Inductive sentence example
How little this criticism was justified may be seen from the fact that Mill's inductive logic was the direct result of his aspirations after political stability as determined by the dominion of the wisest (Examiner letters).
The difficulty of connecting lightships and isolated lighthouses to the mainland by submarine cables, owing to the destructive action of the tides and waves on rocky coasts on the wll- shore ends, led many inventors to look for a way out of the difficulty by the adoption of some form of inductive Smith.
Cavendish and subsequently Faraday discovered this fact, and the latter gave the name " specific inductive capacity," or " dielectric constant," to that quality of an insulator which determines the charge taken by a conductor embedded in it when charged to a given potential.
In Kowalevsky's Versuch einer natiirlichen Classification der Fossilen Hufthiere (1873) we find a model union of detailed inductive study with theory and working hypothesis.
A similar installation of inductive telephony, in which telephone currents in one line were made to create others in a nearly parallel and distant line, was established in 1899 between Rathlin Island on the north coast of Ireland and the mainland.Advertisement
That the inductive spirit exercised no influence on Scottish philosophers is certainly not true; Montesquieu, whose method is essentially inductive, was in Smith's time closely studied by Smith's fellow-countrymen.
Moreover, the study of analogical and inductive inference is necessary to that of the syllogism itself, because they discover the premises of syllogism.
Lastly, the science of inference is not indeed the science of sensation, memory and experience, but at the same time it is the science of using those mental operations as data of inference; and, if logic does not show how analogical and inductive inferences directly, and deductive inferences indirectly, arise from experience, it becomes a science of mere thinking without knowledge.
In this case no current flows from the battery through the line or instruments, the whole action being inductive.
But an inductive and deductive treatment, both comprehensive and in due proportion, does not as yet (19to) exist, and awaits fuller external evidence.'Advertisement
In his Westminster review of Whately's Logic in 1828 (invaluable to all students of the genesis of Mill's logic) he appears, curiously enough, as an ardent and brilliant champion of the syllogistic logic against highfliers such as the Scottish philosophers who talk of "superseding" it by "a supposed system of inductive logic."
Henry Cavendish had before 1773 discovered that glass, wax, rosin and shellac have higher specific inductive capacities than air, and had actually determined the numerical ratios of these capacities, but this was unknown both to Faraday and to all other electricians of his time, since Cavendish's Electrical Researches remained unpublished till 1879.
These are apprehended solely by the mind, which may, however, be led to them by an inductive process.
On the whole, then, analogical, inductive and deductive inferences are not the same but three similar and closely connected processes.
It is not the primary inference of its own premises, but constantly converts analogical and inductive conclusions into its particular and universal premises.Advertisement
Now, as an inductive combination of premises does not necessarily involve the inductive conclusion, induction normally leads, not to a necessary, but to a probable conclusion; and whenever its probable conclusions become deductive premises, the deduction only involves a probable conclusion.
In fact, analogical, inductive and deductive inferences, though different processes of combining premises to cause different conclusions, are so similar and related, so united in principle and interdependent, so consolidated into a system of inference, that they cannot be completely investigated apart, but together constitute a single subject of science.
Among the dialecticians, Socrates had used inductive arguments to obtain definitions as data of deductive arguments against his opponents, and Plato had insisted on the processes of ascending to and descending from an unconditional principle by the power of giving and receiving argument.
Mill in his Logic pointed out this defect, and without departing from Baconian principles remedied it by quoting scientific examples, in which deduction, starting from inductive principles, applies more general to less general universals, e.g.
It teaches us that scientific method is sometimes induction, sometimes deduction, and sometimes the consilience of both, either by the inductive verification of previous deductions, or by the deductive explanation of previous inductions.Advertisement
From studying this succession of empirical logicians, we cannot doubt that sense, memory and experience are the real origin of inference, analogical, inductive and deductive.
But the combinations of premises in analogical and inductive inference, although the combination does not involve the conclusion, yet causes us to infer it, and in so similar a way that the science of inference is not complete without investigating all the combinations which characterize different kinds of inference.
