Rajputana is very poor in industrial production.
The colony, however, from 1821 had made a fair start in free industrial progress.
The use of cranes is of great antiquity, but it is only since the great industrial development of the 19th century, and the introduction of other motive powers than hand labour, that the crane has acquired the important and indispensable position it now occupies.
Leathertanning and shoe-making are especially associated with the district called Langstraat, which is situated between Geertruidenberg and 's Hertogenbosch, and consists of a series of industrial villages along the course of the Old Maas.
The colonies were, however, to have other and bitter experiences of strikes before Labour recognized that of all means for settling industrial Australians in South America.
Belleville is in a rich agricultural region, and in the vicinity there are valuable coal mines, the first of which was sunk in 1852; from this dates the industrial development of the city.
The model followed in these two states was not Victoria but New Zealand, where an Industrial Conciliation and Arbitration Act was passed in 1894.
The city is a product of the industrial transformation in the southern states since the Civil War.
Then along came the Industrial Revolution, and I am sure it all seemed very foreign.
The chief industrial establishments are a large ammunition factory and an engine factory; but manufactures of cotton, silk, velvet, pottery and paper, sugar-refining and tanning are also extensively carried on.
In New York State, where the population is largely industrial, the annual deaths per million are only three, but of the agricultural population eleven.
Sydney was the centre of the disturbance, and the city was in a state of industrial siege, feeling running to dangerous extremes.
In the industrial regions of northern France cattle are stall-fed with the waste products of the beet-sugar factories, oil-works and distilleries.
the coles pratiques de commerce et dindustrie for the training of clerks and workmen; private schools controlled by the state, such as the coles supirieures de commerce; certain municipal schools, such as the Industrial Institute of Lille; and private establishments, e.g.
Either party, or the minister for Labour, may refer a determination to the court of industrial appeals, and the court, in the event of a special board failing to make a determination, may itself be called upon to frame one.
To these may be added the industrial museum, the cabinet of coins, the museum of natural history, the collection of majolica vases in the new palace, and the Wurttemberg museum of antiquities.
The disturbance of social, industrial and commercial affairs, during the first two or three years of the gold era, was very great.
In 1882-1884 three successive annual exhibits of a National Mining and Industrial Exposition were held.
Tuskegee is chiefly known for its educational institutions - the Tuskegee Normal and Industrial Institute and the Alabama Conference Female College (Methodist Episcopal Church, South; opened 1856).
Among the industrial establishments of the city are stove and range factories, flour mills, rolling mills, distilleries, breweries, shoe factories, copper refining works, nail and tack factories, glass works and agricultural implement factories.
Loir-et-CI Besides the industrial districts the most thickly Loire -
Ansonia, Derby and Shelton form one of the most important industrial communities in the state.
whether run by steam, water-power or other motive forces, has played a great part in the promotion of industry; the increase in the amount of steam horse-power employed in industrial establishments is, to a certain degree, an index to the activity of the country as regards manufactures.
There are a state prison at Windsor (1808), a house of correction at Rutland (1878), an industrial school at Vergennes (1866), and hospitals for the insane at Brattleboro (1836) and Waterbury (1891).
He was quite aware that the industrial wealth of the great Flemish communes was financially the mainstay of his power, but their very prosperity made them the chief obstacle to his schemes of unifying into a solid dominion the loose aggregate of states over which he was the ruler.
Amongst the more important buildings for ecclesiastical and philanthropic purposes erected to the north of the city since 1860 are the Russian cathedral, hospice and hospital; the French hospital of St Louis, and hospice and church of St Augustine; the German schools, orphanages and hospitals; the new hospital and industrial school of the London mission to the Jews; the Abyssinian church; the church and schools of the Church missionary society; the Anglican church, college and bishop's house; the Dominican monastery, seminary and church of St Stephen; the Rothschild hospital and girls' school; and the industrial school and workshops of the Alliance Israelite.
Minerals remained for the most part unworked, though the profitable coal fields and oil wells in Ferghana were used when disturbances in Trans-Caspia cut Turkestan off from the Baku oil, on which it relies entirely for its industrial life.
With the exception of railway shops, there are no important industrial establishments.
It lies at the junction of two streams, the Rother and Hipper, in a populous industrial district.
Thus, ceteris paribus, deaths from lightning are much more numerous in a country than in an industrial population.
This is the oldest industrial corporation in Sweden, and perhaps the oldest still existing in the world; it is known to have been established before 1347.
The large industrial population of the town is occupied in the manufacture of lace, which extended hither from Nottingham; there are also railway carriage works.
At South Manchester, an attractive industrial village, a silk mill was built in 1838; the silk mills of one firm (Cheney Brothers) here cover about 12 acres; the company has done much for its employees, whose homes are almost all detached cottages in attractive grounds.
With the exception of Loire, Bouches-du-Rhbne and Rhne, the chief industrial departments of France are to be found in the north and north-east of the country.
In the neighbourhood is a model village, with an elementary school, an industrial school for whites, a hospital and a church, maintained by Mr Vanderbilt.
There are a sugar refinery and cooperage works, as well as large sawmills, shingle factories and many other industrial concerns.
Cotton spinning and printing works, cotton-mill machinery works, dye-works and chemical manufactures, and neighbouring collieries maintain the industrial population.
The neighbouring country is pleasant enough, particularly along the river, but the town itself is purely industrial, and contains no pre-eminent buildings.
At Delaware, also, are the state industrial school for girls, a Carnegie library, the Edwards Young Men's Christian Association building and a city hospital.
The typically industrial region of France is the department of Nord, the seat of the woollen industry, but also prominently concerned in other textile industries, in metal working, and in a variety of other manufactures, fuel for which is supplied by its coal-fields.
To meet the needs of technical and industrial education there are a school of mines at San Juan, a school of viticulture at Mendoza, an agronomic and veterinary school at La Plata, several agricultural and pastoral schools, and commercial schools in Buenos Aires, Rosario, Bahia Blanca and Concordia.
Examples of such bodies are the Society for Elementary Instruction the Polytechnic Association, the Philotechnic Association and the French Union of the Young at Paris; the Philomathic Society of Bordeaux; the Popular Education Society at Havre; the Rhone Society of Pro-, fessional Instruction at Lyons; the Industrial Society of Amiens and others.
Efforts to hasten this development have created some serious financial and industrial crises, and have burdened the country with heavy debts and taxes.
Its most important industrial establishments are the mirror manufactory of St Gobain and the chemical works at Chauny, and the workshops and foundries of Guise, the property of an association of workpeople organized on socialistic lines and producing iron goods of various kinds.
The Nord, which serves the rich mining, industrial and farming districts of Nord, Pas-de-Calais, Aisne and Somme, connecting with the Belgian railways at several points.
The county industrial school is established in the town.
The industrial progress of Italy has been great since 1880.
No explanation of the industrial situation in Germany, for example, would be intelligible or satisfactory even from the economic point of view which ignored the significance of the political conditions which Germans have to deal with.
The strike spread to nearly all the industrial centres, although in many places it was limited to a few trades.
It is prepared on the industrial scale for the manufacture of sulphuric acid, for the preparation of sodium sulphate by the Hargreaves process, and for use as a bleaching-disinfecting agent and as a preservative.
Coal takes, however, an altogether secondary place as a fuel in Russia; wood is much more extensively used, not only for domestic, but also for industrial purposes.
In the middle ages this differentiation of the industrial, municipal and political life had not taken place, and in order to understand the working of at first sight purely economic regulations it is necessary to make a close study of the functions of local government.
No one knows what proportion of the industrial population was included in the organized gilds, or how complete was the control exercised by these bodies over their members.
The spread of the modern industrial system has brought with it the modern state, with its millions of consumers, its vast area, its innumerable activities, its complicated code of industrial and commercial law.
The city is the seat of the Bordentown Military Institute (with the Woodward memorial library), of the state manual training and industrial school for coloured youth, of the St Joseph's convent and mother-house of the Sisters of Mercy, and of St Joseph's academy for girls.
It is very unevenly distributed, and in the industrial districts is increasing very rapidly.
The industrial interests of the city are principally in mining, lumbering and agriculture.
The I heart-wood ceases to be of any use to the tree except as a support, but owing to its dryness and hardness it alone is of much use for industrial purposes.
From 1850 to 1900 fairly full industrial statistics were gathered as a part of each decennial census.
Columbus is near the Ohio coal and iron-fields, and has an extensive trade in coal, but its largest industrial interests are in manufactures, among which the more important are foundry and machine-shop products (1905 value, $6,259,579); boots and shoes (1905 value, $5,425,087, being more than one-sixtieth of the total product value of the boot and shoe industry in the United States, and being an increase from $359,000 in 1890); patent medicines and compounds (1905 value, $3,214,096); carriages and wagons (1905 value, $2,197,960); malt liquors (1905 value, $2,133,955); iron and steel; regalia and society emblems; steam-railway cars, construction and repairing; and oleo-margarine.
of Gyongy8s is situated the old town of Hatvan (pop. 9698), which is now a busy railway junction, and possesses several industrial establishments.
