How to use Industrial in a sentence

industrial
  • Rajputana is very poor in industrial production.

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  • The colony, however, from 1821 had made a fair start in free industrial progress.

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  • The use of cranes is of great antiquity, but it is only since the great industrial development of the 19th century, and the introduction of other motive powers than hand labour, that the crane has acquired the important and indispensable position it now occupies.

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  • The city is a product of the industrial transformation in the southern states since the Civil War.

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  • The colonies were, however, to have other and bitter experiences of strikes before Labour recognized that of all means for settling industrial Australians in South America.

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  • Leathertanning and shoe-making are especially associated with the district called Langstraat, which is situated between Geertruidenberg and 's Hertogenbosch, and consists of a series of industrial villages along the course of the Old Maas.

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  • The model followed in these two states was not Victoria but New Zealand, where an Industrial Conciliation and Arbitration Act was passed in 1894.

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  • The county industrial school is established in the town.

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  • The industrial progress of Italy has been great since 1880.

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  • Sydney was the centre of the disturbance, and the city was in a state of industrial siege, feeling running to dangerous extremes.

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  • Then along came the Industrial Revolution, and I am sure it all seemed very foreign.

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  • In New York State, where the population is largely industrial, the annual deaths per million are only three, but of the agricultural population eleven.

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  • The chief industrial establishments are a large ammunition factory and an engine factory; but manufactures of cotton, silk, velvet, pottery and paper, sugar-refining and tanning are also extensively carried on.

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  • In the industrial regions of northern France cattle are stall-fed with the waste products of the beet-sugar factories, oil-works and distilleries.

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  • Either party, or the minister for Labour, may refer a determination to the court of industrial appeals, and the court, in the event of a special board failing to make a determination, may itself be called upon to frame one.

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  • In 1882-1884 three successive annual exhibits of a National Mining and Industrial Exposition were held.

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  • Tuskegee is chiefly known for its educational institutions - the Tuskegee Normal and Industrial Institute and the Alabama Conference Female College (Methodist Episcopal Church, South; opened 1856).

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  • The strike spread to nearly all the industrial centres, although in many places it was limited to a few trades.

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  • It is prepared on the industrial scale for the manufacture of sulphuric acid, for the preparation of sodium sulphate by the Hargreaves process, and for use as a bleaching-disinfecting agent and as a preservative.

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  • Coal takes, however, an altogether secondary place as a fuel in Russia; wood is much more extensively used, not only for domestic, but also for industrial purposes.

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  • It increases the tendency, already too strong, towards concentration of industrial life in large towns.

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  • In the middle ages this differentiation of the industrial, municipal and political life had not taken place, and in order to understand the working of at first sight purely economic regulations it is necessary to make a close study of the functions of local government.

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  • No one knows what proportion of the industrial population was included in the organized gilds, or how complete was the control exercised by these bodies over their members.

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  • No explanation of the industrial situation in Germany, for example, would be intelligible or satisfactory even from the economic point of view which ignored the significance of the political conditions which Germans have to deal with.

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  • The spread of the modern industrial system has brought with it the modern state, with its millions of consumers, its vast area, its innumerable activities, its complicated code of industrial and commercial law.

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  • The city is the seat of the Bordentown Military Institute (with the Woodward memorial library), of the state manual training and industrial school for coloured youth, of the St Joseph's convent and mother-house of the Sisters of Mercy, and of St Joseph's academy for girls.

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  • It is very unevenly distributed, and in the industrial districts is increasing very rapidly.

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  • Colonized by the steady industrial peoples of northern Europe, there is no danger of the turbulence of the industrially indolent but more passionate peoples of Central and South America.

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  • The Glasgow Society's work was ultimately taken over by the Free Church of Scotland, whose great achievement is the Lovedale Institute, combining industrial and mission work.

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  • The town is an important industrial centre, having tobacco and leather factories, electrical and other mechanical works, and breweries.

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  • The Copts have about 1000 primary schools, in which the teaching of Coptic is compulsory, a few industrial schools, and one college for higher instruction.

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  • The principal industrial establishments include flour-mills (Limerick supplying most of the west of Ireland with flour), factories for bacon-curing and for condensed milk and creameries.

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  • Owing to its geographical isolation, the development of Drente has remained behind that of every other province in the Netherlands, and there are few centres of any importance, either agricultural or industrial.

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  • The original industry has long since moved onwards to other parts, but the town remains a prosperous market centre, and has a considerable industrial activity.

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  • The chief event of the year 1899 was the great strike of 40,000 artisans, which cost Denmark 50,000,000 crowns, and brought about a reconstruction of the cabinet in order to bring in, as minister of the interior, Ludwig Ernest Bramsen, the great specialist in industrial matters, who succeeded (September 2-4) in bringing about an understanding between workmen and employers.

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  • It lies in the heart of one of the busiest industrial districts in Germany, and carries on important manufactures of the finer kinds of cloth, wool, yarn and felt, and also of iron and steel goods.

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  • There are also industrial schools and orphanages, and the institute has branches in Australia, India, Gibraltar and Newfoundland.

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  • Within the walls of this monastery the Venerable Bede spent his life from childhood; and his body was at first buried within the church, whither, until it was removed under Edward the Confessor to Durham, it attracted many pilgrims. The town is wholly industrial, devoted to ship-building, chemical works, paper mills and the neighbouring collieries.

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  • Aalborg is a growing industrial and commercial centre, exporting grain and fish.

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  • Ministers are continually referring to the importance of energy and self-sacrifice on the part of the industrial population, who cannot be expected to display these qualities unless, generally speaking, they are acquainted with the facts.'

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  • In dealing with the news, the Naval and Military authorities should consider not only our enemies and the army in the field, but the commercial and industrial classes at home, upon whom so much depends.

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  • Common salt, or simply salt, is the name given to the native and industrial forms of sodium chloride, NaCI.

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  • The large industrial population is mainly employed in glass, pottery and iron works, and in the neighbouring stone-quarries.

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  • Among penal and charitable institutions are the Riverside State Penitentiary, three hospitals, three homes for orphans, a home for the friendless and an industrial school.

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  • Six bridges spanning the river and electric lines crossing them have brought Allegheny into close industrial and social relations with the main part of Pittsburg, and on the hills of Allegheny are beautiful homes of wealthy men.

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  • Although Portland cement is later in date than either Roman cement or hydraulic lime, yet on account of its greater industrial importance, and of the fact that, being an artificial product, it is of approximately uniform composition and properties, it may conveniently be treated of first.

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  • A large industrial area around Neath is supplied from Ystradfellte.

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  • These, together with pigs, wool, butter, and (in small quantities) cheese, form the staple of a considerable trade with the Midlands and the industrial districts to the south and southwest.

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  • The Central Wales section of the London & North-Western railway from Craven Arms to Swansea crosses the north-west corner of the county, and is intersected at Builth Road by a branch of the Cambrian, which, running for the most part on the Radnorshire side of the Wye, follows that river from Rhayader to Three Cocks; the Midland railway from Hereford to Swansea runs through the centre of the county, effecting junctions at Three Cocks with the Cambrian, at Talyllyn with the Brecon & Merthyr railway (which connects the county with the industrial areas of East Glamorgan and West Monmouthshire), and at Capel Colbren with the Neath and Brecon line.

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  • Waukesha is the seat of the State Industrial School for Boys (established as a house of refuge in 1860) and of Carroll College (Presbyterian, co-educational, 1846).

