Industry Sentence Examples
He was at a place in the industry where he did what he pleased.
The mass food industry of today cannot make this claim.
The mining industry in Sardinia is confined in the main to the south-western portion of the island.
Vancouver is the centre of the important timber industry of British Columbia.
Housing is a huge industry that will reward innovative products.Advertisement
Agriculture as an industry requires infrastructure.
Agriculture is the prevailing industry of Manitoba.
The first puddling works were opened in 1839, and Troy was long the centre of the New York iron and steel industry; in 1865 the second Bessemer steel works in the United States were opened here.
I'm in the food industry.
Although the abbey ale was mentioned as early as 1295, the brewing industry is comparatively of recent development, having begun about 1708.Advertisement
The typically industrial region of France is the department of Nord, the seat of the woollen industry, but also prominently concerned in other textile industries, in metal working, and in a variety of other manufactures, fuel for which is supplied by its coal-fields.
Stock-raising is an important industry, especially in the eastern part of the state.
Hastings was a man of immense industry, with an insatiable appetite for detail.
Amritsar is famous for its carpet-weaving industry.
Market gardening is an important industry.Advertisement
This industry is still maintained.
It is a centre of the paper-making industry, with which the town has been connected since the 14th century.
A large number of cotton mills furnish the chief source of industry; printing, dyeing and bleaching of cotton and calico, spinning and weaving machine making, iron and steel works, and collieries in the neighbourhood, are also important.
Cattle and sheep are produced in large numbers in some of the provinces, while in others mining forms the chief industry.
Agriculture is the main industry, generally combined with cattle-raising.Advertisement
After the revocation of the edict of Nantes the settlement of some French refugees further stimulated this industry.
The cotton industry is distributed in three principal groups.
Silk.The silk industry occupied f34,000 hands in 1901.
The chief local bodies concerned with commerce and industry are the chambres de commerce and the chambres consultatives darts et manufactures, the members of which are elected from their own number by the traders and industrialists of a certain standing.
Trout may now be taken in many of the mountain streams. At one time whaling was an important industry on the coasts of New South Wales and Tasmania, and afterwards on the Western Australian coasts.Advertisement
Of late years whaling has again attracted attention, and a small number of vessels prosecute the industry during the season.
Over 70,000 men are employed in the gold-mining industry, more than two-thirds of them being engaged in quartz mining.
Iron is distributed throughout Australia, but for want of capital for developing the fields this industry has not progressed.
Agriculture everywhere expanded, the mining industry revived, and, if it had not been for the low prices of staple products, the visible effects of the crisis would have passed away within a very few years.
Barre is the centre of the granite business, and the region about Rutland, especially Proctor, is the principal seat of the marble industry.
The wool-growing industry has been almost entirely destroyed by the competition of Australia and the West, and the people are now engaged mainly in dairy-farming, timbering, graniteand marble-quarrying, and in keeping summer boarders.
It is situated on the river Fal, and has some industry in tanning.
Among later residents commemorated is Edward Lloyd, who was the first person to show the value of esparto grass for the manufacture of paper, and thus started an industry which is one of the most important in Algeria.
Cotton, cloth, gold and silver ornaments, copper wares, fancy articles in bone and ivory, excellent saddles and shoes are among the products of the local industry.
The important silk industry, however, began to revive about 18go, and dairy farming is prosperous; but the condition of the vilayet is far less unsettled than that of Macedonia, owing partly to the preponderance of Moslems among the peasantry, and partly to the nearness of Constantinople, with its Western influences.
Strabo mentions linen-weaving as an ancient industry of Panopolis, and it is not altogether a coincidence that the cemetery of Akhmim is one of the chief sources of the beautiful textiles of Roman and Coptic age that are brought from Egypt.
After about five years great improvements were made in the working of the telegraphs and the industry began to make progress.
Among the men of business it was undoubtedly Sir John Pender (1815-1896) who contributed most to the development of this colossal industry, and to his unfailing faith in their ultimate realization must be ascribed the completion of the first successful Atlantic cables.
Gaine, general manager of the company, stated before the Select Committee that in the view of the directors the bargain was a hard one, because it gave no consideration in respect of the goodwill of the great business, with its gross income of over £ 2,000,000 per annum and its net revenue of over £750,000, which the company had built up. The company had had to pay for all the experiments and mistakes which are inherent in the launching and development of any new industry.
A secondary industry is the raising of goats, which are able to stand neglect and a scanty food supply.
The manufacture of macaroni and similar foodstuff is a characteristic Italian industry.
Italy has only unimportant lignite and anthracite mines, but water power is abundant and has been largely applied to industry, especially in generating electricity.
Handlooms and small spinTextiles ning establishments have, in the silk industry, given place to large establishments with steam looms. The production of raw silk at least tripled itself between 1875 and 1900, and the value of the silks woven in Italy, estimated in 1890 to be 2,200,000, is now, on account of the development of the export trade calculated to be almost 4,000,000.
The cotton industry has also rapidly developed.
The value of the annual produce of the various branches of the cotton industry, which in 1885 was calculated to he 7,200,000, was in 1900, notwithstanding the fall in prices, about 12,000,000.
The industry is chiefly developed in Lombardy, Piedmont and Liguria; to some extent also in Campania, Venetia and Tuscany, and to a less extent in Lazio (Rome), Apulia, Emilia, the Marches, Umbria, the Abruzzi and Sicily.
To some extent the industry also exists in Emilia, Calabria, Basilicata, the Abruzzi, Sardinia and Sicily.
The jute industry is concentrated in a few large factories, which from 1887 onwards have more than supplied the home market, and have begun considerably to export.
The match-making industry is subject to special fiscal conditions.
The beetroot-sugar industry has attained considerable proportions in Umbria, the Marches, Lazio, Venetia and Piedmont since 1890.