The industrial establishments comprise reduction works, saw-mills and flour-mills, one of the latter being the largest in Canada.
high, a large convict prison for men, an industrial, commercial and other schools.
The city's central geographical position, its extensive' railway connexions, and its proximity to important coal-fields have combined to make it one of the principal industrial centres of the Middle West.
This was owing to the fact that large numbers of the men engaged in agricultural pursuits during the summer temporarily move every year into the large industrial centres for the winter.
Every industrial concern employing fifty hands or over elects one or more delegates to the electoral P ?
During the closing years of the 19th century great numbers of Germans flocked into the industrial governments of Poland, namely, Piotrkow, Warsaw and Kalisz.
The industrial artel is almost as frequent as the preceding, in all those trades which admit of it.
The Iaterlin- remoteness of the mining from the industrial centres, the dustrles.
Industrial enterprises did not always succeed.
Under the disguise of doctors, midwives, school teachers, governesses, factory hands or common labourers, they sought to make proselytes among the peasantry and the workmen in the industrial centres by revolutionary pamphlets and oral explanations.
From 1916 to 1917 he was chairman of the committee on commercial and industrial policy after the war.
It increases the tendency, already too strong, towards concentration of industrial life in large towns.
In North America, except for small industrial railways and some short lines for local traffic, chiefly in mountainous country, it has become almost universal; the long lines of 3 ft.
According to the light railway commissioners, experience satisfied them (a) that light railways were much needed in many parts of the country and that many of the lines proposed, but not constructed, were in fact necessary to admit of the progress, and even the maintenance, of existing trade interests; and (b) that improved means of access were requisite to assist in retaining the population on the land, to counteract the remoteness of rural districts, and also, in the neighbourhood of industrial centres, to cope with the difficulties as to housing and the supply of labour.
It is a well-built but uninteresting industrial town, situated on the left bank of the Ergolz stream, and is the' most populous town in the entire canton of Basel, after Basel itself.
In its industrial development Nevada has always been hampered by lack of transportation facilities.
In the Industrial Museum there is (besides collections of various kinds) some good painted glass of the 16th century, taken from the neighbouring Benedictine monastery of Muri (founded 1027, suppressed 1841 - the monks, are now quartered at Gries, near Botzen, in Tirol).
50 3): " Since their emancipation the Jews have taken an active part in the political, industrial, scientific and artistic life of Hungary.
In Norway there is a small Jewish settlement (especially in Christiania) who are engaged in industrial pursuits and enjoy complete liberty.
In other parts of the same continent, in Egypt and in South Africa, many Jews have settled, participating in all industrial and financial pursuits.
Industrial relations with Egypt are also marked by the occurrence of a series of finds of pottery and other objects of Minoan fabric among the remains of the XVIIIth, XIIth and even earlier dynasties, while the same seafaring enterprise brought Egyptian fabrics to Crete from the times of the first Pharaohs.
During the quarter of a century between 1880 and 1905 a great change was wrought in the industrial life of the state by a phenomenal growth of cotton manufacturing.
Other state educational institutions are the College of Agriculture and Mechanic Arts (1889) at West Raleigh, which in1907-1908had 42 instructors and 436 students; the State Normal and Industrial College (1892) for women, at Greensboro; and the East Carolina Teachers' Training School (1907), at Greenville.
Thompson, From the Cotton Field to the Cotton Mill, a Study of the Industrial Transition in North Carolina (New York, 1906), contains some interesting observations on the changes in social conditions resulting from the growth of the cotton-manufacturing industry.
His Journals (3 vols., New York, 1852), apart from their importance as a history of his life work, constitute a valuable commentary on the social and industrial history of the United States during the first forty years of their existence.
It is a poor and crowded district, and a large industrial population is employed in the riverside wharves and in potteries, glassworks and other manufactures.
Its industrial activity is not great, but there are manufactures of machinery, chemicals, paper, tobacco and sugar; these are made chiefly in or near the large towns, while linen-weaving is practised as a domestic industry.
deep. The principal crops are African grains, wheat, onions, cotton, tobacco, indigo, with sugar-cane, cassava, &c. The population is chiefly agricultural, but also commercial and industrial.
Specially noteworthy in the Lezioni are the sections on human wants as the foundation of economical theory, on labour as the source of wealth, on personal services as economic factors, and on the united working of the great industrial functions.
Nor have they been distinguished in industrial art.
The east and the extreme south-west parts are the principal industrial districts.
He realized that with the enclosure of the waste lands and the absorption of small into large ho] dings, the commonfield farmer must migrate to the town or become a hired labourer; but he also realized that to feed a rapidly growing industrial population, the land must be improved by draining, marling, manuring and the use of better implements, in short by the investment of the capital which the yeoman farmer, content to feed himself and his own family, did not possess.
In a modern industrial community it is possible to express this standard fairly accurately for the purposes of economic investigation in terms of money.
In some ways also the study of highly developed organizations like the modern industrial state is simpler than that of earlier forms of society.
In the towns the division of labour had proceeded much further than in the rural districts, and there were in existence organized bodies, such as the Gild Merchant and the crafts, whose functions were primarily economic. But one of the most striking characteristics of town life in the middle ages was the manner in which municipal and industrial privileges and responsibilities were interwoven.
This may be, in the historical sense, merely a passing phase of human progress, due to the rapid extension of the industrial revolution to all the civilized and many of the uncivilized nations of the world, bringing in its train the consolidation of large areas, a similarity of conditions within them, and amongst peoples and governments a great increase in the strength of economic motives.
By comparing England with other countries we may be able in the distant future to reach conclusions of some generality as to the laws of growth, maturity and decay of industrial nations.
Trade unions, so far from disappearing, were legalized, gathered strength from the changes in industrial organization, and nowhere became so powerful as in the most progressive industries; while other forms of combination appeared, incomparably stronger, for good or evil, than those of earlier times.
Competition, in the Darwinian sense, is characteristic not only of modern industrial states, but of all living organisms; and in the narrower sense of the " higgling of the market " is found on the Stock Exchange, in the markets of old towns, in medieval fairs and Oriental bazaars.
It would be of immense advantage from a scientific point of view if this could be taken for granted, if for a time the work of the classical economists could be considered final so far as it goes, and for the purposes of investigation regarded as the theoretical counterpart of the modern industrial system.
Possibly the present generation of English industrial history will furnish many illustrations of the law of diminishing returns.
But a new institution cannot be made on the same terms. The modern industrial system has brought with it an immense variety of practical problems which nations must solve on pain of industrial and commercial ruin.
The backwardness of economic science has been an index of the danger threatening the industrial and commercial supremacy of the United Kingdom.
The whole social and political fabric of the British Empire depends upon the efficiency of its industrial system.
We may also mention Schloss's Methods of Industrial Remuneration, a most important contribution to the study of the wages question; C. F.
west, there are numerous sugarfactories; cotton is also grown and manufactured, and alcohol, flour, soap, iron goods and cotton stuffs are among the other industrial products.
This industrial centre is continued eastward in the urban district of East Ham (pop. 96,018), where the old village church of St Mary Magdalene retains Norman portions.
This interference with religious liberty led to some controversy; and ultimately those who differed from Guthrie founded the United Industrial School, giving combined secular and separate religious instruction.
The state penal institutions are the boys' industrial school near Lancaster (established in 1854 as a Reform Farm), the girls' industrial home (1869) at Rathbone near Delaware, the reformatory at Mansfield (authorized 1884, opened 1896) and the penitentiary at Columbus (1816).
Gephart's Transportation and Industrial Development in the Middle West (New York, 1909), in the Columbia University Studies in History, Economics and Public Law, is a commercial history of Ohio.
It has very little importance as a commercial or industrial centre, having only a small trade and a few unimportant industries.
The first is that spinners would be performing the two functions of industrial management and cotton buying (together with others perhaps), and that in consequence the best industrial men would not necessarily be able to maintain their position in the trade because as buyers of cotton they might be unfortunate.
Mr. Harding based his campaign chiefly upon criticism of the Wilson administration, denouncing especially the excessive power that, as he maintained, had been exercised by the executive as a result of war centralization; he demanded as speedy as possible a return to normal conditions, political and industrial.
A government grant is made towards the cost of upkeep. A government industrial school (opened in 1906) is maintained at Maseru, and the Paris Society has an industrial school at Leloaleng.
Quercy was early an industrial district.
The discovery of Florida's adaptability to the culture of oranges about 1875 may be taken as the beginning of the state's modern industrial development.