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  • It is an industrial centre, linen weaving, coal mining and malting being the principal industries.

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  • The south-east part of the Thuringian Forest is the more populous and industrial; the chief summits are the Kieferle (2848 ft.), the Blessberg (2834 ft.), the Wurzelberg (2841 ft.) and the Wetzstein (2575 ft.).

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  • Buda, with its royal palace, the various ministries, and other government offices, is the official centre, while Pest is the commercial and industrial part, as well as the centre of the nationalistic and intellectual life of the town.

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  • The increase in the number of joint-stock companies, and the capital thus invested in industrial undertakings, furnish a valuable indication.

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  • The period 1910-20 witnessed considerable industrial and agricultural development and a significant growth of Ethiopianism and trade unionism among the native and coloured people.

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  • These were not features peculiar to the Cape province, though, as the Cape contained a larger proportion of educated natives and there was no colour bar to the exercise of the franchise, the province was the chief centre of native agitation for social and industrial rights.

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  • The growth of manufacturing in Illinois during the last half of the 19th century, due largely to the development of her exceptional transportation facilities, was the most rapid and remarkable in the industrial history of the United States.

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  • This canal provides, with the Illinois & Michigan canal and the Illinois river, an improved waterway from Chicago to the Mississippi river, and greatly increases the commercial and industrial importance of the "twin cities" of Sterling and Rock Falls, where the Rock river is dammed by a dam nearly 1500 ft.

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  • The relation of the state to corporations and industrial problems has been a subject of important legislation.

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  • The others were the State Psychopathic Institute at Kankakee (established in 1907 as part of the insane service) for systematic study of mental and nervous diseases; one at Lincoln having charge of feebleminded children; two institutions for the blind - a school at Jacksonville and an industrial home at Marshall Boulevard and 19th Street, Chicago; a home for soldiers and sailors (Quincy), one for soldiers' orphans (Normal), and one for soldiers' widows (Wilmington); a school for the deaf (Jacksonville), and an eye and ear infirmary (Chicago).

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  • It was founded in 1867, through the United States land grant of 1862, as the Illinois Industrial University, and received its present name in 1885; since 1870 it has been co-educational.

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  • The financial and industrial policy of the state was unfortunate.

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  • By means of a dam across the Ternay, an affluent of the D€ome, to the north-west of the town, a reservoir is provided, in which an additional supply of water, for both industrial and domestic purposes, is stored.

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  • Annonay is the principal industrial centre of its department, the chief manufactures being those of leather, especially for gloves, paper, silk and silk goods, and flour.

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  • Problems of the relation of the individual to society and industrial questions were to have formed the theme of the Wanderjahre; but since the French Revolution these problems had themselves entered on a new phase and demanded a method of treatment which it was not easy for the old poet to learn.

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  • There are several industrial schools where agriculture, horticulture, carpentry, printing and other trades are taught.

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  • Wickham is one of the centres of a coal-mining district, the mines employing the majority of the industrial population; but there are also iron, steel, and chemical works.

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  • Epinal is the seat of a prefect and of a court of assizes and has tribunals of first instance and of commerce, a board of tradearbitrators, a chamber of commerce, training-colleges, a communal college and industrial school, and exchange and a branch of the Bank of France.

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  • This half-canton is divided into three administrative districts, comprising twenty communes, and is mainly industrial, the manufacture of cotton goods, muslins, and embroidery being very flourishing.

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  • The industrial population is very densely crowded.

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  • Silk, linen, flour, wine, brandy, oil, salt and soap are the chief industrial products.

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  • The technical schools may be divided into two classes, technical colleges and schools and industrial schools.

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  • The industrial schools were largely engaged in 2 4 79 9 14.

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  • Its industrial importance is shown by the fact that it is the site of the West Swiss technical institute, which has departments for instruction in watch-making, in electricity, in engraving and chasing, and in subjects relating to railway, postal and telegraph matters.

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  • There are collieries near the town, the workings extending beneath the sea; there are also iron mines and works, engineering works, shipbuilding yards, breweries, tanneries, stone quarries, brick and earthenware works, and other industrial establishments in and near the town.

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  • Beyond these is a fringe of suburbs (La Union and Paso Molino), and on the western side of the bay is the straggling suburb of Cerro, largely industrial in character.

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  • The suburbs of Montevideo include the fashionable bathing resorts of Playa Ramirez and Pocitos on the coast east of the city, the inland suburbs of Paso Molino and La Union, and the industrial town of Cerro, across the bay.

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  • The commercial and financial collapse that followed lasted through the greater part of the last three decades of the century; but settled government and improved finances subsequently contributed to a slow but steady recovery in the trade and industrial activities of the city.

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  • In 1921, the company proposed to work Richborough as a barge and train-ferry port, ancillary to Queenborough, both centres to serve the requirements of a comprehensive scheme of industrial development in the surrounding districts including the Kent coal-fields.

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  • Caen, despite a diversity of manufactures, is commercial rather than industrial.

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  • Other industrial products are machinery, enamelled tinware, leather, alum, paper, earthenware, stoves and spirits, while a tolerably brisk trade is carried on in wool, feathers, cattle and horses.

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  • The labour, too, may be industrial, and include instruction in tailoring, shoemaking, basket-making, bookbinding, printing, and many more handicrafts.

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  • In the first stage, which was limited to six months, but which it is proposed to reduce to one month, the convict passes his whole time in his cell apart from other prisoners, engaged at 'some industrial employment.

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  • The earnest desire of most prison administration is to develop industrial training and trade profits side by side with mildness of treatment.

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  • The metal as obtained by industrial methods rarely contains more than about 99-99.5% of nickel, the chief impurities being copper, iron, cobalt, silicon and carbon.

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  • It was an industrial and commercial class greatly interested in the tariff, and deeply interested also in the then current forms of issue banking.

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  • It is the centre of a populous industrial district.

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  • There are a Latin and industrial school, several benevolent institutions, and a monument to Christoph von Schmid (1768-1854), a writer of stories for the young.

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  • Apart from politics he took a deep and active interest in the problems of capital and labour, was one of the organizers (1901) and the first president of the National Civic Federation, whose purpose was to solve social and industrial problems, and in December 1901 became chairman of a permanent board of conciliation and arbitration established by the Federation.

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  • There is a school of the industrial arts and handicrafts, and majolica, paper, and silk cocoons are produced.

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  • At the foot of the hill along the banks of the Ellero (a tributary of the Po) lie the industrial and commercial suburbs of Breo, Borgatto, Pian della Valle and Carassone, with their potteries, tanneries, paper-mills, marble-works, &c. The mansion of Count San Quintino in Pian della Valle was the seat of the printing-press which from 1472 issued books.

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  • Pratt Institute, founded in 1887 by Charles Pratt (1830-1891), and the residuary legatee of his wife, who died in 1907, is one of the most successful manual and industrial training schools in the country, and its kindergarten normal is one of the best known in the United States.

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  • A vivid realization of the industrial revolution in the state is to be gained from the reflection that in 1875 California was pre-eminent only for gold and sheep; that the aggregate mineral output thirty years later was more than a third greater than then, and that nevertheless the value of farm produce at the opening of the 10th century exceeded by more than $100,000,000 the value of mineral produce, and exceeded by $50,000,000 the most generous estimate of the largest annual gold output in the annals of the state.

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  • The Preston (Sonoma county) School of Industry, for older boys, and the Whittier (Los Angeles county) State School, for girls and for boys under sixteen, are the state reformatories, each having good industrial and manual training departments.

