Individuals sentence example

individuals
  • Some 9000 individuals were engaged in unclassified industries.
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  • They were two individuals joined in marriage because they wanted to be lifetime companions.
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  • In the end, our fundamental challenge is to become better individuals, and technology offers little help on that front; it is up to each one of us to solve that for ourselves.
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  • Such are the " guard-polyps " (machopolyps) of Plumularidae, which are often regarded as individuals of the nature of dactylozoids, but from a study of the mode of budding in this hydroid family Driesch concluded that the guard-polyps were not true polyp-individuals, although each is enclosed in a small protecting cup of the perisarc, known as a nematophore.
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  • There began the intimate gathering of five distinctly different individuals, and the unique results of our brief weekend cohabitation.
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  • A check of the records listed 22 individuals who had ordered the paper from out of town over the last three months.
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  • varies from yellow-green to deep crimson in different species and in individuals according to exposure to sunlight and other conditions.
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  • Four dissimilar individuals, tied to a damaged being known only to one of us who at one time hated him for the loss of her friend.
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  • The reproductive individuals have undergone an extraordinary simplification of the organs concerned with the collection and digestion of food.
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  • Few persons can see with the naked eye - much less measure - more than six stars of the Pleiades, although all the stars measured by Maestlin have been seen with the naked eye by a few individuals of exceptional powers of eyesight.
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  • Yet in reality, five individuals, some joined by love, some nearly strangers and others with a history, that might surface and run amuck.
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  • Frank led me down a long corridor to a large conference room filled with perhaps thirty intent individuals, standing and sitting, some taking notes, others with few buried faces in computer screens.
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  • Witness the present Mexican war, the work of comparatively a few individuals using the standing government as their tool; for, in the outset, the people would not have consented to this measure.
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  • I% by private individuals.
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  • Previously consumptive individuals were carefully excluded from contact with fresh air, and were advised to live in rooms almost hermetically sealed and kept at a high temperature.
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  • Hence finally he concluded that the good as the one combining with the indeterminate two is directly the cause of all forms as formal numbers, and indirectly through them all of the multitude of individuals in the world.
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  • Hinds states that the hibernating individuals live for more than six months.
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  • Anthropologists, indeed, have recently observed a large proportion of individuals of exceptionally small stature, not found in Sardinia only, but elsewhere in south Italy also; though in Sardinia they are distributed over the whole island, and especially in the southern half.
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  • Secondary Education.Secondary education is given by the state in lyces, by the communes in colleges and by private individuals and associations in private secondary schools.
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  • As in other cases where animal colonies are formed by organic union of separate individuals, there is ever a tendency for the polyp-colony as a whole to act as a single individual, and for the members to become subordinated to the needs of the colony and to undergo specialization for particular functions, with the result that they simulate organs and their individuality becomes masked to a greater or less degree.
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  • In any case the daughter-individuals produced from the buds may be imagined as remaining attached to the parent and forming a colony of individuals in organic connexion with one another, and thus three possible cases arise.
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  • Are there not many individuals in the country who do not attend conventions?
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  • She seemed to be fond not so much of individuals as of the family as a whole.
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  • They described the activity of individuals who ruled the people, and regarded the activity of those men as representing the activity of the whole nation.
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  • I find it is funded by corporations, do-gooders, trust funds, individuals, and off shore ghost entities... unfortunately, too many names to pursue each and every one.
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  • These small individuals present apparently no other differences, and Sergi maintains that the difference is racial, these being the descendants of a race of pygmies who had emigrated from central Africa.
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  • All the other teeth are simple, conical, minute and placed at considerable and irregular intervals apart in the jaws, the number appearing to vary in different individuals and even on different sides of the jaw of the same indi viduals.
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  • Once Jim extends the invitation, he memorizes all the individuals' names, where they are from, what they do for a living, information about their families, and so forth.
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  • The virus cannot live in immunized individuals, nor in nature.
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  • They are not tales of aberrant individuals but of societal norms.
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  • In the first place the historian describes the activity of individuals who in his opinion have directed humanity (one historian considers only monarchs, generals, and ministers as being such men, while another includes also orators, learned men, reformers, philosophers, and poets).
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  • Several attempts had been made by individuals belonging to the Labour party to enter the New South Wales parliament, but it was not until 1891 that the occurrence of a general election gave the party the looked-for opportunity for concerted action.
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  • However, someone may come along and edit the material to for example, combine the writings of two or more individuals into a single piece.
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  • I cleverly deduced the location, checked birth dates and newly arrived individuals.
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  • It operates on manipulation of brain waves but only on highly intelligent individuals.
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  • The tall, fair and blue-eyed individuals who are found to the north-east of the Seine and in Normandy appear to be nearer in race to the Scandinavian and Germanic invaders; a tall and darker type with long faces and aquiline noses occurs in some parts of Franche-Co1nt and Champagne, the Vosges and the Perche.
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  • Besides receiving taxes, they pay the creditors of the state in their departments, conduct all operations affecting departmental loans, buy and sell government stock (rentes) on behalf of individuals, and conduct certain banking operations.
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  • Higher education is given by the state in the universities, and in special higher schools; and, since the law of 1875 established the freedom of higher education, by private individuals and bodies in private schools and faculties (facultis libres).
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  • In addition to the educational work done by the state, communes and private individuals, there exist in France a good many societies which disseminate instruction by giving courses of lectures and holding classes both for children and adults.
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  • The pax Babylonica is so assured that private individuals do not hesitate to ride in their carriage from Babylon to the coast of the Mediterranean.
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  • This is 490,251 higher than the actual population, 32,475,253, ascertained by the census of the 10th of February 1901; the difference is due to temporary absences from their residences of certain individuals on military service, &c., who probably were counted twice, and also to the fact that 469,020 individuals were returned as absent from Italy, while only 61,606 foreigners were in Italy at the date of the census.
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  • Certain types of dangerous individuals are relegated after serving a sentence in the ordinary convict prisons, and by administrative, not by judicial process, to special penal colonies known as domicilii coatti or forced residences.
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  • It is proportional, and is collected by deduction from salaries and pensions paid to servants of the state, where it is assessed on three-eighths of the income, and from interest on consolidated stock, where it is assessed on the whole amount; and by register in the cases of private individuals, who pay on three-fourths of their income, professional men, capitalists or manufacturers, who pay on one-half or nine-twentieths of their income.
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  • What the modern empiricist needs is a rational bond uniting the individual with the community or with the aggregate of individuals - a rational principle distinguishing high pleasures from low, sanctioning benevolence, and giving authority to moral generalizations drawn from conditions that are past and done with.
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  • Fresh-water forms, however, are also known, very few as regards species or genera, but often extremely abundant as individuals.
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  • As already stated, there occur in the Hydromedusae two distinct types of person, the polyp and the medusa; and either of them is capable of non-sexual reproduction by budding, a process which may lead to the formation of colonies, composed of more or fewer individuals combined and connected together.
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  • The buds may all become detached after a time and give rise to separate and independent individuals, as in the common Hydra, in which only polyp-individuals are produced and sexual elements From Allman's Gymnoblastic Hydroids, by permission of are developed the Council of the Ray Society.
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  • In such a colony of connected individuals, the exact limits of the separate " persons ” are not always clearly marked out.
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  • Normally the medusae are liberated in quite an immature state; they swim away, feed, grow and become adult mature el individuals.
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  • In individuals either of the male or female sex, germ-cells which are quite undifferentiated and neutral in character, become amoeboid, and wander into the endoderm.
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  • A " stolon " of unknown origin produces thirty-two buds, which become as many Polypodia; each has twenty-four tentacles and divides by fission repeated twice into four individuals, each with six tentacles.
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  • - p elagic floating Hydrozoa with great differentiation of parts, each performing a special function; generally regarded as colonies showing differentiation of individuals in correspondence with a physiological division of labour.
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  • Contrasting, in the second place, with the polyorgan theory are the various "polyperson " theories which interpret the Siphonophore cormus as a colony composed of more or fewer individuals in or a', Pneumatocyst.
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  • When a character is said to be favoured by natural selection, the biometricist demands investigation of the death-rate of individuals with or without the character.
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  • (5) Claims by individuals to particular seats in church or special places of sepulture.
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  • The magistrates of the city were still nominated scabini (fixed at thirteen), but their duties and rights were strictly defined and the liberties of the citizens safe-guarded; the city, moreover, received the right to fortify itself and even individuals within it to fortify their houses.
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  • This false position was remedied by the act of 1908, which brings companies into line with individuals.
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  • Such limitations of the powers and properties of the individuals have for their object the well-being of the community of which those individuals are constituents.
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  • In the former case the nature of the organism is such that it yields readily, when subjected to certain conditions, and all or nearly all the individuals become modified in the same way.
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  • At this work a number of individuals are associated together.
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  • These elect a head-man (starosta) and a collector of taxes, who was responsible, at least until the ukaz of October 3906, which abolished communal responsibility for the payment of taxes, for the repartition among individuals of the taxes imposed on the commune.
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  • The Russians do not emigrate as isolated individuals; they migrate in whole villages.
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  • wolves were sufficiently numerous in some parts of the country to induce the king to make grants of land to various individuals upon the express condition of their taking measures to destroy these animals wherever they could be found.
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  • Of native animals the varieties are few and the numbers of individuals small.
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  • It is one thing to protect individuals from mosquito bites, another to prevent the propagation of the parasite in a whole community.
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  • The only veritable and real unity in the world of existences is the individual; to assert that the universal exists separately ex parte rei would be to reduce individuals to mere accidents of one indivisible form.
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  • Consequently, although small bodies of individuals no doubt came back to Judah from time to time, and some special mark of favour may have been shown by Cyrus, the opinion has gained ground since the early arguments of E.
