Abbott, Principles of Bacteriology (7th ed., London, 1905); Crookshank, Bacteriology and Infective Diseases (with bibliography, 4th ed., London, 1896); Duclaux, Traite de microbiologie (Paris, 1899-1900); Eyre, Bacteriological Technique (Philadelphia and London, 1902); Flugge, Die Mikroorganismen (3rd ed., Leipzig, 1896); Fischer, Vorlesungen fiber Bakterien (2nd ed., Jena, 1902); Gunther, Einfiihrung in das Studium der Bakteriologie (6th ed., Leipzig, 1906); Hewlett, Manual of Bacteriology (2nd ed., London, 1902); Hueppe, Principles of Bacteriology (translation, London, 1899); Klein, Micro-organisms and Disease (3rd ed., London, 1896); Kolle and Wassermann, Handbuch der pathogenen Mikroorganismen (Jena, 1904) (supplements are still being published; this is the most important work on the subject); Lofler, Vorlesungen fiber die geschichtliche Entwickelung der Lehre von der Bacterien (Leipzig, 1887); M`Farland, Text-book upon the Pathogenic Bacteria (5th ed., London, 1906); Muir and Ritchie, Manual of Bacteriology (with bibliography, 4th ed., Edin.
In the case of the latter animal the serum infective conditions led Metchnikoff to place great p g importance on phagocytosis.
However, they remain infective in water or moist soil for about one year.
In some of the infective conditions the conflict fortifies the organism against future attacks of the same nature, as for example in the immunity following many of the acute infective diseases.
The parasitic hypothesis postulates the invasion of a parasite from without, thus making a new growth an infective process.
Hyaline degeneration is found in certain acute infective conditions; the toxins specially act on these connective-tissue cell elements.
Of late years enormous impulse has been given to our knowledge of the causation of disease by microbes, through the works of Gaspard, who injected putrid matter into the veins of a living animal; by Villemin, who discovered that tuberculosis is infective; by Davaine; and especially by Pasteur, Koch and others too numerous to mention, who have worked, and are still working, at the microbic causation of disease with marvellous success.
Mitchill (1764-1831) pointed out in America the resemblance which exists between symptoms of Anti- poisoning by snake venom and infective fevers.'
Weir Mitchell and others have shown that serpent venom consists chiefly of albumoses, and the toxins formed by infective bacilli have a somewhat similar chemical nature.
The same method of serum therapeutics has been used in other infective diseases, but not with the same success.
The virulence of infective diseases varies in different epidemics, and at different times in the same epidemic. It had been noted that many infective diseases did not attack an individual a second time, the first attack appearing to protect from subsequent ones.
Although the anti-toxins which are used in the cure of infective diseases are not dangerous to life, yet they sometimes cause unpleasant consequences, more especially an urticarial eruption almost exactly like that which follows eating mussels or other shell-fish.
The demonstration by Pasteur that definite diseases could be produced by bacteria, proved a great stimulus to research in the etiology of infective conditions, and the result Historical was a rapid advance in human knowledge.
The key to the artificial establishment of active immunity is given by the fact long established that recovery from an attack of certain infective diseases is accompanied by protection for varying periods of time against a subsequent attack.
This, as already pointed out, depends upon the increase of opsonins, though it is also to be noted that in many infective conditions there is another factor present, namely a leucocytosis, that is, an increase of the leucocytes in the blood, and the defensive powers of the body are thereby increased.
The bacteriology of the infective diseases (with bibliography) is fully given in the System of Medicine, edited by Clifford Allbutt, (2nd ed., London, 1907).
The most important works on immunity are: Ehrlich, Studies in Immunity (English translation, New York, 5906), and Metchnikoff, Immunity in Infective Diseases (English translation, Cambridge, 1905).
Pharmacology is a branch of biology; it is also closely connected with pathology and bacteriology, for certain drugs produce structural as well as functional changes in the tissues, and in germ diseases the peculiar symptoms are caused by foreign substances (toxins) formed by the infective organisms present in the body.
Patients with prosthetic heart valves or who have had one previous episode of infective endocarditis should receive chemoprophylaxis according to the current UK recommendations.
Pain and reduced vision are not features of common infective conjunctivitis - tell your doctor if these or other worrying symptoms develop.
