The indirect effects of temperature are also important.
Some oaks are of indirect importance from products formed by their insect enemies.
The indirect results, however, were incalculably great.
She stood on a covered landing of a fortress made of black stones overlooking a parched desert beneath dual suns too faded to provide anything other than indirect light.
The indirect mode of budding (figs.
200,000 Indirect taxes 1,715,000 Financial adminis tration..
Indirect radiators are placed beneath the floor of the apartment to be heated and give off heat through a grating.
As an example of the use of Ostwald's energy-equations for the indirect determination we may take the case of carbon monoxide.
fall the " indirect contributions " as now reclassified.
In these and other Chaetopods the coelom is also put into indirect relations with the outside world by the nephridia and by the gonad ducts.
They are now usually of special design, and may be divided into three classes - indirect radiators, direct radiators and direct ventilating radiators.
Several special examples and other indirect indications show that the wealthier Romans possessed large familiae.
The policy of fiscal transformation inaugurated by the Left increased revenue from indirect taxation from 17,000,000 in 1876 to more than 24,000,000 in 1887, by substituting heavy corn duties for the grist tax, and by raising the sugar and petroleum duties to unprecedented levels.
The indirect taxes comprise the charges on registration; stamps; customs; and a group of taxes specially described as indirect taxes.
Want of data for the elements, however, restricts this method to narrow limits, and hence an indirect method is necessary.
per inhabitant, from indirect taxation £2: 4: 6, and the total revenue from all sources £35,699,782, equal to £8: 16: 2 per inhabitant.
More indirect methods, such as the grafting of less resistant scions on more vigorous stocks, of raising special late or early varieties by crossing or selection, and so on, have also met with success; but it must be understood that resistant in such cases usually means that some peculiarity of quick growth, early ripening or other life-feature in the plant is for the time being taken advantage of.
It is estimated that Sardinia pays, in local and general, direct and indirect taxation of all kinds, 23,000,000 lire (920,000), a sum corresponding to 35.44 lire per head.
Especially noteworthy in the germinal budding of Margellium is the formation of the entocodon, as in the vegetative budding of the indirect type.
By the indirect method Kopp derived the following atomic volumes: C. 0.
It remains to trace the influence, direct or indirect, of the poet on the novelist.
The group specially described as indirect taxes includes those on alcohol, wine, beer, cider and other alcoholic drinks, on passenger and goods traffic by railway, on licences to distillers, spirit-sellers, &c., on salt and on sugar of home manufacture.
The indirect geographical elements, which, as a rule, act with and intensify the direct, are mainly climatic; the prevailing winds, rainfall, mean and extreme temperatures of every locality depending on the arrangement of land and sea and of land forms. Climate thus guided affects the weathering of rocks, and so determines the kind and arrangement of soil.
A state system will be compelled, by the exigencies of the public treasury, to arrange its rates to pay interest on its securities; a private company will generally be prevented, by the indirect competition of railways in other parts of the country which it serves, from doing very much more than this.
In its final form, the outcome of an extended and complicated literary process, the Gilgamesh Epic covered twelve tablets, each tablet devoted to one adventure in which the hero plays a direct or indirect part, and the whole covering according to the most plausible estimate about 3000 lines.
In Modena Duke Francis, ambitious of enlarging his territories, coquetted with the Carbonari of Paris, and opened indirect negotiations with Menotti, the revolutionary leader in his state, believing that he might assist him in his plans.
2 - The course of events from the middle of the 6th century B.C. to the close of the Persian period is lamentably obscure, although much indirect evidence indicates that this age holds the key to the growth of written biblical history.
The remaining " indirect contributions " are port and lighthouse dues, £T148,426.
The equivalence of the four hydrogen atoms of methane rested on indirect evidence, e.g.
Two types of budding must be distinguished - the direct, so-called palingenetic type, and the indirect, so-called coenogenetic type.
In Holland he may not enter into any agreement, direct or indirect, with a medical man with regard to the supply of medicines.
An administrative tribunal called the cour des corn ptes subjects the accounts of the states financial agents (trsorierspayeurs, receveurs of registration fees, of customs, of indirect taxes, &c.) and of the communesi to a close investigation, and a vote of definitive settlement is finally passed by parliament.
In illustration of the indirect response, the evolution of the Bryophyta and of more highly organized plants may be briefly considered.
The theoretical absolutism of the sultan had, indeed, always been tempered not only by traditional usage, local privilege, the juridical and spiritual precepts of the Koran and the Sunnet, and their 'Ulema interpreters, and the privy council, but for nearly a century by the direct or indirect pressure of the European powers, and during the reigns of Abd-ul-Aziz and of Abd-ul-Hamid by the growing force of public opinion.
Other noteworthy sources of revenue are trade licences, direct taxes on lands and forests, stamp duties, posts and telegraphs, indirect taxes on tobacco, sugar and other commodities, the crown forests, and land redemption payable annually by the peasants since 1861.
Even more drastic were the changes in the electoral machinery, by far the most complicated in Europe, established by the law of 1905.6 This was based on the principle of indirect 3 Of this M.
Thus there is no essential difference between the direct and the indirect action of external conditions, the difference is one of degree only.
Excluded from parliament by the fatal error of his youth, he was compelled to resort to indirect means of working out his plans by influencing public men.
But the gradual and indirect results of the Norman conquest of England are easily to be seen to this day, and they have been largely, though indirectly, results for good.
This so-called direct effect of external conditions upon the form and structure of the body differs from the indirect effect in that the resulting variations bear a relation, of the nature of adaptation, to those conditions; the effect of the conditions is not only to cause variation, but to cause variation in a particular direction.
The revenues figuring under " indirect contributions " thus reach a total of £T4,825,812.
But the destruction of Jerusalem is not quite unique, and somewhat later we meet with indirect evidence for at least one similar disaster upon which the records are silent.
The eyes in both cases were inlaid, those of the lions with red jasper, white shell and blue schist: this imitation of the eyes in stone as well as metal figures was a feature common to both arts, which were at this time assuredly not without direct or indirect connexion.
There is no conclusive ground for regarding the action of this change as having been direct, it is more reasonable to regard it as indirect, having acted as a general stimulus to which the ever-increasing complexity of the sporophyte was the response.
The layout makes the best use of direct and indirect lighting for a warm, inviting dining experience.
By far the most important " indirect " revenue is that produced by the customs, consisting of import, export and transit duties, and various unspecified receipts.
As regards indirect taxes, again, there appear to be some cases at least where it is by rio means certain that the charge is passed on; stamp duties, for instance, especially where moderate in amount, may have the effect of diminishing pro Canto the profits in business of the person paying them, or the income which he enjoys.
Depending on the species, it may need bright, moderate, or indirect light.
Dissipation seems largely dependent on meteorological conditions, but the phenomena at different stations vary so much as to suggest that the connexion is largely indirect.
The objection to admitting immigrants was not only to the Chinese, but extended to all Asiatics; but as a large proportion of the persons whose entrance into the colonies it was desired to stop were British subjects, and the Imperial government refused to sanction any measure directly prohibiting in plain terms the movement of British subjects from one part of the empire to another, resort was made to indirect legislation; this was the more advisable, as the rise of the Japanese power in the East and the alliance of that country with Great Britain rendered it necessary to pay attention to the susceptibilities of a powerful nation whose subjects might be affected by restrictive laws.
In any case, since the Eastern origin of the Etruscans is now generally admitted, we may temporarily, at least, accept the conclusion that hepatoscopy as a method of divination owes its survival in advanced forms of culture to the elaborate system devised in the course of centuries by the Babylonian priests, and to the influence, direct and indirect, exerted by this system in the ancient world.