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  • And the individuals, who acquired power or wisdom among those outside Palestine shed a reflected glory upon the nation and its Temple.
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  • But two individuals exemplify the different attitudes which the nation adopted towards its new environment and its wider opportunities, Joseph the tax-farmer and Jesus the sage.
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  • The influence of the happier communities has been exercised on behalf of those in a worse position by individuals such as Sir Moses Montefiore rather than by societies or leagues.
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  • Individuals are thought of as members of a family, state or religion, rather than as entities with a destiny and rights of their own.
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  • Gonads not so restricted in position as in Oligochaets, and often more abundant; the individuals usually unisexual.
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  • (After individuals.
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  • Individuals are constituted not by the material element but by their independent existence, i.e.
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  • Decaisne, who made the subject one of critical study for a number of years, and not only investigated the wild forms, but carefully studied the peculiarities of the numerous varieties cultivated in the Jardin des Plantes at Paris, refers all cultivated pears to one species, the individuals of which have in course of time diverged in various directions, so as to form now six races: (I) the Celtic, including P. cordata; (2) the Germanic, including P. communis, P. achras, and P. piraster; (3) the Hellenic, including P. parviflora, P. sinaica and others; (4) the Pontic, including P. elaeagrifolia; (5) the Indian, comprising P. Paschae; and (6) the Mongolic, represented by P. sinensis.
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  • Its members signed the charters by which the king conveyed grants of land to churches and to individuals, and it is from the extant charters that we mainly derive our knowledge about the composition of the witan.
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  • But, for the time, if we know the economic interests of nations, classes and individuals, we can tell with more accuracy than ever before how in the long run they will act.
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  • A correct sense of proportion and the faculty of seizing upon the dominant factors in an historical problem are the result partly of the possession of certain natural gifts in which many individuals and some nations are conspicuously wanting, partly of general knowledge of the working of the economic and political institutions of the period we are studying, partly of what takes the place of practical experience in relation to modern problems, namely, detailed acquaintance with different kinds of original sources and the historical imagination by which we can realize the life and the ideals of past generations.
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  • We cannot suppose that there occurred, at or about the commencement of the 19th century, a breach of historical continuity of such a character that institutions, customs, laws and social conventions were suddenly swept away, the bonds of society loosened, and the state and people of England dissolved into an aggregate of competing individuals.
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  • So far as we have anything to do with psychology at all, it is the psychology of crowds and not of individuals which we have to consider.
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  • If the village is replaced by a large area, inhabited by millions, with modern facilities of communication, it is a matter of observation and experience that for the purposes of general reasoning the idiosyncrasies of individuals may be neglected.
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  • The former of these were designed for the completion of the training of the most promising pupils in the communal elementary schools, and were left to local control or even to management by private individuals.
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  • In most species the majority of individuals are wingless.
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  • That in which the left carotid artery alone exists, as found in all other birds examined by Nitzsch, and therefore as regards species and individuals much the most common - since into this category come the countless thousands of the passerine birds - a group which outnumbers all the rest put together.
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  • The name of Catholic Epistles is given to those letters (two of Peter, three of John, one of James, one of Jude) incorporated in the New Testament which (except 2 and 3 John) are not, like those of St Paul, addressed to particular individuals or churches, but to a larger and more indefinite circle of readers.
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  • The Spanish mackerel is, as the name implies, a native of the seas of southern Europe, but single individuals or small schools frequently reach the shores of Great Britain and of the United States.
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  • Single individuals or small companies are found, however, on the coast all the year round; they may have become detached from the main bodies, and be seeking for the larger schools which have long left on their return migration.
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  • The mackerel most esteemed as food is the common species, and individuals from 10 to 12 in.
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  • oratorium, sc. templum, a place of prayer, comes the use of the word for a small chapel or place of prayer for the use of private individuals, generally attached to a mansion and sometimes to a church.
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  • The drilling of petroleum wells is carried on by individuals or companies, either on lands owned by them, or on properties whose owners grant leases, usually on condition that a certain number of wells shall be sunk within a stated period, and that a portion of the oil obtained (usually from one-tenth to one-fourth) shall be appropriated as royalty to the lessor.
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  • In 1903 $616,800 of the 1873 issue was held by the Educational Fund and $148,000 by individuals.
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  • There are certain instances in his life which, taken by themselves, show a hardness in treating individuals who would not obey; but as a rule, he tempered his authority to the capacity of those with whom he had to deal.
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  • They are broken up into almost countless tribes and clans, many of which number only a few hundred individuals, and their language consequently presents a variety of dialects, of which no classification has yet been effected: in the district of Posia alone a member of the Presbyterian mission distinguished eight different mutually unintelligible dialects.
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  • According to Madvig, the original tribuni aerarii were not officials at all, but private individuals of considerable means, quite distinct from the curatores tribuum, who undertook certain financial work connected with their own tribes.
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  • Like most cetaceans it is gregarious and usually met with in "schools" or herds of fifteen or twenty individuals.
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  • The weight of the rabbit is from 22 to 3 lb, although wild individuals have been recorded up to more than 5 lb.
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  • The case of James Nayler (1617?-1660), who, in spite of Fox's grave warning, allowed Messianic homage to be paid to him, is the best known of these instances; they are to be explained partly by mental disturbance, resulting from the undue prominence of a single idea, and partly by the general religious excitement of the time and the rudeness of manners prevailing in the classes of society from which many of these individuals came.
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  • There were treaties between states for the extradition of fugitives, and contracts of mutual assurance between individuals against their loss by flight.
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  • The individuals among the American Quakers who laboured most earnestly and indefatigably on behalf of the Africans were John Woolman (1720-1773) and Anthony Benezet (1713-1784), the latter a son of a French Huguenot driven from France by the revocation of the edict of Nantes.
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  • The Swedish expedition to Greenland in 1899 found musk-oxen in herds of varying size - some contained only a few individuals, and in one case there were sixty-seven.
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  • Encouragement and help have been given by the local Archaeological Society, and by many individuals, notably Greeks justly proud of a city which is one of the glories of their national story.
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  • If a brief definition of instinct, from the purely biological point of view be required, that given in the Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology may be accepted: "An inherited reaction of the sensori-motor type, relatively complex 3'p 3' p and markedly adaptive in character, and common to a group of individuals."
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  • The line of demarcation between these colours is not distinct, washes or splashes of grey encroaching upon the white on the sides, and varies somewhat in different individuals.
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  • 10-15), and a final judgment only in Wisdom of Solomon, where it is not of nations but of individuals.
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  • Of the sharks the genus Squalus is represented by individuals that grow to a length of 26 to 30 ft.
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  • From early in the 19th century there had always been separatists, reformists and repressionists in the island, but they were individuals rather than groups.
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  • Individuals may have profited largely, but the Bahamas.
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  • - The schools are of two classes: (1) public, under the immediate direction of the state; and (2) private, conducted either by individuals or by the religious communities with the permission of the government, the religious tenets of the non-Mussulman population being thus fully respected.
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  • (2) By means of loans, both public and from individuals.
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  • But to have caught from all sides in this manner the floating notions of society and of individuals, to reflect them with such vigour and clearness, is not anybody's task.
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  • The corals are few in number, but the Molluscoida (Polyzoa) are more numerous in species and individuals.
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  • The danger of loss from forest fires, such as that of 1894, emphasized the necessity of forest preservation, and resulted (1895) in the creation of a special state department with a forest commissioner and five wardens with power to enforce upon corporations and individuals a strict observance of the forestry laws, the good effects of the law being evidenced by the fact that the fire losses in forest lands for the first twelve years of its operation averaged only $31,000 a year.
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  • For the unipartite ternary quantic of order n he finds that the fundamental system contains a (n+4) (n -1) individuals.
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  • He shows that the system of the bi-ternary n°m i ° comprises 4 (n+1)(n+2)(m+1)(m+2)- 3 individuals.
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  • These differences may be arranged in two main groups: (a) Those which have arisen between state and state in their sovereign capacities; (b) Those in which one state has made a demand upon another state, ostensibly in its sovereign capacity, but really on behalf of some individual, or set of individuals, whose interests it was bound to protect.
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  • The avifauna of Brazil is rich in genera, species and individuals, especially in species with brilliantly-coloured plumage.
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  • Although the order which includes song-birds is numerous in species and individuals, it is noticeably poor in really good songsters.
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  • Of the swimmers, the number of species is smaller, but some of them are widely distributed and numerous in individuals.
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  • The fauna of the rivers and coast of Brazil is richer in species and individuals than that of the land.
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  • The Coleoptera and Lepidoptera are especially numerous, both in species and individuals.
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  • The same law provided an emancipation fund, to be annually applied to the ransom of a certain number of slaves owned by private individuals.
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  • The twelve who replaced the council of nine (as these had previously replaced the council of the nobles) consisted - both as individuals and as a party - of ignorant, incapable, turbulent men, who could neither rule the state with firmness nor confer prosperity on the republic. They speedily broke with the nobles, for whose manoeuvres they had at first been useful tools, and then split into two factions, one siding with the Tolomei, the other, the more restless and violent, with the Salimbeni and the noveschi (partisans of the nine), who, having still some influence in the city, probably fomented these dissensions, and, as we shall see later on, skilfully availed themselves of every chance likely to restore them to power.
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  • This was the 5th or 6th cession made by Chaka or Dingaan of the same territory to different individuals.
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  • Erigena does not separate his Platonic theory of pre-existent exemplars from the Aristotelian doctrine of the universal as in the individuals.
