Indo-european Sentence Examples
The groundwork, so far as it can be ascertained, and the grammar are Indo-European, but a large number of words have been borrowed from the Latin or Italian and Greek, and it is not always easy to decide whether the mutilated and curtailed forms now in use represent adopted words or belong to the original vocabulary.
It has no connexion with Indo-European, as has erroneously been supposed.
Taking the term Italy to comprise the whole peninsula with the northern region as far as the Alps, we must first distinguish the tribe or tribes which spoke Indo-European languages from those who did not.
One has hitherto supposed that he was related to the Mediterraneans, the race to which the Bronze Age Greeks and Italians belonged; but this supposed connexion may well break down in the matter of skull form, as the Hittite skull, like that of the modern Anatolian, probably inclined to be brachycephalic. whereas that of the Mediterranean inclined in the other direction, And now the Bohemian Assyriologist Prof. Hrozny has brought forward evidence s that the cuneiform script adopted by the Hittites from the Mesopotamians expressed an Indo-European tongue, nearly akin to Latin!
Still less foundation exists for the belief, once widely spread, that Bactria was the cradle of the Indo-European race; it was based on the supposition that the nations of Europe had immigrated from Asia, and that the Aryan languages (Indian and Iranian) stood nearest to the original language of the Indo-Europeans.Advertisement
There are two conjugations; the passive formation, now wanting inmost Indo-European languages, has been retained, as in Greek; thus kerko-iy, " I seek," forms kerko-n -em, " I am sought."
The name Varuna may be Indo-European, identifiable, some believe, with the Greek ofpavos (Uranus), and ultimately referable to a root var, " to cover," Varuna thus meaning "the Encompasser."
Their possible place in the earlier stratum of, Indo-European population is discussed under SABINI.
In their country was a wooden city inhabited by a distinct race, the Geloni, who seem to have spoken an Indo-European tongue.
The language, so far as it has been deciphered, is "Asianic" and not Indo-European.Advertisement
It only remains to be added that there is some ground for supposing that the language spoken in Crete before the later Doric was non-Hellenic, but Indo-European.
Farn; the Indo-European root, seen in the Sanskrit parna, a feather, shows the primary meaning; cf.
Whether the national hieroglyphic system of the Hittites expressed the same Indo-European language as, according to Hrozny, their cuneiform does, we do not know, as further attempts to elucidate it made by Campbell Thompson 11 and Cowley," while in themselves very interesting experiments, do not seem to take us further than previous attempts by Sayce and others.
The Pelasgians probably spoke an Indo-European language adopted by their conquerors with slight modifications.
Singularly few language groups have this peculiarity; and our own great Indo-European group, which possesses it, is distinguished from those above mentioned by having the neuter gender in addition.Advertisement
It undoubtedly belongs to the Indo-European family, but its earlier forms cannot, unfortunately, be ascertained owing to the absence of literary monuments.
The attempts to connect the language with the Indo-European family have been unsuccessful; it belongs to a separate family of speech which we may term "Asianic."
There exist in Scotland a few inscriptions on stones, in Ogam, which yield no sense in any known Indo-European language.
The whole system is under the control of the Indo-European Telegraph Department, whose directorin-chief is responsible to the Secretary of State for India.
Of the Indo-European family, the Iranian branch inhabits Persia, Afghanistan and Baluchistan; while the Indo-Aryan branch is spoken by the great mass of the people of northern India.Advertisement
Excluding the Indo European telegraph wire, the whole telegraph system of India forms an imperial charge, administered through a director-general.
The administration of the Indo-European department is in London under the direct control of the secretary of state.
The change of o to a is exceedingly interesting as being a phenomenon associated with the northern branches of Indo-European such as Gothic, Albanian and Lithuanian, and not appearing in any other southern dialect hitherto known.
There still remain for discussion the alphabets of the Indo-European peoples of Persia and India from which the other alphabets of the Farther East are descended.
The mixed type of government described by Homer - consisting of a king guided by a council of elders, and bringing all important resolutions before the assembly of the fighting men - does not seem to have been universal in Indo-European communities, but to have grown up in many different parts of the world under the stress of similar conditions.Advertisement
The word is common in varying forms to Indo-European languages.
Observations for temperature have been taken for many years at the stations of the Indo-European Telegraph and for a few years at the British consulate in Meshed, and the monthly and annual means shown in the following table have been derived from the indications of maximum and minimum thermometers in degrees Fahrenheit.
Ancient Ethnograp/iy.In historical times we find the major portion of Iran occupied by peoples of Indo-European origin, terming themselves Aryans (Arya; Zend, Airya) and their language Aryanso in the inscriptions of Dariusthe same name, which is used by the consanguineous tribes of India who were their nearest relations.