But for this system hepatoscopy, the theoretic basis of which as above set forth falls within the sphere of ideas that belong to primitive culture, would have passed away as higher stages of civilization were reached; and as a matter of fact it plays no part in the Egyptian culture or in the civilization of India, while among the Hebrews only faint traces of the primitive idea of the liver as the seat of the soul are to be met with in the Old Testament, among which an allusion in the indirect form of a protest against the use of the sacrificial animal for purposes of divination in the ordinance (Exodus xxix.
If, on the other hand, we have to deal with a system of molecules of whose motions in the aggregate we become conscious only by indirect means, while we know absolutely nothing either of the motions or positions of any individual molecule, it is obvious that we cannot grasp single molecules and control their movements so as to derive the full amount of work from the system.
In the indirect or coenogenetic method of budding, the first two members of the sequence exhibited by Cunina change places, and the umbrella is formed first, the manubrium next, and then the tentacles; the actual mouthperforation being delayed to the very last (fig.
The remaining development of the bud is just as described above for the indirect method of medusa-budding (fig.
Even before the edict of Milan, at least as early as the latter half of the 3rd century, the spiritual sentences of deposition from office had sometimes indirect temporal consequences recognized by the secular courts.
Nuclear division may be indirect or direct, that is to say it may either be accompanied by a series of complicated changes in the nuclear structures called mitosis or karyokinesis (fig.
Mitosis.In indirect nuclear division the nucleus undergoes a series of complicated changes, which result in an equal division.
They include the biological nature of the organism and its physical environment, the latter involving conditions in which geographical elements, direct or indirect, preponderate.
4, 19) is supposed to be an indirect allusion to the Amazonis (M.
It is also a fact that with each recurring decade these general expenses (also called indirect, undistributed or fixed charges) have an increased importance as compared with the particular (direct, distributed or operating) expense attaching naturally to the particular portions of the traffic. For with increased density of population it becomes profitable to make improvements on the original location, even though this may involve increased charges for interest and for some parts of its maintenance, for the sake of securing that economy of operation, through larger train-loads, which such an improved location makes possible.
3 As to indirect taxes, like customs and harbour dues, while their existence is a matter of course (cf.
In July 1755 a very polite and, as far as Voltaire was concerned, indirect resolution of the Consistory declared that in consequence of these proceedings of the Sieur de Voltaire the pastors should notify their flocks to abstain, and that the chief syndic should be informed of the Consistory's perfect confidence that the edicts would be carried out.
To to 13 explain this more fully, and show that for indirect laying the angle of sight must be Target Horizontal line Angle Of-eleuation?'- - of sight; ??.
With howitzers indirect laying is the rule, elevation being usually given by clinometer, direction by laying on banderols marking out the line of fire; then, when the direction has been established, an auxiliary mark, usually in rear, is selected and the line transferred to it.
The increased importance of concealment for one's own guns and the certainty of being called upon to engage concealed targets, brought indirect laying into great prominence (see also Artillery).
Scott's sight (see above) was the first attempt to obtain indirect laying for elevation by means of the sight itself, and in that sight the angle of sight was taken into account; in modern guns this is effected by what is technically called the " independent line of sight " (see Ordnance: Field Equipments).
These point to the haphazard or indirect origin of them, which has been already suggested.
Elias of Nisibis), medicine (Galen) and cosmetics (Cleopatra), in ready-reckoners (Didymus), clerk's (katib's) guides, and like handbooks, and in indirect explanations of the equivalents of measures mentioned by authors (e.g.
The common policeman, the insignificant scribe in a public office, and even the actors in the "imperial" theatres, were protected against public censure as effectually as the government itself; for the whole administration was considered as one and indivisible, and an attack on the humblest representative of the imperial authority was looked on as an indirect attack on the fountain from which that authority flowed.
The use of silk (seoluc) and the adoption of the mancus (see below) point to communication, direct or indirect, with more distant countries.
TO THE FULL EXTENT PERMITTED BY APPLICABLE LAW, THE LOVETOKNOW CORP. ENTITIES, REGARDLESS OF CAUSE OF ACTION (E.G., IN CONTRACT, TORT, WARRANTY, AND TO THE FULL EXTENT PERMITTED IN APPLICABLE LAW, PRODUCT LIABILITY AND STRICT LIABILITY), SHALL HAVE NO LIABILITY OF ANY KIND ARISING OR RELATED TO THIS AGREEMENT, OR THE CONTENTS FOR INJURY, DEATH, DAMAGE TO PROPERTY, LOSS OF USE, LOSS OF OPPORTUNITY, LOSS OF PROFITS, INCREASED COSTS, OR ANY CONSEQUENTIAL, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, OR PUNITIVE DAMAGES.
He had a thorough knowledge of the private and indirect motives which influence politicians, and his genial attractive manner, easy temper and vivacious, if occasionally coarse, wit helped to confer on him a social distinction which led many to take for granted his eminence as a statesman.
The Christian pulpit, at least in Persia and in Egypt, is already exerting some indirect influence.
A local exchange trading system facilitates indirect reciprocity within a community by providing a virtual currency to measure people 's contributions.
To develop predictive models of saiga population dynamics, and to model the likely direct and indirect effects of human activities on saiga reproduction.
Indirect fire weapons can deny enemy helicopters the use of masked, standoff positions.
First, and most important, is early agreement on a prohibition covering all direct and indirect export subsidies.
During the meeting we will make clear to you whether the questions we ask are relevant to Direct Taxes, Indirect Taxes or both.
Its structures can be teased apart to exclude the presence of an indirect sac.
Skin warts can be acquired by direct contact, or indirect contact with contaminated objects.
Indirect water heaters heat water by circulating it in the boiler part of the heater, and then stores the water in an insulated tank afterwards.
Indirect immunofluorescent antibody assay (or IFA) test can only find the secondary stage of the virus.
Even so, dating throughout a divorce may have a direct or indirect effect on divorce settlement issues such as child custody and visitation, as well as spousal support.
These include direct and indirect solar energy production, and each can have both passive and active solar power components.
Indirect solar power requires multiple steps in order to convert solar power into useable energy.
Indirect gain can be achieved with a trombe wall.
Grilling - Grill over indirect heat using a drip pan.
Lucky bamboo thrives best in bright but indirect sunlight and away from temperature extremes such as heating or cooling vents.
Depending on the species, the plants may need bright, moderate, or indirect light.
Subtle accents can be just as beautiful, and because the story of Cinderella is so well known, even indirect references to the popular fairy tale will be easily recognized.
There have been direct and indirect deaths from alcohol, and the damage done is beyond measure.
For example, while some people make the claim that indirect eye contact is a positive sign that a person is lying, a lot depends on the person's usual behavior.
There are no direct flights (other than private or chartered aircraft), and the two hour drive is more efficient than an indirect flight.
Choose the proper venting: Direct venting, Indirect venting and B Venting are all options with fireplace inserts.
The tint of the glasses bears no effect on the power of the lenses, it simply reduces glare and prolongs the protection given to the eyes from the harmful rays of direct or indirect sunlight.
The American Diabetes Association reports that in 2002, diabetes cost Americans an estimated $132 billion in direct medical costs and indirect expenses such as lost productivity and disability payments.
It may be also be indirect, as through arteriosclerosis caused by a high-fat diet.
Boys exhibit more physical and verbal aggression, whereas antisocial behavior in girls is more indirect and relational, involving harmful social manipulation of others.
Physical aggression is expressed at the earliest stages of development, then direct verbal threats, and, last, indirect strategies for manipulating the existing social structure.
Direct and indirect criticism of a child's drawings should be avoided.
In 2003, FAS cost the United States $3.9 billion in direct costs with indirect costs at approximately $1.5 billion.
The ophthalmologist will examine the eye using an indirect ophthalmoscope.
The most common are direct inguinal hernias, indirect inguinal hernias, and umbilical hernias.
Indirect inguinal hernia occurs when part of the bowel protrudes through the muscles of the groin into a sac left over from fetal development.