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  • As Ueberweg points out, his theory is rather a result of the transference of the Aristotelian conception of substance to the Platonic Idea, and of an identification of the relation of accidents to the substance in which they inhere with that of the individuals to the Idea of which, in the Platonic doctrine, they are copies (Hist.
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  • Hence it may be said that the universals are in the individuals, constituting their essential reality (and it is an express part of Erigena's system that the created but creative Word, the second division of Nature, should pass into the third stage of created and non-creating things); or rather, perhaps, we ought to say that the individuals exist in the bosom of their universal.
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  • He is definitely anti-Platonic, and his language sometimes takes even a nominalistic tone, as when he declares that the species is nothing more than a thought or conception gathered from the substantial similarity of a number of dissimilar individuals.
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  • The parts in the one case, the general name or common attributes in the other, are only, he seems to have argued, so many subjective points of view from which we choose to regard that which in its own essence is one and indivisible, existing in its own right apart from any connexion with other individuals.
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  • It is a Realism of the most uncompromising type, which by its reduction of individuals to accidents of one identical substance seems to tremble on the very verge of Spinozism.
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  • He taught, says Abelard, that the same thing or substance was present in its entirety and essence in each individual, and that individuals differed no whit in their essence but only in the variety of their accidents.
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  • This thing, remaining essentially the same, receives in the same way other forms which constitute Plato and the other individuals of the species man; and, with the exception of those forms which mould that matter into the individual Socrates, there is nothing in Socrates that is not the same at the same time under the forms of Plato.
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  • In opposition to this Nominalistic view, which implied the reversal of his whole position, William may have meant to say that, instead of the universal being multiplied, it is rather the individuals which are reduced to unity in the universal.
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  • The universal consists of the non-different elements or attributes in the separate individuals, which alone exist substantially.
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  • maniere) to signify that genera and species represented the different ways in which individuals might be regarded.
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  • For that system still seems to recognize a generic substance as the core of the individual, whereas, according to Cousin's rendering of Abelard's doctrine, " only individuals exist, and in the individual nothing but the individual."
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  • Holding fast then on the one hand to the individual as the only true substance, and on the other to the traditional definition of the genus as that which is predicated of a number of individuals (quod praedicatur de pluribus), Abelard declared that this definition of itself condemns the Realistic theory; only a name, not a thing, can be so predicated - not the name, however, as a flatus vocis or a collection of letters, but the name as used in discourse, the name as a sign, as having a meaning - in a word, not vox but sermo.
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  • What Abelard combats is the substantiation of these resembling qualities, which leads to their being regarded as identical in all the separate individuals, and thus paves the way for the gradual undermining of the individual, the only true and indivisible substance.
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  • Albert and Aquinas both profess the moderate Aristotelian Realism which treats genera and species only as substantiae secundae, yet as really inherent in the individuals, and constituting their form or essence.
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  • " The variety of individuals," says Albert, " depends entirely upon the division of matter," and Aquinas says the principle of the diversity of individuals of the same species is the quantitative division of matter," which his followers render by the abbreviated phrase materia quanta.
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  • But, as Ueberweg points out, it might fairly be urged by Aquinas that he does not pretend to explain how the individual is actually created, but merely states what he finds to be an invariable condition of the existence of individuals.
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  • They possess the principle of individuation in themselves, he teaches, but plurality of individuals is in such a case equivalent to plurality of species (in eis tot sunt species quot sunt individua).
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  • The Realists, he considers, have greatly sinned against this maxim in their theory of a real universal or common element in all the individuals of a class.
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  • - The discussion, in � of the number of terms of a particular kind in a particular product, forms part of the theory of combinatorial analysis, which deals with the grouping and arrangement of individuals taken from a defined stock.
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  • Certain of the individuals may be distinguishable from the remainder of the stock, but not from each other; these may be called a type.
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  • The number (n P r) of permutations of r individuals out of a stock of n, all being distinguishable, is n`r).
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  • the number of distinguishable permutations of the whole stock is n!= (a?b!cI (ii.) A combination is a group of individuals without regard to arrangement.
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  • Thus (4) of � 41 (ii.) follows from the fact that, if A is any one of the n individuals, the nCr groups of r consist of n _ 1 C r _ 1 which contain A and n_1C, which do not contain A.
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  • (iii.) If there are n types, the number of individuals in each type being unlimited (or at any rate not less than r), the number (n H r) of distinguishable groups of r individuals out of the total stock is n[r].
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  • If, in this latter case, the proportion of cases in which b is B to cases in which b is not-B is the same for the group of pN individuals in which a is A as for the group of (I-p)N in which a is not-A, then the frequencies of A and of B are said to be independent; if this is not the case they are said to be correlated.
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  • Having obtained a first hybrid generation, he allowed the hybrids to self-fertilize, and recorded the result in a large number of instances (a thousand or more) as to the number of individuals in the first, second, third and fourth generations in which the character selected for experiment made its appearance.
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  • In the first hybrid generation formed by the union of the reproductive germs of the positive variety (that possessing the structural character selected for observation) with those of the negative variety, it is not surprising that all or nearly all the individuals were found to exhibit, as a result of the mixture, the positive character.
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  • In subsequent generations produced by self-fertilization of the hybrids it was found that the positive character was not present in all the individuals, but that a result was obtained showing that in the formation of the reproductive cells (ova and sperms) of the hybrid, half were endowed with the positive character and half with the negative.
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  • The failure of the material carrying a positive character to divide so as to distribute itself among all the reproductive cells of a hybrid individual, and the limitation of its distribution to half only of those cells, must prevent the swamping " of a newly appearing character in the course of the inter-breeding of those individuals possessed of the character with those which do not possess it.
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  • The most instructive classification of the " variations " exhibited by fully formed organisms consists in the separation in the first place of those which arise from antecedent congenital, innate, constitutional or germinal variations from those which arise merely from the operation of variation of the environment or the food-supply upon normally constituted individuals.
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  • of Their causes are extremely difficult to trace in detail, but it appears that they are largely due to a " shaking up " of the living matter which constitutes the fertilized germ or embryo-cell, by the process of mixture in it of the substance of two cells - the germcell and the sperm-cell - derived from two different individuals.
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  • Supposing a number of some species of arthropod or fish to be swept into a cavern or to be carried from less to greater depths in the sea, those individuals with perfect eyes would follow the glimmer of light and eventually escape to the outer air or the shallower depths, leaving behind those with imperfect eyes to breed in the dark place.
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  • If a character of much longer standing (certain properties of height, length, breadth, colour, &c.) had not become fixed and congenital after many thousands of successive generations of individuals had developed it in response to environment, but gave place to a new character when new moulding conditions operated on an individual (Lamarck's first law), why should we suppose that the new character is likely to become fixed and transmitted by mere heredity after a much shorter time of existence in response to environmental stimulus ?
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  • The stock may be destroyed, killed out by adverse conditions, but its quality is not directly affected, and if removed to more favourable conditions it will show no hereditary results of the previous adversity; indeed it will probably have been strengthened in some ways by the destruction in severe conditions of its weaker members and the survival of the stronger individuals.
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  • Thus, for example, the numerous psalms in which the poets, though speaking perhaps, not as individuals but as members of a class, describe themselves as poor and afflicted at the hands of certain ungodly men, who appear to be Jews, can hardly have been originally collected by the Temple choirs.
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  • 25) before a system of government concessions to private individuals was started.
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  • That the Pharaoh's skirt, sometimes decorated with a pleated golden material, should become an honorific garment, the right of wearing which was proudly recorded among the bearer's titles, is quite intelligible, but many difficulties arise when one attempts to identify the individuals represented, or to trace the evolution of ideas.2 The well-known conservatism of religious practice manifests itself in ceremonial festivals (where there is a tendency for the original religious meaning to be obscured) and among cere= the priests, and it is interesting to observe that despite the great changes in Egyptian costume in the New Kingdom the priests still kept to the simple linen skirt of earlier days (Erman, 206).
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  • Ducks are also numerous in species and individuals, including a small bird called the guiriri, in imitation of its cry.
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  • The wrongs inflicted by him on companies and individuals of various nationalities, who had invested capital in industrial enterprises in Venezuela, led to a blockade of the Venezuelan ports in 1903 by English, German and Italian warships.
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  • Individuals suffering from pulmonary phthisis are encouraged to live night and day in the open, and with the best results.
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  • So various are the conditions of selfregulation in various animals, both in respect of their peculiar and several modes of assimilating different foods, and of protecting themselves against particular dangers from without, that, as we might have expected, the bloods taken from different species, or even perhaps from different individuals, are found to be so divergent that the healthy serum of one species may be, and often is, poisonous to another; not so much in respect of adventitious substances, as because the phases of physiological change in different species do not harmonize; each by its peculiar needs has been modified until, in their several conditions of life, they vary so much about the mean as to have become almost if not quite alien one to another.
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  • From the new regard given by physiologists and pathologists to the study of origins, and in the new hopes of thus dealing with disease at its springs, not in individuals only but in cities and nations, issued the great school of Preventive Medicine, initiated in England - E.
    0
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  • Thus the field of disease arising not from essential defect in the body, but from external contingencies, is vastly enlarging; while on the other hand the great variability of individuals in susceptibility explains the very variable results of such extrinsic causes.
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  • The magnitude of the traffic problem as a whole may be best appreciated by examples of the vast schemes of improvement which from time to time have been put forward by responsible individuals.
    0
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  • What began as a natural alliance was used later as a means of enforcing responsibility and keeping lawless individuals in order.
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  • He supported the Restoration in this parliament, and in the Convention Parliament, which met on the 25th of April 1660, and in which he sat for Bath, he urged severe measures against the regicides, and the exclusion of several individuals from the Act of Indemnity.