Less common types of potentially fatal infections include infective endocarditis.
Where a child presents with cardiac problems, treated or untreated, dental diseases pose a threat of infective endocarditis.
Treatment of infective keratitis, particularly fungal keratitis, is expensive.
Only 0.5 g of infective material given orally has been found in experiments to be necessary to infect a sheep with BSE.
Used animal cages should be rendered non- infective by disinfection, fumigation or heat treatment (steaming or autoclaving ).
infective conjunctivitis - tell your doctor if these or other worrying symptoms develop.
The infective oocysts or eggs are passed in the dung and develop quickly in warm situations to become infective oocysts or eggs are passed in the dung and develop quickly in warm situations to become infective.
infective cysts on pasture An increase in metacercariae on pasture occurs during two periods.
Despite the SBO ban, some potentially infective bovine tissues continued to enter the human food chain.
Food poisoning can be caused by the growth of highly infective kinds of bacteria in the food.
In Taiwan a strain exists that is not infective to man.
The cercaria are directly infective to the definitive hosts.
The host may remain infective to birds for many months.
Here they feed and grow, molting periodically, until they become infective.
There was general surprise and concern that such a small quantity had proved infective.
The infective eggs or larvae are then ingested by a cat.
Birds become infected when they consume the host containing the infective larvae.
In 1918, Bradford et al described ' acute infective polyneuritis ' .
Without an effective preventive worming program pasture is likely to become heavily contaminated with potentially dangerous levels of Infective larvae.
The most common position among scientists is that the infective agent with BSE and CJD is a specific form of protein called a prion.
They then excrete infective trypanosomes in their feces which enter the blood of a subsequent victim through the bite wound.
Gardeners and farm laborers convey spores from one bed or field to another; carted soil, manure, &c., may abound in spores of Smuts, Fusarium, Polyporei and in sclerotia; and articles through the post and so forth often carry infective spores.
Many cancer-parasites have been described in cancerous growths, including bacteria, yeasts and protozoa, but the innumerable attempts made to demonstrate the causal infective organism have all completely failed.
By embolism is meant the more or less sudden stoppage of a vessel by a plug of solid matter carried thither by the current of the blood; be it a little clot from the heart or, what is far more pernicious, an infective fragment from some focus of infection in the body, by which messengers new foci of infection may be scattered about the body.
Awareness of the value of the TORCH panel of tests to help confirm the presence of an infective organism and its concentration in the blood is important, especially because confirmatory tests lead to faster, more effective treatment.
Infective endocarditis is an infection of the endothelium, the tissue that lines the heart.
Because children with Marfan are at increased risk for infective endocarditis, they must take a prophylactic dose of an antibiotic before having dental work or minor surgery, as these procedures may allow bacteria to enter the bloodstream.
At body temperature, the eggs develop quickly and are infective in about six hours.
Pinworms are extremely contagious, and the eggs are infective within a few hours of being laid.
Taking precautions against colds and bronchial infections (washing hands, not sharing dishes, avoiding sick people) can cut down on stridor from infective causes.
Physicians prefer not to suppress a productive cough, since it aids the body in clearing respiratory system of infective agents and irritants.
Hand washing should be done at home also to reduce contact with infective material.
Viruses represent a large group of infective agents that are composed of a core of nucleic acids, either RNA or DNA, surrounded by a layer of protein.
This condition results in slow response to infective organisms and slow response to treatment.
The onset, duration, and severity of pneumonia depend upon the type of infective organism invading the body and the response of the child's immune system in fighting the infection.
Chlamydia psittaci can be infective in some individuals, such as poultry farm workers, who have direct contact with bird droppings.
Persons with whooping cough should be given adequate nutrition to assist their bodies in recovering from the infective agent.
But whatever merits they had as clarifiers of turbid water, the advent of bacteriology, and the recognition of the fact that the bacteria of certain diseases may be water-borne, introduced a new criterion of effectiveness, and it was perceived that the removal of solid particles, or even of organic impurities (which were realized to be important not so much because they are dangerous to health per se as because their presence affords grounds for suspecting that the water in which they occur has been exposed to circumstances permitting contamination with infective disease), was not sufficient; the filter must also prevent the passage of pathogenic organisms, and so render the water sterile bacteriologically.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.