An indirect inguinal hernia is caused when remnants of early fetal genital development stay within the body after this development is complete.
The main symptom of inguinal hernias (both direct and indirect) in infants is an obvious bulge in the groin in the inguinoscrotal region (near the scrotum) in boys and in the inguinolabial (near the labia) in girls.
The CDC estimates that, including direct medical costs and indirect societal costs, $5.40 is saved for every $1.00 spent on childhood VZV immunization.
Although boys are more often the perpetrators and victims of bullying, girls tend to bully in indirect ways, such as manipulating friendships, ostracizing classmates, and spreading malicious rumors.
The indirect Coombs test measures the number of antibodies in the maternal blood.
Move the plant - If the bamboo is in a spot exposed to a lot of direct sunlight, which encourages algae growth, move the plant to an area that receives indirect sunlight.
The yin, or dark half, represents the female energy and is associated with being passive, negative and indirect.
The pachira aquatic tree thrives best in abundant indirect or even partial sunlight.
The amount of water your plant needs will vary according to the amount of indirect sunlight it receives, room temperature and humidity level.
Regular Monthly Expenses: Indirect expenses, such as car payments, school tuition, electricity costs, gym memberships, medical insurance, and holiday money add up quickly.
Determining Your Budget: Subtract the total of your indirect and direct expenses from your current income and savings total.
You may have also heard these called indirect fillings.
Your grill or cooker may utilize a direct heat source such as gas or wood, or indirect electric.
Outside of being an indirect hero in an emergency situation, there are other reasons to donate blood.
Most plants prefer a location with bright indirect light.
Sexual harassment can also be indirect in nature and still be illegal.
This will give you an opportunity to meet new people in an indirect way.
This is a fair question for you to ask and would be a lot more helpful than what you have been doing, which is threatening to end the relationship and/or throw him indirect ultimatums.
However, people who feel insecure about their own poor money management skills are likely to see your behavior as an indirect criticism of their own lifestyle.
There are not many direct coupons for Disney World available, but savvy shoppers can find great discounts and indirect deals that can lead to significant savings.
Because of the variety of symptoms, there are a wide variety of both direct testing and indirect observational methods to ascertain whether or not a child has ASD.
Transactions/turnover tax: A turnover tax is an indirect fee imposed according to the production process, intermediate manufacturing of items and capital goods.
Barbeque, or barbecue, refers to slowly smoking meat using low, indirect heat.
For many, a barbecue is exclusive to the indirect cooking method, but for others, it includes direct heat.
An indirect seller is a company that sells insurance through agents or brokers.
If you prefer meeting with a local agent in your neighborhood, go indirect.
Two large indirect sellers are State Farm and Farmers.
the direct and the indirect.
dative case is called an indirect object.
His answers are often indirect - he tells you what he wants you to know - which makes him somewhat perplexing to interview.
RSS and Blog and Ping are indirect methods to alert search engines, but it's not there primary purpose.
In that case indirect taxation can become just as progressive as direct taxation.
proliferatewas designed to ease the navigation of proliferating channels, it had an indirect but profound consequence on the medium.
protease inhibitors Indinavir: indinavir is also associated with indirect (unconjugated) hyperbilirubinemia due to inhibition of UGT.
A local exchange trading system facilitates indirect reciprocity within a community by providing a virtual currency to measure people's contributions.
If you do not have a rotisserie, grill the ham over Indirect Low heat for 2 to 2-1/2 hours.
To develop predictive models of saiga population dynamics, and to model the likely direct and indirect effects of human activities on saiga population dynamics, and to model the likely direct and indirect effects of human activities on saiga reproduction.
The restart of play following a stoppage for an offside offense, is an indirect free kick to the defending team.
subsidy, and most important, is early agreement on a prohibition covering all direct and indirect export subsidies.
Today the palace houses the Senate, the chamber elected by indirect suffrage.
The answer is for a massive shift to indirect taxation.
taxising the meeting we will make clear to you whether the questions we ask are relevant to Direct Taxes, indirect Taxes or both.
Mr Ching could not quantify the indirect cost to council taxpayers of the deferral of other capital schemes.
teased apart to exclude the presence of an indirect sac.
An indirect sac should never be dissected distal to the pubic tubercle.
Spencer as much as Mill, then, advocates indirect utilitarianism by featuring robust moral rights.
skin warts can be acquired by direct contact, or indirect contact with contaminated objects.
Many British manufactures are imported by indirect routes, through Smyrna, Constantinople, Beyrout and other places.
III, Hypothetical transition from II to the indirect method with an entocodon; the formation of the manubrium is retarded, that of the umbrella hastened (IIIa, b).
As Darwin has pointed out, this response may be direct or indirect.
These " six indirect contributions " were the revenues from tobacco, salt, wines and spirits, stamps (commercial), certain specified fisheries, and the silk tithe in specified provinces.
To this council, with these extended powers, was handed over the absolute administration, collection and control of the " six indirect contributions " above enumerated, for the benefit of the bondholders, and in addition, it was to encash for the same purpose bills on the customs, to be drawn half-yearly in its favour by the minister of finance, amounting annually to £T180,000, representing the tax on Tumbeki (£TSo,000) and the surplus revenue of Cyprus (£T130,000); and the Eastern Rumelian annuity, originally fixed at £T245,000, but gradually reduced by force of circumstances, until after frequent suspensions of payment it reached in 1897 the level of £T114,000, and has, since the declaration of Bulgarian independence, been definitely stopped.
There were further handed over, under the Muharrem decree, to the public debt council, the tribute of Bulgaria, the amount of which has never even been fixed, but as compensation for which the tobacco tithe up to a yearly amount of £Tioo,000 was ceded to the council in the same conditions as the " six indirect contributions "; the proportional shares (generally known as the " contributive 1 For simplicity's sake, the lottery bonds having a special treatment different from that of the rest of the loans, these groups, when the new bonds of the reduced debt were exchanged against the old bonds of the original loans, became " series " thus: Series A, group i.; series B, group ii.;.
It may, however, well be that both peach and almond are derived from some pre-existing and now extinct form whose descendants have spread over the whole geographic area mentioned; but this is a mere speculation, though indirect evidence in its support might be obtained from the nectarine, of which no mention is made in ancient literature, and which, as we have seen, originates from the peach and reproduces itself by seed, thus offering the characteristics of a species in the act of developing itself.
Seven navigable rivers within or on the borders of the state - the Red River of the north, the Red Lake River, Rainy River, the Minnesota, the Mississippi, the St Croix and the St Louis 1 - give facilities for transport by water that exert an important competing influence on freight charges; and at the " Head of the Lakes " (Duluth-Superior) many lines of steamships on the Great Lakes, providing direct or indirect connexion with the Eastern and Southern states, make that port in respect to tonnage the first in the United States.
The temperature is, however, only an indirect cause of this variation and the direct cause is now known to be the activity of the nitrogen-bacteria.
The development of Balanoglossus takes place according to two different schemes, known as direct and indirect, correlated with the occurrence in the group of two kinds of ova, large and small.
The remaining two families of Enteropneusta, Ptychoderidae and Spengelidae, contain species of which probably all pursue an indirect course of development, culminating in a metamorphosis by which the adult form is attained.
It would appear that while the direct development throws light upon the special plan of organization of the Enteropneusta, the indirect development affords a clue to their possible derivation.
Morgan, "Memoirs on the Indirect Development of Balanoglossus," Journ.
The adoption of the Roman liturgical dress had, however, at most an indirect connexion with these claims. Charlemagne was active in prescribing the adoption of the Roman use; but this was only as part of his general policy in the organization of his em pire.
The indirect consequence of this incident was that in 1866, on the categoric demand of Prince Michael of Servia, and under the diplomatic pressure of the great powers, the sultan withdrew the Turkish garrison from the citadel and delivered it to the Servians.
taliare, said to come from talea, talea), the equivalent of the English tallage, was in France the typical direct tax of the middle ages, just as the word tonlieu was the generic term for an indirect tax.