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  • Cristoforo, with the cemetery, stands; but modern times have brought a renewal of industrial activity.

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  • General conventions, to which most of the European states are parties, were signed in 1883 at Paris for the protection of industrial, and in 1886 at Bern for the protection of literary and artistic, property, and, from 1899 onwards, a series of general treaties, to none of which is Great Britain a party, have been signed at the Hague, as the result of conferences, invited by the government of the Netherlands, for solving some of the more pressing questions arising out of " the conflict of laws."

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  • An "Industrial Congress" at Philadelphia also nominated him for the presidency in 1848, and the "Land Reformers" in 1856.

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  • Beer, Prussian blue, leather, tin, pottery, cigars, and gold and silver work are the chief industrial products, and there is a considerable trade by rail and river.

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  • There is comparatively little industrial activity in the town, the importance of which is mainly political, though of late years it has been selected as the seat of various international associations (postal, telegraph, railway, copyright, &c.).

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  • It was not till after a rising of the lowest order of all, the industrial labourers, had been suppressed in 1378 (tumulto dei Ciompi, the wool-combers), that quieter times ensued under the wise leadership, first of the Albizzi and finally of the Medici.

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  • The tendency towards the concentration of capital in great industrial corporations had been active to an extent previously undreamt of, with incidental consequences that had aroused much apprehension; and the Democrats accused President McKinley and the Republican party of having fostered the "trusts."

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  • Among the borough's industrial establishments, the manufactories of iron and steel are the most important, but it also manufactures brass, zinc, and silk and knit goods.

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  • Nevertheless energetic efforts are being made to check any loss of importance - first, in 1898, by a determined attempt to make Danzig an industrial centre, manufacturing on a large scale; and secondly, by the construction and opening in 1899 of a free harbour at Neufahrwasser at the mouth of the Vistula.

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  • The purely commercial interests are more important than the industrial, because of the transit trade to and from Portugal through no less than seven custom-houses.

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  • Harriet Hanson wrote Early Factory Labor in New England (1883) and Loom and Spindle (1898), an important contribution to the industrial and social history of Lowell.

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  • Robinson and Lucy Larcom already named as bearing on the industrial conditions of the city between 1835 and 1850; and the famous description in the fourth chapter of Dickens's American Notes.

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  • Graslitz is one of the most important industrial towns of Bohemia, its specialities being the manufacture of musical instruments, carried on both as a factory and a domestic industry, and lace-making.

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  • The Virginia Normal and Industrial Institute, at Petersburg, is governed by a board of visitors consisting of the superintendent of public instruction and four other members appointed by the governor with the concurrence of the Senate for four years.

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  • In 1908 the General Assembly made an appropriation for establishing two state normal and industrial schools for women, one at Harrisonburg and the other at Fredericksburg, both under a board of trustees consisting of the superintendent of public instruction and ten other members appointed by the governor with the concurrence of the Senate.

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  • This phase began to give way in the irth century to a commercial and industrial renaissance, which received a great impetus from the crusading movements - themselves largely economic - and by the 14th century had made the Netherlands the factory of Europe, the Rhine a vast artery of trade, and north Italy a hive of busy cities.

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  • The land being appropriated by the conquerors, husbandry, as the most respectable industrial occupation, became the legitimate calling of the Aryan settler, the Vaisya; whilst handicrafts, gradually multiplying with advancing civilization and menial service, were assigned to the subject race.

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  • Then follows the chequered period of the prime of life and middle age, during which the liability of men to industrial accidents, war and other causes of special mortality, irrespective of their greater inclination to emigrate, is generally sufficient to outweigh the dangers of childbirth or premature decay among the women, who tend, accordingly, to predominate in number at this stage.

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  • Irrespective of the wish of women between 25 and 40 to return themselves as under 25, there appears to be the more practical motive of obtaining better terms in industrial insurance, whilst an overstatement of age often has, it.

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  • Tilburg has risen into importance since the separation of Belgium from Holland as one of the chief industrial centres of the south.

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  • Nuremberg occupies a high place among the industrial and commercial centres of Europe.

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  • In the decorative arts the Nuremberg handicraftsman attained great perfection in ministering to the luxurious tastes of the burghers, and a large proportion of the old German furniture, silver-plate, stoves and the like, which are now admired in industrial museums, was made in Nuremberg workshops.

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  • It lies on the river Calder, mainly on the north bank, in a pleasant undulating country, towards the eastern outskirts of the great industrial district of the West Riding.

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  • In the consequent distress in the new industrial centres there arose a cry for protection.

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  • He believed that the South would share in the general industrial development, not having perceived as yet that slavery was an insuperable obstacle.

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  • The Constitution, if strictly interpreted according to Calhoun's views, would secure this control to the minority, and prevent an industrial upheaval.

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  • The city's industrial establishments include smelting works and a large number of reduction works, among which are some of the largest and most important in the republic. It was here that Bartolome de Medina discovered the "patio" process of reducing silver ores with quicksilver in 1 557, and his old hacienda de beneficio is still to be seen.

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  • Of charitable and reformatory institutions a soldiers' and sailors' home (1889) is maintained at Monte Vista, a school for the deaf and blind (1874) at Colorado Springs, an insane asylum (1879) at Pueblo, a home for dependent and neglected children (1895) at Denver, an industrial school for girls (1887) near Morrison, and for boys (1881) at Golden, a reformatory (1889) at Buena Vista, and a penitentiary (1868) at Canyon City.

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  • The parole system is in force in the state reformatory; and in the industrial school at Golden (for youthful offenders) no locks, bars or cells are used, the theory being to treat the inmates as "students."

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  • After 1890 industrial conditions were confused and temporarily set greatly backward by strikes and lockouts in the mines, particularly in 1894, 1896-1897 and 1903-1904, several times threatening civil war and necessitating the establishment of martial law.

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  • Questions of railways, of franchises, union scales and the recognition of the union in contracts, questions of sheep and cattle interests, politics, civic, legal and industrial questions, all entered into the economic troubles of these years.

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  • The name of Remscheid occurs in a document of 1132, and the town received the first impulse to its industrial importance through the immigration of Protestant refugees from France and Holland.

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  • In the industrial suburb of Schoolfield, which in 1908 had a population of about 3000, there is a large textile mill.

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  • The strike was universal, all classes joining in the movement, and it spread to all the industrial centres and even to the rural districts.

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  • Closely akin are the payments demanded for privileges to industrial undertakings given as " franchises," very often in connexion with monopolies, e.g.

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  • The foreign mission employs fifty-two ordained and about as many unordained, medical, industrial and other missionaries, with a large number of native agents, in India, East Africa and China.

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  • These figures prove a steady upward tendency, but the increase itself is confined entirely to the industrial districts of the Principality, and in a special degree to Glamorganshire; while the agricultural counties, such as Pembroke, Merioneth, Cardigan or Montgomery, present a continuous though slight decrease owing to local emigration to the centres of industry.

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  • It will be noted, therefore, that the vast mass of the inhabitants of Wales are settled in the industrial area which covers the northern districts of Glamorganshire and the southeastern corner of Carmarthenshire; whilst central Wales, comprising the four counties of Cardigan, Radnor, Merioneth and Montgomery, forms the least populous portion of the Principality.

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  • The principal canals are the Swansea, the Neath, the Aberdare & Glamorgan, and the Brecon & Abergavenny, all worked in connexion with the industrial districts of north Glamorganshire.