    0
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  • This fact gave rise in ancient times to the false idea that the tapeworm originated from the union of these segments; and in modern times it has led to the view that the tapeworm is not a segmented organism (the monozoic view), but is a colony composed of the scolex which arises from the embryo and of the proglottides, which are asexually produced buds that, upon or before attaining their full size and maturity, become separated, grow, and, in some cases, live freely for a time, just as the segments of a strobilating jelly-fish grow, separate and become sexual individuals (the polyzoic view).
    0
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  • When the old kin-bond or maegth was beginning to weaken or dissolve, and the state did not yet afford adequate protection to its citizens, individuals naturally united for mutual help.
    0
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  • Careful examination of a large number of individuals of one variety growing under similar conditions reveals differences in such characters as number of leaves per plant, the size and shape of the leaves, tendency to form suckers, time of maturing and resistance to disease.
    0
    0
  • It has been calculated that a single pair of guineapigs may prove the parent stock of a thousand individuals in a single year.
    0
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  • The whole system was designed to suppress the competition of outsiders, but the divergent interests of individuals and towns, the pressure of competition and changing commercial conditions, in part the reactionary character of the legislation, made enforcement difficult.
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  • The largest known species is the drummer of the West Indies (Blabera gigantea), so called from the tapping noise it makes on wood, sufficient, when joined in by several individuals, as usually happens, to break the slumbers of a household.
    0
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  • EYRA (Felis eyra), a South American wild cat, of weasel-like build, and uniform coloration, varying in different individuals from reddish-yellow to chestnut.
    0
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  • Of more interest are the letters, nearly four hundred in number, and addressed to kings, popes, cardinals, bishops, conventual bodies, political corporations and private individuals.
    0
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  • The suggestibility of large crowds is markedly greater than that of individuals, and to this and the greater faith must be attributed the greater success of the fashionable places of pilgrimage.
    0
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  • Both male and female gonoducts open through acornmon atrium to the exterior by tkis pore, but in three bisexual genera the male and female ducts are developed in separate individuals (Bilharzia, Didymozoon, Koellikeria).
    0
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  • Here it gives rise by a peculiar process to numerous individuals of a second larval form, and these usually produce a third form from which the minute immature Trematode is developed.
    0
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  • In this manner a single egg may give rise to a large number of sexual individuals.
    0
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  • Polymorphism usually occurs, certain individuals having the form of avicularia or vibracula.
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  • These were at one time believed to represent two individuals of different kinds, together constituting a zooid.
    0
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  • The first principle to which he looked for national salvation was, that the"duties of governors are strictly and peculiarly religious, and that legislatures, like individuals, are bound to carry throughout their acts the spirit of the high truths they have acknowledged."
    0
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  • This theory has been propounded in many forms, but the central idea is that the universe of individuals consists of the involuntary "outpourings" of the ultimate divine essence.
    0
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  • The two theories are alike in so far as both recognize the existence of individuals as due to a necessary process of differentiation and a scale of existence.
    0
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  • The number of species and individuals steadily decreases in the cooler temperate zones, whilst it reaches its maximum in the tropics.
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  • ordinatus, are perhaps more abundant as regards the number of individuals than any other snake.
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  • In March 1716 he declared his final abandonment of the Pretender and promised to use his influence to secure the withdrawal of his friends; but he refused to betray any secrets or any individuals.
    0
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  • Even on the assumption that the Athenian dicasteries were scrupulously fair in their awards, it must have been peculiarly galling to the self-respect of the allies and inconvenient to individuals to be compelled to carry cases to Athens and Athenian juries.
    0
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  • The skins from northern regions are more full and of a finer colour and gloss than those from more temperate climates, as are those of animals killed in winter compared to the same individuals in summer.
    0
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  • What is known as the Society of Rosicrucians (Rosenkreuzer) was really a number of isolated individuals who early in the 17th century held certain views in common (which apparently was their only bond of union); for of a society holding meetings, and having officers, there is no trace.
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  • This movement is characterized firstly by its magnitude; secondly, by the fact that the emigrant changes his political allegiance, for by far the greater part of modern emigration is to independent countries, and even where it is to colonies the colonies are largely self-governing and self-regarding; and thirdly, it is a movement of individuals seeking their own good, without state direction or aid.
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  • The attractive influences upon individuals have been higher wages, greater scope for the ambitious, and the social advantages of city life.
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  • While it is true that the Church has never condemned individuals, and that the warnings refer only to those who have received the faith, and do not touch the question of the unbaptized, there is a growing feeling that they go beyond the teaching of Holy Scripture on the responsibility of intellect in matters of faith.'
    0
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  • The development of a true insect society among the Hymenoptera is dependent on a differentiation among the females between individuals with well-developed ovaries (" queens ") whose special function is reproduction; and individuals with reduced or aborted ovaries (" workers ") whose duty is to build the nest, to gather food and to tend and feed the larvae.
    0
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  • Among the wasps the workers may only differ from the queens in size, and individuals intermediate between the two forms of female may be met with.
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  • vi., stratagems of a whole people (Carthaginians, Lacedaemonians, Argives), together with some individuals (Philopoemen, Pyrrhus, Hannibal); bk.
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  • In many of these insects, while most individuals of the species are wingless, winged specimens are now and then met with.
    0
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  • In particular Sir John Murray considers that only deeps exceeding 3000 fathoms in depth should be named, and in his charts he has named these deeps after persons whether the individuals thus honoured had themselves discovered or explored the deeps in question or not.
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  • "The individuals d6 not make part of the being of the one life, but are a pure form of its absolute freedom."
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  • (2) While it had been held as an undoubted principle by the ancient church that this sentence could only be passed on living individuals whose fault had been distinctly stated and fully proved, we find the medieval church on the one hand sanctioning the practice of excommunication of the dead (Morinus, De poenit.
    0
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  • In addition to the companies a comparatively large number of private individuals have laid out plantations, Usambara and Pare having become favourite districts for agricultural enterprise.
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  • Individuals, often large groups, and even whole districts, had indeed earlier rejected some portions of the Roman Catholic faith, or refused obedience to the ecclesiastical government; but previously to the burning of the canon law by Luther no prince had openly and permanently cast off his allegiance to the international conceived them is found in his Dictatus.
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  • As has been said it classifies universals as predicates of individuals and thus involves the difficulties which gave rise to the controversy between realism and nominalism.
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  • There seems in fact nothing to prevent us from holding that while natural laws express the average tendencies of multitudes they give no clue to the movement of individuals.
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  • In the time of Demosthenes, accordingly, we find them annulling the election of individuals to offices for which they were unfit (Plut.
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  • Individuals of this race survived till at least 1850 in Pembroke, where they were at one time kept perfectly pure as a part of the regular farm-stock.
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  • Individuals of the race were sometimes born entirely black, and then were not to be distinguished from the common Pembroke cattle of the mountains.
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  • Five years before this, however, a periodical enumeration by families and individuals had been established in the colony of New France, and was continued in Quebec from 1665 till 1754.
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  • In the case of statistical data there is the further difficulty that there is no real continuity, since we are concerned with a finite number of individuals.
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  • Since the middle of the 19th century an attempt has been made to meet the problems arising from a rapid industrial and social development by creating bureaus or commissions to exercise a central control over local officials, corporations and even private individuals, and as most of the heads of these bureaus and the commissions are appointed by the governor the importance of that officer has increased.
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  • They are the guardian angels of the nations; and we also find the idea that individuals have guardian angels".
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  • But this limit varies greatly with different individuals and with age for the same individual.
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  • Private individuals were also encouraged to follow the imperial example.
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  • These ideas are further developed in various papers in the Bulletin and in his L'Anthropometrie, ou mesure des differentes facultes de l'homme (18'ji), in which he lays great stress on the universal applicability of the binomial law, - according to which the number of cases in which, for instance, a certain height occurs among a large number of individuals is represented by an ordinate of a curve (the binomial) symmetrically situated with regard to the ordinate representing the mean result (average height).
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  • In some cases there is no suggestion of any forgiveness; sinners are " cut off " from the chosen people; individuals and nations perish in their iniquity.
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  • Of all sea-fishes Clupeae are the most abundant; for although other genera may comprise a greater variety of species, they are far surpassed by Clupea with regard to the number of individuals.
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  • A second species (Clupea leachii) has been supposed to exist on the British coast; but it comprises only individuals of a smaller size, the produce of an early or late spawn.
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  • How far such adaptations are produced afresh in each generation, whether or no their effects are transmitted to descendants and so directly modify the stock, to what extent adaptations characteristic of a species or variety have come about by selection of individuals capable, in each generation, of responding favourably, or how far by the selection of individuals fortuitously suitable to the environment, or, how far, possibly by the inheritance of the responses to the environment, are problems of biology not yet definitely solved.
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  • This relatively small cat, uniformly coloured, is generally of some shade of brownish-grey, but in some individuals the fur has a rufous coat, while in others grey predominates.
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  • 10 Individuals, too, adopted zodiacal emblems. Capricornus was impressed upon the coins of Augustus, Libra on those ' of Pythodoris, queen of Pontus; a sultan of Iconium displayed Leo as his " horoscope " and mark of sovereignty; Stephen of England chose the protection of Sagittarius.
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  • They were dreaded as soldiers, and as individuals commanded a position resembling that of Europeans in most eastern countries.
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  • The Ardennes are the holiday ground of the Belgian people, and much of this region is still unknown except to the few persons who by a happy chance have discovered its remoter and hitherto well-guarded charms. There is still an immense quantity of wild game to be found in the Ardennes, including red and roe deer, wild boar, &c. The shooting is preserved either by the few great landed proprietors left in the country, or by the communes, who let the right of shooting to individuals.
