psychological disorder or adjustment to a death in the family.

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  • In the 1990s a number of countries initiated campaigns aimed at getting parents to put their infants to sleep on their backs or sides.

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  • The key to avoiding serious complications of hypertension is to detect and treat it at the earliest possible age so that preventive treatment can be initiated.

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  • Most experts agree, however, that toilet training should only be initiated when a child exhibits certain signs of readiness that usually appear between the ages of two and three years of age.

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  • Puberty is initiated by hormonal changes triggered by a part of the brain called the hypothalamus, which stimulates the pituitary gland, which in turn activates other glands as well.

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  • If an animal is found to be rabies-free after the vaccination series has been initiated, the series can be discontinued.

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  • Once an infant can breathe unaided, physical therapy is initiated to help the child relearn how to suck and swallow.

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  • For example, if students stay away from school because of inadequate academic skills, special tutoring programs may be initiated.

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  • Once asthma is diagnosed, a treatment plan should be initiated as quickly as possible to manage asthma symptoms.

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  • In many cases, complications can be avoided if early diagnosis is made and treatment initiated.

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  • Once the movement of the arm is initiated, sensory information is needed to guide the finger to its precise destination.

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  • The New Deal programs initiated under Franklin D.

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  • This type of foreclosure process is initiated in a court of law with the lender's lawyers filing a document called Lis Pendens, which translates to "action pending."

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  • The eviction process will be initiated after the redemption period.

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  • A homeowner is usually months behind in payments before actual foreclosure proceedings are initiated by the lender.

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  • Foreclosures were initiated and processed without any notification to the homeowner.

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  • Lenders typically allow homeowners to fall behind three to six months before foreclosure is initiated.

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  • Keep in mind that even if foreclosure proceedings are not initiated, being delinquent on a mortgage can be costly.

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  • If you wonder whether or not your mortgage company has initiated foreclosure - or plans on initiating foreclosure any time soon - pay attention to the documents you receive in the mail.

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  • The transit system has also initiated a few interesting studies, the most recent being the Golden Gate Bridge Physical Suicide Deterrent System Project.

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  • Company executives say the modified moniker was initiated by an expansion to Texas.

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  • When hundreds of calls flooded the CONAD operations center, the organization initiated Santa radar in the spirit of holiday cheer.

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  • NORAD is responsible for monitoring the skies above the U.S. and Canada for defense purposes, but initiated the Santa Tracker in 1955.

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  • Smile- Once you've initiated eye contact… smile!

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  • His back was slightly turned away from me and he initiated conversation with other women while I felt ignored over 2 hours.

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  • Some historians believe that the jewelry companies, hoping to make a higher profit on wedding rings, initiated this custom.

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  • In 2000, a group of Texas parents, with the help of the American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU), initiated a lawsuit alleging various civil rights infringements.

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  • Even if you activate the account later, many websites will begin counting the days from the day you initiated the process.

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  • Tuition costs under $3,500, and students who are already initiated into the practices of Kundalini Yoga often find this specialized training exceptionally profitable.

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  • Later, in India, Sivananda initiated him into Kavi Yogi.

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  • Although sports generally did not interest him, he learned to carry on a conversation about sports when it was initiated by another boy.

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  • Have you initiated new policies or procedures?

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  • A lawsuit can still be initiated for additional coverage or for damages such as pain and suffering.

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  • In the late 1940s, the United States government initiated a life insurance program that was specifically designed to guarantee veterans universal life insurance services and coverage.

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  • Sue the builder - Homeowners have initiated class-action suits against builders in Florida, Louisiana and Alabama.

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  • The searches themselves are initiated by either the child, or one or both of the birth parents.

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  • When Kirk initiated the self-destruct aboard the great vessel, it was painful to see the Enterprise sacrificed to save her crew, much as Spock sacrificed himself in the second film.

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  • This initiated an interest in learning more of other cultures and instilled a love of modern and ancient languages; a love he carried into his adult life and which is reflected in his writing.

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  • Horace Gold also initiated payment “on acceptance” rather than “on publication” which meant writers received their payment sooner rather than later.

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  • Before these regulations were initiated, the army basically had two colors to designate different branches of service: white/silver for infantry and yellow/gold for all other branches.

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  • The 1851 uniform regulations initiated the use of more colors, and years later the Civil War brought the need for more colors as new branches of service came into existence.

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  • This restaurant has initiated an in-house program to use sustainable products when available.

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  • The cultivation of vines had also increased, and wine industries had been initiated, chiefly in Tashkent and Samarkand.

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  • After the Russo-Turkish War of 1828-29, a further attempt at reform was initiated by the sultan and his grand vizier, Reshid Pasha.

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  • The constitutional changes of August 1802, initiated solely by Bonaparte, made France an absolute monarchy.

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