Sense is the evidence of inference; directly of analogical and inductive, directly or indirectly of deductive, inference; and therefore, if logic refuses to include sensory beliefs among judgments, it will omit the fundamental constituents of inference, inference will no longer consist of judgments but of sensory beliefs plus judgments, and the second part of logic, the logic of judgment, the purpose of which is to investigate the constituents of inference, will be like Hamlet without the prince of Denmark.
Whately, on the other hand, proposed an inductive syllogism with the major suppressed, that is, instead of the minor premise above, he supposed a major premise, " Whatever belongs to A, B, C magnets belongs to all."
Lastly, Wundt's view is an interesting piece of eclecticism, for he supposes that induction begins in the form of Aristotle's inductive syllogism, S-P, S-M, M-P, and becomes an inductive method in the form of Jevons's inverse deduction, or hypothetical deduction, or analysis, M-P, S-M, S-P. In detail, he supposes that, while an " inference by comparison," which he erroneously calls an affirmative syllogism in the second figure, is preliminary to induction, a second " inference by connexion," which he erroneously calls a syllogism in the third figure with an indeterminate conclusion, is the inductive syllogism itself.Advertisement
This is like Aristotle's inductive syllogism in the arrangement of terms; but, while on the one hand Aristotle did not, like Wundt, confuse it with the third figure, on the other hand Wundt does not, like Aristotle, suppose it to be practicable to get inductive data so wide as the convertible premise, " All S is M, and all M is S," which would at once establish the conclusion, " All M is P."
Wundt's point is that the conclusion of the inductive syllogism is neither so much as all, nor so little as some, but rather the indeterminate "M and P are connected."
It is noticeable that Wundt quotes Newton's discovery of the centripetal force of the planets to the sun as an instance of this supposed hypothetical, analytic, inductive method; as if Newton's analysis were a hypothesis of the centripetal force to the sun, a deduction of the given facts of planetary motion, and a verification of the hypothesis by the given facts, and as if such a process of hypothetical deduction could be identical with either analysis or induction.
The result is that both Sigwart and Wundt transform the inductive process of adducing particular examples to induce a universal law into a deductive process of presupposing a universal law as a ground to deduce particular consequences.
Hence induction cannot be reduced to Aristotle's inductive syllogism, because experience cannot give the convertible premise, " Every S is M, and every M is S "; that "All A, B, C are magnets " is, but that " All magnets are A, B, C " is not, a fact of experience.
It is not syllogism in the form of Aristotle's or Wundt's inductive syllogism, because, though starting only from some particulars, it concludes with a universal; it is not syllogism in the form called inverse deduction by Jevons, reduction by Sigwart, inductive method by Wundt, because it often uses particular facts of causation to infer universal laws of causation; it is not syllogism in the form of Mill's syllogism from a belief in uniformity of nature, because few men have believed in uniformity, but all have induced from particulars to universals.
Bacon alone was right in altogether opposing induction to syllogism, and in finding inductive rules for the inductive process from particular instances of presence, absence in similar circumstances, and comparison.
Hence also induction is a real process, because, when we know that this individual magnet attracts iron, we are very far from knowing that all alike do so similarly; and the question of inductive logic, how we get from some similars to all similars, remains, as before, a difficulty, but not to be solved by the fallacy that inference is identification.
It is in the Topics, 9 again, that we have hints at the devices of an inductive process, which, as dialectical, throw the burden of producing contradictory instances upon the other party to the discussion.
Thirdly we have the limiting cases of this in the inductive syllogism 5ui 7riu'mw, 7 a syllogism in the third figure concluding universally, and yet valid because the copula expresses equivalence, and in analogy 8 in which, it has been well said, instances are weighed and not counted.
The inductive enumeration is either of all cases or of some only.
Rather a scientific process, which as experiential may be called inductive, but which is in other regards deductive as syllogism, is set up in constrast to syllogism YvI.
