Indus sentence example

indus
  • The tract along the Indus to within 60 or 80 m.
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  • The Indus, which is nowhere bridged within the district, is navigable for native boats throughout its course of 76 m.
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  • From Chittabut the range runs due north, finally descending by two large spurs to the Indus again.
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  • The very small and irregular rainfall in Sind and along the Indus is to be accounted for by the want of any obstacle in the path of the vapour-bearing winds, which, therefore, carry the uncondensed rain up to the Punjab, where it falls on the outer ranges of the western Himalaya and of Afghanistan.
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  • along the Indus and the southern parts of the Punjab.
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  • Across it were drawn seven parallels, running through Meroe, Syene, Alexandria, Rhodes, Lysimachia on the Hellespont, the mouth of the Borysthenes and Thule, and these were crossed at right angles by seven meridians, drawn at irregular intervals, and passing through the Pillars of Hercules, Carthage, Alexandria, Thapsacus on the Euphrates, the Caspian gates, the mouth of the Indus and that of the Ganges.
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  • 12.6) between the Indus and the Hydaspes (Jhelum, I The best opinion now confirms Abbott's identification of Aornus with Mahaban - Deane, Journ.
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  • The voyage of Nearchus from the Indus to the Euphrates was intended to link India by a waterway with the Mediterranean lands.
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  • The rajah of Patala at the apex of the Indus delta abandoned his country and fled.
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  • He had determined that the Indus fleet should be used to explore this new world and try to find a waterway between the Indus and the Persian Gulf.
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  • falls into the Indus at Attock.
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  • They seem almost entirely to have exhausted their northward velocity by the time they have reached the northern extremity of the great Indian plain; they are not felt on the table-lands of Afghanistan, and hardly penetrate into the Indus basin or the ranges of the Himalaya, by which mountains, and those which branch off from them into the Malay peninsula, they are prevented from continuing their progress in the direction originally imparted to them.
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  • - Entosternum of scorpion (Palamnaeus indus, de Geer); dorsal surface.
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  • In addition to the Indus the other streams flowing through the district are the Kurram (which falls into the Indus) and its tributary the Gambila.
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  • A great part of the land-forces had been already sent off under Craterus in the earlier summer to return west by Kandahar and Seistan; the fleet was to sail under the Greek Nearchus from the Indus mouth with the winter monsoon; Alexander himself with the rest of the land-forces set out in October to go by the 2 Beside V.
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  • death by Alexander in 327, whose history went up to the death of Darius, Alexander's general Ptolemy, afterwards king in Egypt, Nearchus who commanded the fleet that sailed from the Indus to the Persian Gulf, Onesicritus who served as pilot in the same fleet, Aristobulus who was with Alexander in India, Clitarchus, a contemporary, if not an eye-witness, important from the fact that his highly coloured version of the life of Alexander became the popular authority for the succeeding centuries.
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  • Some authors are inclined to extend its limits still farther to the eastwards, through Beluchistan and even beyond the Indus.
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  • When he died, his dominions reached from the Tigris to the Indus.
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  • On the south the coast-line is far more irregular, the Arabian Sea, the Bay of Bengal, and the China Sea reaching about to the northern tropic at the mouths of the Indus, of the Ganges and of the Canton river; while the great peninsulas of Arabia, Hindostan and Cambodia descend to about 10° N., and the Malay peninsula extends within a degree and a half of the equator.
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  • The great plain extends, with an almost unbroken surface, from the most western to the most eastern extremity of British India, and is composed of deposits so finely comminuted, that it is no exaggeration to say that it is possible to go from the Bay of Bengal up the Ganges, through the Punjab, and down the Indus again to the sea, over a distance of 2000 m.
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  • The north-eastern portion of this range is of great altitude, and separates the headwaters of the Oxus, which run off to the Aral Sea, from those of the Indus and its Kabul tributary, which, uniting below Peshawar, are thence discharged southward into the Arabian Sea.
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  • This great plateau, extending from the Mediterranean to the Indus, has a length of about 2500 m.
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  • The Afghan war of 1878-80; the Russo-Afghan Boundary Commission of 1884-1885; the occupation of Gilgit and Chitral; the extension of boundaries east and north of Afghanistan, and again, between Baluchistan and Persia - these, added to the opportunities afforded by the systematic survey of Baluchistan which has been steadily progressing since 1880 - combined to produce a series of geographical maps which extend from the Oxus to the Indus, and from the Indus to the Euphrates.
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  • The winds which pass northward over India blow as south-easterly and easterly winds over the north-eastern part of the Gangetic plain, and as south winds up the Indus.
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  • The Salmonidae are entirely absent from the waters of southern Asia, though they exist in the rivers that flow into the Arctic Ocean and the neighbouring parts of the northern Pacific, extending perhaps to Formosa; and trout, though unknown in Indian rivers, are found beyond the watershed of the Indus, in the streams flowing into the Caspian.
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  • West of the Indus the dialects approach more to Persian, which language meets Arabic and Turki west of the Tigris, and along the Turkoman desert and the Caspian.
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  • In later centuries the Arabs from the west reached the valley of the Indus by their western route, and there established a dynasty which lasted for 300 years.
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  • The power of the Achaemenidae, when at its maximum, extended from the Oxus and Indus in the east to Thrace in the west and Egypt in the south, but fell before Greece, after lasting for rather more than 200 years.
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  • In a short time he, the petty prince of an almost unknown tribe, had founded a mighty empire, which extended from the Indus and Jaxartes to the Aegaean and the borders of Egypt.
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  • They could truly boast of having watered their horses in every Indian river from the Cauvery to the Indus.
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  • Whilst Antigonus was occupied in the west, Seleucus during nine years (311-302) brought under his authority the whole eastern part of Alexander's empire as far as the Jaxartes and Indus.