The rise of the industry has been favored by protective tariffs and by a system of excise which allows a considerable premium to manufacturers.
In other parts the industry is subjected to an almost prohibitive exciseduty.
A characteristic Italian industry is that of straw-plaiting for hat-making, which is carried on principally in Tuscany, in the district of Fermo, in the Alpine villages of the province of Vicenza, and in some communes of the province of Messina.
The production of mosaics is an industry still carried on with much success in Italy, which indeed ranks exceedingly high in th department.
Labor legislation is backward in Italy, on account of the late development of manufacturing industry and of working-class organization.
The imports op incomes from personal estate (ricchezza mobile) were introduced in 1866; it applies to incomes derived from investments, industry or personal enterprise, but not to landed revenues.
Guelph aemocracy and industry idealize the pope.
Florence after the date 1292, it becomes criminal to be scioperato, or unemployed in industry.
The Corniche road was improved; and public works in various parts of Piedmont, and the Cisalpine and Ligurian Republics attested the foresight and wisdom of the great organizer of industry and quickener of human energies.
Under their protection, and favoured by its site, the city rapidly grew in wealth and population, the zenith of its power and prosperity being reached between the 13th and 15th centuries, when it was the emporium of the trade of Germany and the Low Countries, the centre of a great cloth industry, and could put some 20,000 armed citizens into the field.
Agriculture is the main industry in this rural location.
It used to be a great centre of the indigo industry, which has now declined.
With it may be studied with advantage the unique collection at Kew of pictures of plant-life in its broadest aspects, brought together by the industry and munificence of Miss Marianne North.
Xanthium spinosum has spread from the Russian steppes to every stock-raising country in the world, and in some cases has made the industry impossible.
Columbus is near the Ohio coal and iron-fields, and has an extensive trade in coal, but its largest industrial interests are in manufactures, among which the more important are foundry and machine-shop products (1905 value, $6,259,579); boots and shoes (1905 value, $5,425,087, being more than one-sixtieth of the total product value of the boot and shoe industry in the United States, and being an increase from $359,000 in 1890); patent medicines and compounds (1905 value, $3,214,096); carriages and wagons (1905 value, $2,197,960); malt liquors (1905 value, $2,133,955); iron and steel; regalia and society emblems; steam-railway cars, construction and repairing; and oleo-margarine.
In respect of trade and industry Aix-la-Chapelle occupies a high place.
Its cloth and silk manufactures are important, and owing to the opening up of extensive coalfields in the district almost every branch of iron industry is carried on.
There are many corn and saw mills and the wood-working industry is important.
The latter industry declined before the reign of Queen Mary, but has since been revived.
Apiarium or apiary, a beehouse or hive, is used figuratively by old writers for a place of industry, e.g.
The French occupied the islands in 1791 from Mauritius, and the oil industry (from which the group is sometimes called the Oil Islands) came into the hands of French Creoles.
Annaberg, together with the neighbouring suburb, Buchholz, is the chief seat of the braid and lace-making industry in Germany, introduced here by Barbara Uttmann in 1561, and further developed by Belgian refugees, who, driven from their country by the duke of Alva, settled here in 15 9 o.
The mining industry, for which the town was formerly also famous and which embraced tin, silver and cobalt, has now ceased.
Its industries include cotton-spinning, brewing, distilling, and the manufacture of tobacco, earthenware and matches; native industry produces carved and inlaid furniture, bronzes and artistic metalwork, silk embroidery, &c. Hanoi is the junction of railways to Hai-Phong, its seaport, Lao-Kay, Vinh, and the Chinese frontier via Lang-Son.
In June 1835 Airy was appointed Astronomer Royal in succession to John Pond, and thus commenced that long career of wisely directed and vigorously sustained industry at the national observatory which, even more perhaps than his investigations in abstract science or theoretical astronomy, constitutes his chief title to fame.
The olive-planting industry is becoming important; the trees thrive well, and the area devoted to their cultivation is annually increasing.
Expert opinions have been advanced stating that gold-mining in Uruguay is capable of development into an important industry.
He is assisted by a council of ministers representing the departments of the interior, foreign affairs, finance, war and marine, industry, labour and instruction and public works.
It finds considerable application in the colour industry.
Slaughtering and meat-packing is the most important industry, the value of the product amounting to $ 2 4,45 8, 810 in 1905; this industry dates from about 1835.
The principal industry is coal-mining, and the public buildings include churches, schools and a hall.
Negatively, " unchallenged historical certainties " are becoming few in number, or are disappearing altogether, through the industry of modern minds.
In the vicinity of Cairns are extensive sugar plantations, with sugar mills and refineries; the culture of coffee and tobacco has rapidly extended; bananas, pine-apples and other fruits are exported in considerable quantities and there is a large industry in cedar.
The herringfishery is the chief industry, but there is some weaving of woollens and, in summer, a considerable influx of visitors.
The chief industry is the weaving of cloth from native grown cotton.
The linen industry is concentrated at Schonberg, Mistek, Wiesenberg and Heidenpiltsch; while the cotton industry has its principal seat at Sternberg.
Industrial and commercial Industry activity is mainly centred at the Peiraeus, where and corn- 8 cloth and cotton mills, cognac distilleries, 14 steam coerce.
The rulers fostered agriculture, stimulated commerce and industry (notably the famous Attic ceramics), adorned the city with public works and temples, and rendered it a centre of culture.
But the triumph of the navy in 480 and the great expansion of commerce and industry had definitely shifted the political centre of gravity from the yeoman class of moderate democrats to the more radical party usually stigmatized as the " sailor rabble."
The chief industry is stationery, particularly the printing of business cards.
On the 8th of August 1899 the island was visited by the most destructive cyclone in its history, causing a loss of about 3500 lives and a property damage amounting to 36,000,000 pesos, the coffee industry suffering most.