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  • The Roman Catholic Church has many followers amongst the labouring population of Irish descent in the industrial districts.

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  • There have been occasional strikes accompanied by acts of lawlessness in the industrial and mining districts of Glamorganshire, and also amongst the workmen employed in the quarries of Gwynedd.

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  • Collieries and iron-works employ the industrial population.

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  • Moreover, the nature of the fertility of the meadow-lands is such as to require little manual labour, and other industrial means of subsistence have hardly yet come into existence.

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  • Technical education is provided in higher schools at Stockholm, Gothenburg and certain other large industrial centres; and in lower schools distributed throughout the country, in which special attention is given to the prevailing local industries.

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  • The former includes the landed proprietors, professional men and a part of those engaged in commercial and industrial pursuits.

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  • The system includes the University of Chile and National Institute at Santiago, lyceums or high schools in all the provincial capitals and larger towns, normal schools at central points for the training of public school teachers, professional and industrial schools, military schools and primary schools.

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  • The School of Mechanic Arts and Trades (Escuela de Artes y Oficios) of Santiago has a high reputation for the practical character of its instruction, in which it is admirably seconded bya normal handicraft school (Sloyd system) and a night school of industrial drawing in the same city, and professional schools for girls in Santiago and Valparaiso, where the pupils are taught millinery, dress-making, knitting, embroidery and fancy needlework.

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  • During these years of fiscal prosperity the country suffered much from financial crises caused by industrial stagnation, an excessive and depreciated paper currency and political disorder.

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  • At the same time the monks and Jesuits did useful work in teaching industrial and agricultural arts, and in giving the people a certain degree of education; but the influence of the Church was used to bolster up the traditional narrow colonial system, and the constant quarrels between the clergy and the secular powers often threw the country into confusion.

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  • This was the beginning of a period of steady industrial growth and development.

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  • The completion of the Trans-Andean railway between Valparaiso and Buenos Aires was bound to be of immense commercial and industrial value; and eventually the making of a longitudinal railway route uniting the nitrate province of the north with Santiago, and Santiago with Puerto Montt in the distant south, opened up further important prospects.

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  • Though a man of great capacity for work, he represented the narrowest nationalism, and through his enmity to all that was "alien" did more than any other man to retard the political and industrial development of the country.

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  • The board is directed to administer its service on business principles, due regard being had to agricultural and industrial development, &c., within the Union.

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  • The new industrial situation created had its effect on all parties in South Africa, and in some measure drew together the British and Dutch sections outside the Transvaal.

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  • An Industrial Commission, appointed (under pressure) by President Kruger in 1897 to inquire into a number of grievances affecting the gold industry, had reported in favour of reforms. The recommendations of the commission, if adopted, would have done something towards relieving the tension, but President Kruger and his executive refused to be guided by them.

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  • There are grammar, model and industrial schools, the first with exhibitions to Trinity College, Dublin; but the principal educational establishment is University College, a quadrangular building in Tudor Gothic style, of grey limestone.

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  • Other industrial establishments include corn-mills, iron-foundries, distilleries, and brush and bag factories.

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  • Following what appears to be the natural law of their being, the companies gradually lost their industrial character.

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  • It is one of the most thriving towns in the Levant, with a purely Greek population distinguished for its commercial, industrial and maritime enterprise.

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  • Such importance as the town possesses is now rather commercial than religious, - it being a depot for the timber trade of the Bavarian forest, a station for the Danube steamboat company, and the seat of several mills, breweries, potteries and other industrial establishments.

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  • In 1900 the total industrial population of Portugal was 455,296.

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  • In 1905 there were state lyceums in each district capital and in Guimardes, Lamego and Amarante; 5 municipal lyceums, at Celorico de Basto, Chaves, Ponte de Lima, Povoa de Varzim and Setubal; military and naval colleges; a secondary school for girls in Lisbon; numerous private secondary schools and ecclesiastical seminaries; industrial, commercial and technical schools; and pilot schools at Lisbon, Oporto, Faro and Ponta Delgada (Azores).

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  • The controversy with Spain was amicably settled by the treaty of San Ildefonso (1777); and further industrial and educational reforms were inaugurated, chief among them being the foundation, in 1780, of the Royal Academy of Sciences.

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  • Though the army as a whole was monarchist, certain regiments had become imbued with revolutionary ideals, which were fortified by the unwise employment of soldiers and sailors for the suppression of industrial disputes.

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  • Terre Haute's industrial and commercial importance is largely due to its proximity to the valuable coal-fields of Clay, Sullivan, Park, Vermilion, Greene and Vigo counties.

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  • It has collieries, and iron, steel, engineering, tool and fire-clay works, and there is a large industrial population.

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  • Abbeville is an important industrial centre; in addition to its old-established manufacture of cloth, hemp-spinning, sugar-making, ship-building and locksmiths' work are carried on; there is active commerce in grain, but the port has little trade.

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  • Among other educational institutions are the Cogswell Polytechnic College, the Wilmerding School of Industrial Arts, and the California School of Design.

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  • The Indian population (920,860) is largely composed of the so-called civilized tribes of the Andes, which once formed part of the nationality ruled by the Incas, and of those of the Mojos and Chiquitos regions, which were organized into industrial communities by the Jesuits in the 17th century.

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  • The industrial activities of the Bolivian people are still of a very primitive character.

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  • Among its industrial establishments are rolling mills, tube and pipe works, furnaces, steel mills, a brass foundry, and manufactories of electrical railway supplies, boxes, asbestos coverings, enamel work and ice.

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  • The city's industrial history dates from 18 20, when a small factory for the manufacture of scythes and sickles was set up. Natural gas, piped from Butler county, was early used here as a fuel in the iron mills.

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  • All these lines approach the town from the north and east through an unattractive industrial district, but the central Wales branch of the London & North-Western railway from Craven Arms in entering it on the west passes through some beautiful woodlands and then skirts the bay, having parallel to it for the last 3 m.

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  • The first juvenile reform school, called the Territorial Industrial school, was opened in 1903 at Benson.

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  • At Concord there is a state reformatory, whose inmates, about Boo in number, are employed in manufacturing various articles, but otherwise the town has only minor business and industrial interests.

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  • Industrial pursuits, except in a few seaport towns, which are rather French than Breton, hate hitherto received but little attention.

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  • Besides these there are a town hall, a court of primary jurisdiction, industrial and other schools.

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  • Shadwell (Industrial Efficiency, London, 1906) describes it as representing " the most complete application of science, order and method of public life," adding it is a marvel of civic administration, the most modern and most perfectly organized city that there is."

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  • Italy was and ever has been a land of cities; and, ever since the downfall of Rome and the decay of the municipal system, the bishops of the cities had really been at the head of the peaceful and industrial part of their population, and were a natural refuge for the oppressed, and sometimes for the mutinous and the evil doers, from the military and civil powers of the duke or count or judge, too often a rule of cruelty or fraud.

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  • Stettin, regarded as the port of Berlin, is one of the principal ship-building centres of Germany and a place of much commercial and industrial activity.

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  • There are a state penitentiary at Boise, an Industrial Training School at St Anthony, an Insane Asylum at Blackfoot, and a North Idaho Insane Asylum at Orofino.

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    0
  • No bureau of charities is in existence, but there is a Labor Commission, and a Commissioner of Immigration and a Commissioner of Public Lands to investigate the industrial resources.