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  • Individuals of seven or eight pounds weight are considered fish of large size, but specimens of double that weight have been caught.
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  • This, again, is a process of abstraction, the attainment of abstract ideas which, apart from the concrete individuals, are conceived as having a substantive existence.
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  • The Girondists were, indeed, rather a group of individuals holding certain opinions and principles in common than an organized political party, and the name was at first somewhat loosely applied to them owing to the fact that the most brilliant exponents of their point of view were deputies from the Gironde.
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  • That they had a large measure of authority of course goes without saying, but it depended always upon their brethren's recognition of their possession of the divine gift of apostleship, and the right of Churches or individuals to test their claims and to refuse to listen to them if they did not vindicate their divine call was everywhere recognized.
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  • Now among the Arabs, as we have seen, ritual service is the affair of the individual, or of a mass of individuals gathered in a great feast, but still doing worship each for himself and his own private circle; the only public aspect of religion is found in connexion with divination and the oracle to which the affairs of the community are submitted.
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  • The Gardens of the Zoological Society of London in Regent's Park, founded in 1828, extend to only about 35 acres, but the collection, if species and rare animals be considered rather than the number of individuals, has always been the finest in existence.
    0
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  • These figures are based chiefly on the London expenditure and relate to a collection which is probably more varied than any other, but not specially large in numbers, containing on an average a little over 3000 individuals.
    0
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  • Individuals, moreover, vary greatly in their capacity to respond successfully to new conditions of life, and it is less costly and more practical if the selection be made in their natural homes.
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  • The principal causes of variation in the individual are age, period of lactation, nature and amount of food, state of health, and treatment, such as frequency of milking, &c. The following table indicates the The average quantity of milk yielded by variable, both in individuals and breeds.
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  • Sprengel's work, which had been almost forgotten, was taken up again by Charles Darwin, who concluded that no organic being can fertilize itself through an unlimited number of generations; but a cross with other individuals is occasionally - perhaps at very long intervals - indis pensable.
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  • For the purpose of creating villages, land was put at the disposition of societies or individuals, who undertook to people them with immigrants fulfilling the same conditions as independent settlers.
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  • The societies or individuals undertaking village settlements must do so from philanthropic motives, inasmuch as within two years of the founding of a village, the land, under pain of forfeiture to the state, must be transferred gratuitously to the villagers.
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  • Paulo in Brazil supplied Sars with representatives of all the three in his Norwegian aquaria, in some of which the little Macrothrix elegans " multiplied to such an extraordinary extent as at last to fill up the water with immense shoals of individuals."
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  • Nevertheless criticism advanced by slow degrees among individuals, now in the Roman Church, now in the number of those who sat loosely to the restrictions of either Roman or Protestant authority, and now among Protestant scholars and theologians.
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  • From these names alone it is impossible to determine whether the places derived their names from individuals or tribes.
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  • But behind these was the practice of the greater churches; and behind that again was not only the lead of a few distinguished individuals, but the instinctive judgment of the main body of the faithful.
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  • Like the teraphim it was part of the common stock of Hebrew cult; it is borne (rather than worn) by persons acting in a priestly character (Samuel at Shiloh, priests of Nob, David), it is part of the worship of individuals (Gideon at Ophrah), and is found in a private shrine with a lay attendant (Micah; Judg.
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  • The last of the Dakota bisons were destroyed by Indians in 1883, leaving then less than b000 wild individuals in the United States.
    0
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  • The interpretation which Isaiah puts on this fact depends on the circumstance that at that date religion had never been conceived as a relation between God and individuals, or as a relation between God and a purely spiritual society, but always as a relation between a deity and some natural social group - a stock, a tribe, a nation.
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  • He raised up for Himself particular individuals, into whose mouths He put the word of God, and these were at first regarded as the true leaders of the congregations.
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  • As we approach the tropics, the variety of forms and the number of individuals increase, the most specialized and developed forms, and also the most degraded, being found in the tropics.
    0
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  • The smallest lizards of this family belong to the genus Anolis, extremely numerous as regards species (more than ioo) and individuals on bushes and trees of tropical America, and especially of the West Indies.
    0
    0
  • In the West, where philosophical efforts of any kind had been very rare since the 2nd century, and where mystical contemplation did not meet with the necessary conditions, Neoplatonism found a congenial soil only in isolated individuals.
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  • He recognizes as coming within the functions of the state the erection and maintenance of those public institutions and public works which, though advantageous to the society, could not repay, and therefore must not be thrown upon, individuals or small groups of individuals.
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  • Moreover, the last stages of individual life are prophetic not only of future rising and progressing derivatives, but in the case of senile individuals of future declining and degradational series.
    0
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  • Among invertebrates Barrande's doctrine of centres of origin was applied by Hyatt to the genesis of the Arietidae (1889); after studying thousands of individuals from the principal deposits of Europe he decided that the cradles of the various branches of this family were the basins of the CSte d'Or and southern Germany.
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  • Since then many attempts have been made to procure the recall of the Society to the German Empire, but without success, although as individuals they are now allowed in the country.
    0
    0
  • Bats are numerous, both in species and individuals.
    0
    0
  • The rainbow-god of the Ewe was also conceived to have the form of a snake; his messenger was said to be a small variety of boa; but only certain individuals, not the whole species, were sacred.
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  • Its length (inclusive of the flagellum) varies from 40-60 while its greatest width (including the undulating-membrane) is from 8-30, u; in the very wide individuals breadth is gained more or less at the expense of length.
    0
    0
  • 3, H) is extremely thread-like, greatly resembling, in fact, a Spirochaete; on the other hand, both male and female individuals have the form of a very wide spindle.
    0
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  • Certain individuals of a particular character form definite rounded cysts in the rectum of the fly; in this condition, the only sign of Trypanosome structure is afforded by the two nuclei, which remain separate.
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  • a, Single individuals; b, dividing forms (from Mesnil, mostly after Wright).
    0
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  • As an example of this stage in one of its aspects may be taken the European belief in the corn spirit, which is, however, the object of magical rather than religious rites; Dr Frazer has thus defined the character of the animistic pantheon, "they are restricted in their operations to definite departments of nature; their names are general, not proper; their attributes are generic rather than individual; in other words, there is an indefinite number of spirits of each class, and the individuals of a class are much alike; they have no definitely marked individuality; no accepted traditions are current as to their origin, life and character."
    0
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  • The milk-produce in the common goat as well as other kinds varies greatly with individuals.
    0
    0
  • Examples have been taken on the British coasts; and individuals have been kept for some time in captivity in America and in London.
    0
    0
  • munus, a duty or privilege, capere, to take), in ancient Rome, the term applied primarily to a status, a certain relation between individuals or communities and the Roman state; subsequently and in ordinary usage to a community, standing in such a relation to Rome.
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  • Gervaise of Tilbury, writing early in the 13th century, has in his Otia Imperialia a chapter, De lamiis et nocturnis larvis, where he gives it out, as proved by individuals beyond all exception, that men have been lovers of beings of this kind whom they call Fadas, and who did in case of infidelity or infringement of secrecy inflict terrible punishment - the loss of goods and even of life.
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  • The Proterozoic formations have yielded a few fossils in several places, especially Montana and northern Arizona; but they are so imperfect, their numbers, whether of individuals or of species, are so small, and the localities where they occur so few, that they are of little service in correlation throughout the United States.
    0
    0
  • The fossils of the Ordovician system show that life made great progress during the, period, in numbers both of individuals and of species.
    0
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  • That this line owed its inception and construction chiefly to the joint enterprise of two private individuals, Messrs Mackenzie and Mann, was a striking proof of the industrial capacities of the country.
    0
    0
  • Al' Gill University at Montreal has been enlarged and splendidly endowed by the munificence of a few private individuals; Toronto University by the provincial legislature of Ontario; Queen's University at Kingston largely by the support of its own graduates and friends.
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  • The gonads of Anodonta are placed in distinct male and female individuals.
    0
    0
  • Platonism is the doctrine that the individuals we call things only become, but a thing is always one universal form beyond many individuals, e.g.
    0
    0
  • without supernatural forms, which are models of individuals,.
    0
    0
  • Individual so-called things neither are nor are not, but become: the real thing is always one universal form beyond the many individuals, e.g.
    0
    0
  • the one beautiful beyond all beautiful individuals; and each form (18a) is a model which causes individuals by participation to become like, but not the same as, itself.
    0
    0
  • Above all forms stands the form of the good, which is the cause of all other forms being, and through them of all individuals becoming.
    0
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  • Knowledge resides not in sense but in reason, which, on the suggestion of sensations of changing individuals, apprehends, or (to be precise) is reminded of, real universal forms, and, by first ascending from less to more general until it arrives at the form of good and then descending from this unconditional principle to the less general, becomes science and philosophy, using as its method the dialectic which gives and receives questions and answers between man and man.
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  • In order to explain the unity and variety of the world, the one universal form and the many individuals, and how the one good is the main cause of everything, he placed as it were at the back of his own doctrine of forms a Pythagorean mathematical philosophy.
    0
    0
  • Further he supposed that in its turn each form, or formal number, is a limited one which, by combining again with the indeterminate two, causes a plurality of individuals.
    0
    0
  • The doctrine that all things are substances which are separate individuals, stated in the Categories, is expanded in the Metaphysics.
    0
    0
  • It follows that Aristotelianism in the Categories and in the Metaphysics is a realism both of individuals and of universals; of individual substances as real subjects, and of universals as real predicates.
    0
    0
  • Now, according to the unity of a universal asserted by Plato and accepted by Aristotle, the universal essence of species, being one and the same for all individuals of the kind, is the same as the essence of each individual: e.g.
    0
    0
  • Substances are so similar that the individuals of a species are even the same in essence or substance, e.g.