In 1910 the coffee industry had not yet recovered from the effect of the cyclone of 1899 and the unfortunate mortgage system that prevailed under the Spanish regime.
Albion is the centre of the Medina sandstone industry, and lies in the midst of a good farming region, of which it is the principal shipping point, especially for apples, cabbages and beans.
The granite (biotite, biotite-muscovite and quartz-monzonite) is of fine quality, and has been used extensively in the United States for building and monumental purposes; and the burning of lime is by far the most important industry of the city.
The shipbuilding industry is also important.
Rockland was settled in 1769, but its growth began only with the establishment of the lime industry in 1795.
The value of the city's manufactured products increased from $37,376,322 in 1890 to $77,225,116 in 1900, or 106.6%; in 1905 the factory product alone was valued at $75,740,934, an increase of only 3.9% over the factory product in 1900, this small rate of increase being due very largely to a decline in the value of the products of the sugar and molasses refining industry.
The silk industry, formerly important, still employs about 300 women and girls in four spinning establishments.
His intellectual distinction and political industry made him a valuable member of the Liberal party.
Berzelius, who, fired with enthusiasm by the original theory of Dalton and the law of multiple proportions, determined the equivalents of combining ratios of many elements in an enormous number of compounds.2 He prosecuted his labours in this field for thirty years; as proof of his industry it may be mentioned that as early as 1818 he had determined the combining ratios of about two thousand simple and compound substances.
It is the centre of the tobacco industry of the Vuelta Abajo region.
The industry is steadily growing, as are the dependent manufactures of molasses and rum.
The districts around Luton in Bedfordshire and the neighbouring counties have, since the beginning of the 17th century, been the British home of the straw-plait industry.
He then passed the laws on the press, suppressing the censorship. By reorganization of the finances, the protection of industry and the carrying out of great public works, France regained its economic prosperity, and the ministry became popular.
He had organized in 1826 a society to develop the coal and iron of the Aveyron, and the name of Decazeville was given in 1829 to the principal centre of the industry.
The principal industry is stock-raising, which dates from the first settlement in 1674 by Domingos Affonso Mafrense, who established here a large number of cattle ranges.
The industry centres chiefly in Piedmont (province of Novara), Venetia (province of Vicenza), Tuscany (Florence), Lombardy (Brescia), Campania (Caserta), Genoa, Umbria, the Marches and Rome.
Many zemstvos also made extensive and valuable inquiries into the condition of agriculture, industry and the like.
There has, however, been much activity since 1905 in the establishment of new educational institutions, notably technical and commercial schools, which are placed under the new minister of commerce and industry.
The Ural industry is the older, and is still conducted on primitive methods, wood being largely used for fuel, and the ore and metals being transported by water down the Kama and other rivers.
The copper industry has greatly declined since the 18th century; whereas then it kept 20 smelting works employed, now one-tenth of that number can hardly be kept going.
For the petroleum industry and the mining of the Caucasus region, see Caucasia.
Manufacturing industry in the modern sense can hardly be said to have existed in Russia ' See Russian Journal of Financial Statistics, in English (2 vols., St Petersburg, 1901).
Industry of this character was first established in Poland in 1820, and it has grown there rapidly, though never so rapidly as during the last few years of the 19th century.
The principal centre is Lodz in the government of Piotrkow, the staple industry being cottons.
The peculiar feature of Russian industry is the development out of the domestic petty handicrafts of central Russia of a semifactory on a large scale.
As a consequence this central Russian industry, even when supported by very high protective duties, is only able to produce for the home market and the markets of the adjacent territories in Asia which are under Russian political control.
The growth of the sugar industry is shown by the fact that in 1888-93 the average annual production of sugar was 444,520 tons, in 1902-3 it was 1,180,293 tons.
Furniture factories are developing greatly, as is the paper industry.
Flour-mills play an important part in the general industry of Russia, and there are several tobacco and hemp factories.
Not only was the army to be well drilled and the fleet to be carefully equipped, but railways were to be constructed, river-navigation was to be facilitated, manufacturing industry was to be developed, commerce was to be encouraged, the administration was to be improved, the laws were to be codified and the tribunals were to be reorganized.
As for the revolutionary " intellectuals," without the lever of agrarian discontent they In 1897 only 15% of the population were engaged in commerce or industry, including the work-people.
In the period before 1850 there was but little realization of the public nature of the railway industry and of the possibilities of injury to the public if railway corporations were left uncontrolled.
They are under the control of the Post and Telegraph department, the state issuing loans to encourage the undertakings; the authorities in the provinces and communes also give support in various ways, and under various conditions, to public bodies or private persons who desire to promote or embark in the industry.
The occupation of the inhabitants is almost entirely pastoral, and the principal industry is sheepfarming.
Its chief industry is the mining of anthracite coal; the principal establishments are railway repair shops, which in 1905 gave employment to 48.9% of all wage-earners engaged in manufacturing.
Its chief industry is the manufacture of red wine.
They met with a quick and easy sale, were very extensively read, and very liberally and deservedly praised for the unflagging industry and vigour they displayed, though just exception, if only on the score of good taste, was taken to the scoffing tone he continued to maintain in all passages where the Christian religion was specially concerned, and much fault was found with the indecency of some of his notes.'
He compressed into a single chapter the domestic history and policy of the emperors from the son of Heraclius to Isaac Angelus; and did no justice to the remarkable ability and the indefatigable industry shown in the service of the state by most of the sovereigns from Leo III.
Before Lightfoot's time commentaries, especially on the epistles, had not infrequently consisted either of short homilies on particular portions of the text, or of endeavours to enforce foregone conclusions, or of attempts to decide with infinite industry and ingenuity between the interpretations of former commentators.
Thus he was able often to recover the meaning of a passage which had long been buried under a heap of contradictory glosses, and he founded a school in which sobriety and common sense were added to the industry and ingenuity of former commentators.