Florida's industrial progress has been mainly since the Civil War, for before that conflict a large part of the state was practically undeveloped.
Stetson University at De Land (Baptist); Rollins College (1885) at Winter Park (non-sectarian), with a collegiate department, an academy, a school of music, a school of expression, a school of fine arts, a school of domestic and industrial arts, and a business school; Southern College (1901), at Sutherland (Methodist Episcopal, South); the Presbyterian College of Florida (1905), at Eustis; Jasper Normal Institute (1890), at Jasper, and the Florida Normal Institute at Madison.
Brazil's chief industrial importance is due to its situation in the heart of the "Brazil block" coal (so named because it naturally breaks into almost perfect rectangular blocks) and clay and shale region; among its manufactures are mining machinery and tools, boilers, paving and enamelled building bricks, hollow bricks, tiles, conduits, sewer-pipe and pottery.
In a scientific definition the compounds of fatty acids with basic metallic oxides, lime, magnesia, lead oxide, &c., should also be included under soap; but, as these compounds are insoluble in water, while the very essence of a soap in its industrial relations is solubility, it is better to speak of the insoluble compounds as " plasters, " limiting the name " soap " as the compounds of fatty acids with soda and potash.
Apart from fishing and shipping, Penzance has never been an industrial centre.
ROVERETO, the most important industrial town in the southern or Italian-speaking portion of the Austrian province of Tirol, though its population (which in 1900 was io, r 80, Italian-speaking and Romanist) is less than that of Trent.
From an industrial point of view Moravia belongs to the foremost provinces of the Austrian Empire.
The chief iron-foundries are to be found at Witkowitz, Stefanau, ZOptau and Rossitz; while industrial machines are manufactured at Briinn, Blansko and Adamsthal.
Industrial and commercial Industry activity is mainly centred at the Peiraeus, where and corn- 8 cloth and cotton mills, cognac distilleries, 14 steam coerce.
Louis district and treated as a whole in the U.S. industrial census.
A zoning law determines definitely the residential, industrial and commercial districts; 29 street widenings, openings and cut-offs were under construction in 1921.
This was American, even local, in character; its inception was due to a desire to improve the cultivation and manufacture of cotton; but it brought to the notice of the whole country the industrial transformation wrought in the Southern states during the last quarter of the 19th century.
Chelsea's interests are primarily industrial.
Berthelot, " alchemy rested partly on the industrial processes of the ancient Egyptians, partly on the speculative theories of the Greek philosophers, and partly on the mystical reveries of the Gnostics and Alexandrians."
Industrial chemistry makes many claims upon the chemist, for it is necessary to determine the purity of a product before it can be valued.
He reorganized the Bavarian army; he immensely improved the condition of the industrial classes throughout the country by providing them with work and instructing them in the practice of domestic economy; and he did much to suppress mendicity.
In one day he caused no fewer than 2600 of these outcasts and depredators in Munich and its suburbs alone to be arrested by military patrols, and transferred by them to an industrial establishment which he had prepared for their reception.
Its industrial establishments comprise tobacco, yarn, thread, linen and woollen cloth manufactories, bleaching and dyeing works, breweries and oil and flour mills.
distant is the State Industrial School for Boys.
Lancaster is the trade centre of a fertile agricultural region, has good transportation facilities, and is near the Hocking Valley and Sunday Creek Valley coal-fields; its commercial and industrial importance increased greatly, after 1900, through the development of the neighbouring natural gas fields and, after 1907-1908, through the discovery of petroleum near the city.
It appears to be true that, in the words of Dunoyer, the economic regime of every society which has recently become sedentary is founded on the slavery of the industrial professions.
But it is not so well understood that slavery discharged important offices in the later social evolution - first, by enabling military action to prevail with the degree of intensity and continuity requisite for the system of incorporation by conquest which was its final destination; and, secondly, by forcing the captives, who with their descendants came to form the majority of the population in the conquering community, to an industrial life, in spite of the antipathy to regular and sustained labour which is deeply rooted in human nature.
In modern slavery, on the other hand, where the occupations of both parties were industrial, the existence of a servile class only guaranteed for some of them the possibility of self-indulgent ease, whilst it imposed on others the necessity of indigent idleness.
The military vocation of Rome was now felt to have reached its normal limits; and the emperors, understanding that, in the future, industrial activity must prevail, prepared the abolition of slavery as far as was then possible, by honouring the freedmen, by protecting the slave against his master, and by facilitating manumissions.
Nieboer, Slavery as an Industrial System (The Hague, 1900); W.
Saw-mills, iron foundries, chemicals, glass and soap works, shipbuilding yards and a cocoanut-oil factory in connexion with the soap-manufacture at Port Sunlight, England,are among the chief industrial establishments.
This quarter has been pierced by several straight roads, one of which, crossing the Mahmudiya canal by the Pont Neuf, leads to Gabbari, the most westerly part of the city and an industrial and manufacturing region, possessing asphalt works and oil, rice and paper mills.
The chief industrial establishments are iron foundries, railway and motor engineering works, breweries, flour-mills, tanneries and manufactories of confectionery, artificial manure, &c. There is water communication by the Ouse with the Humber, and by the Foss Navigation to the N.E.
At Monroe there is a State Reform School, and at New Orleans a Coloured Industrial Home and School.
With the establishment of peace in 1898 and the influx of American and other capital and of a heavy immigration, great changes took place in agriculture as in other industrial conditions.
All hold their own with the white in industrial usefulness to the community, and though the blacks are more backward in education and various other tests of social advancement, still their outlook is full of promise.
P. Porter (Special Commissioner of the United States government), Industrial Cuba (New York, 1899); W.
Berlin, Leipzig, Frankfort and the industrial centres on the Rhine were the chief scenes of his activity.
Among the modern buildings are the gymnasium, the drawing and trade schools, the Roman Catholic seminary, the town hall and the industrial art museum.
includes receipts from commercial and industrial undertakings belonging to the stateThese are the Hejaz railway, £T152,000; the Dolma-Bagtche gas-works, £T59,130; technical school, £T8536; the Tigris and Euphrates steamships, £T62,513; and mines (Heraclea coal and other), £T120,710; forming a combined total of £T402,889.
In the middle ages Romford was rather a meetingplace for merchants than an industrial centre.
deep, and of the furnaces where they melted copper, tin and gold, are very numerous; their weapons of a hard bronze, their pots (one of which weighs 75 ib), and their melted and polished bronze and golden decorations testify to a high development of artistic feeling and industrial skill, strangely contrasting with the low level reached by their earthenware.
The valley portion is level and contains several settlement centres, the largest of which, a busy industrial village (manufactures of cotton and paper), bears the same name as the township, and is on a branch of the Boston and Albany railroad.
There are, owing perhaps to the proximity of Lima, few industrial establishments in the city; among them are a large sugar refinery, some flour-mills, a brewery, a factory for making effervescent drinks, and a number of foundries and repair shops.
Callias And Hipponicus The exports from Callao are guano, sugar, cotton, wool, hides, silver, copper, gold and forest products, and the imports include timber and other building materials, cotton and other textiles, general merchandise for personal, household and industrial uses, railway material, coal, kerosene, wheat, flour and other food stuffs.
Enschede possesses several churches, an industrial trade school, and a large park intended for the benefit of the working classes.
The bulk of the foreign trade of Servia passes through Belgrade, but the industrial output of the city itself is not large, owing to the scarcity both of labour and capital.
The new constitution, therefore, started badly, and it was soon evident that William intended to make his will prevail, and to carry out his projects for what he conceived the social, industrial and educational welfare of the kingdom regardless of the opposition of Belgian public opinion.
In the industrial working of indiarubber, the various impurities present in the crude " wild rubber (bark, dirt and the principal impurities derived from the latex, except resin) are removed by the following process: The lumps of crude caoutchouc are first softened by the prolonged action of hot water, and then cut into slices by means of a sharp knife - generally by hand, as thus any large stones or other foreign substances can be removed.
wide on each side of the trans-Siberian railway was absolutely prohibited in 1895, and the extent of crown lands sold to a single person or group of persons never exceeds 1080 acres unless an especially useful industrial enterprise is projected, and in that case the maximum is fixed at 2700 acres.
Industrial surveys, having for their object the granting of land to the peasants to the extent of 40 acres per each male head, with 8 additional acres of wood and 8 acres as a reserve, were started many years ago, and after being stopped in 1887 were commenced again in 1898.
Among these are the town hall, of the 16th century, in the Transition style from late Gothic to Renaissance, restored in recent years; the Kornhaus; the Ehingerhaus or Neubronnerhaus, now containing the industrial museum; and the commandery of the Teutonic order, built in1712-1718on the site of a habitation of the order dating from the 13th century, and now used as barracks.