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  • His attempt, however, to restore Macedonian rule beyond the Indus, where the native Chandragupta had established himself, was not successful.
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  • Hardly provinces proper, but rather client principalities, were the two native kingdoms to which Alexander had left the conquered land beyond the Indus - the kingdoms of Taxiles and Porus.
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  • In India, Seleucus had in 302 ceded large districts on the west of the Indus to Chandragupta, who had arisen to found a native empire which annexed the Macedonian provinces in the Panjab.
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  • In compiling his map he was able to avail himself of the information obtained by the bematists (surveyors who determined distances by pacing) who accompanied Alexander the Great on his campaigns; of the results of the voyage of Nearchus from the Indus to the Euphrates, and of the " Periplus " of Scylax of Caryanda, which described the coast from between India and the head of the Arabian Gulf.
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  • along the left bank of the Sutlej, the Punjnud and the Indus.
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  • south-east of those of the Indus.
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  • Palamnaeus indus, de Geer, to show the arrangement of the coxae of the limbs, the sternal elements, genital plate and pectens.
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  • - The prosomatic appendages of Limulus polyphemus (right) and Scorpio (left), Palamnaeus indus compared.
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  • by the eastern branch of the Indus, on the S.
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  • Consumption of Kohat salt is restricted, on account of its paying less duty, to the tracts lying to the north of the Indus and to the frontier tribes.
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  • in length, sloping gradually from the hills which form its western boundary to the river Indus on the east.
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  • The eastern portion of the district is at a level sufficiently low to benefit by the floods of the Indus.
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  • A barren tract intervenes between these zones, and is beyond the reach of the hill streams on the one hand and of the Indus on the other.
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  • The Indus, which is nowhere bridged within the district, is navigable by native boats.
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  • SCYLAX OF CARYANDA (in Caria), Greek historian, lived in the time of Darius Hystaspis (521-485 B.C.), who commissioned him to explore the course of the Indus.
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  • He was employed, while very young, in some of his father's expeditions into the country beyond the Indus, gave promise of considerable military talents, and was appointed to the command of an army directed against the Uzbegs.
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  • of the Indus, where they afford the only means of transport by this route between Ladak and India.
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  • On the south of the plateau we find a similar succession of narrow valleys dividing parallel flexures, or anticlinals, formed under similar geological conditions to those which appear to be universally applicable to the Himalaya, the Hindu Kush, and the Indus frontier mountain systems. From one of these long lateral valleys the Hari Rud receives its principal tributary, which joins the main river below Obeh, 180 m.
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  • After Vasudeva's reign the power of the Kushans gradually decayed, and they were driven back into the valley of the Indus and N.E.
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  • lying north of the Indus.
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  • When the fleet was constructed on the Hydaspes, Onesicritus was appointed chief pilot (in his vanity he calls himself commander), and in this capacity accompanied Nearchus on the voyage from the mouth of the Indus to the Persian gulf.
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  • (3) The Lansdowne bridge (completed 1889) at Sukkur, over the Indus.
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  • 45), extended from Bokhara to the Indus.
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  • There is no modern race called Dards, and no country so named by its inhabitants, but the inhabitants of the right bank of the Indus, from the Kandia river to Batera, apply it to the dwellers on the left bank.
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  • In the scientific use of the appellation, Dardistan comprises the whole of Chitral, Yasin, Panyal, the Gilgit valley, Hunza and Nagar, the Astor valley, the Indus valley from Bunji to Batera, the Kohistan-Malazai, i.e.
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  • The so-called Dard races are referred to by Pliny and Ptolemy, and are supposed to be a people of Aryan origin who ascended the Indus valley from the plains of the Punjab, reaching as far north as Chitral, where they dispossessed the Khos.
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  • It rises from the Indus basin near the village of Kiara, up to its watershed by Bruddur; thence it runs northwest by north to the point on the crest known as Chittabut.
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  • Mahmud's army first crossed the Indus in Ioor, opposed by Jaipal, raja of Lahore.
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  • Near the Indus Mahmud was opposed again by Anangpal, supported by powerful rajas from other parts of India.
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  • But Mahmud found he had not yet sufficiently subdued the idolaters nearer his own border, between Kabul and the Indus, and the campaign of 1022 was directed against them, and reached no.
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  • he crossed the Indus once more into the Punjab.
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  • In 1398, when Timur was more than sixty years of age, Farishta tells us that, "informed of the commotions and civil wars of India," he "began his expedition into that country," and on the 12th of September "arrived on the banks of the Indus."
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  • of Baluchistan, lying between the Indus and Afghanistan.
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  • More exactly it consists of (1) the cis-Indus district of Hazara; (2) the comparatively narrow strip between the Indus and the hills constituting the settled districts of Peshawar, Kohat, Bannu and Dera Ismail Khan; and (3) the rugged mountainous region between these districts and the borders of Afghanistan, which is inhabited by independent tribes.
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  • The tract between the Indus and the hills consists of four open districts, Peshawar, Kohat, Bannu and Dera Ismail Khan, divided one from the other by low hills.
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  • The largest of these traverses the district from Kushalgarh on the Indus to Thal on the Kurram, narrowing in places, but usually opening out into wide cornlands and pastures dotted with the dwarf palm.
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  • The mountains of the Hindu Kush running from east to west form the northern boundary of the province, and are met at the north-east corner of the Chitral agency by the continuation of an outer chain of the Himalayas after it crosses the Indus above the Kagan valley.
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  • The range of the Safed Koh flanks the Kurram valley and encloses the Kabul basin, which finds its outlet to the Indus through the Mohmand hills.
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  • The Salt Range crosses the Indus in the Mianwali tahsil of the Punjab, and forms the boundary between Bannu and Dera Ismail Khan, merging eventually in the Waziri hills.