It thus appears that the live stock industry is one of the most important in the state; the value of its product in 1899 exceeded its output of gold and silver, which had then reached its lowest point, by over one million dollars.
With the working out of the deposits in the Comstock region, the mining industry declined, and between 1877 and 1900 there was a period of great depression, in which Nevada fell from first to sixth place among the silver-producing states and Territories.
In May 1900, however, very rich deposits of gold and silver were discovered in Nye county, near the summit of the San Antonio Mountains, and a new era began in Nevada's mining industry.
Car construction and general shop work of steam railways was the leading manufacturing industry in 1905; next in importance were the flour and grist milling industry and the printing and publishing of newspapers and periodicals.
This was followed by a reaction and a general collapse of inflated values until 1873, when the discovery of the Great Bonanza mine brought about a revival of industry and of speculation.
Roofing tiles were manufactured in Berkhampstead as early as the 13th century, and in Elizabeth's reign the making of malt was the chief industry.
The task of constructing a system of government from the bottom, of reconciling the conflicting and often jealously sensitive elements, called for tact, firmness, industry and deep insight into human nature, all of which Governor Taft displayed in a marked degree.
The principal industry is slaughtering and meatpacking.
Gleiwitz is the centre of the mining industry of Upper Silesia.
The industry is not well developed, but the weaving of linen and lace is pursued as a household industry.
But he appears to have acted under the impression that the Socialists were much stronger than they really were, and therefore gave them a free hand with the object of avoiding bloodshed, and also perhaps with that of proving to the workmen that they could not run industry without the capitalists and the technical experts.
Many Jews have filled professorial chairs at the universities, others have been judges, and in art, literature (there is a notable Jewish publication society), industry and commerce have rendered considerable services to national culture and prosperity.
Shipbuilding was a considerable industry at Harwich in the 17th century.
They are brave and not unenergetic, though the soft climate and the abundance of food discourage industry.
Agriculture, which is well understood, is the chief industry.
The cultivation of silk cocoons, formerly a flourishing industry, has greatly declined in recent years, but efforts are now being made to revive it.
Daru, in his history of Venice, mentions fourteen between the years 1207 and 1365, the most important being that of 1361-1364, - a revolt not of the natives against the rule of their Venetian masters, but of the Venetian colonists against the republic. But with all its defects their administration did much to promote the material prosperity of the country, and to encourage commerce and industry; and it is probable that the island was more prosperous than at any subsequent time.
Honiton is famous for its lace industry, established by refugees from Flanders under Queen Elizabeth.
The wool manufacture flourished at Honiton in the reign of Henry VII., and it is said to have been the first town at which serges were made, but the industry entirely declined during the 19th century.
The labour needed in this industry is supplied by Indian peons, who live in a state of semi-servitude and are paid barely enough to sustain life.
Pine stumps and waste limbs are utilized, notably at Hattiesburg, for the manufacture of charcoal, tar, creosote, turpentine, &c. Fisheries Fishing is a minor industry, confined for the most part to the Mississippi Sound and neighbouring waters and to the Mississippi and Yazoo rivers.
Until the Civil War agriculture was about the only important industry in the state, and at the close of the 19th century it was still the leading one; but from 1880 to 11900 the ratio of agriculturists to all inhabitants of the state engaged in some gainful occupation decreased from 75.3 to 64.1%.
In the sounds along the coast, in the lower courses of the rivers that flow into them, and along the outer shores fishing is an important industry.
Iron ores are widely distributed within the state, and there have been times since the eve of the War of Independence when the mining of it was an industry of relatively great importance.
Thompson, From the Cotton Field to the Cotton Mill, a Study of the Industrial Transition in North Carolina (New York, 1906), contains some interesting observations on the changes in social conditions resulting from the growth of the cotton-manufacturing industry.
We now have categories for Dutch writers, Dutch historians, Journalism (linked to Industry and business), Animal Husbandry and Horticulture (linked to agriculture and agriculture was linked to economics and biology).
In addition to being the principal emporium for the Austrian traffic on the Elbe, Tetschen has a considerable industry, its products comprising chemicals, oil, soap, cotton stuffs, plaster of Paris, glazed and coloured paper, cellulose, beer, flour and preserved fish.
The fishing industry also is important.
The principal industry is the tanning and leather trade.
Minas Geraes is a mining state, though the mining industry has lost much of its importance through the decline in the output of gold and diamonds.
Gold is widely diffused, and abandoned "washings" all over the state show how general the industry was at one time.
There is a large variety of fruits, and the cultivation of grapes for winemaking is developing into a profitable industry.
The only industry of importance is grazing, cattle being raised for export to Chile, and a few sheep for their wool.
Rawling, who have increased our knowledge of ancient fields of industry and commerce in Turkestan and Tibet.
Its chief industry is the mining of anthracite coal at several collieries in the vicinity; and at Fountain Springs, 1 m.
Dereham is an important agricultural centre with works for the manufacture of agricultural implements, iron foundries and a malting industry.
The manufacture of cloth had disappeared, the harbour is silted up, and there is no special local industry.
Sheep-breeding is a considerable industry in the vicinity.
Owing to the long line of coast and the numerous lakes, fishing forms an important industry, and large quantities of herrings, eels and lampreys are sent from Pomerania to other parts of Germany.
Its industrial activity is not great, but there are manufactures of machinery, chemicals, paper, tobacco and sugar; these are made chiefly in or near the large towns, while linen-weaving is practised as a domestic industry.
The mining industry is growing rapidly in importance in spite of costly and deficient means of communication, want of capital, and lack of general initiative.
So far the principal developments of the industry have been in the governments of Kutais, Batum, Elisavetpol and Kuban.