Both direct and indirect methods are available.
The indirect method is based upon the observed constant of aberration or the displacement of the stars due to the earth's motion.
The accuracy of this law was in 1832 confirmed by Gauss, 3 who employed an indirect but more perfect method than that of Coulomb, and also, as Maxwell remarks, 1 The quotations are from the translation published by the Gilbert Club, London, 1900.
Gracchus ordered that the taxes, direct and indirect, should be increased, and that the farming of them should be put up to auction at Rome.
At the same time, the abolition of the indirect method of collecting the taxes in the provinces greatly reduced the political influence of the' equites.
57, 8 9 6, 8 45 57,894,923 The ordinary revenue of the state is derived from direct and indirect taxation, monopolies, stamp dues, &c. In 1904 direct taxes amounted to £9,048,000, and the chief heads of direct taxes yielded as follows: ground tax, £2,317,000; trade tax, £1,879,000; income tax, £1,400,000; house tax, £1,000,000.
Indirect taxes amounted in 1904 to £7,363,000, and the chief heads of indirect taxation yielded as follows: taxes on alcoholic drinks, £4,375,000; sugar tax, £1,292,000; petroleum tax, £418,000; meat tax, £375,000.
In most cases this is not possible; and we have first to consider the convergence of the sequence or of the series which it represents, and then to determine its limit by indirect methods.
Barbarossa; its main object being to repair the direct or indirect injuries which the schism had inflicted on the life of the church and to display to Christendom the power of the see of Rome.
In actively growing neoplasmata, certainly, the indirect method prevails largely, but seems to go on side by side with the direct.
A curious and interesting modification of the indirect method, known as " asymmetrical division," occurs frequently in epitheliomata, sarcomata, &c. (Hansemann).
In many pathological cells undergoing indirect segmentation, centrosomes appear to be absent, or at any rate do not manifest themselves at the poles of the achromatic spindle.
To heredity, as an indirect or predisposing cause, has probably been assigned too great importance, and the many facts brought forward of the relative frequency of cancer in members of one family only justify the conclusion that the tissue-resistance of certain families is lowered.
The medicine of the i 8th century is notable, like that of the latter part of the 17th, for the striving after complete theoretical systems. The influence of the iatro-physical school was by no means exhausted; and in England, especially through the indirect influence of Sir Isaac Newton's (1642-1727) great astronomical generalizations, it took on a mathematical aspect, and is sometimes known as iatro-mathematical.
Something very similar was held by Brown, who taught that" indirect debility was to be cured by a lesser degree of the same stimulus as had caused the original disturbance.
But these indirect benefits were quite independent of the truth or falsity of his theoretical system.
Broussais's system, to which he gave the name of "Medecine physiologique," did much indirect good, in fixing attention upon morbid changes in the organs, and thus led to the rise of the strongly opposed anatomical and pathological school of Corvisart, Laennec and Bayle.
But his conception even of the ancient gods and of their indirect influence on human life is more worthy than the popular one.
An objection to the Metropolitan Board of Works soon became manifest, inasmuch as the system of election was indirect.
The complicated and indirect process of sheet-glass manufacture has led to numerous inventions aiming at a direct method of production by more or less mechanical means.
The Venetian influence, however, was indirect rather than direct.
of royal codes, and even more so if we were able to tabulate the indirect evidence as to legal rules.
It was surmised that a-acrose was a mixture of dextro and laevo fructose, a supposition which was proved correct by an indirect method.
Of all the countries represented - Germany, Austria-Hungary, Belgium, Spain, France, Great Britain, the Netherlands, Russia and Sweden - only one, namely France, was opposed to the complete suppression of all export bounties, direct or indirect; and Russia declined to discuss the question of her internal legislation, contending that her system did not amount to a bounty on exportation.
It was agreed " to suppress the direct and indirect bounties which might benefit the production or export of sugar, and not to establish bounties of this kind during the whole duration of the convention," which was to come into force on the 1st of September 1903, and to remain in force five years, and thenceforward from year to year, in case no state denounced it twelve months before the 1st of September in any year.
The fact of this increased leucocytic activity during the early stages, or the whole course of infection by Cestodes, is indirect proof that these parasites do normally discharge toxic substances into their hosts.
From a native's point of view Tunisia still appears to be governed by the Bey of Tunis, his Arab ministers and his Arab officials, the French only exercising an indirect - though a very real - control over the indigenous population (Mahommedans and Jews).
The development is indirect.
The elections are, however, indirect; the citizens nominating the Wahlmonner (deputy electors) and the latter electing the representatives.
The chief sources of revenue are direct and indirect taxes, domains and railways.
Unluckily for him his condemnation had the indirect effect of destroying his business at Tilbury.
six days of creative activity, and the creative works are not six, but eight, if not ten in number, and indirect Babylonian influence is more strongly indicated.
The decisive successes for the Alliance were gained by its naval victories, whose importance William somewhat underrated and for whose execution he had only an indirect responsibility.
A start was made through the efforts of the palaeontologists and geologists, with only indirect or incidental aid from the archaeologists.
In one of his early investigations he gave an ingenious though indirect demonstration of the problem of the parallelogram of forces.
One of the indirect methods of investigating currents is by taking account of the initial temperature of the current and following it by the thermometer throughout its course; hence the familiar contrast between warm and cold currents, of which the Gulf Stream and the Labrador current are types.
The thought of a distinction between direct and indirect perception never dawned upon Collier.
The resentment of King Theodore at the loss of these privileges was one of the indirect causes which led to the war between him and England in 1867-68.
Atwater Benedict (1903) invented a respiration chamber to perform direct & indirect calorimetry.
A goal cannot be scored direct from an indirect free kick.
The center will explore and develop direct and indirect liquefaction technologies to produce gasoline & diesel fuel.
Every New Yorker who buys a hamburger receives an indirect subsidy.
They are required to provide details of all interests, however indirect.
There is strong indirect, and some direct, evidence that this is achieved through chemical mimicry.
retail minus for indirect access operators will not work 16.
Indirect lateral ventilation prevents formation of condensed moisture inside the goggles.
nullifynitial indirect free kick, is not nullified by the referee's mistake.
Wherever possible, direct and indirect ophthalmoscopes should be used.
male part-timers will rarely be able to prove indirect discrimination.
But owing to the indirect influence of the British government, exercised through Sir John Kirk at Zanzibar, the Egyptian dominions were prevented from coming south of the Victoria Nile.
(1872); and especially the learned work of Hervieux, Les Fabulistes latins depuis le siecle d'Auguste jusqu'a la fin du moyen age (Paris, 1884), who gives the Latin texts of all the medieval imitators (direct and indirect) of Phaedrus, some of them being published for the first time.
These philological labours were of great indirect importance, for they led immediately to the study of the natural sciences, and in particular to a more accurate knowledge of geography andhistory.
Moreover, the mightiest secular ruler was but a poor sinner dependent for his eternal welfare on the Church and its head, the pope, who in this way necessarily exercised an indirect control over the civil government, which even the emperor Henry IV.
Unfortunately, most matters could be viewed from both a secular and religious standpoint; and even in purely secular affairs the claims of the pope to at least indirect control were practically unlimited.
It is equally opposed to the doctrine which represents the subject itself and its state and judgments as the single immediate datum of consciousness, and all else, whether the objects of an external world or person other than the individual subject whose states are known to itself, as having a merely problematic existence resting upon analogy or other process of indirect inference.
Harris has said that " The history of education since the time of Horace Mann is very largely an account of the successive modifications introduced into elementary schools through the direct or indirect influence of the normal school."
Ttie railway connexions include direct communication with one port on the Gulf coast and with two on the Pacific - lines were under construction in 1909 to two other Pacific ports - and indirect communication with two on the Gulf.