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  • With the exception of the Kunhar river, which flows down the Kagan valley to the Jhelum, the whole drainage of the province eventually finds its way into the Indus.
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  • The Indus enters the province between tribal territory and Hazara district.
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  • The Kurram then empties itself into the Indus.
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  • From this point until it leaves the province the Indus receives no tributary of any importance.
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  • The province is mainly a mountainous region, but includes the Peshawar valley and the broad riverain tract of the Indus in Dera Ismail Khan district.
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  • From Rawalpindi again another branch extends to the Indus at Kushalgarh.
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  • The lake region extends from the Pangong t'so (t'so =lake) in Ladak, near the source of the Indus, to the sources of the Salween, the Mekong and the Yangtse.
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  • As a whole the system forms the watershed between rivers flowing to the Indian Ocean - the Indus and its tributaries, Brahmaputra and its tributaries, and Salweenand the streams flowing into the undrained salt lakes to the north.
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  • of the Ladak frontier, near the sources of the Indus, at an elevation which cannot be less than 15,000 ft.
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  • (5) The fifth division, called Ndri (Mngah-ris) by the Tibetans or Hundesh by the Indians, who call the inhabitants Huniyas, comprises the whole country around the sources and along the upper course of the Indus and the Sutlej, and also all north-western Tibet generally, as far as Ladak and the border of Kashmir.
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  • The remarkable area of gold-mining industry which lies to the north-east of Gartok is reached by another route from Leh, which, crossing the Chang la close to Leh, passes by Rudok at the eastern extremity of Lake Pangong in a south-easterly direction, running north of the great mountain masses which crowd round the Indus sources.
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  • During his second and more important journey in Central Asia (1899-1902), Sven Hedin left Charkhlik, on the edge of the Taklamakan desert, in May 1901, intending to cross Tibet in a diagonal direction to the sources of the Indus.
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  • This is the most direct route to northern India, but it involves the passage of some rough country, across the great watershed between the basins of the Helmund and the Indus.
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  • The missionaries were sent to Kashmir, to the Himalayas, to the border lands on the Indus, to the coast of Burma, to south India and to Ceylon.
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  • India possesses no great lakes from which to draw rivers and canals, but through the plains of northern India flow rivers which are fed from the glaciers of the Himalaya; and the Ganges, the Indus, and their tributaries are thus prevented from diminishing very much in volume.
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  • A much greater scheme than any of the above is that of the Sind Sagar canal, projected from the left bank of the Indus opposite Kalabagh, to irrigate 1,750,000 acres at a cost of Bx.6,000,000.
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  • This increase was not due to famine in Sind, for that rainless province depends always on the Indus, as Egypt does on the Nile, and where there is no rainfall there can be no drought.
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  • Turning from the basin of the Indus to that of the Ganges, the commissioners appointed to report on the famine of1896-1897found that in the country between the Ganges and the Jumna little was left to be done beyond the completion of some distributary channels.
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  • He first crossed the Indus in 1748, when he took Lahore; and in 1751, after a feeble resistance on the part of the Mahommedan viceroy, he became master of the entire Punjab.
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  • As his viceroy in Delhi he left a Rohilla chief in whom he had all confidence, but scarcely had he crossed the Indus when the Mahommedan wazir drove the chief from the city, killed the Great Mogul and set another prince of the family, a tool of his own, upon the throne.
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  • The Mahratta chiefs availed themselves of these circumstances to endeavour to possess themselves of the whole country, and Ahmad was compelled more than once to cross the Indus in order to protect his territory from them and the Sikhs, who were constantly attacking his garrisons.
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  • In 1810 he captured Multan after many assaults and a long siege, and in 1820 had consolidated the whole of the Punjab between the Sutlej and the Indus under his dominion.
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  • 29, 3), and a series of foundations strung along the Indus to the sea.
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  • Soon after 321, Macedonian supremacy beyond the Indus collapsed before the advance of the native Maurya dynasty, and about 303 even large districts west of the Indus were ceded by Seleucus.
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  • Diodotus and his successors were able to maintain themselves against the attacks of the Seleucids; and when Antiochus III., "the Great," had been defeated by the Romans (190 B.C.), the Bactrian king Euthydemus and his son Demetrius crossed the Hindu Kush and began the conquest of eastern Iran and the Indus valley.
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  • Finally, the Karayuk Ova in the extreme southwest drains through the Kazanes, a tributary of the Indus, to the Lycian Sea.
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  • The last dynasty ended with Sultan Jalal-ud-din, during whose reign (1221-1231) a division of the Mogul army of Jenghiz Khan first invaded Khwarizm, while the khan himself was besieging Bamian; Jalal-ud-din, deserted by most of his troops, retired to Ghazni, where he was pursued by Jenghiz Khan, and again retreating towards Hindustan was overtaken and driven across the Indus.
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  • by rail from Peshawar, and situated on the eastern bank of the Indus.
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  • The place is of both political and commercial importance, as the Indus is here crossed by the military and trade route through the Khyber Pass into Afghanistan.
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  • Alexander the Great, Tamerlane and Nadir Shah are believed to have successively crossed the Indus at or about this spot in their respective invasions of India.
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  • At a point which is not far east of the Kabul meridian an offshoot is directed southwards, which becomes the water-parting between the Kurram and the Logar at Shutargardan, and can be traced to a connexion with the great watershed of the frontier dividing the Indus basin from that of the Helmund.
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  • Trade does not extend largely between Afghanistan and India by the Tochi route, being locally confined to the valley and the districts at its head, yet this is the shortest and most direct route between Ghazni and the frontier, and in the palmy days of Ghazni raiding was the road by which the great robber Mahmud occasionally descended on to the Indus plains.
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  • The Gomal involves no passes of any great difficulty, although it is impossible to follow the actual course of the river on account of the narrow defiles which have been cut through the recent conglomerate beds which flank the plains of the Indus.