In Auburn are the Auburn (State) prison (1816), in connexion with which there is a women's prison; the Auburn Theological Seminary (Presbyterian), founded in 1819, chartered in 1820, and opened for students in 1821; the Robinson school for girls; and the Women's Educational and Industrial Union, for the education of working girls, with a building erected in 1907.
By means of the Grand Junction and Oxford canals especially, constant communication is maintained between the Thames and the great industrial centres of England.
From an industrial point of view, Lower Austria stands, together with Bohemia and Moravia, in the front rank amongst the Austrian provinces.
The centre of its great industrial activity is the capital, Vienna (q.v.); but in the region of the Wiener Wald up to the Semmering, owing to its many waters, which can be transformed into motive power, many factories are spread.
The desilverized lead, which retains o 6-0.7% zinc, has to be refined before it is suited for industrial use.
Like Tilburg and Helmond it has developed in modern times into a flourishing industrial centre, having linen,, woollen, cotton, tobacco and cigar, matches, &c., factories and several breweries.
Wills 1 has made successful use of it in a research on the effects of temperature, a matter of great industrial importance.
Unrepresentative though it was - for the industrial working-classes had no share in it - it at once gave voice to the demand for a constitutional system.
In 1920 there were only 17,606 workers and employees in private industrial enterprises, 988 in municipal enterprises, and 2,880 in state enterprises; in Riga alone, 9,739 in private enterprises against 62,000 in 1914.
The German industrial capital in Riga amounted to 40,000,000 rubles before the war.
Along with the land are expropriated all claims and rights appended to the land and all instruments of husbandry, live stock included, with the exception of such industrial establishments as are not working to satisfy the local rural demand only.
With the rise of Llanelly the industrial importance of Carmarthen has tended to decline; but owing to its central position, its close connexion with the bishops of St David's and its historic past the town is still the chief focus of all social, political and ecclesiastical movements in the three counties of Cardigan, Pembroke and Carmarthen.
Its commerce is much facilitated by the system of canals which bring it into communication with Belgium, the coal-basins of Nord and Pasde-Calais, the rich agricultural regions of Flanders and Artois, and the industrial towns of Lille, Armentieres, Roubaix, Tourcoing, Valenciennes, &c. The roadstead is indicated by lightships and the entrance channel to the port by a lighthouse which, at an altitude of 193 ft., is visible at a distance of 19 m.
These salts are employed in dyeing and various other industrial processes.
Modern industrial development in some of the states has greatly increased the importation of machinery, electric supplies, materials for construction, coal, &c. Kerosene oil also figures among the principal imports, and beef cattle are imported for consumption by some cities.
A fruitful cause of disaster has been the practice of issuing agricultural and industrial loans under government authorization.
The large industrial population is employed in woollen manufactories, and in the neighbouring stone quarries.
Towards the close of 1828 he felt the approach of a fatal malady - a tumour in the brain - and devoted his last days to a careful revisal of his unpublished researches and industrial processes, dictating several papers on these subjects, which were afterwards published in the Philosophical Transactions.
The principal facilities granted by the state are, exemption of taxation for a determined period of years, reduced railway fares for the goods manufactured, placing of government contracts, the grant of subsidies and loans and the foundation of industrial schools for the training of engineers and of skilled workmen.
For the period 1890-1905, an average of 40 to 50 industrial establishments with an invested capital of £1,250,000 to £1,750,000 were founded yearly.
The various industrial establishments are located in the larger towns, but principally at Budapest, the only real industrial town of Hungary.
Thus the Zapolyas, in 1500 and again in 1507, burnt a large part of Brezn6banya and Beszterczebanya, two of the chief industrial towns of north Hungary.
He was under the general influence of the mercantilist views, and approved of energetic governmental interference in industrial matters, of high taxes on foreign manufactures and low duties on raw materials and articles of food, and attached great importance to a dense population.
The modern industrial development of the state is due to the railway lines constructed across it during the last quarter of the 19th century, and to the investment of foreign capital in local enterprises.
There are large and well-kept public parks, a common (17 acres) with a soldiers' monument, a free public library, with more than 50,000 volumes in 5907, a city hall, county and municipal court-houses, a county gaol and house of correction, a county industrial school and a state armoury.
Also notable are the hall of the estates (1877-1881), the industrial museum, the theatre, the palace of the Roman Catholic archbishop and several educational establishments.
There are also several industrial homes.
It was to meet in a friendly spirit those men who had by their industry converted a poor pastoral country into a rich industrial one, who represented more than half the inhabitants, who paid more than threefourths of.
An industrial commission appointed during this year by President Kruger fared no better than the high court had done.
Spires (Speyer) is the seat of government, and the chief industrial centres are Ludwigshafen on the Rhine, which is the principal river port, Landau, and Neustadt, the seat of the wine trade.
There has been no great development of railway construction in Venezuela, partly on account of political insecurity and partly because of the backward industrial state of the country.
Probably a return to settled political and industrial conditions in Venezuela will result in a large addition to its railway mileage, as a means of bringing the fertile inland districts into direct communication with the coast.
The wrongs inflicted by him on companies and individuals of various nationalities, who had invested capital in industrial enterprises in Venezuela, led to a blockade of the Venezuelan ports in 1903 by English, German and Italian warships.
The extension of the Pan-American railway across the state, from San Geronimo, on the Tehuantepec National line, to the Guatemalan frontier, is calculated to improve the industrial and social conditions of the people.
At this time, too, about zoo fugitive immigrant families from Santo Domingo greatly augmented its industrial importance.
Bodenbach, which in the middle of the 19th century had only ?a few hundred inhabitants, has become a very important industrial centre.
Irun is the northern terminus of the Spanish Northern railway, and a thriving industrial town, with ironworks, tan-yards, potteries and paper mills.
The valley of the Lea is also thickly populated, but chiefly by an industrial population working in the numerous factories along this river.
The London County Council maintains a number of industrial schools and reformatories, both in London and in the country, for children who have shown or are likely to be misled into a ii phaa- tendency towards lawlessness.
Its industrial establishments include factories for tobacco, cloth, matches, leather, artificial manure, besides breweries and distilleries.
The Florentines now undertook to open the highways of commerce towards Rome, for their city was already an important industrial and banking centre.
It is a thriving industrial town, devoid of any great antiquarian or architectural interest, though founded by the Moors.
The town is particularly rich in educational, industrial, philanthropic and religious institutions.
The schools include the Gymnasium (founded in 1592 by the Protestant community as a Latin school), the Realgymnasium (founded in 1830, for "modern" subjects and Latin), the Oberrealschule and Realschule (founded 1893, the latter wholly "modern"), two girls' high schools, a girls' middle-class school, a large number of popular schools, a mechanics' and polytechnic school, a school of mechanics, an industrial drawing school, a commercial school, and a school for the deaf and dumb.
The industrial development of the place started with a colony of bleachers, attracted by the clear waters of the Wupper, who in 1532 were granted the exclusive privilege of bleaching yarn.
Shadwell, Industrial Efficiency (London, 1906); and Jorde, Filhrer durch Elberfeld and seine Umgebung (1902).
The chief industrial establishments are smelting furnaces for cobalt, meat-preserving works at Ouaco, sugar-works and distilleries at Noumea and La Foa, tobacco, oil and soap factories at Noumea.
The greater the commercial and industrial prosperity of a town, the more rapid was the multiplication of craft gilds, which was a natural result of the ever-increasing division of labour.
Their increase in number and power was particularly rapid in the time of Edward III., whose reign marks an era of industrial progress.
This conflict was indeed one of the main features of German industrial life in the 15th century.
Keutgen, Amter and Ziinfte (Jena, 1903); George Unwin, Industrial Organization in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries (Oxford, 1904).
Scandinavia had early been sought for its copper and iron, its forest products and its valuable fisheries, especially of herring at Schonen, but it was backward in its industrial development and its own commerce had seriously declined in the 14th century.
It contains a rich collection of Egyptian, Greek, Roman and Etruscan antiquities; of coins and medals, and of industrial art.
The last contains valuable specimens of the industrial art of the middle ages and of the Renaissance period in gold, silver, bronze, glass, enamel, ivory, iron and wood.
Vienna is the most important commercial and industrial centre of Austria.
Its commercial classes constantly complain of the increasing competition of the provinces, and of the progressive industrial emancipation of Hungary.
It is, after Altona, the most important industrial town in the province, and contains extensive cloth-factories, besides manufactories of leather, cotton, wadding, carpets, paper, machinery, beer and sweetmeats.
Its industrial importance began in the 17th century, when the cloth-workers of Segeberg, a town to the south-east, migrated to it.
water free from salts and to some extent of the dissolved gases which are always present in natural waters, is of indispensable value in many operations both of scientific and industrial chemistry.
Berthoud), an industrial town in the Swiss canton of Bern.
A large trade is carried on at Burgdorf in the cheese of the Emmenthal, while among the industrial establishments are railway workis, and factories of cloth, white lead and tinfoil.
