How to use Indians in a sentence
I wondered if Indians had built it.
She waited, terrified that the Indians would return.
But were the Indians interested in the people, or the food the wagons contained?
Which would kill her, the Indians or the country?
The census of 1895 increased this total to 3,954,9 11, exclusive of wild Indians and a percentage for omissions customarily used in South American census returns.Advertisement
Were the Indians out there watching right now?
On the other hand, if you abandoned the wagons and rode the mules, you might be able to keep ahead of the Indians.
Bordeaux helped her down the hill and they joined the Indians.
A war with the Tuscarora Indians, in 1711-1713, resulted in the defeat of the Indians and the removal of the greater part of the tribe to New York, where they became the sixth nation of the Iroquois confederacy.
In October-November 1768, Sir William Johnson and representatives of Virginia and Pennsylvania met 3200 Indians of the Six Nations here and made a treaty with them, under which, for 10,460 in money and provisions, they surrendered to the crown their claims to what is now Kentucky and West Virginia and the western part of Pennsylvania.Advertisement
Knowledge, intrepidity and tact carried Parkman through these experiences unscathed, and good luck kept him clear of encounters with hostile Indians, in which these qualities might not have sufficed to avert destruction.
The scenes of the recurrent wars were mostly distant from Massachusetts proper, either in Maine or on Canadian or Acadian territory, although some savage inroads of the Indians were now and then made on the exposed frontier towns, as, for instance, upon Deerfield in 1704 and upon Haverhill in 1708.
Among the public buildings and institutions are the state capitol, the executive mansion (1909), the Federal building (in front of which is a monument to Kit Carson), the county court house, a National Guard armoury, a Federal industrial boarding school for Indians (with 300 pupils in 1908) and Saint Catherine's Industrial School for Indians (Roman Catholic).
The Roman Church, which is dominant throughout the continent, has been engaged in serious struggles with the anti-religious tendencies of the Republican governments, and L'Annee de l'Eglise makes no mention of missions among the Indians.
But his pretensions were ludicrous; he was quickly captured by the Chileans and sent back to France (1862) as a madman; and though he made one more abortive effort in 1874 to recover his "kingdom," and occupied his pen in magnifying his achievements, nobody took him seriously except a few of the deluded Indians.Advertisement
In 1847 another revolt followed, and the Indians were practically independent throughout the greater part of the peninsula until near the beginning of the Diaz administration.
In 1910 there was another revolt with some initial successes, such as the capture of Valladolid, but then the Indians withdrew to the unknown fastnesses of Quintana Roo.
The capital is Merida, and its principal towns, inhabited almost exclusively by Indians and mestizos, are Valladolid, Acanceh, Tekax, Motul, Temax, Espita, Maxcanu, Hunucma, Tixkokob, Peto and Progreso, the port of Merida.
The Indians are descendants of the Choctaw tribe; they are all subject to taxation, and most of them live in the east central part of the state.
It grew very slowly, partly because of the hostility of the Indians and partly because of the incapacity of the French as colonizers.Advertisement
Of the total number of farms 128,978 were operated by owners or part owners, of whom 17,434 were coloured (including Indians); 19,916, by cash tenants, of whom 10,331 were coloured; and 73,092 by share tenants, of whom 26,892 were coloured.
Nearly onefourth of the Indians are Cherokees, who occupy, for the most part, the Qualla Reservation in Swain and Jackson counties, not far from the south-western extremity of the state.
White soon returned to England for supplies, and having been detained there until 1591 he found upon his return no trace of the colony except the word " Croatan " carved on a tree; hence the colony was supposed to have gone away with some friendly Indians, possibly the Hatteras tribe, and proof of the assumption that these whites mingled with Indians is sought in the presence in Robeson county of a mixed people with Indian habits and occasional English names, calling themselves Croatans.
As they are now known to us, they have undergone a process of partial civilization, first at the hands of the Brahminical Indians, from whom they borrowed a religion, and to some extent literature and an alphabet, and subsequently from intercourse with the Arabs, which has led to the adoption of Mahommedanism by most of them.
Unlike the Chinese and Indians, they have hitherto not had the smallest influence on the intellectual development of Asia, and though they have in the past sometimes shown themselves intensely nationalist and conservative, they have, compared with India and China, so little which is really their own that their assimilation of foreign ideas is explicable.Advertisement
Mathematics were cultivated by the Chinese, Indians and Arabs, but nearly all the sciences based on the observation of nature, including medicine, have remained in a very backward condition.