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  • The summer heat is great everywhere in Afghanistan, but most of all in the districts bordering on the Indus, especially Sewi, on the lower Helmund and in Seistan.
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  • In the time of Darius Hystaspes (zoo B.C.) we find the region now called Afghanistan embraced in the Achaemenian satrapies, and various parts of it occupied by Sarangians (in Seistan), Arians (in Herat), Sattagydians (supposed in highlands of upper Helmund and the plateau of Ghazni), Dadicae (suggested to be Tajiks), Aparytae (mountaineers, perhaps of Safed Koh, where lay the Paryetae of Ptolemy), Gandarii (in Lower Kabul basin) and Paktyes, on or near the Indus.
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  • About 310 B.C. Seleucus is said by Strabo to have given to the Indian Sandrocottus (Chandragupta), in consequence of a marriage-contract, some part of the country west of the Indus occupied by an Indian population, and no doubt embracing a part of the Kabul basin.
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  • Menander (126 B.C.) invaded India at least to the Jumna, and perhaps also to the Indus delta.
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  • Peshawar and the right bank of the Indus fell to the Sikhs after their victory at Nowshera in 1823.
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  • The war began in March 1838, when the "Army of the Indus," amounting to 21,000 men, assembled in Upper Sind and advanced through the Bolan Pass under the command of Sir John Keane.
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  • " India," the abstract form of a word derived through the Greeks from the Persicized form of the Sanskrit sindhu, a " river," preeminently the Indus, has become familiar since the British acquired the country, and is now officially recognized in the imperial title of the sovereign.
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  • At the opposite or northwestern angle, the Indus in like manner pierces the Himalayas, and turns southwards on its course through the Punjab.
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  • The vast level tract which thus covers northern India is watered by three distinct river systems. One of these systems takes its rise in the hollow trough beyond the Himalayas, and issues River, through their western ranges upon the Punjab as the systems Sutlej and Indus.
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  • The second of the three river systems also takes its rise beyond the double wall of the Himalayas, not very far from the sources of the Indus and the Sutlej.
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  • from the mouth of the Indus, so that the average inclination of the plain, from the central watershed to the sea, is only about 1 ft.
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  • Near the watershed it is generally more; but there is here no ridge of high ground between the Indus and the Ganges, and a very trifling change of level would often turn the upper waters of one river into the other.
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  • From the gorge of the Indus to that of the Brahmaputra, a distance of 1400 m., the Himalayas form an unbroken watershed, the northern flank of which is drained by the upper valleys of these two rivers; while the Sutlej, starting from the southern foot of the Kailas Peak, breaks through the watershed, dividing it into two very unequal portions, that to the north-west being the smaller.
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  • On the west, in the dry region, this is occupied partly by the alluvial deposits of the Indus and its tributaries and the saline swamps of Cutch, partly by the rolling sands and rocky surface of the desert of Jaisalmer and Bikaner, and the more fertile tracts to the eastward watered by the Luni.
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  • Along the valley of the Indus, and in the sandy desert which stretches into Rajputana, camels supersede cattle for agricultural operations.
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  • They show us the Aryans on the banks of the Indus, divided into various tribes, sometimes at war with each other, sometimes united against the " black-skinned " aborigines.
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  • In the north-west was Gandhara, on the banks of the Indus, in the neighbourhood of Peshawar.
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  • In the time of Darius (see Persia) the valley of the Indus was a Persian satrapy.
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  • But the first Greek historian who speaks clearly of India was Hecataeus of Miletus (549-486 B.C.); the knowledge of Herodotus (450 B.C.) ended at the Indus; and Ctesias, the physician (401 B.C.), brought back from his residence in Persia only a few facts about the products of India, its dyes and fabrics, its monkeys and parrots.
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  • India to the east of the Indus was first made known in Europe by the historians' and men of science who accompanied Alexander the Great in 327 B.C. Their narratives, although now lost, are condensed in Strabo, Pliny and Arrian.
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  • Alexander crossed the Indus at Ohind, 16 m.
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  • Here he was obliged by the temper of his army to retrace his steps, and retreat to the Jhelum, whence he sailed down the river to its confluence with the Indus, and thence to Patala, probably the modern Hyderabad.
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  • Of the India of modern geography lying beyond the Indus they practically knew nothing.
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  • It was this India to the east of the Indus that Megasthenes opened up to the western world.
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  • the Kushan dynasty, who conquered the Kabul valley, annihilating what remained there of the Greek dominion, and swept away the petty Indo - Greek and IndoParthian principalities on the Indus.
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  • His successors completed the conquest of north-western India from the delta of the Indus eastwards probably as far as Benares.
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  • The entire northern plain, from the Indus to the Brahmaputra, thus lay under the Mahommedan yoke.
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  • Mahommed Ghori died in 1206, being assassinated by some Ghakkar tribesmen while sleeping in his tent by the bank of the Indus; on his death both Ghor and Ghazni drop out of history, and Delhi first appears as the Mahommedan capital of India.
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  • Bar Durani is a name sometimes applied to the independent Pathan tribes who inhabit the hill districts south of the Hindu Kush, parts of the Indus valley, the Salt Range, and the range of Suliman, which were first conceded to them by Ahmad Shah.
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  • In bands they came from the provinces to Medina to wring concessions from Othman, who, though his armies were spreading terror from the Indus and Oxus to the Atlantic, had no troops at hand in Medina.
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  • Other generals penetrated as far as the Indus and conquered Kabul, Sijistan, Makran and Kandahar.
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  • Qasim invaded Makran, took Daibol, passed the Indus, and marched, after having beaten the Indian king Daher, through Sind upon Multan, which he conquered and whence he carried off an immense booty.