But all these are insignificant in comparison with the mineral oil industry of Baku, which in normal times yields annually between ten and eleven million tons of crude oil (naphtha).
Manufacturing industry is confined to a few articles and commodities, such as cement, tea, tin cans (for oil), cotton goods, oil refineries, tobacco factories, flour-mills, silk-winding mills (especially at Shusha and Jebrail in the south of Elisavetpol), distilleries and breweries.
In addition he demanded the complete freedom of commerce and industry.'
This industry has prospered greatly, and the area of permanent pasture encroaches continually upon that of arable land.
Derby is also celebrated for its china, and silk-throwing is the principal industry of the town.
The woollen industry flourished in the county before the reign of John, when an exclusive privilege of dyeing cloth was conceded to the burgesses of Derby.
The chief industry is the manufacture of tobacco for smoking and chewing, of cigars and cigarettes and of snuff.
The work on agriculture' of Ibn-al-Awam, who lived in the 12th century A.D., treats of the varieties of soils, manuring, irrigation, ploughing, sowing, harvesting, stock, horticulture, arboriculture and plant diseases, and is a lasting record of their skill and industry.
Under the unnatural stimulus of these extra ordinary events, every branch of industry extended with unexampled rapidity.
Table XIII., in which the totals for the United Kingdom include those for the Channel Islands and Isle of Man, illustrates the preponderance of the sheep-breeding industry in the drier climate of Great Britain, and of the cattle-breeding industry in the more humid atmosphere of Ireland.
Great Britain had twice as many pigs as Ireland, but the swine industry is mainly.
No general rules, applicable to all times, can be laid down as to what not only be prepared to take account of the physical features of the world, the general structure and organization of the industry and commerce of different states, the character of their administration and other important causes of economic change.
This involves great industry on the part of many scientific workers.
We have to be saturated, as it were, with 18th-century influences, so that we can realize the conditions in which industry and trade were carried on, before we can rightly explain the course of development.
Her insular position, continuity of political development and freedom from domestic broils played an important part in bringing about a steady and continuous growth of industry and manufactures for several generations before the modern era.
This is a perfectly simple and straightforward operation, involving nothing more than familiarity with records and industry in going through them.
Suppose we have selected one of the numerous subsidiary problems suggested by the general inquiry, and obtained such full and complete information about one particular industry that we of a can tabulate the wages of the workers for a long series of years.
We cannot suppose that the policy of the Merchant Adventurers' Company had nothing to do with the woollen industry; that the export trade in woollen cloth was quite independent of the foreign exchanges and international trade relations in those times; that the effect on wages of the state of the currency, the influx of new silver, the character of the harvests, and many other influences can be conveniently ignored.
It is, for instance, practically impossible to obtain reliable evidence as to the regularity of employment in any industry in the 17th century, and the best approximations and devices we can invent are very poor substitutes for what we really want.
There has never been in the history of English industry such licence as we find in certain directions in the earlier part of the 19th century.
Mr. Churchill had shown enormous vigour, industry, imagination and patriotism; but insufficient judgment and discretion.
In the 18th and early part of the 19th century Penrith manufactured checks, linen cloth and ginghams, but the introduction of machinery put an end to this industry, only the making of rag carpets surviving.
Upon these descriptions he was still engaged till death, in 1837, put an end to his labours, when his place as Naumann's assistant for the remainder of the work was taken by Rudolph Wagner; but, from time to time, a few more, which he had already completed, made their posthumous appearance in it, and, in subsequent years, some selections from his unpublished papers were through the care of Giebel presented to the public. Throughout the whole of this series the same marvellous industry and scrupulous accuracy are manifested, and attentive study of it will show how many times Nitzsch anticipated the conclusions of modern taxonomers.
The manufacture of carpets is a large industry, one establishment employing some s000 hands.
The ancient glass-bead industry (conterie), which some years since suffered severely from over-production, has now regained its position through the union of the different factories, by which the output is controlled in such a way as to render trade profitable.
Similarly, the glass industry has revived.
The value of the factory product was $748,670,855 in 1900 and $960,811,857 in 1905.1 The most important manufacturing industry is that of iron and steel.
This industry was established near Youngstown in 1804.
Bee-keeping is an important industry.
Printing is the chief industry, tanning, flour-milling and sugar-making being also carried on.
The funds for Simmons College were left by John Simmons in 1870, who wished to found a school to teach the professions and " branches of art, science and industry best calculated to enable the scholars to acquire an independent livelihood."
Industry and Commerce.-Boston is fringed with wharves.
Manufacturing is to-day the most distinctive industry, as was commerce in colonial times.
Among the leading and more distinctive items were printing and publishing ($21,023,855 in 1905); sugar and molasses refining ($ 1 5,74 6, 547 in 1900; figures not published in 1905 because of the industry being in the hands of a single owner); men's clothing (in 1900, $8,609,475, in 1905, $11,246,004); women's clothing (in 1900, $3,258,483, in 1905, $5,705,470); boots and shoes (in 1900, $3,882,655, in 1905, $5,575,927); boot and shoe cut stock (in 1905, $5, 211, 445); malt liquors (in 1900, $7,518,668, in 1905, $6,715,215); confectionery (in 1900, $4,455,184, in 1905, $6,210,023); tobacco products (in 1900, $3,504,603, in 1905, $4,59 2, 698); pianos and organs ($3,670,771 in 1905); other musical instruments and materials (in 1905, $231,780); rubber and elastic goods (in 1900, $3,139,783, in 1905, $2,887,323); steam fittings and heating apparatus (in 1900, $2,876,327, in 1905, $3,354, 020); bottling, furniture, &c. Art tiles and pottery are manufactured in Chelsea.
The ready-made clothing industry began about 1830.
The origin and whole industry of the town are connected with the government silver-mines in the neighbourhood.
The famous manufacture of fine muslins is almost extinct, but the carving of shells, carried on from ancient times, is an important industry in the city.