The last-mentioned line also gives indirect connexion with the port of Coatzacoalcos, and the Mexican Central, via San Luis Potosi, with Tampico.
It can be equally well used for direct or indirect, forward or back laying.
This form of laying is of two kinds: (I) that in which the gun can be layed for direction over the sight on the target itself, or on some aiming point close by, but from Indirect indistinctness or other causes quadrant elevation is preferred; and (2) that used when the target is completely laying.
(b) It must, however, be remembered that in all practical applications of formulae the data have first to be ascertained by direct or indirect measurement; and this measurement involves a certain margin of error.
Naturally, however, as the areas represented increased, the more indirect and partial became the representation possible.
He published two books on English history - Essai sur les causes qui, en 1649, amenerent en Angleterre l'etablissement de la republique (Paris, 1799), and Tableau politique des regnes de Charles II et Jacques II, derniers rois de la maison de Stuart (The Hague, 1818) - which contained much indirect criticism of the Directory and the Restoration governments.
Taxation, direct and indirect, had to be further increased, and as a means of gaining support for this in 1888 Sir Harry Atkinson, who was responsible for the budget, gave the customs tariff a distinctly protectionist complexion.
He threw himself heartily into an attempt to weaken the hold of the Austrian despotism by indirect educational means.
Customs and indirect taxes yield more than three-fifths of the total revenue, and direct taxes less than one-fourth.
So alarming did the growth appear, that the other parties combined, and on the 28th of March 1896 a new electoral law was passed, introducing indirect election and a franchise based on a triple division of classes determined by the amount paid in direct taxation.
Of the estimated net revenue of 2,102 millions of kronen, 432 millions (20.5%) came under the head of receipts from direct taxation, 905 millions (43%) under the head of receipts from indirect taxation and taxes on commerce, while 294 millions (14%) were the proceeds of State property and State institutions.
They were apparently direct as well as indirect.
A high vacuum is needed for the detection of the minute forces here concerned; but just in that case the indirect radiometereffect of the heating of the residual gas masks the effect.
But they are no longer used as indirect proofs of a universe of pure and unitary Being.
Passing to the more indirect influence of Laud on his times, we can observe a narrowness of mind and aim which separates him from a man of such high imagination and idealism as Strafford, however closely identified their policies may have been for the moment.
by Hugh Brown), The True Principles of Gunnery (1777); Didion, Helie, Hugoniot, Vallier, Baills, &c., Balistique (French); Siacci, Balistica (Italian) Mayevski, Zabudski, Balistique (Russian); La Llave, 011ero, Mata, &c., Balistica (Spanish); Bashforth, The Motion of Projectiles (1872); The Bashforth Chronograph (1890); Ingalls, Exterior and Interior Ballistics, Handbook of Problems in Direct and Indirect Fire; Bruff, Ordnance and Gunnery; Cranz, Compendium der Ballistik (1898); The Official Text-Book of Gunnery (1902); Charbonnier, Balistique (1905); Lissak, Ordnance and Gunnery (1907).
There are some fundamental divergencies in the representations of the traditions of both David and Saul (qq.v.), and there is indirect and 1 Cf.
Our direct sympathy with the agent in the circumstances in which he is placed gives rise, according to this view, to our notion of the propriety of his action, whilst our indirect sympathy with those whom his actions have benefited or injured gives rise to our notions of merit and demerit in the agent himself.
There is indirect evidence that Napier was occupied with logarithms as early as 3594, for in a letter to P. Criigerus from Kepler, dated September 9, 1624 (Frisch's Kepler, vi.
An indirect result of the industrial development of Mexico, which began during the last quarter of the 19th century, has been an increased interest in agriculture, and especially in undertakings requiring large investments of capital, such as coffee, sugar and rubber plantations.
Elections are generally indirect, like those for the national executive, and official terms correspond closely to those of similar offices in the national organization.
The marble and graphite, as well as some other indirect evidence of life less susceptible of brief statement, have been thought by many geologists sufficient to warrant the inference that life existed before the close of the era when the Archean rocks were formed.
Thus the indirect taxes of customs and excise which the Federal government imposes are levied by Federal custom-house collectors and excisemen, and the judgments of Federal courts are carried out by United States marshals distributed over the country.
These two species of indirect taxes have from the beginning been the main sources of national revenue.
Campbell-Bannerman " a policy of huge armaments," unfortunately is a policy from which it is impossible for any country to extricate itself without the co-operation, direct or indirect, of other nations.
Having, however, in consequence, lost his professorship at Jena, he gradually altered his views, until at length he decided that God is not mere moral order, but also reason and will, yet without consciousness and personality; that not mankind but God is the absolute; that we are only its direct manifestations, free but finite spirits destined by God to posit in ourselves Nature as the material of duty, but blessed when we relapse into the absolute; that Nature, therefore, is the direct manifestation of man, and only the indirect manifestation of God; and, finally, that being is the divine idea or life, which is the reality behind appearances.
" Experience," says he, " may mean experience only direct, or indirect also.
But indirect experience includes all fact that is constructed from the basis of the ` this ' and the ` mine.'
This is to substitute " indirect experience " for all inference, and to maintain that when, starting from any " direct experience," I infer the back of the moon, which is always turned away from me, I nevertheless have experience of it; nay, that it is experience.
The machinery of expression having thus been indicated, the connexion of the physical actions and the psychical state was made the subject of speculation by Herbert Spencer (Psychology, 1855) These speculations were reduced to a system by Darwin (Expression of Emotions, 1872), who formulated and illustrated the following as fundamental physiognomical principles: (1) Certain complex acts are of direct or indirect service, under certain conditions of the mind, in order to relieve or gratify certain sensations or desires; and whenever the same states of mind are induced the same sets of actions tend to be performed, even when they have ceased to be of use.
An indirect effect of this system 2 was to break down another rule of the chivalrous code - that none could be dubbed who was not of gentle birth.
Great care was taken by the scribes in these renderings to mitigate the anthropomorphic expressions applied to God in the Scriptures, and by paraphrase, the use of abstract terms and indirect phraseology, to prevent such expressions from giving rise to erroneous views as to God's personal manifestation in the popular mind.
Experience, coupled with observation and reflection, as well as the more indirect teachings of tradition, are therefore of primary importance to the practical gardener.
38,199,000 Customs and indirect taxes.
Invisible to the microscope, but rendered visible by reagents, are glycogen, Mucor, Ascomycetes, yeast, &c. In addition to these cell-contents we have good indirect evidence of the existence of large series of other bodies, such as proteids, carbohydrates, organic acids, alkaloids, enzymes, &c. These must not be confounded with the numerous substances obtained by chemical analysis of masses of the fungus, as there is often no proof of the manner of occurrence of such bodies, though we may conclude with a good show of probability that some of them also exist preformed in the living cell.
With the second period began, in the 14th century, the gradual displacement of the direct extraction of wrought iron from the ore by the intentional and regular use of this indirect method of first carburizing the metal and thus turning it into cast iron, and then converting it into wrought iron by remelting it in the forge.
Finally, the improvement in the quality of the iron which resulted from thus completely freeing it from the gangue turned out to be a great and unexpected merit of the indirect process, probably the merit which enabled it, in spite of its complexity, to drive out the direct process.
The indirect process once established, the gradual increase in the height and diameter of the high furnace, which has lasted till our own days, naturally went on and developed the gigantic blast furnaces of the present time, still called " high furnaces " in French and German.
The impetus which the indirect process and the acceleration of civilization in the 15th and 16th centuries gave to the iron industry was so great that the demands of the iron masters for fuel made serious inroads on the forests, and in 1558 an act of Queen Elizabeth's forbade the cutting of timber in certain parts of the country for iron-making.