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  • 976) his successor Sabuktagin had conquered Bost in Sijistan and Qosdar in Baluchistan, beaten the Indian prince Diaya Pala, and been acknowledged as master of the lands west of the Indus.
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  • It used to be held as a maxim that plague never appeared east of the Indus; nevertheless it was observed during the 19th century in more than one distinct centre in India.
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  • He reached the Indus, on his own statement, in September, 1333.
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  • In Lycia are the Indus (Gereniz Chai), and the Xanthus (Eshen Chai).
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  • It must remain uncertain whether it was that the thickly-populated character of the land scarcely admitted of complete occupation, but only of a conquest by an army of fighting men, starting from the Aryanized region - who might, however, subsequently draw women of their own kin after them - or whether, as has been suggested, a second Aryan invasion of India took place at that time through the mountainous tracts of the upper Indus and northern Kashmir, where the nature of the road would render it impracticable for the invading bands to be accompanied by women and children.
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  • Long before the Christian era the satrapies of Darius com.prehended roughly an immense range of territory, from the Mediterranean to the Indus and, from the Caucasian chain and Jaxartes to the Persian Gulf and Arabian Ocean.
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  • between the valleys of the Indus and Tigris, covers more than a million square miles.
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  • From the region of the steppes the Aryans must have penetrated into the cultivable land of Eastern Iran: thence one part spread over the district of the Indus, then on again to the Ganges; another moved westward to Zagros and the borders of the Semitic world.
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  • The dividing line between Iranian and Indian is drawn by the Hindu Kush and the Soliman mountains of the Indus district.
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  • So, too, he annexed the Indus valley and the auriferous hill-country of Kafiristan and Cashmir (KiwlrLoL or :~(&(rlretpot, Herod.
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  • the Indus (Ctesias, Ind.
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  • He had the course of the Indus explored by the Carfan captain Scylax (q.v.) of Caryanda, who then navigated the Indian Ocean back to Suez (Herod.
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  • had striven to win the kingdom of Alexander for himselfwas detained by the war with his rivals in the west, Seleucus, with Babylon as his headquarters, conquered the whole of Iran as far as the Indus.
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  • Indian king, not merely the Indian provinces, but even the frontier districts west of the Indus (Strabo xv.
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  • Thus the cities became the main factors in the diffusion of Hellenism, the Greek language and the Greek civilization over all Asia as far as the Indus.
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  • Its gigantic extent, from the Aegean Parthia, to the Indus, everywhere offered points of attack to the enemy.
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  • In other districts, also, rebellions occurred; and in the east, Euthydemus and his successors (Demetrius, Eucratidas, &c.) began the conquest of the Indus region and the Iranian borderland (Arachosia, Aria).
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  • and Indeed, he penetrated as far as, and farther than, the Phraates ~ Indus (Diod.
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  • Its best-known representative, Gondophares or Hyndopherres, to whom legend makes the apostle Thomas write, reigned over Arachosia and the Indus district about A.D.
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  • 70, the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea mentions that the great commercial town of, Minnagar in the Indus Delta was under Parthian kings, who spent their time in expelling one another.
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  • 70) the Scythians were already settled in the Indus valley (pp. 38, 41, 48), their dominion re-sching its zenith under Kanishka (c. A.D.
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  • Far to the east, on both sides of the Indus, the Kushana Empire was still in existence, though it was already hastening to decay, and about A.D.
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  • Neither the territories north of the Oxus, nor eastern Afghanistan and the Indus provinces, were ever subject to them.
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  • Sind was certainly included in the cession to him by Mahommed Shah of all the territories westward of the river Attok, but only that portion of it, such as Thattah (Tatta), situated on the right bank of the Indus.
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  • He had extended his boundary on the east to the Indus, and to the Oxus on the north.
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  • New Persian sindhu (Indus) hindu hindu hind sarva (all) haurva haruva har sama (whole) hama hama ham santi (sunt) henti hantiy hend.
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  • In 325, when Alexander descended the Indus to the sea, he ordered NeArchus to conduct the fleet to the head of the Persian Gulf.
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  • Tomaschek, "Topographische Erla.uterung der Kustenfahrt Nearchs vom Indus bis zum Euphrat" in Sitzungsberichte der K.
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  • Abhira, at the mouth of the Indus (where, however, there is no gold); at Supara, in Goa; and at a certain Mount Ophir in Johore.
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  • The most westerly of the Tibetan deposits are in the lake-plain of Pugha on the Rulangchu, a tributary of the Indus, at an elevation of 15,000 ft.: here the impure borax (sohaga) occurs over an area of about 2 sq.
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  • Travelling thence to Peshawar (Purushapura), the capital of Gandhara, he made a digression, through the now inaccessible valley of Swat and the Dard states, to the Upper Indus, returning to Peshawar, and then crossing the Indus (Sintu) into the decayed kingdom of Taxila (Ta-cha-si-lo, Takshasila), then subject to Kashmir.
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  • Three hundred miles of its mountain walls facing the Indus are south of the railway from the Indus to Quetta, and about 250 north of it.
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  • North of the railway line, hedged in between Afghanistan and the plains of the Indus, stretch the long ridges of rough but picturesque highlands, which embrace the central ranges of the Suliman system (the prehistoric home of the Pathan highlander), where vegetation is often alpine, and the climate clear and bracing and subject to no great extremes of temperature.
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  • Here all the main drainage either runs northwards to the Gomal, passing through the uplands that lie west of the Suliman Range; or it gathers locally in narrow lateral valleys at the back of these mountains and then bursts directly eastwards through the limestone axis of the hills, making for the Indus by the shortest transverse route.
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  • This intervening space comprises the wedge-shaped desert of Kach Gandava (Gandava), which is thrust westwards from the Indus as a deep indentation into the mountains, and, above it, the central uplands which figure on the map as " British Baluchistan " - where lies Quetta.