The reformed Aristotelian logic of the first-named with its inductio demonstrativa, the mathematicophysical analysis followed by synthesis of the second, the exclusiva, or method of exclusions of the last, agree at least in this, that the method of science is one and indivisible, while containing both an inductive and a deductive moment.
It is inductive only in the sense that it is identical in purpose with the ascent from particulars.
We have Mill's inductive methods in the germ, though with an emphasis quite older than Mill's.
The apostles of inductive method had preached recourse to experience, but had meant thereby nature as a constituted order.
In Mill's inductive logic, the nominalistic convention has, through his tendency to think in relatively watertight compartment,s, 2 faded somewhat into the background.
And what Spinoza has to say of the requisites of definition and the marks of intellection makes it clear that insight comes with coherence, and that the work of method on the " inductive " side is by means of the unravelling of all that makes for artificial limitation to lay bare what can then be seen to exhibit nexus in the one great system.
This point of departure is noteworthy, as also is the treatment of the inductive syllogism as one in which the middle term is resoluble into a group or series (Reihe).
With this coheres his dictum, with its far-reaching consequences for the philosophy of induction, that " the logical justification of the inductive process rests upon the fact that it is an inevitable postulate of our effort after knowledge.that the given is necessary, and can be known as proceeding from its grounds according to universal laws."
Liard, Les Logiciens Anglais Contemporains (5th ed., 1907), deals only with the 19th-century inductive and formal-symbolic logicians down to Jevons, to whom the book was originally dedicated.
Starting with careful and accurate observations on facts concerning the mysterious properties of amber and the lodestone, Gilbert laid the foundations of modern electric and magnetic science on the true experimental and inductive basis.
If we imagine the current in the conductor to be instantaneously reversed in direction, the magnetic force surrounding it would not be instantly reversed everywhere in direction, but the reversal would be propagated outwards through space with a certain velocity which Maxwell showed was inversely as the square root of the product of the magnetic permeability and the dielectric constant or specific inductive capacity of the medium.
An immediate deduction from Maxwell's theory was that in transparent dielectrics, the dielectric constant or specific inductive capacity should be numerically equal to the square of the refractive index for very long electric waves.
It is evident that the Socratic search for the essence by an analysis of instances - an induction ending in a definition - has a strong resemblance to the Baconian inductive method.
The inductive method, so far as exhibited in the Organum, is exemplified by an investigation into the nature of heat.
With regard to the first, it has been already pointed out that Bacon's induction or inductive method is distinctly his own, though it cannot and need not be maintained that the general spirit of his philosophy was entirely new.6 The value of the method is the separate and more difficult question.
The inductive formation of axioms by a gradually ascending scale is a route which no science has ever followed, and by which no science could ever make progress.
We do not think, indeed, that the notiones of which he speaks in any way correspond to what Whewell and Ellis would call " conceptions or ideas furnished by the mind of the thinker "; nor do we imagine that Bacon would have admitted these as necessary elements in the inductive process.
Eight varieties of such experiments are enumerated, and a comparison is drawn between this and the inductive method; " though the rational method of inquiry by the Organon promises far greater things in the end, yet this sagacity, proceeding by learned experience, will in the meantime present mankind with a number of inventions which lie near at hand."
He was also much interested in ancient weights and measures, and in 1875 published a work on Inductive Metrology.
Suppose we have an inductive and a non-inductive circuit in series, which is traversed by a periodic current, and that we desire to know the power being absorbed to the inductive circuit.
Blondlot and P. Curie afterwards suggested that a single electrometer could be constructed with two pairs of quadrants and a duplicate needle on one stem, so as to make two readings simultaneously and produce a deflection proportional at once to the power being taken up in the inductive circuit.
Without altogether eschewing Samuel Clarke's a priori system, Butler relies mainly on the inductive method, not professing to give an absolute demonstration so much as a probable proof.