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  • In 1901 the Academy of Idaho, another state institution with industrial and technical courses and a preparatory department, was established at Pocatello,Bannock county, to be a connecting link between the public schools and the university.

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  • The Idaho Industrial Institute (non-denominational; incorporated in 1899) is at Weiser.

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  • From an industrial point of view, Bohemia takes the first rank amongst the Austrian provinces, and at the same time is one of the greatest manufacturing centres of Europe.

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  • Industrial and agricultural machinery are manufactured at Reichenberg, Pilsen and Prague, and at the last-named place is also to be found a great establishment for the production of railway rolling-stock.

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  • Hand-in-hand with the industrial activity of the country goes its commercial development, which is stimulated by an extensive railway system, good roads and navigable rivers.

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  • Notwithstanding its rich natural resources and its great industrial development, Bohemia sends out a steady flow of emigrants, who either settle in the other provinces of the monarchy, in Germany and in Russia, or cross the Atlantic to America.

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  • There he began his lectures on electrical science which brought him invitations to lecture all over the United Kingdom and made him a power in both the scientific and industrial worlds.

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  • He was also one of the first in whom we find a tendency to a view of industrial phenomena which was at variance with the then dominant mercantilist ideas, and he exhibits a statesmanlike sense of the elements in which the strength of a nation really consists.

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  • The state supports the Michigan Asylum for the Insane (opened 1859), at Kalamazoo; the Eastern Michigan Asylum for the Insane (opened 1878), at Pontiac; the Northern Michigan Asylum for the Insane (opened 1885), at Traverse City; the Michigan Asylum for the Dangerous and Criminal Insane (established 1885), at Ionia; the Upper Peninsula Hospital for the Insane, at Newberry; a Psychopathic Hospital (established 1907), at Ann Arbor; a State Sanatorium (established 1905), at Howell; the Michigan State Prison (established 1839), at Jackson; the Michigan Reformatory (established 1887), at Ionia; the State House of Correction and Branch Prison (established 1885), at Marquette; the Industrial School for Boys, at Lansing; the Industrial Home for Girls (established 1879), near Adrian; the State Public School (opened 1874), at Coldwater, a temporary home for dependent children until homes in families can be found for them; the School for the Deaf (established 1854), at Flint; the School for the Blind, at Lansing; an Employment Institution for the Blind (established 1903), at Saginaw; the Home for the Feeble Minded and Epileptic (established 1893), at Lapeer; and the Michigan Soldiers' Home (established 1885), at Grand Rapids.

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  • Devoting himself almost entirely to industrial chemistry, he gave much attention to the manufacture of coal-tar products, and particularly carbolic acid, for the production of which he established large works in Manchester in 1865.

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  • Large tanneries and leather works, and factories for cloth, paper and machinery, are among the other industrial establishments.

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  • Industrial activity has developed and includes railway-carriage works, works for the manufacture of machinery, oil mills and breweries.

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  • Saltillo is on the Mexican National railway and another railway connects it with the important mining and industrial town of Torreon, on the Mexican Central.

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  • See Smiles, Industrial Biography (1879).

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  • It is a great industrial centre, especially for textiles.

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  • The Persians proper have always represented the settled, industrial and trading elements, and to them the Kurds and the Arabs have become largely assimilated.

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  • Of the other industrial establishments the most important is the national small-arms factory, which was' established in 1815 in Chateauneuf, and employs from 1500 to 5500 men.

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  • He was an ardent disciple of Friedrich List and sought to develop home industries by means of moderate protection and the introduction of foreign capital for industrial purposes.

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  • The more important industrial establishments, such as iron foundries, machine works, tobacco and cloth factories, are mainly confined to the large towns, such as Altona, Kiel and Flensburg.

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  • The Handley library (1910), a memorial to John Handley, a part of whose estate was bequeathed to establish industrial schools for the poor of Winchester, and an auditorium are owned by the municipality.

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  • The industrial establishments of the city include flour, planing and saw mills, the machine shops (of the St Louis division) of the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy railway, ice factories, pearl button factories and a shoe factory.

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  • Since 1881 colonies of Hebrews have been established in the southern part of the state, among them being Alliance (1881), Rosenhayn (2882), Carmel (1883), and, most noted of all, Woodbine, which owes its origin to the liberality of Baron de Hirsch, and contains the Baron de Hirsch Agricultural and Industrial School.

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  • The constitution as amended in 1875 forbids the legislature to pass any private or special laws regulating the affairs of towns or counties, or to vote state grants to any municipal or industrial corporations or societies, and prescribes that in imposing taxes the assessment of taxable property shall be according to general laws and by uniform rules; and anti-race-track agitation in1891-1897led to a further amendment prohibiting the legalizing of lotteries, of pool-selling 1 The constitution of 1844 limited the suffrage to white males, and although this limitation was annulled by the fifteenth amendment to the Federal Constitution, it was not until 1875 that the state by an amendment (adopted on the 7th of September) struck the word " white " from its suffrage clause.

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  • In addition to the regular public schools, the state maintains a normal and a model school at Trenton, a normal school at Montclair (opened 1908), the Farnum Preparatory School at Beverly, a Manual Training and Industrial School for Colored Youth at Bordentown, and an agricultural college and experiment station, maintained in connexion with Rutgers College, at New Brunswick.

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  • There are industrial schools in Newark, Hoboken and Trenton, for which the state made an appropriation of $20,000 in 1908.

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  • The courts, however, declared that the clause in the constitution of New Jersey was a " general proposition," not applying " to man in his private, industrial or domestic capacity."

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  • The years following the Civil War were marked by great industrial development.

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  • Several bridges connect it with Menasha, on the opposite side of the river, and the two cities form one industrial community.

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  • His principal works were Right Methods of Preventing Fires Mills (1881); Distribution of Products (1885); Industrial Progress of the Nation (1889); Taxation and Work (1892); Science of Nutrition (loth ed., 1898).

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  • In Exhibition Park there is held annually an industrial and agricultural exhibition that has grown to great magnitude.

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  • The industrial population is chiefly employed in the shipbuilding yards, in the manufacture of ships' fittings, and in engineering works.

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  • About 63% of the inhabitants maintain themselves by industrial pursuits, the chief products of which are the making of woollen fabrics at Greiz, the capital, and of stockings at Zeulenroda.

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  • Owing to the fertility of the Unterland, quite one-quarter of the people are supported by agricultural pursuits, although there is also much industrial activity.

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  • The chief industrial product consists of woollen goods, and the manufacture centres in the capital Gera, the largest of the six towns of the principality.

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  • The inhabitants are a mixed race of Arab, Omanite and Persian blood, slender and small in their physical appearance; they possess great activity and intelligence, and are known in all the ports of the Persian Gulf for their commercial and industrial ability.

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  • Dictionaries and manuals are the instruments of this industrial revolution.

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  • In the famous Manifesto of the Communist Party (1848) the theory was applied to show how the industrial revolution had replaced feudal with modern conditions.

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  • The prosperity and great population of the Pennine region date from the discovery that pit-coal could smelt iron as well as charcoal; and this source of power once discovered, the people bred in the dales developed a remarkable genius for mechanical invention and commercial enterprise, which revolutionized the economic life of the world and changed England from an agricultural to an industrial country.

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  • Just as London, in spite of its manifold industrial interests, is hardly to be termed a manufacturing centre, so the populous district surrounding it is not to be termed an industrial district in the sense in which that term is applied to the remaining regions of dense population which fall for consideration here.