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  • From the great Indus series of triangles bases have been selected at intervals which have supported minor chains of triangulation reaching into the heart of the country.
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  • These two channels carry the rush of mountain streams from the western slopes of the massif right across the axis of the mountains and through the intervening barrier of minor ridges to the plains of the Indus.
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  • On the outside edge, facing the Indus plains, is a more strictly regular, but higher and more rugged, ridge of hills which marks the Siwaliks.
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  • Beyond the Siwaliks, still looking eastwards, are the sand waves of the Indus plain; a yellow sea broken here and there with the shadow of village orchards and the sheen of cultivation, extending to the long black sinuous line which denotes the fringe of trees bordering the Indus.
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  • Wedged in between the railway and the Indus, but still north of the railway, is a curious mass of rough mountain country, which forms the southern abutment of the Suliman system.
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  • from the Indus to Sibi at the foot of the hills, and which offers (in spite of periodic Indus floods) an opportunity for railway approach to Baluchistan such as occurs nowhere else on the frontier.
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  • An exception to the general rule is found in the Mulla, which carries the floods of the Kalat highlands into the Gandava basin and forms one of the most important of the ancient highways from the Indus plains to Kandahar.
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  • Lower Sind also contains a great wealth of architectural remains, which may be found to the west of the Indus as well as in the delta.
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  • One particular tribe (the Kalmats), who left their name on the Makran coast and subsequently dominated Bela and Sind, west of the Indus, for a considerable period, exhibit great power of artistic design in their sepulchral monuments.
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  • General Wilshire was accordingly detached from the army of the Indus with 1050 men to assault Kalat.
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  • The effect of these expeditions, and of this extension of military occupation, has been to reduce the independent Pathan tribes of the Suliman mountains to effective order, and to put a stop to border raiding on the Indus plains south of the Gomal.
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  • The town is situated near the right bank of the Indus, which is here crossed by a bridge of boats during half the year.
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  • It was formerly divided into two almost equal portions by the Indus, which intersected it from north to south.
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  • To the west of the Indus the characteristics of the country resemble those of Dera Ghazi Khan.
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  • The Indus is navigable by native boats throughout its course Of 120 M.
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  • Modern geographers restrict the term Himalaya to that portion of the mountain region between India and Tibet enclosed within the arms of the Indus and the Brahmaputra.
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  • From the bend of the Indus southwards towards the plains of the Punjab to the bend of the Brahmaputra southwards towards the plains of Assam, through a length of 1500 m., is Himachal or Himalaya.
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  • Beyond the Indus, to the north-west, the region of mountain ranges which stretches to a junction with the Hindu Kush south of the Pamirs, is usually known as Trans-Himalaya.
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  • The Trans-Himalayan chain of Murtagh (or Karakoram), which is lost in the Tibetan uplands, passing to the north of the sources of the Indus.
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  • The Ladakh chain, partly north and partly south of the Indus - for that river breaks across it about 100 m.
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  • the " snowy range " par excellence which is indicated by Nanga Parbat (overlooking the Indus), and passes in a south-east direction to the southern side of the Deosai plains.
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  • On the north and north-west of Kashmir the great waterdivide which separates the Indus drainage .area from that of the Yarkand and other rivers of Chinese Turkestan has been explored by Sir F.
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  • Shutting off the sources of the Indus affluents from those of the Central Asian system of hydrography, this great water-parting is distinguished by a group of peaks of which the altitude is hardly less than that of the Eastern Himalaya.
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  • J Y Y explored from Lhasa to the sources of the Brahmaputra and Indus, at the conclusion of the Tibetan mission in 1904, conclusively prove that Mount Everest, which appears from the Tibetan plateau as a single dominating peak, has no rival amongst Himalayan altitudes, whilst the very remarkable investigations made by permission of the Nepal durbar from peaks near Kathmandu in 1903, by Captain Wood, R.E., not only place the Everest group apart from other peaks with which they have been confused by scientists, isolating them in the topographical system of Nepal, but clearly show that there is no one dominating and continuous range indicating a main Himalayan chain which includes both Everest and Kinchinjunga.
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  • An instance of this occurs where the Indus suddenly breaks through the well-defined Ladakh range in the North-west Himalaya to resume its north-westerly course after passing from the northern to the southern side of the range.
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  • Other rivers besides the Indus and the Brahmaputra begin by draining a considerable area north of the snowy range - the Sutlej, the Kosi, the Gandak and the Subansiri, for example.
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  • The result of this process is well exhibited in the relative steepness of slope on the Indian and Tibetan sides of the passes to the Indus plateau.
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  • The Zoji La, the Kashmir water-divide between the Jhelum and the Indus, is a prominent case in point, and all the passes from the Kumaon and Garhwal hills into Tibet exhibit this formation in a marked degree.
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  • at the debouchment of the Indus into the plains.
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  • on the southern exposures of the Himalaya that carry perpetual snow, along all that part of the system that lies between Sikkim and the Indus.
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  • The northern tributaries of the Gilgit river, which joins the Indus near its south-westerly bend towards the Punjab, take their rise from a glacier system which is probably unequalled in the world for its extent and magnificent proportions.
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  • The fishes from the headwaters of the Indus also belong, for the most part, to Central-Asiatic types, with a small admixture of purely Himalayan forms. Amongst the former are several peculiar small-scaled carps, belonging to the genus Schizothorax and its allies.
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  • The elephant is found in the outer forests as far as the Jumna, and the rhinoceros as far as the Sarda; the spread of both of these animals as far as the Indus and into the plains of India, far beyond their present limits, is authenticated by historical records; they have probably retreated before the advance of cultivation and fire-arms. Wild pigs are common in the lower ranges, and one peculiar species of pigmy-hog (Sus salvanius) of very small size inhabits the forests at the base of the mountains in Nepal and Sikim.