    0
    0
  • Such is Aristotle's realism of individuals and universals, contained in his primary philosophy, as expressed in the Metaphysics, especially in Book Z, his authoritative pronouncement on being and substance.
    0
    0
  • - Since things are individuals, and there is nothing, and nothing universal, beyond them, there are two kinds of knowledge sense of individuals, intellect (vous) of universals.
    0
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  • this white substance: intellect thereupon discovers the universal essence but only in the individuals of sense.
    0
    0
  • Two substances, being individuals, e.g.
    0
    0
  • the species man, is not predicate of many individuals (b) Kara IroXXi v, Post.
    0
    0
  • 11), but a whole number of similar individuals, e.g.
    0
    0
  • Similarly, the universal essence of a species is not one and the same as each individual essence, but is the whole number of similar individual essences of the similar individuals of the species, e.g.
    0
    0
  • Consequently, the universal essence of a species of substances is not one and the same eternal essence in all the individuals of a species but only similar, and is not substance as Aristotle calls it in the Metaphysics, inconsistently with his own doctrine of substance, but is a whole number of similar substances, e.g.
    0
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  • But at bottom there remains the fundamental position of Aristotelianism, that all things are substances, individuals separate though related; that some things are attributes, real only as being some individual substance somehow affected, or, as we should say, modified or determined; and that without individual substances there is nothing, and nothing universal apart from individuals.
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  • The vast majority of individuals in a community consist of wingless forms - " workers " and " soldiers," which are undeveloped members of either sex.
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  • State officials are forbidden to accept railway passes from railway companies, and individuals are forbidden to receive freight rebates.
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  • In addition to the usual method of employing convicts in the penitentiary or on state farms, Alabama, like other southern states, also hires its convicts to labour for private individuals.
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  • The ovary is an organ which in shape and size somewhat resembles a large almond, though its appearance varies considerably in different individuals, and at different times of life.
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  • Sub-leases for a term of years are granted by the crown to private individuals; local control, including the policing of the settlement, is managed by a municipal council elected under regulations promulgated by the British minister in China, acting by authority of the sovereign's orders in council.
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  • In 1866 the lease system was introduced, by which the convicts were leased for a term of years to private individuals.
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  • But, whether because he drew a distinction between the treason of individuals and of states, or was influenced by Seward, or simply, once in responsible position, separated Republican party politics from the question of constitutional interpretation, at least he speedily showed that he would be influenced by no acrimony, and adopted the lenient reconstruction policy of Lincoln.
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  • Where the security is bad the market is narrowed; the individuals who are prepared to lend the money on merely personal security require a high rate of interest.
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  • The moral law is merely a collection of rules of conduct based on an infinite number of special cases in which the convenience of society or its rulers has subordinated the inclination of individuals.
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  • He had specially prepared himself, as he thought, for "teaching imaginative men, and political men, and legal men, and scientific men who bear the world in hand"; and he did not attempt to win their attention to abstract and worn-out theological arguments, but discussed the opinions, the poetry, the politics, the manners and customs of the time, and this not with philosophical comprehensiveness, not in terms of warm eulogy or measured blame, but of severe satire varied by fierce denunciation, and with a specific minuteness which was concerned primarily with individuals.
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  • Its unity is not purely accidental in that individuals have been forced to act together under pressure of chance circumstances.
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  • There were also collections on the same scale belonging to individuals; a patrician of Nuremberg named Muffel was able to gain possession of 308 relics (Chroniken der deutschen State, xi.
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  • His view was that all things are substances, in the sense of distinct individuals, each of which has a being of its 1 The article is supplemented b y e.g.
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  • Hartmann has an affinity with all these predecessors, and with Spinoza, with whom he agrees that there is but one substance unaltered by the plurality of individuals which are only its modifications.
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  • Now, the point of Schuppe is that, so far as they agree, individual consciousnesses are not merely similar, but the same in essence; and this supposed one and the same essence of consciousness in different individuals is what he calls consciousness in general (Bewusstsein iiberhaupt).
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  • " Every human individual," says he, originally accepts over against him an environment with manifold parts, other individuals making manifold statements, and what is stated in some way dependent upon the environment."
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  • Kant, then, as interpreted by English Hegelians, already believed, before Hegel, that there is one intelligence common to all individuals, and that a noumenon is a thought of this common intelligence, " an ideal of reason "; so that Kant was trying to be a Hegelian, holding that the world has no being beyond the thoughts of one intelligence.
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  • While it asserted a realism of individuals, it admitted a conceptualism of universals.
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  • There is no observed change in the natural order of things; mankind re-creates itself in the same manner according to the capacity given by Nature, and the various ills to which it is heir, though fatal to individuals, do not avail to modify the whole.
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  • The former consisted of persons who possessed, whether as individuals or families, at least five hides of land - which practically means a village - while the latter were landless, i.e.
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  • It must be noted, however, that while most of the spinning concerns are worked by limited companies or individuals with a considerable capital, a good many small manufacturers exist who have little capital and are practically financied by their agents or customers.
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  • Two individuals are of some importance: (i) Marcus Cornelius Cethegus, pontifex maximus and curule aedile, 213 B.C. In 211, as praetor, he had charge of Apulia; later, he was sent to Sicily, where he proved a successful administrator.
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  • But in all cases the disciplinary authority is evidently the same; we need only note that acts concerning individuals do not claim the force of general law; the legal decisions serve at most to settle matters of jurisprudence, like the judgments of all sovereign courts.
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  • Some domesticated mice are entirely white with the exception that they have black eyeballs; and individuals of this type are known in which there is a reduction of pigment in the eyeballs, and since the colour of the blood is then partially visible these appear of a reddish-black colour.
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  • The individuals in which this diminished pigmentation is found are for the most part those living in caves, and it is probable that their condition is not truly albinotic, but only temporary and due to the absence of the stimulus of light.
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  • With birds and mammals, however, there is no doubt that complete albino individuals do occur; and among species which, like the jackdaw, certain deer and rabbits, are normally deeply pigmented.
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  • P. Mudge for rats, that in a cross between a coloured individual of known gametic purity and an albino, the individuals of the progeny in either the first or second, or both generations, may differ, and that the difference in some cases wholly depends upon the albino used.
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  • It has been shown that the individuals in such an offspring may bear patterns which never occurred in the ancestry of the coloured parent, but did in that of the albino; and, moreover, if the same coloured parent be mated with another individual, either albino or coloured, that their offspring may never contain members bearing such patterns.
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  • Moreover, some of the albinoes possess these particular "pattern" hairs all over the body and obviously such individuals are carrying the self pattern.
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  • He was able by appropriate experiments to demonstrate that when an albino is derived (extracted) from a coloured ancestry, and is then crossed with a coloured individual, both the colour of the pigmented parent and of the pigmented ancestry of the albino may appear among the individuals of the offspring.
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  • The proportions in which the various coloured individuals appear are approximately those demanded by the Mendelian principle of gametic purity and segregation.
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  • Some of the individuals will be one or other of the two colours, the determinants of which were borne by the albino, and others the colour of the pigmented parent.
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  • Albino individuals may reappear among the offspring.
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  • In the former case they would form one-quarter of the individuals of this second (F.2) generation, and in the latter, one-half.
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  • For there is expected in the offspring of this third son coloured individuals and albinoes in the proportion of 3: I.
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  • Now such a gametic (egg or sperm) constitution can only result when two individuals, all or some of whose gametes are pure with regard to the character albinism, meet in fertilization.
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  • Hence it is readily seen that it is among cousin marriages that the greater probabilities exist that two individuals bearing identical characters will meet, than in the population at large.
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  • Then, in the scheme below, if A b and (A)N b are two brothers who both marry normal wives N, their children N(A) in the first case will be all normal in appearance but will be carrying albinism recessive; and in the second case some will be pure normal individuals N, and some will be like the children of the first brother, i.e.
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  • A popular conception exists that albinoes are less constitutionally strong than the pigmented individuals of the same species.
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  • Partial albinism in this case was undoubtedly correlated with some inherent constitutional defect, in virtue of which the individuals characterized by it were injuriously affected by the juices of a plant quite innocuous to their pigmented brethren.
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  • Heusinger has shown that white sheep and pigs are injured by the ingestion (A) N b X N ?--,r N(A)+N of certain plants, while the pigmented individuals may eat them without harm.
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  • But the question as to whether albinoes are more or less constitutionally vigorous than pigmented individuals of the same species may be tested by exact measurement.
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  • This would give for albinoes and pigmented individuals the amount per kilogramme of body-weight required to kill in each case, and would afford a measurement of the relative resistance of the two races.
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  • It was found that the resistance of albinoes towards the coagulative effects of injected nucleo-proteids was to that of pigmented individuals as.
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  • - Under this head are placed buildings erected, either by states or by individuals, as offerings to the Olympian god.
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  • This being so, it is evident that if all the distasteful species in a given area are differently coloured, some individuals of all the species will be annually sacrificed to the experimental tasting of inexperienced foes before the numerous lessons have been learnt.
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  • One lesson only, instead of many, has to be learnt; and once learnt at the expense of a few individuals of one or two species it will thereafter be applied indiscriminately to all.
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  • (r) In South America there are butterflies formerly grouped as Heliconidae which are conspicuously coloured, slow of flight and abundant in individuals so as to be susceptible of easy capture.
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  • On the Amazons and in other parts of South America there are butterflies of the group Ithomiinae which are distasteful and have all the characters of specially protected species, being conspicuously coloured, slow of flight, careless of exposure and abundant in individuals.
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  • It is advantageous therefore that the numbers of the mimetic species should be fewer than those of the model; and this appears to be achieved in some cases by the individuals of the mimetic species dividing themselves between two or more models.