These, in part, are rooted in the primeval Indo-European days, though their ultimate form dates only from the Aryan epoch.
The Iranian languages form one of the great branches of the Indo-European stem, first recognized as such by Sir William Jones and Friedrich Schlegel.
Not only amongst Iranian languages, but amongst all the languages of the Indo-European group, Zend takes one of the very highest places in importance for the comparative philologist.
In grammatical forms it is still poorer than Middle New Persian; except English, no Indo-European language Persian.
The Celts in Italy, in the Balkan, in France and in Britain, overspread the Indo-European peoples, who differed from themselves but slightly in speech.
The Celts represented Indo-European q by p, whilst the Greeks, Illyrians, Thracians, Ligurians, and aborigines of France, Britain and Ireland represented it by k, c or qu.
Galle; the Indo-European root appears in Gr.
Yet more striking is the evidence of the Indo-European (formerly called Aryan) family of languages.
The Indo-European root is seen in Lat.
By four well-marked characteristics the Aryan group is easily distinguishable from the other Indo-European languages.
The history of the separation of the Aryan from the other Indo-European languages is not yet clear (see INDO-EUROPEAN LANGUAGES).
Up to 1909 only a preliminary account had been given of Tocharish, a hitherto unknown Indo-European language, which is reported to be in some respects more akin to the Western groups than to Aryan.
Max Muller refers the beginning of his system of mythology to the discovery of the connexion of the Indo-European or, as they are called, " Aryan " languages.
The comparison of the various words which, in different forms, are common to all Indo-European languages must inevitably throw much light on the original meaning of these words.
Max Muller's system was a result of the philological theories that indicated the linguistic unity of the Indo-European or " Aryan " peoples, and was founded on an analysis of their language.
In the long history of mankind it is impossible to deny that stories may conceivably have spread from a single centre, and been handed on from races like the Indo-European and the Semitic to races as far removed from them in every way as the Zulus, the Australians, the Eskimo, the natives of the South Sea Islands.
The Ligurians, who exhibited the hard cunning characteristic of the Genoese Riviera, must have been descendants of that Indo-European vanguard who occupied all northern Italy and the centre and south-east of France, who in the 7th century B.C. received the Phocaean immigrants at Marseilles, and who at a much later period were encountered by Hannibal during his Ligiwians.
We (as western speakers of Indo-European languages) take as axiomatic that there is one self that is each of us.
If the conclusions suggested under Sabini may be accepted as sound we should expect to find the Volsci speaking a language similar to that of the Ligures, whose fondness for the suffix -sco- we have noticed (see Ligures), and identical with that spoken by the plebeians of Rome, and that this branch of Indo-European was among those which preserved the original Indo-European Velars from the labialization which befell them in the speech of the Samnites.
Although the ritualistic discussions of the Brahmanas are for the most part of a dry and uninteresting nature to an even greater degree than is often the case with exegetic theological treatises, these works are nevertheless of considerable importance both as regards the history of Indian institutions and as "the oldest body of Indo-European prose, of a generally free, vigorous, simple form, affording valuable glimpses backwards at the primitive condition of unfettered Indo-European talk" (Whitney).
This sound was frequent in the pro-ethnic period of the Indo-European languages and survived into the Indo-Aryan languages.
With these inroads of the Cimmerians and Scythians (see ScYTIIIA), we must doubtless connect the great ethnographical revolution in the north of anterior Asia; the Indo-European Armenians (Haik), displacing the old Alaro..
But of the Scythic words preserved by Herodotus some are Iranian, others, especially the names of deities, have found no satisfactory explanation in any Indo-European language.
Winckler has adduced evidence from names of local gods to show that there was an Indo-European racial element in Mitanni; but none for a similar element in the Hatti, whose chief god was Teshub.
The attempts to connect the name Yahweh with that of an Indo-European deity (Jehovah-Jove, &c.), or to derive it from Egyptian or Chinese, may be passed over.
It is now not only the headquarters of the English naval squadron in the Persian Gulf, and the land terminus of the Indo-European telegraph, but it also forms the chief station in the Gulf of the British India Steam Navigation Company, which runs its vessels weekly between Bombay and Basra.
M`Lennan's theory of primitive society with owing its plausible appearance of universal validity to general neglect of the Indo-European evidence and misapprehension of such portions of it as M`Lennan did attempt to handle.
The old hand-mill was known as a " quern," a word which appears in this sense in many Indo-European languages; the ultimate root is gar-, to grind.
The article, though necessarily unsigned (in accordance with the rule of the Quarterly as it then stood), was Maine's reply to the M`Lennan brothers' attack on the historical reconstruction of the Indo-European family system put forward in Ancient Law and supplemented in Early Law and Custom.