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  • Moreover, the industries in different parts of this area (for it is strictly an industrial area) differ completely, as will be observed later, though coal-mining is common to all.

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  • Thus, an average below 4.4 is quoted for Rochdale, Halifax, Huddersfield, Yarmouth, Bradford and Stockport, while the average for London was 7.93, and for Gateshead, Newcastle-uponTyne and South Shields, in the northern industrial district of the Tyne, and for Devonport, the average exceeded 8.

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  • Then, when religious persecution drove many of the industrial population of the west of Europe away from the homes of their birth, they liberally repaid English hospitality by establishing their own arts in the country, and teaching them to the inhabitants.

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  • Thus religious liberty formed part of the foundation of England's industrial greatness.

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  • It belongs almost entirely to south Lancashire - to Manchester and the great industrial towns in its neighbourhood.

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  • The acts referred to include those relating to the diseases of animals, destructive insects, explosives, fish conservancy, gas meters, margarine, police, reformatory and industrial schools, riot (damages), sale of food and drugs, weights and measures.

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  • All such boroughs form part of the county for the purposes of pauper lunatics, analysts, reformatory and industrial schools, fish conservancy, explosives, and, of course, the purposes for which the larger quarter sessions boroughs also form part of the county, such as main roads, and are assessed to county rate accordingly.

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  • The hundred rate is seldom made, though in some counties it may be made for purposes of main roads and bridges chargeable to the hundred as distinguished from the county at large; (ii.) the borrowing of money; (iii.) the passing of the accounts of, and the discharge of the county treasurer; (iv.) shire halls, county halls, assize courts, the judges' lodgings, lock-up houses, court houses, justices' rooms, police stations and county buildings, works and property; (v.) the licensing under any general act of houses and other places for music or for dancing, and the granting of licences under the Racecourses Licensing Act 1879; (vi.) the provision, enlargement, maintenance and management and visitation of, and other dealing with, asylums for pauper lunatics; (vii.) the establishment and maintenance of, and the contribution to, reformatory and industrial schools; (viii.) bridges and roads repairable with bridges, and any powers vested by the Highways and Locomotives Amendment Act 1878 in the county authority.

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  • Since 1900 there have been added to the borough North and South Washington and the industrial suburb of Tylerdale, East and West Washington, although practically one with the borough, remaining under separate administration.

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  • The industrial population is employed in boot and shoe making, the local staple.

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  • It occupies a small but fertile and beautiful valley, shut in by mountains on every side except towards the sea, and containing the fortified haven of Portugalete, the industrial town of Baracaldo, and the villages of Santurce and Las Arenas, where the Nervion broadens to form the Bay of Bilbao at its mouth.

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  • The state penal and reformatory institutions consist of the state prison at Thomaston, the state (reform) school for boys at South Portland, and a state industrial school for girls at Hallowell, established in 1875 and taken over by the state in 1899.

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  • Convicts in the prison are usually employed in the manufacture of articles that are not extensively made elsewhere in the state, such as carriages, harness, furniture and brooms. The inmates of the state school for boys receive instruction in farming, carpentry, tailoring, laundry work, and various other trades and occupations; and the girls in the state industrial school are trained in housework, laundering, dressmaking, &c. Paupers are cared for chiefly by the towns and cities, those wholly dependent being placed in almshouses and those only partially dependent receiving aid at their homes.

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  • There are a royal palace and an old and a new town-hall (the older one having been built in 1422 and restored in 1886-1888), a museum and a municipal library with interesting manuscripts and a collection of Bibles, also classical, commercial and industrial schools.

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  • Lastly, there is usually to be discerned amongst such lower races a belief in unseen powers pervading the universe, this belief shaping itself into an animistic or spiritualistic theology, mostly resulting in some kind of worship. If, again, high savage or low barbaric types be selected, as among the North American Indians, Polynesians, and Kaffirs of South Africa, the same elements of culture appear, but at a more advanced stage, namely, a more full and accurate language, more knowledge of the laws of nature, more serviceable implements, more perfect industrial processes, more definite and fixed social order and frame of government, more systematic and philosophic schemes of religion and a more elaborate and ceremonial worship. At intervals new arts and ideas appear, such as agriculture and pasturage, the manufacture of pottery, the use of metal implements and the device of record and communication by picture writing.

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  • Direct knowledge of the tribes who made them is scanty, but implements so similar in make and design having been in use in North and South America until modern times, it may be assumed for purposes of classification that the Neolithic peoples of the New World were at a similar barbarous level in industrial arts, social organization, moral.

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  • American man, for example, need not necessarily owe the minutest portion of his mental, religious, social or industrial development to remote contact with Asia or Europe, though he were proved to possess identical usages.

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  • The state supports a Mental Hospital (1884, with provision for feeble-minded and non-insane epileptics since 1907) at Provo, a state Industrial School (1889) at Ogden and a state prison (1850) at Salt Lake City.

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  • Through irrigation experiments agriculture became the industrial foundation of the desert community.

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  • Libau and Mitau are the principal industrial centres, with iron-works, agricultural machinery works, tanneries, glass and soap works.

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  • In 1903 various neighbouring industrial townships were incorporated with the town.

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  • Froger; the new building (1860) of the Seamen's Institute, founded in 1785; the cellular prison; and the so-called Paleis van Volksvlijt, an immense building of iron and glass with a fine garden, built by Dr Samuel Sarphati, and used for industrial exhibitions, the performance of operas, &c. The museums and picture galleries of Amsterdam are of great interest.

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  • Modern educational institutions include a school of engineering (1879), a school for teachers (1878) and a school of industrial art(1879).

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  • The Reclusorio or poorhouse was founded in the r8th century, and besides being a refuge for the indigent poor has a series of industrial schools attached, at which foundling boys are educated and taught trades.

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  • The specialities of Naples are the manufacture of coral, tortoise-shell, kid gloves and macaroni, but it has been growing also as an industrial centre.

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  • Giuseppe, Monte Calvario, Avvocata, Stella, San Carlo all' Arena, Vicaria, San Lorenzo, Mercato, Pendino and Porto, but also the suburban districts of Vomero, Posilipo, Fuorigrotta, Miano and Piscinola, has been built over in every direction, one great incentive being the creation of an industrial zone to the eastward of the city.

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  • This zone has been set aside for the purpose of industrial development, and all persons or companies who set up industrial concerns on it have grants of land at a nominal price, are free of taxes for ten years and have electric force supplied to them at a very low figure.

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  • Among its educational institutions are a gymnasium, a Protestant normal school, a commercial school and an industrial museum.

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  • Kaiserslautern is one of the most important industrial towns in the palatinate.

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  • The ruins are carefully preserved, and form a remarkable contrast with the surrounding industrial district.

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  • The town is ancient, but of modern growth and appearance as an industrial centre.

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  • In 1731 the trade was of some note, and by 1813 had attained such proportions that the whole area of the castle site was sold for the erection of dyeworks, cloth manufactories and other industrial buildings.

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  • It grew up as a consequence of customary subjection and natural husbandry; it melted away with the coming in of an industrial and commercial age.

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  • The largest of the state's normal colleges is situated here; in 1907 it had a faculty of 25 and 35 o students; there are two high schools, two business colleges, and one industrial school also in the city.

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  • The principal industrial establishments are shingle (especially cedar) and saw-mills, salmon canneries and factories for the manufacture of tin cans, and machinery used in the canning of salmon.