It is the chief seat of the glass pearl and imitation jewelry manufacture, and has also an important textile industry, and produces large quantities of hardware, papier mache and other paper goods.
Meat packing is also an important industry.
By careful selection (the methods of which are described below) in the United States, the quality of the product was much improved, and on the recent revival of the cotton industry in the West Indies American " Sea Island " seed was introduced back again to the original home of the species.
The revolution in its treatment is a real romance of industry.
The cotton-growing industry was interrupted by the Civil War, and the seed-milling business did not begin again until 1868.
The products of cotton seed have become important elements in the national industry of the United States.
Hull is the principal seat of the industry in Great Britain, and enormous quantities of Indian and Egyptian cotton seed are imported and worked up.
Some of the United States planters are alert to take advantage of the application of science to industry, and in many cases even to render active assistance, and very successful results have been attained by the co-operation of the United States Department of Agriculture and planters.
The custom of carefully selecting the seed has grown with the industry and may be said to be inseparable from it.
Greater profits obtained from sugar caused the industry to be abandoned, except in the small island of Carriacou.
The industry made rapid progress.
The former industry was abandoned as other crops became more remunerative.
The rainfall is uncertain and low, however, never exceeding 40 in., and on the supply of water by irrigation the future of the industry mainly depends.
The industry was actively promoted by a Frenchman named Jumel, in the service of Mehemet Ali, from 1820 onwards with great success.
Northern Nigeria is the seat of a very large native cotton industry, to supply the demand for cotton robes for the Mahommedan races inhabiting the country.
More than two thousand years before Europe or England had conceived the idea of applying modern industry to the manufacture of cotton, India had matured a system of hand-spinning, weaving and dyeing which during that vast period received no recorded improvement.
Conditions are well adapted to the cultivation of the plant, and since the cessation of the RussoJapanese War the Japanese have undertaken the development of the industry.
Since about 1875 the Russians have fostered the industry, introducing American Upland varieties, distributing seed free, importing gins, providing instruction, and guaranteeing the purchase of the crops.
Commerce and transport were the only distinctive basis of the city's growth and wealth until after 1890, when there was a great increase in manufacturing, especially, in South St Joseph, of the slaughtering and meat-packing industry in the last three years of the decade.
The town, which ranks second in the department in population and industry, is noted for leather-dressing and the manufacture of gloves and straw paper.
There, as throughout life, the simplicity of his personal appearance and the oddity of his manners attracted notice, but still more, his great industry and mental power.
The active growth of the petroleum industry of the United States began in 1859, though in the early part of the century the petroleum of Lake Seneca, N.Y., was used as an embrocation under the name of " Seneca oil," and the "American Medicinal Oil" of Kentucky was largely sold after its discovery in 1829.
For about 10 years Pennsylvania was the one great oil producer of the world, but since 1870 the industry has spread all over the globe.
The petroleum industry in Canada is mainly concentrated in the district of Petrolea, Ontario.
In the early days of the petroleum industry the oil was transported in the most primitive manner.
Ragozin states in his work on the petroleum industry that Johann Lerche, who visited the Caspian district in 1735, found that the crude Caucasian oil required to be distilled to render it satisfactorily combustible, and that, when distilled, it yielded a bright yellow oil resembling a spirit, which readily ignited.
At this period the supply of the raw material was insufficient to admit of any important development in the industry, and before the drilling of artesian wells for petroleum was initiated by Drake the " coal-oil " or shale-oil industry had assumed considerable proportions in the United States.
This was plainly stated by Professor Silliman in the earliest stages of development of the American petroleum industry.
At the inception of the industry kerosene came into the market as a dark yellow or reddish-coloured liquid, and in the first instance, the removal of colour was attempted by treatment with soda lye and lime solution.
The industry is conducted upon a basis of recognized standards of quality, and testing is necessary in the interests of both refiner and consumer, as well as compulsory in connexion with the various statutory and municipal regulations.
Since the inception of the petroleum industry, most civilized countries have prescribed by law a test of flash-point or inflammability, designed in most cases primarily to afford a definition of oils for lighting purposes which may be safely stored without the adoption of special precautions.
Industry especially attained a high state of development; rich garments were embroidered, and glass, pastes, faience, &c., were manufactured.
Wherever Poggio went he carried on the same industry of research.
In 1900 this was the most valuable industry in the state; in 1905 it was second to the manufacture of tobacco.
Fishing and agriculture constitute the chief resources of the islanders, whose ancient silk industry is still maintained.
Flourishing centres of industry are found along the numerous river arms, including Maasluis, Vlaardingen, Schiedam, Rotterdam, Gorinchem, and Dordrecht.
The principal industry of Villach consists in the fabrication of various lead wares, and is mostly dependent on the lead mines of Bleiberg, which is situated about 9 m.
This sulphur again was not ordinary sulphur, but some principle derived from it, which constituted the philosopher's stone or elixir - white for silver and yellow or 1 " Some traditionary knowledge might be secreted in the temples and monasteries of Egypt; much useful experience might have been acquired in the practice of arts and manufactures, but the science of chemistry owes its origin and improvement to the industry of the Saracens.
The manufacture of bricks is an important industry.
The staple silk industry (which dates from the 16th century) has declined, the number both of filande (establishments wherein the cocoons are unwound) and of filatoje (those wherein the silk is spun) having diminished.
The principal industry is the raising of stock for the Chilean markets, as there is little cultivation.
He was helped of course by his sound education; but the true cause of his success lay in his strong sense, untiring industry, courage, clear-sightedness and great intellectual force.
He was at once elected to the national house of representatives, and took his seat in December 1 795 There, by sheer force of ability and industry, he wrested from all competitors the leadership of the Republicans, and became the most dangerous opponent whom the Federalists had ever encountered in congress.