The other industrial products include wall-paper, railway plant, machinery, gloves and artificial flowers.
There are two libraries; one founded in 1836, and now a public library in the Atheneum building; and the other in what is now the School of Industrial and Manual Training (1904), founded in 1827 as a Lancasterian school by Admiral Sir Isaac Coffin (1759-1839), whose ancestors were Nantucket people.
At the head of the industrial establishments of Trieste stand the two ship-building yards of the Austrian Lloyd and of the Stabilimento Tecnico Triestino, which are the largest of their kind in Austria.
The Karawanken railway, a direct connexion with Bohemia and the northern industrial provinces of Austria, is calculated to counteract the gravitation of traffic towards the German ports; while the Tauern railway constitutes the shortest route to the interior of Austria and to the south of Germany.
north of the city is the State Industrial Home for Girls (1879), for the reformation of juvenile offenders between the ages of ten and seventeen.
The site of Mainz would seem to mark it out naturally as a great centre of trade, but the illiberal rule of the archbishops and its military importance seriously hampered its commercial and industrial development, and prevented it from rivalling its neighbour Frankfort.
It is an important industrial centre, carrying on cotton weaving and spinning, tanning, distilling, and the manufacture of coffee, sugar, manure and saltpetre.
Among other central thoughts in Comte's explanation of history are these: - The displacement of theological by positive conceptions has been accompanied by a gradual rise of an industrial regime out of the military regime; - the great permanent contribution of Catholicism was the separation which it set up between the temporal and the spiritual powers,; - the progress of the race consists in the increasing preponderance of the distinctively human elements over the animal elements; - the absolute tendency of ordinary social theories will be replaced by an unfailing adherence to the relative point of view, and from this it follows that the social state, regarded as a whole, has been as perfect in each period as the co-existing condition of humanity and its environment would allow.
When religion has be come positive, and society industrial, then the influence of the church upon the state becomes really freeandindependent,which was not the case in the middle ages.
The Providence Association of Mechanics and Manufacturers, incorporated in 1789, organized industrial development.
The prohibition of the exportation from England of machinery, models or drawings retarded mechanical improvement, but in 1790 an industrial company was formed at Providence to carry on cotton spinning, and in December of that year there was established at Pawtucket a factory equipped with Arkwright machines constructed by Samuel Slater.
The movement as a whole was of exactly the same character as the industrial revolution in England, and it led to the same result, a struggle for electoral reform.
War between Great Britain and Russia was declared on the 27th of March 1854, and it thus fell to the lot of the most pacific of ministers, the devotee of retrenchment, and the anxious cultivator of all industrial arts, to prepare a war budget, and to meet as well as he might the exigencies of a conflict which had so cruelly dislocated all the ingenious devices of financial optimism.
The Camuzzoni industrial canal, which runs from the Chievo di S.
There may also be mentioned the Industrial Art Exhibition of the Polytechnic Association and two conservatories of music. Among the scientific institutions the first place belongs to the Senckenberg'sches naturhistorische Museum, containing valuable collections of birds and shells.
Frankfort has always been more of a commercial than an industrial town, and though of late years it has somewhat lost its pre-eminent position as a banking centre it has counterbalanced the loss in increased.
The suburbs of Sachsenhausen and Bockenheim have particularly developed considerable industrial activity, especially in publishing and printing, brewing and the manufacture of quinine.
Arad is an important railway junction, and has become the largest industrial and commercial centre of south-eastern Hungary.
At the industrial exhibition in RiOto Ware ~, (1895) the first results of their efforts were shown, Owari attracting attention at once, In medieval times Owari was celebrated for faience glazes of various colors, much affected by the tea-clubs, but its staple manufacture from the beginning of the 19th century was porcelain decorated with blue under the glaze, the best specimens of which did not approach their Chinese prototypes in fineness of pdte, purity of glaze or richness of color.
On a far higher level stood egg-shell porcelain, remarkable examples of which were sent from Seto to the KjOto industrial exhibition of 1895.
Since 1895, again, a totally new departure has been made by Morishita Hachizaemon, a ceramic expert, in conjunction with Shida Yasukyo, president of the Kaga products joint stock company (Kaga bussan kabushiki kaisha) and teacher in the Kaga industrial school.
The manufactures of the duchies, especially in the mountainous parts less favourable for agriculture, are tolerably brisk, but there is no large industrial centre in the country.
Olmiitz is an important railway junction, and is the emporium of a busy mining and industrial district.
- Of the area, 56.8% is cultivated and 38% forest, but the agricultural industry, which formerly yielded the bulk of the wealth of the country, is now equalled, if not surpassed, by the industrial output, which has attained very considerable dimensions.
But for this he would hardly have established so absolute an antithesis between industrial and military competition, and have shown himself readier to recognize that the law of the struggle for existence, just because it is universal and equally (though differently) operative in every form of society, cannot be appealed to for guidance in deciding between the respective merits of an industrial or military and of an individualist or socialist organization of society.
Calais has a board of trade-arbitrators, a tribunal and a chamber of commerce, a commercial and industrial school, and a communal college.
Among its other industrial products are glass, paper, cement, cotton goods, chemicals and gunpowder.
The industrial aspect is treated in a Gartside Report, Some ElectroChemical Centres (Manchester, 1908), by J.
The old churches and historic buildings of Dijon are to be found in the irregular streets of the old town, but industrial and commercial activity has been transferred to the new quarters beyond its limits.
Szombathely is an important railway and industrial centre, and has a state railway workshop, manufactories for agricultural machinery, foundries and steam mills.
Buchtel (1822-1892), a successful business man who did much to promote the industrial development of Akron.
It was industrial, depending largely on the purple and pottery trade.
In the lowland part of the city and in the suburbs there are many factories, their number having so much increased in recent years that Tokyo may now be described as an industrial town.
Georgswalde is one of the oldest industrial places of Bohemia, and together with the neighbouring town of Rumburg is the principal centre of the linen industry.
of the baths a new industrial quarter has sprung up of late years, the largest works being for electric engineering.
Of his decorative paintings, the best known are the elegant compositions (in spirit fresco) on the walls of the Victoria and Albert Museum, representing "The Industrial Arts of War and Peace."
In 1849 he issued a volume on the industrial resources of the country.
Sparta in particular remained, even after the reforms of Lycurgus, and on into historic times, simply the isolated camp of a compact army of occupation, of some s000 families, bearing traces still of the fusion of several bands of invaders, and maintained as an exclusive political aristocracy of professional soldiers by the labour of a whole population of agricultural and industrial serfs.
In 1913 there were 5,140 industrial establishments in Lithuania with 33,000 workmen and a yearly productive value of 62 million Russian (gold) rubles.
During the war the larger industrial establishments were destroyed.
Alcohol is extensively employed as a solvent; in fact, this constitutes one of its most important industrial applications.
The great importance of alcohol in the arts has necessitated the introduction of a duty-free product which is suitable for most industrial purposes, and at the same time is perfectly unfit for beverages or internal application.
Notwithstanding this permission there have been many agitations on the part of chemical manufacturers to obtain a less restricted use of absolute alcohol, and in 1905 an Industrial Alcohol Committee was appointed to receive evidence and report as to whether any modification of the present law was advisable.
The charitable institutions include the county hospital, district asylum, a deaf and dumb home, the Kyle combination poorhouse, St John's refuge and industrial schools for boys and girls.
The farm colony at Hadleigh in Essex has a large acreage under cultivation, with fruit and market gardens and various industrial undertakings.
Despite the lack of railway communication, the town is a considerable industrial centre, with large iron-works, tanneries and manufactories of paper, chocolate and oil.
AUBURN, a city and the county-seat of Androscoggin county, Maine, U.S.A., on the Androscoggin river, opposite Lewiston (with which it practically forms an industrial unit), in the S.W.
Collieries and brickworks employ the large industrial population.
With the growth of manufactures, industrial centres spring up where the division of labour can be fully provided for.
6), after receiving the gallium in Rome, Manning began his work as archbishop by devoting himself especially to the religious education of the poor and to the establishment of Catholic industrial and reformatory schools.
As an industrial centre Corinth achieved pre-eminence in pottery, metal-work and decorative handicraft, and was the reputed "inventor" of painting and tiling; her bronze and her pottery, moulded from the soft white clay of Oneium, were widely exported over the Mediterranean.
The large industrial population is engaged principally in the worsted and cotton manufacture.
The mining of these, together with blast furnaces and engineering works, occupies the large industrial population.
Holyoke is characteristically an industrial and mercantile city; it has some handsome public buildings (the city hall and the public library, founded in 1870, being especially noteworthy) and attractive environs.