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  • It protests against contemporary industrial selfishness, and against the organization of industry on the Darwinian principle of struggle for existence.

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  • The number of factories increased from fifty-three in 1881 to eighty-three in 1890, and that decade saw the influx of a great industrial population from the surrounding districts; but the decade 1891-1901 witnessed at least a temporary set-back owing to the ravages caused by plague and the effects of over-production.

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  • For the chronic form of industrial poisoning in the manufacture of lucifer matches - a form of necrosis, known in England as " phossy jaw " and in France as " mal chimique," a localized inflammatory infection of the periosteum, ending with the death and exfoliation of part of the bone - see Match.

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  • These include petroleum refineries, iron foundries, distilleries, flour mills, sugar refineries, sawmills, paper mills, chemical works, glass works, soap and candle works, &c. A law passed in 1887 provided that any one undertaking to found an industrial establishment with a capital of at least £2000, or employing at least 25 workmen (of whom two-thirds should be Rumanians), should be granted 12 acres of state land, exemption for a term of years from all direct taxes, freedom from customs dues for machinery and raw material imported, exemption from road taxes, reduction in cost of carriage of materials on the state railways, and preferential rights to the supply of manufactured articles to the state.

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  • Redcar is close to the Cleveland iron-working district of which the centre is Middlesbrough, and is in great favour with the large industrial population of that district.

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  • Annonay is the principal industrial town.

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  • The south-western Ozarks were settled originally by mountaineers from Kentucky and Tennessee, and retained a character of social primitiveness and industrial backwardness until after the Civil War.

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  • Charitable and Penal Institutions.-The charitable and penal institutions of the state include the penitentiary at Jefferson City, opened in 1836, which is self-supporting; a training school for boys at Boonville (opened 1889), an industrial home for girls at Chillicothe (established 1887), hospitals for the insane at Fulton (1847), St Joseph (opened 1874), Nevada (1887), and Farmington (1899); a school for the blind at St Louis (opened 1851); a school for the deaf at Fulton (opened 1851); a colony for the feeble-minded and epileptic at Marshall (established 1899); a state sanitorium, for consumptives, at Mount Vernon (established 1905, opened 1907); a Federal soldiers' home at St James, and a Confederate soldiers' home at Higginsville (both established 1897).

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  • The basis of its endowment was a fund of $6379 contributed in 1866 by the 62nd and 65th regiments U.S. Colored Infantry upon their discharge from the service; it has agricultural, industrial, sub-normal, normal and collegiate departments.

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  • The chief town of the province is Zwolle, and other thriving industrial centres are Deventer, famous for its carpets and cake, and Almelo, Enschede, Hengelo and Oldenzaal in Twente.

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  • Cuenca is the third most important city of Ecuador, being the seat of a bishopric, and having a college, a university faculty, a cathedral, and several churches, and a considerable industrial and commercial development.

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  • These plains are broken in places by low ranges of hills which are usually occupied by the principal industrial settlements of this part of the republic, the lower levels being for the most part swampy and unsuited for white occupation.

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  • In this region is to be found the greater part of the white population, the best products of Colombian civilization, and the greatest industrial development.

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  • A very small proportion of the white element consists of foreigners engaged in commercial and industrial pursuits, but they very rarely become permanently identified with the fortunes of the country.

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  • The professional, commercial and industrial occupations employ about 4th of the white population.

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  • Many other minerals exist but are not put to industrial purposes.

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  • The schools are divided into public undenominational elementary schools; day schools and industrial institutions for the natives; mission schools to which government aid for secular instruction is granted; private farm schools, district boarding schools, training schools for teachers, industrial schools for poor whites, &c. In 1905 2930 primary schools of various classes were open.

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  • These four great deposits of mineral wealth are still richly productive, and constitute the greatest industrial asset which the colony possesses.

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  • Carved articles in coco-nuts and scented woods are its principal industrial product.

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  • This article is confined to the collection and storage of water for domestic and industrial uses and irrigation, and its purification on a large scale.

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  • In opposition, however, to the feudal and military system, the former aspect of which had been strengthened by the restoration, he advocated an arrangement by which the industrial chiefs should control society.

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  • The contrast between labour and capital so much emphasized by later socialism is not present to Saint-Simon, but it is assumed that the industrial chiefs, to whom the control of production is to be committed, shall rule in the interest of society.

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  • Under the present system the industrial chief exploits the proletariat, the members of which, though nominally free, must accept his terms under pain of starvation.

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  • He remained in power till 1878, when industrial depression enabled Macdonald to return to office on a protectionist programme.

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  • There are, besides, industrial schools for boys and girls and for Roman Catholic children, a Female School of Industry, the Seabank Rescue Home, Nazareth House and Orphanage, St Martha's Home for Girls, St Margaret's Convalescent Home and Sisterhood, House of Bethany, the Convent of the Sacred Heart and the Educational Trust School.

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  • The chief feature of the modern industrial life of Bombay is the great development in the growth and manufacture of cotton.

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  • It is the seat of the Middle Georgia Military and Agricultural College, which occupies the old capitol building, and of the Georgia Normal and Industrial College for girls (1889; enrolment 1908-1909, 653), which is a part of the University of Georgia, and occupies the site of the old state penitentiary.

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  • The city's importance is industrial; in 1905 its factory product was valued at $7,468,849 (an increase of 66% since 1900), of which 88.6% was the value of boots and shoes.

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  • Of artificial productions the most fruitful and important is provided by the destructive or dry distillation of many organic substances; familiar examples are the distillation of coal, which yields ordinary lighting gas, composed of gaseous hydrocarbons, and also coal tar, which, on subsequent fractional distillations, yields many liquid and solid hydrocarbons, all of high industrial value.

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  • Among other notable buildings are the town hall; the theatre; the hall of representatives; the mint; the joint museum of the grand-ducal and national collections (natural history, archaeology, ethnology, art and a library of over 150,000 volumes); the palace of the heir-apparent, a late Renaissance building of 1891-1896; the imperial bank (1893); the national industrial hall, with an exhibition of machinery; the new law courts; and the hall of fine arts, which shelters a good picture gallery.

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  • Karlsruhe possesses further the Zahringen museum of curiosities, which is in the left wing of the Schloss; an architectural school (1891); industrial art school and museum; cadet school (1892); botanical and electrotechnical institutes; and horticultural and agricultural schools.

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  • Natural gas was discovered in 1886 in the east-central part of the state, and its general application to manufacturing purposes caused an industrial revolution in the immediate region.

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  • Since the Civil War, the non-Mormon element (locally called "Gentile") has steadily increased in strength, partly because of industrial changes and partly because the city is the natural point of attack on the Mormon church of other denominations, which are comparatively stronger here than elsewhere in Utah.

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  • The problem remains to sort out the older from the later, to distinguish between the earlier form of the faith and its subsequent developments, and to collect the numerous data for the general, social, industrial, religious and political history of India.

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  • An industrial school for Indian children is maintained by the United States near Lawrence (Haskell Institute, 1884).

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  • The distress inevitable in connection with such an industrial revolution was increased by the immense burden of the war and by the high protective policy of the parliament, which restricted trade and deliberately increased the price of food in the interests of the agricultural classes.

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  • The effect of the Reform Bill, which abolished fifty-six rotten boroughs, and by reducing the representation of others set free 143 seats, which were in part conferred on the new industrial centres, was to transfer a large share of political power from the landed aristocracy to the middle classes.