In this way as the water sinks down through the porous subsoil or into the subterranean drains oxygen enters and supplies an element which is needed, not only for the oxidation of organic matters in the earth, but also for the direct and indirect nutrition of the roots.
In them the armies are incorporated in the Prussian army; the railways are generally merged in the Prussian system; indirect taxation, post office, Waldeck and nearly the whole of the judicial arrangements are imperial.
At his invitation a conference of the finance ministers met in July at Heidelberg; they agreed to a great increase in the indirect taxes, but refused to accept the monopoly on tobacco.
Compulsory insurance, the creation of corporate unions among working men under the protection of the state, and the introduction of indirect taxes, were the chief elements in the reform~
As for the allusions, more or less indirect, to St Paul behind the figure of Simon, as the arch-enemy of the truth - allusions which first directed attention to the Clementines in the last century - there can be no doubt as to their presence, but only as to their origin and the degree to which they are so meant in Homilies and Recognitions.
Another third comes from the Dominion subsidy, granted in lieu of the power of indirect taxation, and the remainder from the sale or lease of crown lands, timber and minerals.
This was, however, met by vigorous protests from Czechs and Poles, while its provisions for a partly nominated senate, and the indirect election of deputies, excited the wrath of radical Vienna.
In indirect taxation the salt tax had been reduced by 40%, the postal, railway and telegraph rates lowered, octroi duties and bridge and lock dues abolished.
It resulted only in heavy slaughter of the tribesmen, which afforded no direct or indirect aid to General Gordon or to the policy of evacuation.
gastrocnemius, tonic contraction obtains; but this, like the last mentioned, is not autochthonous in the muscles themselves; it is indirect and neural, and appears to be maintained reflexly.
He finds no spindle fibres or true chromosomes, and considers the division direct, not indirect.
There is no direct evidence that this was practised in the worship of Cybele, but analogy and indirect arguments make it pretty certain.
There were also, in 1900, 35 direct and other indirect products made from Indian corn by glucose plants, which consumed one-fifth of the Indian corn product of the state, and the value of these products was $18,122,814; in 1905 it was only $ 1 4,53 2, 180.
5 At present it is difficult as regards Palestine to distinguish Aegean influence (direct and indirect) from that of Asia Minor generally.
Indirect evidence shows that he was a contemporary of Aristotle, whom he attacked with great bitterness.
Louis failed here and in Spain; this failure being an indirect cause of that vast family compact which surrounded France later with the empire of Charles V.
The external history of India may be considered to begin with the Greek invasion in 327 B.C. Some indirect trade between India and the Levant seems to have existed from very ancient times.
The indirect right acquired by the popes as lords paramount over this vast section of Italian territory gave occasion to all the most serious disturbances of Italy between the end of the 13th and the beginning of the 16th centuries, by the introduction of the house of Anjou into Naples and the disputed succession of Angevin and Aragonese princes, Roger I.
The impetus to the purification of the old Semite religion to which the Hebrews for a long time clung in common with their fellows - the various branches of nomadic Arabs - was largely furnished by the remarkable civilization unfolded in the Euphrates valley and in many of the traditions, myths and legends embodied in the Old Testament; traces of direct borrowing from Babylonia may be discerned, while the indirect influences in the domain of the prophetical books, as also in the Psalms and in the so-called "Wisdom Literature," are even more noteworthy.
The Value Of The International Electrical Units Has By This Time Been So Accurately Determined In Absolute Measure That They Afford A Very Good, Though Indirect, Method Of Determining The Mechanical Equivalent Of Heat.
In both cases the courts had often recourse to proof derived not from direct testimony but from indirect indications as to the kind of services that had been performed by the supposed villein.
The first indirect step towards breaking it down had been taken in 1860, when Russia obtained from China the cession of the Usuri province, thus bringing a European power down to the Tumen.
These are conclusions which primarily are inferred from sensory and memorial judgments; and so far as inference starts from sense of something sensible in the present, and from memory after sense of something sensible in the past, and concludes similar things, inferential judgments are indirect beliefs in being and in existence beyond ideas.
Inference then, though it is accompanied by ideas, is not an ideal construction, nor a process from idea to idea, nor a process from idea to thing, but a process from direct to indirect beliefs in things, and originally in existing things.
A judgment is true whenever it is a belief that a thing is determined as it is known to be by sense, or by memory after sense, or by inference from sense, however indirect the inference may be, and even when in the form of inference of non-existence it extends consequently from primary to secondary judgments.
The aim of logic in general is to find the laws of all inference, which, so far as it obeys those laws, is always consistent, but is true or false according to its data as well as its consistency; and the aim of the special logic of knowledge is to find the laws of direct and indirect inferences from sense, because as sense produces sensory judgments which are always true of the sensible things actually perceived, inference from sense produces inferential judgments which, so far as they are consequent on sensory judgments, are always true of things similar to sensible things, by the very consistency of inference, or, as we say, by parity of reasoning.
" Inference is the indirect reference to reality of differences within a universal, by means of the exhibition of this universal in differences directly referred to reality."
The Boston traders - whose direct trade began in 1882, but the indirect ventures long before that - were men of decided influence in California.
This is the most probable explanation of the two cases of indirect infection related above.
The repeal of the Stamp Act, followed as it was by the Townshend scheme of indirect taxation, displeased Virginia quite as much as had the former more direct system of taxation.
When the Burgesses undertook in May 1769 to declare in vigorous resolutions that the right and power of taxation, direct and indirect, rested with the local assembly, the governor hastily dissolved them, but only to find the same men assembling in the Raleigh tavern in Williamsburg and issuing forth their resolutions in defiance of executive authority.
We may take it as an experimental result, although the best evidence is indirect, that a particle falling freely under gravity experiences a constant acceleration which at the same place is the same for all bodies.
The great form of indirect taxation consisted in the customs dues (portoria), which were collected at the provincial boundaries and varied in amount, though the maximum did not exceed 5 Under the same head were included the town dues (or octrois).
No modern country can surrender the chief direct and indirect taxes to the local administrations.
After filling for several years the post of director-general of indirect taxes, he was created in 1819 a peer of France and was prominent among the Liberals.
To diminish the number of the privileged was impossible, but false claims to exemption were firmly resisted, and the unjust direct taxation was lightened by an increase of the indirect taxes, from which the privileged could not escape.
One of the consequences of this indirect method of reforming the law was that in some cases the evil was much exaggerated.
The large and steadily increasing receipts from import duties, amounting to 91,321,860 pesos in 1905, and 103,507,556 pesos in 1906, appears to indicate an encouraging state of prosperity in the country, although an average of 34z pesos a year (nearly £2: 12s.), in addition to the increased prices paid for home manufactures, seems to be a very heavy indirect tax upon so poor a people.
Verses 15-17 are the indirect abstract of the speech's argument, but in verses 18-21 the apostle, carried away by the thought and barrier of the moment as he dictates to his amanuensis, forgets the original situation.
He took office under the consulate as prefect of Charente Inferieure, rose to be a member of the council of state, and in 1804 obtained the important post of director-general of the indirect taxes (droits reunis) .
Some of these statements are so much in consonance with the indirect evidence afforded by the satires that they may be a series of conjectures based upon them.
But it is only in connexion with its indirect effects that he seems to think of despotism; and he has no thought of democracy at all.
Each district was governed by a commission composed of (I) the civil governor, who was nominated by the central authority and presided over the commission; (2) the administrative auditor; and (3) three members chosen by indirect suffrage.
In domestic affairs his influence was small and almost entirely indirect.
There is no evidence from Galen's own works that he did make this addition to the doctrines of syllogism, and the remarkable passage quoted by Minoides Minas from a Greek commentator on the Analytics, referring the fourth figure to Galen, clearly shows that the addition did not, as generally supposed, rest on a new principle, but was merely an amplification or alteration of the indirect moods of the first figure already noted by Theophrastus and the earlier Peripatetics.