Gallatin worked at his new task with his usual industry, tact and patience, but the results were meagre, although an open breach on the delicate question of the north-east boundary of the United States was avoided by referring it to the arbitration of the king of the Netherlands.
The cloth industry was introduced in the 14th century at Iglau, where it soon obtained a great reputation; it developed afterwards at Olmiitz, and since the middle of the 18th century it has its principal centre at Briinn.
The mining industry on which the town formerly depended is extinct, but the district is agricultural and dairy farming is carried on, while the town has flour mills, tanneries and iron foundries.
Processes were devised by Guimet (1826) and by Christian Gmelin (1828), then professor of chemistry in Tubingen; but while Guimet kept his process a secret Gmelin published his, and thus became the originator of the "artificial ultramarine" industry.
A tribunal and chamber of commerce, a board of trade-arbitrators, a lycee, a branch of the Bank of France, a school of industry, a school of cloth manufacture and a museum of natural history are among its institutions.
Brandy distilling is, after agriculture, the chief local industry.
The collection of salt from BahrAssal is an industry of some importance.
As regards the latter consideration, it is enough to say that nowhere has productive industry developed itself in the form of voluntary effort; in every country of which we have any knowledge it was imposed by the strong upon the weak, and was wrought into the habits of the people only by the stern discipline of constraint.
In its action on the slave it marred in a great measure the happy effects of habitual industry by preventing the development of the sense of human dignity which lies at the foundation of morals.
It was for some time thought that from Sierra Leone as a centre industry and civilization might be diffused amongst the nations of the continent; and in 1822 the colony (which in 1847 became the independent republic) of Liberia had been founded by Americans with a similar object; but in neither case have these expectations been adequately fulfilled.
Papyrus was cultivated and manufactured for writing material by the Arabs in Egypt down to the time when the growing industry of paper in the 8th and 9th centuries rendered it no longer a necessity.
At Rome there was certainly some kind of industry in papyrus, the charta Fanniana, already referred to, being an instance in illustration.
But it seems probable that this industry was confined to the re-making of material imported into Italy, as in the case of the charta Claudia.
He was back in Johannesburg in December 1903, and had to consider the crisis in the gold-mining industry caused by the shortage of native labour.
Since about 1880 there have been central factories, and their increase has been a very prominent factor in the development of the industry, as it has been in Cuba.
Though introduced with success from Santo Domingo about the middle of the T 8th century, the sugar industry practically dates from 1796, when Etienne Bore first succeeded in crystallizing and clarifying the syrup. Steam motive power was first introduced on the plantations in 1822.
Thus the use of machinery became possible, and this revolutionized the entire industry.
The lumber industry is centred chiefly in Calcasieu parish.
In some localities, especially in the " Florida parishes," small quantities of rosin and turpentine are taken from the long-leaf pine, but this industry was unimportant in Louisiana before 1908.
Tafia rum and a waxy, sticky sugar syrup subsequently became important products; but not until the end of the century were the means found to crystallize sugar and so give real prosperity to the industry.
The dependence of the island on one crop has been an artificial economic condition often of grave momentary danger to prosperity; but generally speaking, the progress of the industry has been steady.
Under the conditions of free labour, the development of railways abroad, the improvement of machinery both in cane and beet producing countries, the general competition of the beet, and the fall of prices, it was impossible for the Cuban industry to survive without radical betterment of methods.
The production of the island from 1850 to 1868 averaged 469,934 tons yearly, rising from 223,145 to 749,000; from 1869 to 1886 (continuing high during the period of the Ten Years' War), 632,003 tons; from 1887 to 1907 - omitting the five years 1896-1900 when the industry was prostrated by war,-909,827 tons (and including the war period, 758,066); and in the six harvests of 1901-1906, 1,016,899 tons.
Following the resuscitation of the industry after the last war, the island's crop rose steadily from one-sixth to a full quarter of the total cane sugar output of the world, its share in the world's product of sugar of all kinds ranging from a tenth to an eighth.
The tobacco industry has been uniformly prosperous, except when crippled by the destruction of war in 1868-1878 and 1895-1898.
Coffee-raising was once a flourishing and very promising industry.
Some " caf e tales " were established by the newcomers near Havana, but the industry has always been almost exclusively one of Santiago province; with Santa Clara as a much smaller producer.
The war of 1895-1898 still further diminished the vitality of the industry.
Of other agricultural crops those of fruits are of greatest importance - bananas (which are planted about once in three years), pine-apples (planted about once in five years), coco-nuts, oranges, &c. The coco-nut industry has long been largely confined to the region about Baracoa, owing to the ruin of the trees elsewhere by a disease not yet thoroughly understood, which, appearing finally near Baracoa, threatened by 1908 to destroy the industry there as well.
The droughts to which the island is recurrently subject are, however, a not unimportant drawback to the industry; and though the best ranges, under favourable conditions, are luxuriant, nevertheless the pastures of the island are in general mediocre.
The sugar industry is not similarly centralized.
Consult the Boletin above mentioned, publications of the Estacion Central Agronomica, and current statistical serial reports of the treasury department (Hacienda) on natural resources, live-stock interests, the sugar industry (annual), &c.
Leechgathering is a characteristic Bosnian industry.
There are also government workshops, opened with a view to a higher technical and artistic development of the house industry.
There is a large vineyard in the vicinity; truckgardening is an important industry in the surrounding country; and Fayetteville is a shipping centre for small fruits and vegetables, especially lettuce, melons and berries.
With its extensive sea-coast, and its numerous bays and inlets, Turkey has many excellent fishing-grounds, and the industry, the value of which is estimated at over £200,000 a year, could be greatly developed.
Attar of roses is produced in large quantities both in European and Asiatic Turkey, and to aid in furthering the industry numerous rose plants are distributed gratuitously.