That he anticipated in any manner the inductive philosophy cannot be contended; his botanical studies did not lead him, like his contemporary Konrad von Gesner, to any idea of a natural system of classification, and he rejected with the utmost arrogance and violence of language the discoveries of Copernicus.
The History of the Inductive Sciences, from the Earliest to the Present Time appeared originally in 1837.
In his own opinion, the History was to be regarded as an introduction to the Philosophy of the Inductive Sciences (1840).
Mill the a priori nature of necessary truth, and by his rules for the construction of conceptions he dispensed with the inductive methods of Mill.
Of these, including as they do all inductive science, he reports that demonstrable knowledge " is very short, if indeed we have any at all "; and are not thrown wholly on presumptions of probability, or else left in ignorance.
Now, as perception of these atoms and their relations is beyond us, we must be satisfied with inductive presumptions, for which " experimental verification " affords, after all, only conclusions that wider experience may prove to be inadequate.
Investigation of the foundation of inductive inference was resumed by Hume where Locke left it.
But when the data are admittedly so uncertain is a valid inductive argument of such a character possible?
That the divine will is expressed by it, Cumberland, " not being so fortunate as to possess innate ideas," tries to prove by a long inductive examination of the evidences of man's essential sociality exhibited in his physical and mental constitution.
He lectured on logic, deductive and inductive, systematic psychology and ethical theory.
He holds that the true method of research is the analytic, rising from lower to higher notions; yet he sees clearly, and admits, that inductive reasoning, as conceived by Bacon, rests on a general proposition not itself proved by induction.
This is the true view of the scientific or inductive universal (as opposed to that of nominalism or pure empiricism).
The Inductive Syllogism, like the deductive, is first systematized by Aristotle, who described it as o E brawl/Cis ovXXoycaµos.
The progress of inductive knowledge is by the formation of successive hypotheses, and it frequently happens that the demolition of one or even many hypotheses is the direct road to a new and accurate hypothesis, i.e.
Thus we can take two curves, one showing the potential difference at the end of an inductive circuit, and the other the current flowing through the circuit.
Each module is separately addressable and offers a highly stable output allowing smooth dimming if inductive loads.
Some products also have an inductive coupler for people who use hearing aids.
The inductive coupler is used with the hearing aid switched to the ' T ' position to pick up the sound.
This type of receiver inset provides inductive coupling to certain types of behind the ear ' hearing aid.
Portable inductive couplers which simply attach to the handset earpiece with a stretchy strap can make any telephone " hearing aid friendly " .
Each man considers himself to be the genuine champion of inductive empiricism in the attempt to relate faith to history.
The laws of nature are thus not ' laws ' in the rigid, prescriptive sense, but inductive generalizations.
Those facts certainly do not constitute logical proof of the defendant's guilt, which is the standard Popper sets for inductive inference.
Most inverters for motor drives or power supply applications drive power into loads which are highly inductive.
Pinnock feels that Fuller is not consistently inductive; Fuller says the converse is true.
The prospect of unemployment and no wages were not inductive to pleasure.
Such a method is that founded on inductive inference.
Hence, the attempt to rescue inductive inferences by grafting deductive inferences onto them disguises rather than solves the problem of induction.
The fixed blocks are defined by inductive loops set into the track which interact with sensing circuits on the vehicle.
The time taken to form primordia varies with the length of the inductive photoperiod.
It also has a small inductive reactance, of about 11 ohms.
One often sees short monopoles with a coil at the foot, to provide inductive tuning for this capacitative reactance.
The capacitive reactance Xc becomes very large and the inductive reactance XL becomes insignificant.
Business relies heavily on inductive reasoning, which assumes a uniformity of nature, such that the future is assumed to resemble the past.
However, the matching is achieved by ' inductive coupling ' via internal windings that are sealed within the central element.
The use of the iron core renders it possible to produce a high inductive effect with a low resistance coil, and thus obtain the necessary slow time constant to which is due the success of this type of magnetic shunt on cable signals.