During his long term of office he abolished the grist tax, extended the suffrage, completed the railway system, aided Mancini in forming the Triple Alliance, and initiated colonial policy by the occupation of Massawa; but, at the same time, he vastly increased indirect taxation, corrupted and destroyed the fibre of parliamentary parties, and, by extravagance in public works, impaired the stability of Italian finance.
Though the life of Chelcicky, who has already been mentioned, was an isolated one, he is undoubtedly the indirect founder of the community of the " Bohemian Brethren," who greatly influenced Bohemian literature.
It was found that in the American case damages were claimed not only for the property destroyed by the Confederate cruisers, but in respect of certain other matters known as "indirect losses," viz.
The inclusion of the indirect losses and the other matters just referred to caused great excitement in England.
In October 1872 Lord Granville notified to General Schenck, the United States minister} that the British government did not consider that the indirect losses were within the submission, and in April the British counter-case was filed without prejudice to this contention.
The British agent then applied for an adjournment of eight months, ostensibly in order that the two governments might conclude a supplemental convention, it having been meanwhile privately arranged between the arbitrators that an extra-judicial declaration should be obtained from the arbitrators on the subject of the direct claims. On the 19th of June Count Sclopis intimated on behalf of all his colleagues that, without intending to express any opinion upon the interpretation of the treaty, they had arrived at the conclusion that "the indirect claims did not constitute upon the principles of international law applicable to such cases a good foundation for an award or computation of damages between nations."
The revenue of the state is derived almost wholly from taxes, about 87% from a direct or general property tax and the rest from various specific or indirect taxes, such as the liquor tax and the inheritance tax.
Unless the indirect importation of morphine into China from Europe and the United States is stopped, a worse habit and more difficult to cure than any other (except perhaps that.
Neither then nor at any other time did she take any active share in politics; but she was not without indirect influence on affairs, because her strong royalist and legitimist traditions prevented the court from including her in the suspicion with which her husband's liberal views were regarded.
PROTECTORATE, in internationc..i law, now a common term to describe the relation between two states, one of which exercises control, great or small, direct or indirect, over the other.
Bellarmine trod here on difficult ground, for, although maintaining that the pope had the indirect right to depose unworthy rulers, he gave offence to Paul V.
One of the most usual divisions is into direct and indirect taxes.
Indirect taxes are those where it is recognized from the beginning that the individual who pays in the first instance usually passes on the charge to some one else, who may again pass it on until it finally reaches the subject who bears the burden.
Among the indirect taxes the most important are excise and customs duties upon articles of general consumption, the principal articles almost everywhere being spirits, beer and tobacco.
This division into direct and indirect is, however, far from logical.
The trade fell into the hands of the millers on a large scale, who paid the tax out of their increased profits from larger business, while the smaller millers were crushed out; so that this was manifestly the case of a tax, so called indirect, where the whole burden really fell on those who paid the charge in the first instance, and who in theory were supposed to pass it on to others.
Even in the case of indirect taxes, therefore, there are important exceptions to the rule that they are indirect.
The division of taxes into direct and indirect is thus based on no real intrinsic difference.
Direct taxation in the shape of income tax was substituted for indirect taxation previously levied, in order to relieve trade from the shackles of duties and charges which had become allembracing.
Recently in budget debates in England there has been much comparison of the amounts yielded at different times by direct and indirect taxes respectively.
Exceptionally, it may be added, as regards the licence taxes, which occupy quite an inferior place in the British system of taxation for imperial purposes, that the question whether some of them are not really direct in their incidence on the first person charged may also be raised, although they are classed with indirect taxes.
[Adam Smith specially praises indirect taxes on commodities under this head, because the consumer "pays them by little and little as he buys the goods," and "it must be his own fault if he ever suffers any considerable inconveniency from such taxes."] 4.
As regards indirect taxes, again, there appears no small difficulty in ascertaining the relative consumption of different classes, for the simple reason that in the same class so called the habits of consumption differ widely.
To establish, therefore, any fair account of the incidence of indirect taxes on different classes of the community, real classes being distinguished, and not a mere rough grouping into so-called classes of units who are altogether heterogeneous, is probably beyond the skill of man.
Per contra the tax was wholly unfelt, a shilling a quarter only affecting an average family of four persons to the extent of three shillings per annum, or about three farthings a week, while it was paid little by little, as Adam Smith explains with regard to indirect taxes in general.
It had also a vast indirect influence on the Palestinian literature of the 1st century of our era.
The state revenue is derived from customs; from public works and public land; from indirect taxes in the shape of stamp, inheritance, beer, spirit, petroleum and other duties; from direct taxes on land and buildings, with road-tolls, licences for the sale of alcohol and traders' registration fees; from the tobacco, salt, match, playing-card and cigarette-paper monopolies; and from the postal, telegraphic and telephonic services.
Every fifty indirect electors choose a delegate, who votes along with the direct electors.
The revolt in the German protectorate had been, nearly a year before the death of Morenga, the indirect occasion of a " Boer raid " into Cape Colony.
It is characteristic of most of Hamilton's, as of nearly all great discoveries, that even their indirect consequences are of high value.
His power in a more indirect iashion extended itself over much of Mid-Wales.
But as the names of those who refused to pay were taken down, it cannot be said that there was no indirect pressure.
The great bulk of material, however, consists of blue-books, Hansards Parliamentary Debates, and newspaperswhich are better as indirect than direct evidence.
Nevertheless the judgment of history declares that this brilliant exploit was entirely eccentric, and could only in indirect ways subserve theological study.
It will be evident that no direct record of this evolution can be expected, and recourse must be had to hypotheses founded on the indirect evidence available.
About one-third of the revenue is derived from railways, forests and mines; about £1,400,000 from direct taxation; and the remainder from indirect taxes, the post-office and sundry items. In 1909 the public debt amounted to £29,285,335, of which more than £27,000,000 was incurred for railway construction.
The yield of the indirect taxes fell off through the interruption of business, and the direct taxes were in large measure withheld, for want of an authority to enforce payment.
The system of indirect election was maintained but universal suffrage was abandoned.
Baker), and when this is not so, indirect methods are available, except with bromine and fluorine (and also with the so-called inert gases - argon, helium, &c.), which so far have yielded no oxides.
Not the less important is the indirect stimulus given by the Reformation towards the development of a moral philosophy independent alike of Catholic and Protestant assumptions.
It is rather in the doctrine that even this indirect reasonableness of the most fundamental moral rules is entirely conditional on their general observance, which cannot be secured apart from government.
To this Hutcheson replies that no doubt the exquisite delight of the emotion of love is a motive to sustain and develop it; but this pleasure cannot be directly obtained, any more than other pleasures, by merely desiring it; it can be sought only by the indirect method of cultivating and indulging the disinterested desire for others' good, which is thus obviously distinct from the desire for the pleasure of benevolence.
Here a more complex phenomenon presents itself for analysis; we have to distinguish in the sense of merit - (1) a direct sympathy with the sentiments of the agent, and (2) an indirect sympathy with the gratitude of those who receive the benefit of his actions.
Neither Fichte nor Schelling has exercised more than the faintest and most indirect influence on ethical philosophy in England; it therefore seems best to leave the ethical doctrines of each to be explained in connexion with the rest of his system.
Of the three co-ordinates,the radius vector does not admit of direct measurement, and must be inferred by a combination of indirect measurements and physical theories.
But the direct or geometrical mode of attack has still the preference over any of the indirect plans.
In this report, the compiling of which presented great difficulties in the absence of official returns, are included (I) the direct trade between Ireland and all countries outside of Great Britain, (2) the indirect trade of Ireland with those same countries via Great Britain, and (3) the local trade between Ireland and Great Britain.
In virtue of this method of indirect argumentation he is regarded as the inventor of "dialectic," that is to say, disputation having for its end not victory but the discovery or the transmission of truth.