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  • (2) Family Orders, bestowed upon members of the royal or princely class, or upon humbler individuals according to classes, in respect of " personal " services rendered to the family.
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  • This slowness of growth is associated with great length of life and it is probable that individuals found growing on hard mountain rocks or on the trunks of aged trees are many hundreds of years old.
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  • 12-14), is afterwards promised for the pious individuals (Is.
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  • Eschatology was universalized (God was recognized as the creator and moral governor of all tic the world), individualized (God's judgment was directed, not to nations in a future age, but to individuals in a future life), transcendentalized (the future age was more and more contrasted with the present, and the transition from the one to the other was not expected as the result of historical movements, but of miraculous divine acts), and dogmatized (the attempt was made to systematize in some measure the vague and varied prophetic anticipations).
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  • Similar occasions for rejoicing were introduced by individuals into their families to celebrate their escape from danger.
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  • Around individuals penetrated with Christian zeal and self-denial has centred not merely the life, but the very existence of primitive, medieval and modern missions.
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  • The proportion of northern forms, as regards both species and individuals, increases as we ascend to the higher regions.
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  • - The increase of plants, so far as the production of new individuals of particular kinds is concerned, is one of the most important and constantly recurring of gardening operations.
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  • of Norwich) became their principal settlement, and the remnant, numbering about 100 individuals of mixed blood in 1904, still live here and in the vicinity.
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  • In 1845 the state under took to develop the railway system, and a company of private individuals was formed to administer it under the title of the Maatschappij tot Exploitatie van Staatspoorwegen.
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  • speaks of Gabii, Labici and Bovillae as places that had fallen into abject poverty, while Horace refers to Gabii and Fidenae as mere " deserted villages," and Strabo as " once fortified towns, but now villages, belonging to private individuals."
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  • The supply of this demand in earlier times led to such severe competition as to terminate in tribal pillages and even national wars; and in modern times it has led to commercial ventures on the part of individuals and companies, the account of which, told in its plainest form, reads like the pages of romance.
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  • Ft50s, and meant a number of individuals having common characters peculiar to them, and so forming a group which with other groups were included in a higher group. The application of the term was purely relative, for the higher group itself might be one of the "species," or modes of a still higher group. In medicine it was used for the constituents of a prescription.
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  • The word "species" now signifies a grade or rank in classification assigned by systematists to an assemblage of organic forms which they judge to be more closely interrelated by common descent than they are related to forms judged to be outside the species, and of which the known individuals, if they differ amongst themselves, differ less markedly than they do from those outside the species, or, if differing markedly, are linked by intermediate forms. It is to be noted that the individuals may themselves be judged to fall into groups of minor rank, known as sub-species or local varieties, but such subordinate assemblages are elevated to specific rank, if they appear not to intergrade so as to form a linked.
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  • There is often a furrow running along the edges of the octahedron, or across the edges of the cube, and this indicates that the apparently simple crystal may really consist of eight individuals meeting at the centre; or, what comes to the same thing, of two individuals interpenetrating and projecting through each other.
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  • C. Selous, in South Africa the black-maned lion and others with yellow scanty manes are found, not only in the same locality, but even among individuals of the same parentage.
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  • Again, it is surely plain enough that the apprehension by individuals of the evils of poverty, or a sense of duty to their possible offspring, may retard the increase of population, and has in all civilized communities operated to a certain extent in that way.
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  • The limitation of time for recovery of tithes or estates in tithes, whether between rival claimants to tithes or tithe-owners or tithe-payers, if belonging to lay individuals or lay or spiritual corporations aggregate, is a period of twelve years, as in the case of other real property (37 & 38 Vict.
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  • Towards evening it reveals its presence by a clear whistling note, which has often been compared to the sound of a little bell, or to a chime when produced by numerous individuals.
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  • The greater part of these lands was irrigated by canals or ditches built by individuals acting singly or in co-operation with their neighbours, or by corporations.
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  • education, sanitary administration, police) are regarded as falling under the sphere of the central government, which either administers, them directly or by means of territorial delegations consisting either of individuals or of groups of individuals.
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  • While the coinage of silver, nickel and copper is reserved to the state, the coinage of gold pieces can be undertaken by the state for the account of private individuals on payment of a fixed charge.
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  • The Conservatives were prepared to vote for it; the Radicals and Centre opposed it; the decision rested with the National Liberals, and they were willing to accept it on condition that the clause was omitted which allowed the state governments to exclude individuals from districts in which the state of siege had been proclaimed.
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  • It is not a list of individuals, but only of family surnames, and it seems to have been intended to show which families had "come over with the Conqueror," and to have been compiled about the 14th century.
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  • In this predicament Morton appointed a bureau of finance, and appealed for financial aid to private individuals, bankers, the counties, and even the Federal government.
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  • Even in the old days it was customary to use the language of the district in communication between the government offices and private individuals, and evidence could be given in the law courts in the language generally spoken.
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  • In Prague the victory of the Czechs has been marked by the removal of all German street names, and the Czech town council even passed a by-law forbidding private individuals to have tablets put up with the name of the street in German.
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  • Although pollack are wellflavoured fish, and smaller individuals (from 12 to 16 in.) excellent eating, they do not form any considerable article of trade, and are not preserved, the majority being consumed by the captors.
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  • The judicial board of decemvirs (stlitibus judicandis) formed a civil court of ancient origin concerned mainly with questions bearing on the status of individuals.
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  • A great number contain ceremonial or civil laws, or even special commands to individuals down to such matters as the regulation of Mahomet's harem.
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  • Shortly after Mahomet's death certain individuals applied themselves to the exposition of the Koran.
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  • Properly a "duty" differs from a "tax" in being levied on specific commodities, transactions, estates, &c., and not on individuals; thus it is right to talk of import-duties, excise-duties, deathor succession-duties, &c., but of income-tax as being levied on a person in proportion to his income.
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  • Originally these texts had an application to the king alone, but before the beginning of the XIIth Dynasty private individuals had begun to employ them on their own behalf.
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  • Egypt was given in fief to a Turkish general Ashnas (Ashinas), who never visited the country, and the, rule of individuals of Turkish origin prevailed till the rise of the Fatimites, who for a time interrupted it.
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  • During Mehemet Alis absence in Arabia his representative at Cairo had completed the confiscation, begun in 1808, of almost all the lands be]onging to private individuals, who were forced to accept instead inadequate pensions.
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  • Melobesia callithamnioides gives rise to multicellular propagula; Griffithsia corallina is said to give rise to new individuals, by detaching portions of the thallus from the base of which new attachment organs have already arisen.
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  • The silicates and aluminates of which Portland cement is composed are believed to exist not as individual units but as solid solutions of each other, these solid solutions taking the form of minerals recognizable as individuals.
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  • However, someone may come along and edit the material to for example combine the writings of 2 or more individuals into a single piece.
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  • The harsh judgments of individuals in the Reminiscences had no parallel in his own writings.
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  • These pretensions were incompatible with the freedom of the state andof individuals.
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  • He followed up his victory; a General Assembly at Perth was obedient to his will: the preachers were forbidden to criticize, from the pulpit, acts of parliament or of the privy council; they were forbidden to call conventions without the royal person or authority and to attack individuals in their sermons.
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  • Living organisms vary, that is to say, no two individuals are exactly alike; the death-rate and the multiplication-rate are to a certain extent selective, that is to say, on the average, in the long run, they favour certain variations and oppress other variations.
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  • As the field of existence is limited and preoccupied, it is only the hardier, more robust, better-suited-tocircumstance individuals, who are able to struggle forward to maturity, these inhabiting only the situations to which they have superior adaptation and greater power of occupancy than any other kind; the weaker and less circumstance-suited being prematurely destroyed.
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  • This principle is in constant action; it regulates the colour, the figure, the capacities and instincts; those individuals in each species whose colour and covering are best suited to concealment or protection from enemies, or defence from inclemencies or vicissitudes of climate, whose figure is best accommodated to health, strength, defence and support; whose capacities and instincts can best regulate the physical energies to self-advantage according to circumstances - in such immense waste of primary and youthful life those only come to maturity from the strict ordeal by which nature tests their adaptation to her standard of perfection and fitness to continue their kind by reproduction."
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  • The struggle would be most acute between individuals and varieties of the same species, with the result that "any being, if it vary however slightly, in any manner profitable to itself, under the complex and somewhat varying conditions of life, will have a better chance of surviving, and thus be naturally selected."
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  • He insisted that the great powers of increase of all organisms led to a tremendous struggle for existence, and that variability extended to every part and organ of every organism; that the variability was large in amount in proportion to the size of the part affected, and occurred in a considerable proportion of the individuals of those large and dominant species which might be supposed to be breaking up into new species.
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  • On other views of inheritance, there would be required for prediction knowledge not only of the immediate parents but of the whole line of ancestry, with the result that prediction could reach only some degree of probability for any single individual and be accurate only for the average of a sufficient number of individuals.
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  • We cannot predict with any exactness the characters of a single unborn individual; but if we consider a large number of unborn individuals, we can predict with considerable accuracy the percentage of individuals which will have the mean character proper to their generation, or will differ from that mean character within any assigned limits.
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  • So long as we confine our attention to one or two individuals, we fail to detect any order in the occurrence of variations; but when we examine large numbers we find that it is possible to arrange them in an orderly series, which can be easily and simply described.
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  • The conception of a race of animals or of plants as a group of individuals capable of being arranged in an orderly series with respect to the condition of a particular character enables us to define the "type" of that character proper to the race.