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  • It is but lately, however, that any adequate conception of the magnitude and majesty of the most stupendous of the mountain groups which mass themselves about the upper tributaries and reaches of the Indus has been presented to us in the works of Sir F.
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  • IRAN, the great plateau between the plain of the Tigris in the west and the valley of the Indus in the east, the Caspian Sea and the Turanian desert in the north, and the Persian Gulf and the Indian Ocean in the south, surrounded on all sides by high mountain ranges with a great salt desert in the centre.
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  • From the Gomal river southward commences the true Suliman system, presenting an impenetrable barrier between the plains of the Indus and Afghanistan.
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  • The family includes the group of Kafir languages spoken in Kafiristan, Khowar, spoken in the Chitral country, and the group of Shina languages, which includes the Shina of Gilgit, Kohistani, spoken in the Kohistans of the Indus and Swat rivers, and Kashmiri.
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  • Beside these there is another group of largely freshwater species, constituting the family Platanistidae, and typified by the susu (Platanista gangetica), extensively distributed throughout nearly the whole of the river-systems of the Ganges, Brahmaputra and Indus, ascending as high as there is water enough to swim in, but never passing out to sea.
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  • The range commences in Jhelum district in the lofty hill of Chel (3701 ft.), on the right bank of the river Jhelum, traverses Shahpur district, crosses the Indus in Mianwali district, thence a southern branch forms the boundary between Bannu and Dera Ismail Khan until it finally merges in the Waziristan system of mountains.
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  • In the north of the presidency on the right bank of the Indus, the Hala mountains, a continuation of the great Suleiman range, separate British India from the dominions of the khan of Kalat.
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  • Leaving Sind, and passing by the ridges of low sandhills, - the leading feature of the desert east of the Indus, - and the isolated hills of Cutch and Kathiawar, which form geologically the western extremity of the Aravalli range, the first extensive mountain range is that separating Gujarat from the states of central India.
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  • The more level parts of Bombay consist of five well-demarcated tracts - Sind, Gujarat, the Konkan, the Deccan, and the Carnatic. Sind, or the lower valley of the Indus, is very flat, with but scanty vegetation, and depending for productive ness entirely on irrigation.
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  • The chief river of western India is the Indus, which enters the presidency from the north of Sind and flowing south in a tortuous course, falls into the Arabian Sea by several Rivers.
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  • Next to the Indus comes the Nerbudda.
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  • The Manchar Lake is situated on the right bank of the Indus.
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  • in the shade, and the water of the Indus reaches blood heat; in Upper Sind it is even hotter, and the thermometer has been known to register 130° in the shade.
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  • The alluvial forests lie in Sind, on or close to the banks of the Indus, and extend over an area of 550 sq.
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  • Later still the settlement of Brahmans along the west coast had already Aryanized the country in religion, and to some extent in language, before the Persian conquest of the Indus valley at the close of the 6th century B.C. The Persian dominion did not long survive; and the march of Alexander the Great down the Indus paved the way for Chandragupta and the Maurya, empire.
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  • The Indian Ocean receives few large rivers, the chief being the Zambezi, the Shat-el-Arab, the Indus, the Ganges, the Brahmaputra and the Irawadi.
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  • The susu (Platanista) is, for instance, extensively distributed throughout nearly the whole of the river systems of the Ganges, Brahmaputra and Indus, ascending as high as there is water enough to swim in, but apparently never passing out to sea.
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  • The individuals inhabiting the Indus and the Ganges must therefore have been for long ages isolated without developing any distinctive anatomical characters, those by which P. indi was separated from P. gangetica having been shown to be of no constant value.
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  • At the period of their earliest literature, which may be assigned roughly to about 1000 B.C., they were still settled in the valley of the Indus, and at this time the separation probably had not long taken place, the Eastern portion of the stock having pushed their way along the Kabul valley into the open country of the Indus.
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  • When the Huns (Hiung-nu) occupied west and east Mongolia in 177-165 B.C., they drove before them the Yue-chi (Yutes, Yetes or Ghetes), who divided into two hordes, one of which invaded the valley of the Indus, while the other met the Sacae in East Turkestan and drove them over the Tian-shan into the valley of the Ili.
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  • The water-supply of Seistan is about as uncertain as that of Sind, though the general inclination to one bank, the left, is more marked in the Helmund than in the Indus.
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  • The Meds of the Indus valley still form the greater part of the fishing population, representing the Ichthyophagi of Arrian.
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  • In 305 Seleucus Nicator crossed the Indus, but was defeated by Chandragupta and forced to a humiliating peace (303), by which the empire of the latter was still farther extended in the north.
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  • Ardashir, who was a zealous worshipper of Ahuramazda and in intimate connexion with the magian priests, established the orthodox Zoroastrian creed as the official religion of his new kingdom, persecuted the infidels, and tried to restore the old Persian empire, which under the Achaemenids had extended over the whole of Asia from the Aegean Sea to the Indus.
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  • 6 Arrian relates that it was an import of Barbarike on the Sinthus (Indus).
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  • Its design is very similar to those of the Indus valley.
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  • The crowning exploit was the reduction of Aornus,' a stronghold perched on a precipitous summit above the Indus, which it was said that Heracles had failed to take.
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  • He recovered and beat down the resistance of the tribes, leaving them annexed to the Macedonian satrapy west of the Indus.
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  • Below the confluence of the Punjab rivers into the single stream of the Indus the territory of loose tribes was succeeded by another group of regular principalities, under the rajahs called by the Greeks Musicanus, Oxycanus and Sambus.
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  • On the south the coast-line is far more irregular, the Arabian Sea, the Bay of Bengal, and the China Sea reaching about to the northern tropic at the mouths of the Indus, of the Ganges and of the Canton river; while the great peninsulas of Arabia, Hindostan and Cambodia descend to about 10° N., and the Malay peninsula extends within a degree and a half of the equator.