In a small outlying mound de Sarzec discovered the archives of the temple, about 30,000 inscribed clay tablets, containing the business records, and revealing with extraordinary minuteness the administration of an ancient Babylonian temple, the character of its property, the method of farming its lands, herding its flocks, and its commercial and industrial dealings and enterprises; for an ancient Babylonian temple was a great industrial, commercial, agricultural and stock-raising establishment.
The National Physical Laboratory, for making scientific investigations of industrial importance, and for mechanical testing, was opened in Bushey House in 1902.
The mining and industrial interests of Biscay were very materially assisted by the quick and important development of means of communication of every kind.
Bilbao (pop. 83,306), the capital and principal port, and Baracaldo (15,013), an important industrial town, are described'.
The town is the seat of the Kentucky Wesleyan College (co-educational; Methodist Episcopal, South), opened in 1866, and of the Winchester Trades and Industrial School (1900).
From that time the history of Bona is one of industrial development, greatly stimulated since 1883 by the discovery of the phosphate beds at Tebessa.
At Wilmington is the Ferris industrial school for boys, a private reformatory institution to which New Castle county gives $146 for each boy; and the Delaware industrial school for girls, also at Wilmington, receives financial support from both county and state.
Constance is the centre of a brisk transit trade, while it has various factories and other industrial establishments.
The first years of the king's rule were marked by the great schemes of Colbert for the financial, commercial, industrial and naval reorganization of France, and in these schemes Louis took a deep interest.
It is the only proper industrial town in Servia, having numerous small factories for the manufacture of thin cloth (shayak), woollen braid (gaytan), and especially carpets.
Tarrasa is now mostly a modern industrial town, with fine public buildings, including the royal college, built in 1864 for 450 students besides day scholars, the school of arts and handicrafts, the industrial institute, chamber of commerce, hospitals, town hall, clubs, theatres and many large textile factories.
It became a prosperous industrial town during the 16th century, but this prosperity was destroyed by the Thirty Years' War.
A midland group of coalfields extends from south Lancashire to the West Riding of Yorkshire, the two greatest industrial districts Geo= in the country, southward to Warwickshire and graphical Staffordshire, and from Nottinghamshire on the east to distribu- Flintshire on the west.
The principal field is that of the lower Rhine and Westphalia, which centres in the industrial region of the basin of the Ruhr, a right-bank tributary of the Rhine.
In the other chief industrial region of Germany, in Saxony, Zwickau and Lugau, are important mining centres.
Coal and wine are leading imports, while cereals, timber, wool, fruit and industrial products are exported.
Rheydt is an ancient place, but its industrial importar e is of very recent growth, and it only received municipal rights in 1856.
The institutions under its charge include a Soldiers' Orphans' Home at Davenport; a Soldiers' Home at Marshalltown; a College for the Blind at Vinton; a School for the Deaf at Council Bluffs; an Institution for Feeble-minded Children at Glenwood; an Industrial School for Boys at Eldora; an Industrial School for Girls at Mitchellville; and, at Oakdale, a Sanatorium for the Treatment of Tuberculosis.
Among other industrial establishments are a large porcelain and earthenware factory, extensive fireclay works, glassworks and a chinapainting establishment; there are also numerous flax-spinneries and linen-factories in the neighbourhood.
It occupies a leading position among the industrial and commercial towns of the empire, and of, recent years has made rapid progress in prosperity.
Cottonmills, woollen-factories, ironworks, flagstone quarries at Elland Edge, and fire-clay works employ the industrial population.
The manufacture of machinery, amber articles, tobacco and cigars, and bricks, with some iron-founding, linen-weaving, and salmon-fishing in the Stolpe, are the chief industrial occupations of the inhabitants, who also carry on trade in grain, cattle, spirits, timber, fish and geese.
Among its industrial establishments are sugarrefineries, iron-foundries, breweries, machine-shops and brick works.
He deals, on the contrary, almost exclusively with the social, financial, educational, industrial and general moral problems of the day.
Abuses arising from the granting of indulgences were to be remedied, and the excessive number of church holidays, which seriously interfered with the industrial welfare of Germany, was to be reduced.
Vast water-power is developed on the Merrimac at Lawrence and Lowell, and on the Connecticut at South Hadley, and to a less extent at scores of other cities on many streams and artificial ponds; many of the machines that have revolutionized industrial conditions since the beginning of the factory system have been invented by Massachusetts men; and the state contains various technical schools of great importance.
Natives heavily predominated in agriculture and the professions, slightly in trade, and held barely more than half of all governmental positions; but in transportation, personal service, manufactures, labour and domestic service, the predominance of the foreign element warranted the assertion of the state Bureau of Statistics of Labour that " the strong industrial condition of Massachusetts has been secured and is held not by the labour of what is called the 'native stock,' but by that of the immigrants."
Since 1865 (at least) various parts of Cape Cod have shrunk greatly in population, agriculture and manufactures, and even in fishing interests; this reconstruction of industrial and social interests being, apparently, simply part of the general urban movement-a movement toward better opportunities.
The public school system includes common, high and normal schools, and various evening, industrial and truant schools.
The state institutions, each governed by a board of trustees, and all under the supervision of the state board of charity, include a state hospital at Tewksbury, for paupers (1866); a state farm at Bridgewater (1887) for paupers and petty criminals; the Lyman school for boys at Westboro, a reformatory for male criminals under fifteen years of age sentenced to imprisonment for terms less than life in connexion with which a very successful farm is maintained for the younger boys at Berlin; an industrial school for girls at Lancaster, also a reformatory school - a third reformatory school for boys was planned in 1909; a state sanatorium at Rutland for tuberculous patients (the first public hospital for such in the United States) and a hospital school at Canton for the care and instruction of crippled and deformed children.
The Horace Mann school in Boston, a public day school for the deaf, the New England industrial school for deaf mutes at Beverly and the Clarke school for the deaf at Northampton are maintained in part by the state.
of the Report of the United States Industrial Commission (Wash., 2901); H.
Other buildings of interest are the museum of industrial art; the so-called "Pope's house," built in 1517 by Adrian Floriszoon Boeyens, afterwards Pope Adrian VI., and a native of Utrecht; the royal mint of Holland; the Fleshers' Hall (1637); the home for the aged, occupying a 14th-century mansion; the town hall (1830); and the large hospital prison and barracks.
The most important industrial establishments are cigar manufactories, manufactories of chemicals and earthenware, and brass foundries, and there is also an active trade in the agricultural produce of the surrounding country.
In 1911 he became Democratic leader in the Assembly and was appointed vice-chairman of the Factory Investigating Committee which made a searching inquiry into industrial conditions in the state, resulting in remedial legislation.
The industrial towns of Dorignies, Sin-le-Noble and Aniche are practically suburbs of Douai.
Normal and industrial schools for both sexes are maintained, the latter (artes y oficios) performing a very important service for the poorer classes.
from the city, which is designed to furnish 40,000 horse-power for industrial and lighting purposes, and a duplicate plant was decided upon in 1904.
The foreign population includes many capitalists and industrial managers who are doing much to develop the country, the American colony being concentrated in a fine modern residential district on the south-western side of the city.
There are several distilleries in the United States devoted to the production of industrial alcohol, with an estimated capacity of about 90,000,000 gal.; in 1919 about ioo,000,000 gal.
Zootechnic products include food, clothing, ornaments, habitations, weapons, industrial tools, textiles, money, &c.
Nieboer, Slavery as an Industrial System (The Hague, 1900); G.
Weimar owes its importance not to any industrial development, which the grand-dukes discourage within the limits of their Residenz, but to its intimate association with the classical period of German literature, which earned for it the title of the "poets' city" and "the German Athens."
The chief industrial applications are for making denatured alcohol (q.v.), and as a solvent, e.g.
He was a director of many of the greatest industrial and mining companies of Westphalia, the Rhineland and Luxemburg.
But he was richly compensated, apart from the regular indemnification paid by the German Government, when he was called in by Ludendorff as the most competent expert to 'give advice, to organize the coal and the industrial production of occupied Belgium and to help to set in motion the gigantic production of war material which the German G.H.Q.
He had about the same time begun to buy up leading German newspapers, one of his main objects being to organize a solid and powerful bloc of opinion in Germany in support of law and order and the promotion of the highest industrial and commercial efficiency.
The colonial museum and the museum of industrial art were established in this villa by the society in 1871 and 1877 respectively.
In connexion with the census of 1810 an attempt, perhaps the earliest in any country, was made to gather certain industrial statistics showing "the number, nature, extent, situation and value of the arts and manufactures of the United States."
The inquiry into industrial statistics begun in 181o was also repeated and extended.
That large party which advocates a strict and jealous construction of the constitution would certainly oppose any independent legislation by the national Congress for providing a registration of births, marriages and deaths, or for obtaining social and industrial statistics, whether for the satisfaction of the publicist or for the guidance of the legislature.