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  • 1 and 2 may be taken as examples of three common forms of series into which the individuals of a race may be arranged with respect to a single character; a comparison of them will show how little can be learnt from a mere statement of racial type, without some knowledge of the way in which deviations from the type are distributed.
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  • We may therefore conclude that for large classes of characters, both animal and vegetable, the variability of an individual, as measured by the standard deviation of its undifferentiated but repeated organs, is a constant fraction of the variability of its race, as measured by the standard deviation of the corresponding series of organs produced by all the individuals of its race.
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  • To what extent such responses are transmitted to offspring, and what part they play in the formation of the adaptive characters that are conspicuous in many animals, remain dubious, but it is at least clear that natural selection can favour those individuals and those races which show the greatest power of responsive plasticity in the individual.
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  • Some individuals happen to fit the environment better, or to respond to the environment better, and these on the average will survive their less fortunate neighbours.
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  • At every stage some individuals are prevented from contributing to the next generation, and if the continual process of elimination affects individuals possessing any one character more strongly than it affects others, so that a relation is established between individual character and the chance of producing a certain number of young, selection is said to occur.
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  • a differential destruction, which prevents certain classes of individuals from breeding by killing them, and a series of processes leading to di f ferential fertility among the survivors, without necessarily involving any differential deathrate.
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  • Individuals may not be able to pair unless they possess a character which is absent, or insufficiently developed, in some members of the race.
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  • Or, again, individuals of certain character may be able to pair, but the fertility of their union may not be the same as that of unions between individuals with other characters.
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  • This kind of selection, called by Pearson "reproductive" or "genetic" selection, may be measured by finding the correlation between the characters of the individuals which pair and the number of young.
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  • Assortative mating exists when individuals which mate are not paired at random, but a definite correlation is established between the characters of one mate and those of the other.
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  • In the case of offences against individuals, either the person injured, or another member of his clan, would avenge the injury done.
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  • Others were gods of villages or of families, while others were gods of individuals.
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  • He had very little adaptability in dealing with his fellows; the crowd, as a crowd, fired his enthusiasm, but he was unable to cope with the individuals that composed it.
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  • Of these alps about 45% are owned by the communes (exclusively or jointly) and 54% by individuals, the remaining% being the property of the state or a few great monasteries.
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  • The dignity was not hereditary and belonged only to individuals; thus a patrician family was merely one whose head enjoyed the rank of patricius.
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  • The constitution declares that the state's rights of eminent domain shall never be so abridged as to prevent the legislature from taking the property and franchises of incorporated companies and subjecting them to the public necessity in a way similar to the treatment of individuals.
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  • It can scarcely be doubted that in spite of the powerful objections that have been advanced against examinations, they are, in the view of the majority of English people, an indispensable element in the social organization of a highly specialized democratic state, which prefers to trust nearly all decisions to committees rather than to individuals.
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  • In old individuals the bones of the forearm (radius and ulna) became welded together about half-way down, although they remained free above.
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  • Hitherto His power had gone forth to individuals, but now He fed five thousand men from the scanty stock of five loaves and two fishes.
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  • As to individuals within the nation, the despised publicans and sinners will find God's favour before the self-satisfied representatives of the national religion.
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  • Reason abandons her efforts to mould the world, and is content to let the aims of individuals work out their results independently, only stepping in to lay down precepts for the cases where individual actions conflict, and to test these precepts by the rules of formal logic.
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  • The general terms of language simplify the universe by reducing its variety of individuals to a few forms, none of which exists simply and perfectly.
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  • It follows from such a conception of the relation that the whole cannot itself be an individual apart from the individuals in whom it is realized, in other words, the Absolute cannot be a Person.
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  • No pantheistic theory of an eternal substance continuously expressing itself in different individuals who fall back into its being like drops into the ocean will here be sufficient.
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  • Some of the minor industries, such as bee-keeping, are practised with success by a few individuals.
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  • Hence the craft of tinmen and braziers is carried on by the same individuals.
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  • But a year later, the second generation having reached sexual maturity, new broods were produced, and out of these some individuals lost their gills and dorsal crest, developed movable eyelids, changed their dentition, and assumed yellow spots, - in fact, took on all the characters of Amblystoma tigrinum.
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  • So numerous were the axolotls that the Paris Museum was able to distribute to other institutions, as well as to dealers and private individuals, over a thousand examples, which found their way to all parts of Europe, and numberless specimens have been kept in England from 1866 to the present day.
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  • Thus we see that in our aquariums most of the axolotls remain in the branchiate condition, transformed individuals being on the whole very exceptional.
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  • But when Fabre substituted dead individuals of her own species or live larvae of another genus, the Osmia had no scruple in destroying them, so as to bite her way out to air and liberty.
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  • The bees hitherto described are "solitary," all the individuals being either males or unmodified females.
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  • Verhoeff has discussed the rise of the "social" from the "solitary" condition, and points, out that for the formation of an insect community three conditions are necessary - a nest large enough for a number of individuals, a close grouping of the cells, and an association between mother and daughters in the winged state.
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  • The Kanum forbids no sort of exercise of individual will, so long as it is not inimical to the right or rights of other individuals.
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  • He was appointed in 1900 chairman of a commission to inquire into the various concessions which President Kruger and the Rand had granted to companies and private individuals in the Transvaal, and to report which should be maintained and which annulled.
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  • The land was not held by private owners but by occupiers under the petty corporation; the revenue was not due from individuals, but from the community represented by its head-man.
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  • The right to manufacture and the right to retail are both monopolies of government permitted to private individuals only upon terms. Distillation of country spirits is allowed according to two systems - either to the highest bidder under strict supervision, or only upon certain spots set apart for the purpose.
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  • By 1859 there were already fifty-one gardens in existence, owned by private individuals; and the enterprise had extended from its original headquarters in Lakhimpur and Sibsagar as far down the Brahmaputra as Kamrup. In 1856 the tea-plant was discovered wild in the district of Cachar in the Barak valley, and European capital was at once directed to that quarter.
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  • But it is quite certain that previous to 1600 the telescope was unknown, except possibly to individuals who failed to see its practical importance, and who confined its use to "curious practices" or to demonstrations of "natural magic."
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  • They are commonly met with in herds including from ten to twenty individuals, but on rare occasions as many as fifty have been seen together.
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  • The heavens presenting a constant change even to the superficial observer, the conclusion was drawn of a connexion between the changes and the everchanging movement in the fate of individuals and of nature as well as in the appearance of nature.
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  • But it was not until 1839 that an act was passed which laid it down that individuals might be confined separately in single cells.
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  • The universe of created things, as we have seen, is twofold: - first, that which is created and creates - the primordial ideas, archetypes, immutable relations, divine acts of will, according to which individual things are formed; second, that which is created and does not create, the world of individuals, the effects of the primordial causes, without which the causes have no true being.
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  • In April 1787 Madison had written a paper, The Vices of the Political System of the United States, and from his study of confederacies, ancient and modern, later summed up in numbers 17, 18, and 19 of The Federalist, he had concluded that no confederacy could long endure if it acted upon states only and not directly upon individuals.
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  • Regulations were framed for the purpose of establishing adequate supervision over the revenue and expenditure for the abolition of irregular taxation and extortions, as well as the practice of farming out the collection of the revenue to individuals, and, generally, to adapt the whole collection and expenditure of the national revenue to modern ideas of public finance.
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  • of animals including all individual animals; and accordingly that the particular analogy of one individual to another has given rise to the general analogy of every to each individual in a class, or whole number of individuals, contained in the second premise of induction.
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  • a whole man, to a whole number of similar individuals, e.g.
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  • Whereas, then, a particular judgment is a belief that some, a universal judgment is a belief that all, the individuals of a kind or total of similar individuals, are similarly determined, whether they are known or unknown individuals.
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  • 27, 36) that, while a particular is a categorical judgment of existence, a universal is hypothetical, on the ground that it does not refer to a definite number of individuals, or to individuals at all, but rather to general ideas, and that the appropriate form of " all M is P " is " if anything is M it is P."
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  • So far as he follows Aristotle in saying that " all " does not mean a definite number of individuals he is right; but when he says that we mean no individuals at all he deserts Aristotle and goes wrong.
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  • By " all " we mean every individual whatever of a kind; and when from the experience of sense and memory we start with particular judgments of existence, and infer universal judgments of existence and scientific laws, we further mean those existing individuals which we have experienced, and every individual whatever of the kind which exists.
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  • We mean neither a definite number of individuals, nor yet an infinite number, but an incalculable number, whether experienced or inferred to exist.
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  • This is indeed the very essence of distribution, that a universal is predicable, not singly or collectively, but severally and similarly of each and every individual of a kind, or total of similar individuals.
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  • But a thing which has healthy lungs and a thing which has diseased lungs are only similar individuals numerically different.
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  • magnets, is " absolutely the same," not in the sense of " one identical point " making each individual the same as any other, as Bradley supposes, but only in the sense of one whole class, or total of many similar individuals, e.g.
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  • Individuals fall into groups in virtue of the possession of certain predicates.
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  • By this way of abstraction they are made capable of representing more individuals than one."
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  • Propositions concerning the possible existence of individuals put Leibnitz to some shifts, and the difficulty accounts for the close connexion established in regard to our actual world between the law of sufficient reason and the doctrine of the final cause.
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  • The Path is said to be long and difficult, and with most individuals must extend over many lives.
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  • In 1889 a further inquiry was undertaken, known as the "Census of Hallucinations," which provided information as to the percentage of individuals in the general population who, at some period of their lives, while they were in a normal state of health, had had "a vivid impression of seeing or being touched by a living being or inanimate object, or of hearing a voice; which impression, so far as they could discover, was not due to any external cause."
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  • The average height is about 275 ft., and the diameter near the ground 20 ft.; various individual