Revenue is derived from land, house and capitation taxes, from customs, posts and telegraphs, ferries, licences and other indirect imposts.
These various benefactions were, as a rule, merely the indirect methods which the great landowners employed in order to absorb the small proprietor.
With equal firmness and success he vindicated his rights, whether against the indirect attacks of the papacy on his independence, or the claims of the ecclesiastical courts which, in principle, he made subordinate to the jurisdiction of the crown; whether in episcopal elections, or in ecclesiastical reforms which might possibly imperil his power or his revenues.
in 1482; but by charging much upon indirect taxation, and slightly lessening the burden of direct taxation, he avoided an appeal to the states-general and gave an illusion of relief.
All imposts were forestalled, and every expedient for obtaining either direct or indirect taxes had been exhausted by the methods of the financiers.
He demanded less of the taille, a direct impost, and more from indirect aids, of which he created the codenot, however, out of sympathy for the common people, towards whom he was very harsh, but because these aids covered a greater area and brought in larger returns.
This widespread bankruptcy, falling chiefly on the bourgeoisie, inaugurated a reaction which lasted until 1830 against the chief principle of the Constituent Assembly, which had favored indirect taxation as producing a large sum without imposing any very obvious burden.
The bureaucrats of the old systemhaving returned to their offices and being used to these indirect taxeslent their assistance, and thus the Directory was enabled to maintain its struggle against the Coalition.
In the formidable machinery of state, above all in the creation of the Legion of Honor, the Concordat, and the restoration of indirect taxes, they saw the rout of the Revolution: But the expulsion of persons like Benjamin Constant and Madame de Stael sufficed to quell this Fronde of the salons.
Moreover., it is the indirect means of supplying water to almost every town and village in Seistan Proper, feeding as it does a network of minor canals, by which a system of profuse irrigation is pu t t in force.
But it must also be noted that he used several indirect means to obtain and support his authority with the people.
The estimates for 1908 showed that the revenue was derived as follows: Direct taxes on land, houses, mines, industry and commerce, livestock, registration acts, titles of nobility, mortgages and salaries paid by the state, 18,oao,8oo; indirect taxes, including customs, excise, tolls and bridge and ferry dues, 14,748,000; tobacco monopoly, lottery, mint, national property, balance from public treasury, &c., 8,858,400; total 41,627,200.
In his own words, he went in front of the Unionist army as a pioneer, and if his army was attacked he would go back to it; in no conceivable circumstances would he allow himself to be put in any sort of competition, direct or indirect, with Mr Balfour, his friend and leader, whom he meant to follow (October 6).
Sardis now became the western capital of the Persian empire, and its burning by the Athenians was the indirect cause of the Persian War.
Vision with a motionless eye, or " indirect vision," gives a general view over the whole object with particular definition of a small central portion.
Besides this indirect method of determining the magnification there is also a direct one, in which it is not necessary to first measure f 2 or A.
Although this method does not give very accurate results, it is more convenient and simple than the indirect method.
Ina great number of forms, amounting to a majority of the Palaeozoic plants of fern-like habit, the indirect evidence is in favour of their having possessed seeds.
The principal source of revenue was an indirect tax on corporations, the tax on railways, savings banks and life insurance companies, yielding 70% of the state's income.
The action of a drug may be called direct when it acts on any part to which it is immediately applied, or which it may reach through the blood; and indirect when one organ is affected secondarily to another, as, for instance, in strychnine poisoning when the muscles are violently contracted as the result of the action of the alkaloid upon the spinal cord.
The representatives are chosen for six years by indirect vote and must have completed their twenty-fifth year.
A third class of furnaces is so arranged that the work is done by indirect heating; that is, the material under treatment, whether subjected to calcination, fusion or any other process, is not brought in contact either with fuel or flame, but is raised to the proper temperature by exposure in a chamber heated externally by the products of combustion.
It is only just to record that, although Malatesta's intrigue with Isotta had long been notorious to all, and he had never sought to conceal it, no one ever accused her of either direct or indirect complicity in her lover's crimes.
The indirect sun was warm on his face, and he was surprised how much better he was able to see the world without the depths of the hood hindering him.
The indirect light of the late afternoon sun was hot without being overbearing, like it would be in a few months.
Indirect authoring can also be applied to other existing hypertext paradigms.
The first - voting, or even political activism - is very indirect.
Without wishing to sound alarmist, the direct and indirect effects of stress on health can be serious.
High Cost of Education The direct and indirect costs of education for the average family have become astronomical.
X c is a measure of the volume of the cell membrane capacitance and an indirect measure of intracellular fluid volume.
Indirect rule in the North confirmed the power of native chiefs, who naturally found that their interests were identical to the British.
Under scrutiny and with retribution a certainty, indirect expression became circuitous.
When making indirect comparisons within a systematic rev.. .
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The Council will not tolerate any form of racial discrimination, either direct or indirect.
Examples of indirect sex discrimination are less likely to arise.
An example of indirect discrimination would be having a dress code that does not allow men to wear ponytails or headwear.
There are also indirect relationships between climate change and the mangrove ecosystem through changes in sea level.
epigastric vessels - making this an indirect hernia.
The strength of this direct CP violation, characterized by the parameter epsilon prime, would be far weaker than the indirect version.
Special emphasis is given to spatially indirect excitons in coupled quantum wells.
Head mounted binocular indirect ophthalmoscopy Introduction Binocular indirect ophthalmoscopy (BIO) is a technique used to evaluate the entire ocular fundus.
With Indirect gas or fuel oil the burner fires into a semi-sealed stainless steel heat exchanger over which the recirculating hot air passes.
Indirect Rule was a cost-effective means of imposing British hegemony over the Bamenda region.
helpful to distinguish the direct from the indirect effects of family membership.
Investigations The serum will be investigated by the indirect granulocyte immunofluorescence and chemiluminescence tests using donor granulocytes typed for HNA-1, -2 and -3.
There is another useful test called indirect immunofluorescence (sometimes called an antibody titre test ).
So, even if Adams has effectively criticized a particular version of the indirect approach, he has not thereby impugned our approach.
The indirect costs refer to lost wealth caused by the tax system distorting incentives to work, save and invest.
indirect sex discrimination are less likely to arise.
indirect taxes have long been the province of European law.
indirect free kick is not taken from the place where the attacker touched the ball in his own half.
indirect ophthalmoscopy previously described.
indirect inguinal hernia was found to contain the appendix and some omentum.
The relationship between personality disorder and dangerous behavior is complex and often indirect.
The educational action of the State must be, in the main, only indirect.
There are also indirect effects of unauthorized system penetration.
fairly indirect - it derives the proportion of expenditure on children in an intact family.
Who oversees indirect likely to conduct is that the hopeless says herb.
Now IÃ¢m not suggesting that we should be firing questions about free indirect discourse at children.
inflexible working may give rise to a claim of indirect sex or marriage discrimination under the SDA.
Such a loss was secondary, relational or indirect and was therefore irrecoverable at common law and also under the statute.
Despite this, considerable indirect evidence suggests that biological kinship plays an important role in altruistic behavior.
This was similar to indirect laryngoscopy (1 out of 11 firms ).
The School will not be liable for any loss suffered by you which is indirect, special or consequential or comprises loss of profits.
Elite is a modern pendant mounted luminaire for indirect and direct lighting effects.
In the offices the fluorescent theme continues, using Aero - Zumtobel Staff's graceful suspended direct / indirect luminaire.
In contrast to the primary infection, there is no cell lysis or indirect cell damage due to inflammation.
Grill over Indirect Medium heat until well marked, 6 to 8 minutes, turning once halfway through grilling time.
menstrual dysfunction can have a direct or indirect influence on bone mineral status.
micturateup of vesico-ureteric reflux by indirect micturating cystogram (MCUG).* 3.8.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.