He was a missionary to the Indians when the prince de Joinville, son of Louis Philippe, met him, and after some conversation asked him to sign a document abdicating his rights in favour of Louis Philippe, in return for which he, the dauphin (alias Eleazar Williams), was to receive the private inheritance which was his.
The territory of Tepic was detached.from the State of Jalisco in 1889 on account of the belligerent attitude of its population, chiefly composed of Indians.
Later in the same year Captain Smith bought from the Indians a tract of land on the east bank of the river, about 3 m.
This tract he named " Nonesuch," and here he attempted to establish a small body of soldiers who had occupied a less favourable site in the vicinity; but they objected to the change and, being attacked by the Indians, sought the protection of Smith, who made prisoners of their leaders, with the result, apparently, that the settlement was abandoned.
In 1676, during " Bacon's Rebellion," a party of Virginians under Bacon's command killed about 150 Indians who were defending a fort on a hill a short distance east of the site of Richmond in the " Battle of Bloody Run," so called because the blood of the slain savages is said to have coloured the brook (or " run ") at the base of the hill.
The fibrous tough roots, softened by soaking in water, and split, are used by the Indians and voyageurs to sew together the birch-bark covering of their canoes; and a resin that exudes from the bark is employed to varnish over the seams. It was introduced to Great Britain at the end of the 17th century and was formerly more extensively planted than at present.
His administration was characterized by the final struggle with the Indians and by a bitter conflict between the executive and the legislature, which greatly influenced the constitutional history of the state.
The decisive conflict, fought on the 20th of August 1794, near the rapids of the Maumee, is called the battle of Fallen Timbers, because the Indians concealed themselves behind the trunks of trees which had been felled by a storm.
Wayne's dragoons broke through the brushwood, attacked the left flank of the Indians and soon put them to flight.
During the War of 1812 the Indians under the lead of Tecumseh were again on the side of the British.
The first settlement within the township was made in 1720 by Dutchmen and Englishmen, who in 1719 had bought from the Indians a tract of land along the Housatonic, called "Weatogue" - an Indian word said to mean "the wigwam place."
The Tea Act of 1773 was defied by the emptying into the harbour of three cargoes of tea on the 16th of December 1773, by a party of citizens disguised as Indians, after the people in town-meeting had exhausted every effort, through a period of weeks, to procure the return of the tea-ships to England.
The Indians in part of Guatemala raise cotton, although the boll weevil is abundant.
Following the purchase from the Indians of the country, now known as the Platte Purchase, in 1836, a settlement grew up about this trading post, and in 1843 Robidoux laid out a town here and named it St Joseph in honour of his patron saint.
Whites and Indians are allowed to establish trading stations on obtaining special permits from the government, and the Indians absorb much of the retail trade.
In 1900, 95.5% were native born, 43' 7% were coloured (including 479 Chinese, Japanese and Indians), and in 1905 the percentages were little altered.
The Seminole Indians, whose number is not definitely known, live in and near the Everglades.
With the co-operation of the Indians under their chief Saturiba he captured Fort San Mateo in the spring of 1568, and on the spot where the garrison of Fort Caroline had been executed, he hanged his Spanish prisoners, inscribing on a tablet of pine the words, " I do this not as unto Spaniards but as to traitors, robbers and murderers."
The Indians were hostile and the missionary efforts among them failed.
The Spanish were accused of inciting the Indians to make depredations on the English settlements and of interfering with English commerce and the Spanish were in constant fear of the encroachments of the British.
About the same time an attempt to organize a government at St Mary's was made by American sympathizers, and a petty civil war began between the Americans, who called themselves " Patriots," and the Indians, who were encouraged by the Spanish.
In 1818 General Jackson, believing that the Spanish were aiding the Seminole Indians and inciting them to attack the Americans, again captured Pensacola.
There was a strong demand for the removal of these Creek Indians, known as Seminoles, and by treaties at Payne's Landing in 1832 and Fort Gibson in 1833 the Indian chiefs agreed to exchange their Florida lands for equal territory in the western part of the United States.
Long drouths prevail in this region and there is no inducement for settlement, the nomadic Indians visiting it only on their hunting expeditions.
It is connected with the doctrine of a Messiah, which arose in Nevada among the Piute Indians in 1888 and spread to other tribes.
Henry Youle Hind, in his work on the Labrador Peninsula (London, 1863) praises the map which the Montagnais and Nasquapee Indians drew upon bark.
It is possible that these primitive efforts of American Indians might have been further developed, but the Spanish conquest put a stop to all progress, and for a consecutive history of the map and map-making we must turn to the Old World, and trace this history from Egypt and Babylon, through Greece, to our own age.