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  • The stringency of the money market increases the distress of the industrial classes by diminishing the demand for work; and, when labor suffers, political agitation flourishes.

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  • He suggested that the cost of these measures should be defrayed by extending the income tax to Ireland to industrial incomes of 100 and to permanent incomes of 50 a year, as well as by doubling the house tax, and extending it to all 10 householders.

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  • On account of glacial disturbance of the drainage, Wisconsin's many streams provide water-powers of great value that have contributed much to the industrial prosperty of the state.

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  • Other administrative officers are a commissioner of insurance (from 1867 to 1878 the secretary of the state was commissioner of insurance; the office became elective in 1881); a commissioner of labour and industrial statistics; three railroad commissioners,3 who have jurisdiction over all public utilities, including telegraph and telephone; a commissioner of banking; a diary and food commissioner; a state superintendent of public property; three tax commissioners who act (since 1901) as a state board of assessment; commissioners of fisheries (established 1874); a state board of agriculture (1897); and a state board of forestry (2905, succeeding a department created in 2903).

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  • There are also many private academies and trade or technical schools, and six industrial schools for Indians.

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  • In addition the board has partial control over the Wisconsin Workshop for the Blind (1903) at Milwaukee, where there is a willow ware factory, and the Wisconsin Industrial School for Girls (1875) also at Milwaukee.

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  • The town is one of the leading industrial centres in Sweden.

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  • There are no important industrial establishments in Gallipoli itself, except steam flour-mills and a sardine factory.

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  • It is the chief manufacturing town in the kingdom, ranks next to Dresden and Leipzig in point of population, and is one of the principal commercial and industrial centres of Germany.

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  • The old inner town is surrounded by pleasant promenades, occupying the site of the old fortifications, and it is beyond these that industrial Chemnitz lies, girdling the old town on all sides with a thick belt of streets and factories, and ramifying far into the country.

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  • There are also industrial and historical museums, and collections of painting and natural history.

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  • Its municipal constitution dates from the 14th century, and it soon became the most important industrial centre in the mark of Meissen.

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  • After a century of decay, it was anew brought into importance by the establishment of its university; and a marked increase in its industrial and commercial prosperity has again taken place in recent years.

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  • It is the seat of Juniata College (German Baptist Brethren), opened in 1876 as the Brethren's Normal School and Collegiate Institute, and rechartered as Juniata College in 1896, and of the State Industrial Reformatory, opened in 1888.

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  • There are also communal colleges for boys and girls, a school of artillery and school of draughtsmanship. The industrial establishments include manufactories of earthenware and porcelain and metalfoundries, and tanning, leather-dressing, turnery, the making of wooden shoes and furniture, the weaving of woollen and other fabrics, dyeing, and the manufacture of machinery, paper and parchment are carried on.

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  • In 1902 an industrial and art exhibition was held.

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  • The industrial establishments comprise manufactories of woollen cloth, linen and paper, dyeing houses, breweries, distilleries, vinegar works and the central workshops of the Buschtehrad railway.

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  • In addition to U.S. government buildings (marine hospital and barracks, agricultural experiment station, wireless telegraph station and magnetic observatory), there are two public schools (one for whites and one for Thlinkets), the Sheldon Jackson (ethnological) Museum, which is connected with the Presbyterian Industrial Training School, a parochial school of the Orthodox Greek (Russian) Church, a Russian-Greek Church, built in 1816, and St Peter's-by-the-Sea, a Protestant Episcopal mission, built in 1899.

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  • The industrial establishments comprise white lead factories, machine and iron foundries, and commerce is active, especially in the mineral products of the region.

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  • Beyond their general utility and value as sources of lime, few of the corals present any special feature of industrial importance, excepting the red or precious coral (Corallium rubrum) of the Mediterranean Sea.

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  • According to the latest occupation census, nearly half of the entire population is supported by agriculture, and a third by industrial pursuits, mining and commerce.

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  • In 1910, 506,061 persons were engaged in agriculture and kindred occupations, 432,114 in industrial occupations, and 100,109 in trade and commerce.

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  • Salt and iron are the only minerals of great industrial importance found in Wurttemberg.

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  • Apart from its industrial importance and scenic attractions, Furness has an especial interest on account of its famous abbey.

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  • Its educational establishments include a classical school, and a school of industrial art.

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  • It possesses many industrial establishments of various kinds, and is a centre of the Zurich silk manufacture.

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  • The population is greater and increases more rapidly than that of any other Spanish province, a fact due not to any large excess of births over deaths, but to the industrial life which attracts many immigrants.

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  • Its situation on the great mid-European waterway and as the junction of several main lines of railway has largely favoured its rapid growth and industrial development.

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  • Besides the old ducal palace, laid in ruins by the French in 1794, but restored in 1846, the secular buildings comprise the government offices, the postoffice in Italian style, the town hall on the market square, the law courts, the municipal music hall, the municipal theatre, the assembly hall of the Rhenish provincial diet, an Italian Renaissance edifice erected in 1879, the academy of art (1881; in pure Renaissance), the industrial art museum (1896), the historical museum, and the industrial art school.

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  • Within recent years Dusseldorf has made remarkable progress as an industrial centre.

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  • The principal industrial works are iron foundries and machine shops, paper factories and flour mills; the town has, moreover, an active trade in agricultural and other products.

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  • A law of 1898 authorizes the government to grant concessions on very favourable terms to foreign capitalists willing to promote mining and manufactures in Servia; but in 1910 the number of large industrial establish ' One yutro is the area which two oxen can plough in a day.

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  • It became nevertheless an important commercial and industrial city, being noted for its brass ware, its trade in ivory, gold and slaves.

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  • Shanghai, moreover, is not only a port of trade, but is rapidly becoming a large manufacturing and industrial centre.

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  • Chief among its industrial establishments are the famous iron and steel works of Krupp, and the whole of Essen may be said to depend for its livelihood upon this firm, which annually expends vast sums in building and supporting churches, schools, clubs, hospitals and philanthropic institutions, and in other ways providing for the welfare of its employees.

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  • The first part of his life was devoted to mercantile and financial pursuits at Cadiz and then in Madrid, where he managed the affairs of and liquidated a mercantile and industrial society to the satisfaction and profit of the shareholders.

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  • In practice individualism is chiefly concerned to oppose the concentration of commercial and industrial enterprise in the hands of the state and the municipality.

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  • Natural gas abounds in the same region, and several strong wells were developed in 1906, and immediately afterwards gas began to be used largely for industrial purposes for which in 1908 the price was from 1 z to 15 cents per moo ft.

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  • There is a state industrial school for girls, teaching domestic science and the fine arts.

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  • Boulogne occupies the summit and slopes of a ridge of hills skirting the right bank of the Liane; the industrial quarter of Capecure extends along the opposite bank, and is reached by two bridges, while the river is also crossed by a double railway viaduct.

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  • Among the numerous industrial establishments in Boulogne and its environs may be mentioned foundries, cement-factories, important steelpen manufactories, oil-works, dye-works, fish-curing works, flax-mills, saw-mills, and manufactories of cloth, fireproof ware, chocolate, boots and shoes, and soap. Shipbuilding is also carried on.

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  • She founded the Charity Organization Society of New York City in 1882, and wrote Public Relief and Private Charity (1884) and Industrial Arbitration and Conciliation (1893).

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  • This increase was mainly due to the growth of a few of the larger towns, notably of Belfast, the chief industrial centre of Ireland.