The law has allowed the Federal census office in its discretion to compile and publish the birth statistics of divisions in which they are accurately kept; one Federal report on the statistics of marriages and divorces throughout the country from 1867 to 1886 inclusive was published in 1889, and a second for the succeeding twenty-year period was published in part in 1908; an annual volume gives the statistics of deaths for about half the population of the country, including all the states and cities which have approximately complete records of deaths; Federal agencies like the bureau of labour and the bureau of corporations have been created for the purpose of gathering certain social and industrial statistics, and the bureau of the census has been made a permanent statistical office.
He defends a restrictive policy and insists on the necessity of the action of the state as a regulating power in the industrial world.
Woollen, cloth, cotton and flax mills, steam flour and saw mills, distilleries and breweries, machinery works, paper mills, furniture, tobacco, soap, candle and hardware works are among the chief industrial establishments.
No man ever realized more fully than he how entirely dependent on the advance of scientific knowledge is the continuation of a country's material prosperity, and no single chemist ever exercised a greater or more direct influence upon industrial development.
That city possesses a permanent memorial to his name in Hofmann House, the home of the German Chemical Society (of which he was the founder), which was formally opened in 1900, appropriately enough with an account of that great triumph of German chemical enterprise, the industrial manufacture of synthetical indigo.
Since the middle of the 19th century an attempt has been made to meet the problems arising from a rapid industrial and social development by creating bureaus or commissions to exercise a central control over local officials, corporations and even private individuals, and as most of the heads of these bureaus and the commissions are appointed by the governor the importance of that officer has increased.
In 1910 the state charitable institutions were as follows: State Soldiers' and Sailors' Home, Bath; State School for the Blind, Batavia; the Thomas Indian School, Iroquois; State Woman's Relief Corps Home, Oxford; State Hospital for the care of Crippled and Deformed Children, West Haverstraw; Syracuse State Institution for Feeble-Minded Children, Syracuse; State Hospital for the treatment of Incipient Pulmonary Tuberculosis, Ray Brook; Craig Colony for Epileptics, Sonyea; State Custodial Asylum for Feeble-Minded Women, Newark; Rome State Custodial Asylum for Unteachable Idiots, Rome; State Agricultural and Industrial School, Industry; State Training School for Girls, Hudson; Western House of Refuge, Albion; New York State Reformatory for Women, Bedford; the State Training School for Boys; and Letchworth Village, a custodial asylum for epileptics and feeble-minded.
By a law of 1908 the board of education of any city is authorized to establish industrial schools for children who have completed the elementary school course or have attained the age of fourteen years, and trade schools for children who are more than sixteen years old and have completed the elementary school course or a course offered by any of the industrial schools.
Hostility to free silver and " Bryanism " in the large financial and industrial centres put the state strongly in the Republican column in the elections of 1896, 1900, 1904 and 1908.
It has a school of the industrial arts and sciences, grows good wine, and makes bricks.
The gross amount insured by policies in life insurance offices (ordinary and industrial) was over £29,000,000, of which the state office claimed two-fifths.
The disproportionate rise in the case of females is probably due to the policy of the industrial arbitration court.
There are, moreover, industrial schools, orphanages and institutions for the deaf and dumb and blind.
Meanwhile the industrial story of New Zealand may be summed up in the words wool and gold.
Roughly speaking, both the political and the industrial history of the colony from 1879 to 1 9 08 may be divided into two periods.
This plan was first put into execution at the general election of 18 9 0, which was held during the industrial excitement aroused by the Australasian maritime strike of that year.
Meanwhile the keystone of the regulative system had been laid by the passing of the Industrial Conciliation and Arbitration Act, under which disputes between employers and unions of workers are compulsorily settled by state tribunals; strikes and lock-outs are virtually prohibited in the case of organized work-people, and the conditions of employment in industries may be, and in many cases are, regulated by public boards and courts.
In 1898 also the municipal franchise, hitherto confined to ratepayers, was greatly widened; in 1900 the English system of compensation to workmen for accidents suffered in their trade was adopted with some changes, one of the chief being that contested claims are adjudicated upon cheaply and expeditiously by the same arbitration court that decides industrial disputes.
He then turned to industrial pursuits, and, having made himself acquainted with the processes of the cotton manufacture, founded at Auchy, in the Pas de Calais, a spinning-mill which employed four or five hundred persons, principally women and children.
A chair of industrial economy was founded for him in 1819 at the Conservatoire des Arts et Metiers.
Cotton and chemical works, and the coal-mines of the neighbourhood, employ the large industrial population.
Gera is noted for its industrial activity.
Moreover, there are purely industrial tribunals at Miilhausen, Thann, Markirch, Strassburg and Metz.
This includes the civil parishes of Swadlincote, Church Gresley and Stanton and Newhall, which together form a large industrial township, mainly devoted to the manufacture of earthenware and fireclay goods.
Classified by occupations the census of 1904 gave the following results: dependants, mainly young children, 28.53%; agriculture, 39.51%; commercial and industrial pursuits, 7.62%; professional, 3.18%; domestic (including women living at home other than those helping in farm work), 1 5.75%.
The development of the diamond mines and of the gold and coal industries - of which Brand saw the beginning - had far-reaching consequences, bringing the Boer republics into vital contact with the new industrial era.
The industrial and political life of Montana have been strongly influenced by the copper industry and by the tremendous wealth controlled by the copper interests; in the industry three men were long dominant - Marcus Daly, William A.
These are a state prison at Deer Lodge, managed by contract; a reform school at Miles City, an industrial school at Butte, an orphans' home at Twin Bridges, the soldiers' home at Columbia Falls, a school for deaf and blind at Boulder, and an insane asylum at Warm Springs, managed by contract.
It is that the government acting for the people, who are the real owners of all public property, shall permanently retain the fee in public lands, leaving their products to be developed by private capital under leases which are limited in their duration and which give the government complete power to regulate the industrial operations of the lessees.
The growth of the corporation as an industrial machine had in recent years been very rapid in the United States.
The industrial and financial corporations had grown so powerful as to venture to contend for the first place with the authority of the government itself.
He strengthened the interstate commission for the regulation of railroads, inaugurated successful suits against monopolies - notably the Standard Oil Company and the so-called Sugar Trust, - and achieved distinct practical results in favour of a system of "industrial democracy" where all men shall have equal rights under the law and where there shall be no privileged interests exempt from the operation of the law.
There are also the Bose Museum, containing collections of pictures and antiquities of Hessian origin, museums of natural history and ethnography, an industrial exhibition hall, and an industrial art school.
The preponderating industrial activity of the kingdom fosters the tendency of the population to concentrate in towns, and no German state, with the exception of the Hanseatic towns, has so large a proportion of urban population, this forming 52.97% of the whole.
The early foundation of the Leipzig fairs, and the enlightened policy of the rulers of the country, have also done much to develop its commercial and industrial resources.
The commercial and industrial interests of the country continued to be fostered, but only a few of the most unavoidable political reforms were granted.
Its industrial products are yarn, calico, woollen goods, thread.
of Flanders, who endowed it with market rights and laid the foundation of its industrial importance by inviting the settlement of foreign weavers.
In Portugal, provision has been made for the creation in important industrial centres, on the application of the administrative corporations, of boards of conciliation (decrees of the 14th of August 1889, and the 18th of May 1893).
The statistical work includes compiling abstracts, memoranda, tables and charts relating to the trade and industrial conditions of the United Kingdom, the colonies and foreign countries, the supervision of the trade accounts, the preparation of monthly and annual accounts of shipping and navigation, statistics as to labour, cotton, emigration and foreign and colonial customs, tariffs and regulations.
Patents, designs and trade marks are now dealt with by the patent office under the charge of a controller-general (salary £1800), which is subordinate to the railway department, and copyright, art unions and industrial exhibitions are also among the matters dealt with by the department.
the party which had frustrated the efforts of the Old Czechs for a reconciliation with the Germans) produced this magnificent work in collaboration with 22 professors, artists, industrial leaders and writers of Czech nationality, supported by a national subsidy; it can therefore be accepted as a trustworthy Czech autobiography.
It is true that this mostly happened at the expense of the German industrial communities, since the Slav labourers as immigrants acquired schools in their own language.
Shortly before this Beck had introduced yet another bill dealing with industrial insurance, to supplement the already existing sickness and accident insurance.
A great economic and social programme 'was announced, including the extension of waterways, the exploitation of electricity, an improved system of communication, industrial insurance, and a department for public health.
Thus during the first weeks of the war there was very great unemployment in parts of the industrial regions, since the dismissals far exceeded the proportion of enrolments in the army, while agriculture, which was already occupied with the harvest, suffered from a serious shortage of labour.
The Government had not prepared in advance any measures for setting industrial production going again in any way.