They were established at a time when industry was not free, and the government fixed the number of artisans of every kind of trade in each town, no one having 'the right to increase that number.
The ancient guediks have not been abolished, the government not daring to deprive them of their privileges; but since the Tanzimat no new ones have been created, industry being declared free.
Fortunately the industry and ability of the military history section of the French General Staff have rendered available, by the publication of the original orders issued during the course of his campaigns, a mass of information which, taken in conjunction with his own voluminous correspondence, renders it possible to trace the growth of his military genius with a reasonable approach to accuracy.
Ceaseless industry and energy were the principal results of the victory.
There are also ecclesiastical seminaries, lycees for boys and girls, training-colleges, a school of commerce and industry, and a branch of the Bank of France.
The whaling industry was formerly prolific off the west coast but decayed when the right whale nearly disappeared.
Woollen fabrics are manufactured, and the sugar industry established in 1890 employs several thousand hands; but the majority of the inhabitants are occupied by the trade in grain, fruit, wine and oil.
Minnesota ranked third among the states of the Union in 1900 in the production of lumber, but in 1905 was fifth, the supply having diminished and the industry having been developed in the states of Washington and Louisiana.
The principal industry of Minnesota is agriculture.
The township's principal industry is the manufacture of cotton goods, the value of which in 1905 ($4,621,261) was 84.1% of the value of the township's total factory products; in 1905 no other place in the United States showed so high a degree of specialization in this industry.
Trautenau is the centre of the Bohemian linen industry and has factories for the manufacture of paper and for the utilization of the waste products of the other mills.
To the east of it comes the Museum for Art and Industry, founded in 1878, now one of the most important institutions of the kind in Germany, with which is connected a trades school.
Among other important articles of domestic industry are tobacco and cigars (manufactured mainly in bond, within the free harbour precincts), hydraulic machinery, electro-technical machinery, chemical products (including artificial manures), oils, soaps, india-rubber, ivory and celluloid articles and the manufacture of leather.
The principal industry is agriculture.
The preparation of ixtle fibre for export is becoming an important industry.
The Bochumer Verein fur Bergbau (mining) and Gusstahl Fabrication (steel manufacture) is one of the principal trusts in this industry, founded in 1854.
The Lake Of Bizerta, called Tinja by the Arabs, abounds in excellent fish, especially mullets, the dried roe of which, called botargo, is largely exported, and the fishing industry employs a large proportion of the inhabitants.
Difficulties in the supply of labour in the East may hinder the further development of the rubber-planting industry, especially at a period when a reduction in the cost of production may be the chief problem.
Each year, however, the output of " plantation " rubber will show a considerable increase, and it is to be expected that ultimately this will form the chief source of supply, unless unforeseen circumstances should arise to interfere with the development of the plantation industry, which has been vigorously started chiefly with European capital in the tropical possessions of Great Britain, France and Germany.
Ever since plantations of Hevea have been made on an increasing scale in the Straits Settlements, the Federated Malay States and in Ceylon, and at the present time rubber plantations form the principal industry in these colonies.
The development of the rubber industry has now reached a stage at which more exact methods of determining the chemical composition and physical properties (strength and elasticity) of rubber are required.
The question as to whether synthetic rubber will ever be produced cheaply on a commerical scale is therefore the important one for those who are largely interested in the rubber-planting industry.
Brick and cement making is an important industry, and there are corn and paper mills.
The chief industry of the town is wool-spinning, and there is trade in wood.
Mining is the next most important industry after agriculture.
Mining, the second industry in point of importance, is dealt with above.
Prior to the building of the trans-Siberian railway a fairly active trade was carried on between China and the Amur region; but since the opening of that railway (in 1902-1905) the Amur region has seriously and rapidly declined in all that concerns trade, industry, general prosperity and civilization.
It starts from Perm on the Kama, and, crossing the Urals, reaches Ekaterinburg - the centre of mining industry - and Tyumen on the Tura, whence steamers ply via Tobolsk to Tomsk.
Mica mining is an industry of considerable importance, especially in India; but here the methods of mining are very primitive and wasteful.
Various arts were attributed to her - shipbuilding, the goldsmith's craft, fulling, shoemaking and other branches of industry.
The custom of offering a beautifully woven peplus at the Panathenaic festival is connected with her character as Ergane the goddess of industry.'
The industry is now extinct.
The Mineral Industry, begun in 1892, annually records the progress made in lead smelting.
The prominence of the rubber industry here is due to Charles Goodyear, who in 1821 entered into partnership with his father Amasa Goodyear for the manufacture of hardware.
Bradford was at one time the centre of the clothing industry in the west of England, and was especially famous for its broadcloths and mixtures, the waters of the Avon being especially favourable to the production of good colours and superior dyes.
Both industry and commerce were largely dependent on foreign (German, Baltic and Russian) capital, and agriculture on large and small agricultural enterprise constantly and rapidly growing.
Industry consists chiefly in fishing (sardines, &c., and coral), the manufacture of tobacco, oil-distilling, tanning, and the preparation of preserved citron§ and of macaroni and similar provisions.
This industry was introduced in 1746, and has since prospered in the hands of several wealthy families which are closely connected by intermarriage, and lend each other support.
In this position his moderation, industry, good sense, knowledge of men and of affairs, made his services of great value.
In this capacity he showed his usual industry and devotion, concluding the treaties between France and Austria and France and Prussia, which preceded the French invasion of Russia in 1812.
Goats are bred and coco-nuts cultivated, but fishing is the chief industry.
The interruption of maritime intercourse, the stagnation of industry and trade, the rise in the price of the necessaries of life, the impossibility of adequately providing for the families of those - call them reservists, " landwehr," or what you will - who are torn away from their daily toil to serve in the tented field, - these are considerations that may well make us pause before we abandon a peaceful solution and appeal to brute force.