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  • m., the Yang-tsze-kiang including 685,000, the Ganges 409,500, and the Indus 370,000 sq.
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  • From the delta of the Ganges and Brahmaputra on the east to that of the Indus on the west, and intervening between the tableland of the peninsula and the foot of the Himalayan slope of the Tibetan plateau, lies the great plain of northern India, which rises at its highest point to about moo ft., and includes altogether, with its prolongation up the valley of Assam, an area of about 500,000 sq.
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  • Nain Singh explored the sources of the Indus and of the Upper Brahmaputra in the years 1865-1867; and in 1874-1875 he followed a line from the eastern frontiers of Kashmir to the Tengri Nor lake and thence to Lhasa, in which city he remained for some months.
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  • Even Hecataeus of Miletus (549-472 B.C.), the author of a Periodos or description of the earth, of whom Herodotus borrowed the terse saying that Egypt was the gift of the Nile, retained this circular shape and circumfluent ocean when producing his map of the world, although he had at his disposal the results of the voyage of Scylax of Caryanda from the Indus to the Red Sea, of Darius' campaign in Scythia (513), the information to be gathered among the merchants from all parts of the world who frequented an emporium like Miletus, and what he had learned in the course of his own extensive travels.
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  • At last, when Eucratides had been murdered by his son about 150, Mithradates was able to occupy some districts on the border of Bactria and to conquer Arachosia (Kandahar); he is even said to have crossed the Indus (Justin 41, 6; Strabo xi.
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  • For many years past both the town and cantonment have been threatened by the erosion of the river Indus.
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  • From the east it is fed by three or four rivers of Hazara district (see Indus).
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  • At Attock the Kabul river brings down to the Indus the whole drainage of Kafiristan, Chitral, Panjkora, Swat and Peshawar district (see Kabul River).
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  • The military qualities of the Greeks were appreciated, and so, too, was Greek science, where it touched the immediately useful; a Greek captain was entrusted by Darius with the exploration of the Indus; a Greek architect bridged the Bosporus for him; Greek physicians (e.g.
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  • Omitting the group of northern routes to India from Central Asia, which pass between Kashmir and Afghanistan through the defiles of Chitral and of the Indus (see passes.
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  • But in the Indus district the Greek kings held their ground for an appreciably longer period and, for a while, widely extended their power (see MENANDER OF INDIA).
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  • Thus the task now faced them of annexing the remainder of the Macedonian Empire, the whole East from the Euphrates to the Indus, and of thereby saving Greek civilization (cf.
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  • Tertiary limestones, sandstones and shales overlie the Deccan Trap in Cutch, but the greatest development of deposits of this age is to be met with on the western side of the Indus (see Sind).
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  • in the shade, and the water of the Indus reaches blood heat; in Upper Sind it is even hotter, and the thermometer has been known to register 130° in the shade.
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  • The remains of ancient baths have been found in the Indus Valley in India, and the Romans discovered mineral springs in various parts of Europe that are still used for balneotherapy.
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  • Meantime Perdiccas and Hephaestion had built a bridge over the Indus, and by this in the spring of 326 Alexander passed into the Punjab (at Ohind, 16 m.
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  • Alexander left the conquered portion of India east of the Indus to be governed under Porus, Omphis of Taxila, and Abisares, the country west of the Indus under Macedonian governors, and set out to explore the great river The g ?
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  • The world was henceforth viewed as a very large place stretching far on every side beyond the Midland or Mediterranean Sea, and the land journey of Alexander resulted in a voyage of discovery in the outer ocean from the mouth of the Indus to that of the Tigris, thus opening direct intercourse between Grecian and Hindu civilization.
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  • At the beginning of October 326 B.C. Nearchus left the Indus with his fleet, and the anchorages sought for each night are carefully recorded.
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  • The great rivers of northern India - the Ganges, the Brahmaputra and the Indus - all derive their waters from the Tibetan mountain mass; and it is a remarkable circumstance that the northern water-parting of India should lie to the north of the Himalaya in the regions of central Tibet.
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  • The eastern flank of this tableland follows a line of hills drawn a short distance from the Indus, between the mouth of that river and the Himalaya, about on the 72nd meridian; these hills do not generally exceed 4000 or 5000 ft.
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  • The southern and south-western face follows the coast closely up the Persian Gulf from the mouth of the Indus, and is formed farther west by the mountain scarp, which, rising in many points to 10,000 ft., flanks the Tigris and the Mesopotamian plains, and extends along Kurdistan and Armenia nearly to the 40th meridian; beyond which it turns along the Taurus range, and the north - eastern angle of the Mediterranean.
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  • The mission of Sir Francis Younghusband to Lhasa in 1904 resulted in an extension of the Indian system of triangulation which finally determined the geographical position of that city, and in a most valuable reconnaissance of the valleys of the Upper Brahmaputra and Indus by Captains C. H.
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  • the Taurus and Iran, (8) Cilicia, (9) Syria, (io) Mesopotamia, (11) Babylonia, (12) Susiana; in Africa, (13) Egypt; in Iran, (4) Persis, (15) Media, (16) Parthia and Hyrcania, (17) Bactria and Sogdiana, (18) Areia and Drangiana, (19) Carmania, (20) Arachosia and Gedrosia; lastly the Indian provinces, (21) the Paropanisidae (the Kabul valley), and (22) the province assigned to Pithon, the son of Agenor, upon the Indus (J.
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  • None extend farther to the westward than the valley of the Indus,' which, considering the nature of the country in Baluchistan and Afghanistan, is perhaps intelligible enough; but it is not so easy to understand why none are found either in Cochin China or China proper; and they are also wanting in the Philippine Islands, which is the more remarkable and instructive when we find how abundant they are in the groups a little farther to the southward.
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