In subsequent years numerous experiments were carried out by him in various parts of Great Britain, in some cases with circuits earthed at both ends, and in other cases with completely insulated circuits, which showed that conductive effects could be detected at distances of many miles, and also that inductive effects could take place even between circuits separated by solid earth and by considerable distances.
He also devised a " call " or arrangement for actuating an ordinary electric bell by the accumulated effect of the properly tuned inductive impulses falling on the secondary circuit.
Stone similarly devised a multiple inductive oscillation circuit with the object of forcing on the antenna circuit a single oscillation of definite frequency.'
This success was largely due to the originality of its title, the diversity of its contents (von Hartmann professing to obtain his speculative results by the methods of inductive science, and making plentiful use of concrete illustrations), the fashionableness of its pessimism and the vigour and lucidity of its style.
If in this sentence he scarcely does justice to the powers of logical inference and inductive reasoning displayed in much of his work, it remains true that blind experiment - heating a substance, or treating it with some reagent, to see what would happen - was his characteristic method of inquiry.
He was thus affected by two different and incongruous systems of thought - one setting out from an imaginary code of nature intended for the benefit of man, and leading to an optimistic view of the economic constitution founded on enlightened selfinterest; the other following inductive processes, and seeking to explain the several states in which the human societies are found existing, as results of circumstances or institutions which have been in actual operation.
The "dielectric constant" of a medium is its specific inductive capacity, and on the electromagnetic theory of light it equals the square of its refractive index for light of infinite wave length (see Electrostatics; Magneto-Optics).
A citizen of Athens, who had known the evils of the border-war between Thebes and Phocis, would readily perceive the analogy of a similar war between Thebes and Athens, and conclude analogously that it would be evil; but he would have to generalize the similarity of all border-wars in order to draw the inductive conclusion that all alike are evil.
All we aspire to add is that, in order to attain to real truth, we must proceed gradually from sense, memory and experience through analogical particular inference, to inductive and deductive universal inference or reasoning.
This causes the inductive reactance of the matching circuit to become dominant as the frequency increases.
The capacitive reactance Xc becomes very large and the inductive reactance Xl becomes insignificant.
According to a study in 1996 by Krevans and Gibbs, this kind of "inductive discipline" (explaining and talking to kids about rules) resulted in more "pro-social" behavior regardless of the culture.
After a very short interval of time, the length of which depends on the inductive retardation of the cable, the condensers corresponding to C 1 and C3 at the other end begin to be charged from the cable, and since the charge of C3 passes through the receiving instrument I or G the signal is recorded.
The automatic curb sender was originally designed by Lord Kelvin for the purpose of diminishing the effect of inductive re- Au tardation in long cables.
The action of this bridge resembles the magnetic shunt in its effect on the received signals, as the direction of the winding is the same throughout its length, and thus the full inductive action is produced for curbing purposes.
To the sending currents, however, the bridge offers only apparent ohmic resistance due to the fact that the current entering the mid-point of the winding flows through the two halves or arms in opposite direction, and, owing to the winding being on the same iron core, the mutual inductive effect of the two arms on one another neutralizes the self-induction to the sending currents.
At a later date other experimentalists found, however, that an equal thickness of sea-water interposed between a primary and secondary circuit completely prevented similar inductive intercommunication.
Other experiments in inductive telegraphy were made by Preece, aided by the officials of the British Postal Telegraph Service, in Glamorganshire in 1887; at Loch Ness in Scotland in 1892; on Conway Sands in 1893; and at Frodsham, on the Dee, in 1894.
Stevenson, who in 1892 advocated the use of the inductive system pure and simple for communication between the mainland and isolated lighthouses or islands.
Sir Oliver Lodge in 1898 theoretically examined the inductive system of space telegraphy.
In the case of the inductive mode of exciting the oscillations an important quantity is the coefficient of coupling of the two oscillation circuits.
His inductive logic must "supplement and not supersede."
It was in 1837, on reading Whewell's Inductive Sciences and re-reading Herschel, that Mill at last saw his way clear both to formulating the methods of scientific investigation and joining on the new logic as a supplement to the old.