In a short time, and without any pressure from the Government, but solely as a result of the favourable prices it offered, industrial conditions were completely transformed so as to meet the exigencies of the war.
Sioux Falls is the principal industrial centre.
There are 12 hospitals (3 of them city institutions), 6 orphan asylums, 4 homes for the aged, a foundlings' home and a state industrial school for girls.
Other institutions are Concordia College (1881, Lutheran), a state normal school (1880), the Wisconsin College of physicians and surgeons (1893), the national German-American teachers' seminary (normal), Milwaukee academy (1864), Milwaukee University school, Milwaukee school of engineering (1904), Milwaukee Turnverein school of physical culture, one of the largest schools of the sort in the United States, St John's Catholic institute, Our Lady of Mercy academy (Roman Catholic), Wisconsin academy of music, the Wisconsin school of art (art students' league), a Catholic normal school, St Rose's manual training school, the industrial chemical institute (the only technical school for brewers in the United States) and several business and commercial schools.
Among Milwaukee's largest industrial establishments are: the Pabst and the Schlitz breweries, on the west side of the city.
Although there are some indications of increased industrial activity in recent years, the population of Dinant is not one-eighth of what it was at the time of the Burgundians.
Cotton mills, iron foundries, brick and tile works, and collieries employ the large industrial population.
Kent, from its proximity to London, has been intimately concerned in every great historical movement which has agitated the country, while its busy industrial population has steadily resisted any infringement of its rights and liberties.
In the middle of the 18th century there was a great industrial development in the Pottery district.
In contrast to this complete industrial occupation, the French territory was held by a small and very scattered population, its extent and openness adding materially to the difficulties of a disputed tenure.
Educational facilities are also furnished by the state through university and school of mines at University, near Grand Forks, normal schools (opened in 1890) at Valley City and Mayville, an agricultural college and experiment station (1890) at Fargo, a normal and industrial school (opened in 1899) at Ellendale, a school for the deaf (1890) at Devils Lake, a scientific school (opened in 1903) at Wahpeton, and a school of forestry at Bottineau.
Calcium carbide, CaC2, a compound of great industrial importance as a source of acetylene, was first prepared by F.
The remaining Europeans are mostly planters and heads of industrial establish 1 Including 487 in Merauke, the capital of Dutch New Guinea.
Albuquerque is also the seat of the Harwood Industrial School (Methodist) for Mexican girls, of the Menaul Mission School (Presbyterian) for Mexican boys, and of a government Indian training school (1881) for boys and girls.
The largest industrial establishment is the American Lumber Company's plant, including a saw-mill, a sash, door and blind factory and a box factory.
In industrial enterprise silk and linen goods and iron wares are almost the only products of any note.
The Musee Rath contains pictures and sculptures; the Musee Fol, antiquities of various dates; the Musee des Arts Decoratifs, inter alia, a fine collection of prints; the Musee Industriel, industrial objects and models; the Musee Archeologique, prehistoric and archaeological remains; the Musee d'Histoire Naturelle, scientific collections; and the Musee Epigraphique, a considerable number of inscriptions.
WERDAU, a town of Germany, in the kingdom of Saxony, on the Pleisse, in the industrial district of Zwickau, and 40 m.
Of German towns in Czechoslovakia (most of them with a considerable Czechoslovak minority), Liberec (Reichenberg), and Jablonec (Gablonz), are important industrial centres.
In large industrial centres there are also industrial courts to deal with disputes between employers and workpeople.
The Social Democrats were well organized among the industrial workers and agricultural labourers.
"the most notable accomplishment of the young republic in the field of social-political reform has been the enactment of Dec. 19 1918 establishing an 8-hour day for industrial and agricultural workers (with some specific exceptions).
Nationalization of the coal-mines and the great industrial concerns was one of the main items on the programme of the Socialist parties.
A first step towards democratizing industrial undertakings was taken by an enactment touching mining councils.
On the principle of the mining councils, factory or industrial councils were projected for all industrial undertakings.
Rich in natural resources and peopled by an intelligent, experienced and frugal population, the country had every reason to look forward to a prosperous industrial development in the future.
Without Slovakia the republic would be mainly an industrial State: with it there is a slight preponderance in favour of agriculture, 41-5% of the entire population being occupied on or in connexion with the land and 38% in industry and commerce.
Czechoslovakia, as already indicated, is not only an industrial State: it possesses at the same time a highly developed agriculture in which over 40% of the entire population is engaged, that is to say, some 5,700,000 persons are workers in some way or other connected with the land.
It is a prosperous little industrial town in the Ausser Rhoden half of the canton, especially busied with the manufacture of embroidery by machinery, and of muslins.
The industrial population of Bishop Auckland is principally employed in the neighbouring collieries and iron works.
Until 1820 the south-eastern district of Pechersk was the industrial and commercial quarter; but it has been greatly altered in carrying out fortifications commenced in that year by Tsar Nicholas I.
It is the industrial and trading quarter of the city, and the seat of the great fair of the " Contracts," the transference of which from Dubno in 1797 largely stimulated the commercial prosperity of Kiev.
Christiansand is an important fishing centre (salmon, mackerel, lobsters), and sawmills, wood-pulp factories, shipbuilding yards and mechanical workshops are the principal industrial works.
But it first rose into importance in the second half of the 19th century owing to its share in the extraordinary industrial development of the Twente district, and now possesses numerous cotton and damask factories.
These figures are from the U.S. census, and are of course for Cincinnati proper: some of the largest industrial establishments, however, are just outside the city limits - among these are manufactories of soap (the Ivory Soap Works), machine tools, electrical machinery and appliances, structural and architectural iron work, and office furnishings.
For more than ten years preceding the Civil War the city was much disturbed by slavery dissension - the industrial interests were largely with the South, but abolitionists were numerous and active, and the city was an important station on the "Underground Railroad," of which Dr Norton S.
Cryolite, a fluoride of aluminium and sodium, is extensively mined in Greenland and elsewhere for industrial purposes.
Harrisburg's charitable institutions include a city hospital, a home for the friendless, a children's industrial home, and a state lunatic hospital (1845).
Slabs are also manufactured, and, being readily cut, planed, dressed and enamelled, are used for chimney pieces, billiard tables, wall linings, cisterns, paving, tomb-stones, ridge rolls, electrical switch-boards and various other architectural and industrial purposes.
Woollen cloth mills, and extensive collieries in the neighbourhood, employ the large industrial population.
Maros-Vasarhely has also an interesting Szekler industrial museum.
Rabat trades with Fez and the interior of Morocco, with the neighbouring coast towns and Gibraltar, and with Marseilles, Manchester and London, and is the greatest industrial centre in Morocco.
In the same year a great strike - one of the most famous in American industrial history - threatening civil war, temporarily closed the mines;, in 1896 fire almost destroyed the city; in 1903-1904 a second strike, lasting more than a year and greater than the first, occurred.
54 of the United States Geological Survey; and Benjamin McKie Rastall, The Labor History of the Cripple Creek District; A Study in Industrial Evolution (Madison, Wis., 1908), a full account of the strikes of 1894 and of 1903-1904.
In the city are a public library, the Beverly hospital, the New England industrial school for deaf mutes (organized, 1876; incorporated, 1879), and the Beverly historical society (1891), which owns a large colonial house, in which there is a valuable historical collection.
Steelton is in an agricultural district, but its industrial importance is due primarily to the vast steel works of the Pennsylvania Steel Company.
In 1730 Germans began to settle in considerable numbers in the west-central part of the colony, where they greatly promoted its industrial development but at the same time added much strength to the opposition.
Mereness, Maryland as a Proprietary Province (New York, 1901), a constitutional history of the province in the light of its industrial and social development, contains a bibliography; and Bernard 1 Resigned on the 6th of May 1808.
While in this position he became convinced that the only permanent solution of the manifold difficulties which the freedmen encountered lay in their moral and industrial education.
Carbon dioxide finds industrial application in the preparation of soda by the Solvay process, in the sugar industry, in the manufacture of mineral waters, and in the artificial production of ice.
Cotton mills and the collieries of the neighbourhood employ the large industrial population.
In the oceans alone there are estimated to be 1141 X 10 12 tons of sulphate, K 2 SO 4, but this inexhaustible store is not much drawn upon; and the "salt gardens" on the coast of France lost their industrial importance as potash-producers since the deposits at Stassfurt in Germany have come to be worked.
The Stassfurt minerals owe their industrial importance to their solubility in water and consequent ready amenability to chemical operations.
In fact, the ashes of herbs generally are richer in potash than those of the trunks and branches of trees; yet, for obvious reasons, the latter are of greater industrial importance as sources of potassium carbonate.
The industrial preparation serves for the making of flint glass, of potash soap (soft soap) and of caustic potash.
The carrying trade upon it is chiefly in agricultural produce and provisions, building materials, wood and industrial products.