As an instance of his method, Bacon gives an investigation into the nature and cause of the rainbow, which is really a very fine specimen of inductive research.
When nominalism was revived in the 14th century by the English Franciscan, William of Occam, it gave evidence of a new tendency in thought, a distrust of abstractions and an impulse towards direct observation and inductive research, a tendency which had its fulfilment in the scientific movement of the Renaissance.
In those intended for alternating currents, the main current through the movable coil, whether consisting of one turn or more than one turn, is carried by a wire rope, of which each component strand is insulated by silk covering, to prevent the inductive action from altering the distribution of the current across the transverse section of the conductor.
It is a spirit which distrusts abstractions, which makes for direct observation, for inductive research.
By this method only can the fallacies which are attendant on drawing conclusions from isolated cases be avoided; and thus the chief objection which has been made to regarding medicine as an inductive science has been removed.
Born of a family of priest-physicians, and inheriting all its traditions and prejudices, Hippocrates was the first to cast superstition aside, and to base the practice of medicine on the principles of inductive philosophy.
Under the action of the same or identical electric forces the intensity of this state in various insulators is determined by a quality of them called their dielectric constant, specific inductive capacity or inductivity.
More particularly by the confusion in which he left the relation between the two logical principles of identity and of sufficient reason underlying respectively analytic and synthetic, deductive and inductive thought, he may be said to have undermined in another way the idealism he strove to establish.
In those cases in which the power - absorbing circuit is inductive, the coil of the wattmeter connected across the terminals of the power-absorbing circuit must have an exceedingly small inductance, else a considerable correction may become necessary.
In order that a wattmeter shall be suitable for the measurement of power taken up in an inductive circuit certain conditions of construction must be fulfilled.
Sumpner in 1891, an electrostatic voltmeter is employed to measure the fall of potential V 1 down any inductive circuit in which it is desired to measure the power absorption, and also the volt-drop V2 down an inductionless resistance R in series with it, and also the volt-drop V3 down the two together.
Buildings will generally yield up their builder's foot or cubit when examined (Inductive Metrology, p. 9).
He asserts that in Scotland the inductive method was unknown, and that although Smith spent some of the most important years of his youth in England, where the inductive method was supreme, he yet adopted the deductive method because it was habitually followed in Scotland.
And we find accordingly in his great work a combination of inductive inquiry with a priori speculation founded on the "Nature" hypothesis.
Fitzgerald 6 suggested as an alternative explanation the change of inductive capacity of the medium due to increased density.
It was counteracted to some extent by the study at the universities of the deductive logic of Aristotle and the inductive logic of Bacon, by parts of Mill's own logic, and by the natural realism of Reid, Stewart, and Hamilton, which met Hume's scepticism by asserting a direct perception of the external world.
Omitting correction terms depending on the temperature and on the inductive effect of the earth's magnetism on the moment of the deflecting magnet, if 0 is the angle which the axis of the deflected magnet makes with the meridian when the centre of the deflecting magnet is at a distance r, then zM sin B=I+P+y2 &c., in which P and Q are constants depending on the dimensions and magnetic states of the two magnets.
Analogical and inductive inference alike begin with a particular premise containing one or more instances; but the former adds a particular premise to draw a particular conclusion, the latter requires a universal premise to draw a universal conclusion.
The use of the iron core renders it possible to produce a high inductive effect with a low resistance coil.
Mechanics (including dynamical astronomy) is that subject among those traditionally classed as "applied" which has been most completely transfused by mathematics - that is to say, which is studied with the deductive spirit of the pure mathematician, and not with the covert inductive intention overlaid with the superficial forms of deduction, characteristic of the applied mathematician.
Again, water, the best electrolytic solvent known, is also the body of the highest specific inductive capacity (dielectric constant), and this property, to whatever cause it may be due, will reduce the forces between electric charges in the neighbourhood, and may therefore enable two ions to separate.