As early as 1660 George Fox was considering the question of buying land from the Indians.
In1671-1673he had visited the American plantations from Carolina to Rhode Island and had preached alike to Indians and to settlers; in 1674 a portion of New Jersey was sold by Lord Berkeley to John Fenwicke in trust for Edward Byllynge.
They agreed to raise an annual sum of £200 for the expenses of their commonwealth; they assigned their governor a salary of £20; they prohibited the sale of ardent spirits to the Indians and imprisonment for debt.
From early times up to the present day Friends have laboured for the welfare of the North American Indians.
There are a number of Arabs, Abyssinians, Indians, and about 2000 Europeans and Levantines.
They were destroyed by whites and Indians in 1879-1882 on the approach of the Canadian Pacific railway.
The Indians of central Alberta are chiefly plain Crees, a tribe of Algonquin stock.
In southern Alberta are several thousands of Indians on reserves south and west of Calgary, consisting of the Blackfoots of Algonquin stock, Sarcees, Piegans and a few Assiniboins.
Theologians differed on the latter question, and Isabella directed that these Indians should be sent back to their native country.
Bartolome de las Casas, the celebrated bishop of Chiapa, accompanied Ovando to Haiti, and was a witness of the cruelties from which the Indians suffered under his administration.
John was sent out by the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel, and hoped to labour as a missionary among the Indians, but though he had many interesting conversations with them the mission was found to be impracticable.
In 1544 the Indians, so far as they had not succumbed to the labour of the mines and fields to which they were put by the Spaniards, were proclaimed emancipated.
Pop. (1900), 20,967; (1906, estimate), 23,416, of whom many are Indians and cholos.
It also possesses important shrines of its own which cause many pilgrims to linger there, and wealthy Indians not infrequently choose Bagdad as a suitable spot in which to end their days in the odour of sanctity.
Immediately north of the city at Chemawa is the Salem (non-reservation) government school for Indians, with an excellently equipped hospital.
But even more pressing than the call of the nation was the need of defending her own homes against the uprisings of the Indians within her borders.
The absence of a large proportion of the able-bodied young settlers in the northern armies was taken advantage of by the Indians, and in the summer of 1862 there was delay in paying them their yearly allowance.
Three days later more than 2000 of the Indians were surrounded and captured, Little Crow with a few of his companions alone escaping beyond the Missouri.
Expeditions of Sibley in 1863, and General Alfred Sully (1821-1879) in 1864, eventually drove the hostile Indians beyond the Missouri and terminated the war, which in two years had cost upwards of a thousand lives of settlers and volunteers.
In October 1898 there was an uprising of the Pillager band of Chippewa Indians at Leech Lake, which was quelled by the prompt action of Federal troops.
The genus Hevea was formerly called Siphonia, and the tree named Pao de Xerringa by the Portuguese, from the use by the Omaqua Indians of squirts or syringes made from a piece of pipe inserted in a hollow flask-shaped ball of rubber.
Van Buren's son Abraham (1807-1873) graduated at West Point in 1827, served under General Winfield Scott against the Seminole Indians in 1836, and was made captain of the First Dragoons.
Copiapo was founded in 1742 by Jose de Manso (afterwards Conde de Superunda, viceroy of Peru) and took its name from the Copayapu Indians who occupied that region.
A fund bearing this name was formed in the 18th century for the purpose The sous of converting to the Catholic faith the native Indians of fu d of Upper and Lower California, both of which then belonged to Mexico, and of maintaining a Catholic priesthood there.
The more arid districts offer no inducement for settlement and are inhabited only by a few roving bands of Indians, but there were settlements of whites in the grazing districts of the Rio Branco at an early date, and a few hundreds of adventurers have occupied the mining districts of the east.
The fruit of the pupunha or peach palm (Guilielma speciosa) is an important food among the Indians of the Amazon valley, where the tree was cultivated by them long before the discovery of America.
Modern explorations have shown that the unsettled inland regions of Brazil are populated by Indians only where the conditions are favourable.
The immediate result of European colonization was the enslavement and extermination of the Indians along the coast and in all those favoured inland localities where the whites came into contact with them.
A considerable number of these Indians have been gathered together in aldeas under the charge of government tutors, but the larger part still live in their own villages or as nomads.
According to the census of 1872 the total population was 9,930,478, of which 1,510,806 were slaves; the race enumeration gave 3,787,289 whites, 1,959,452 Africans, 386,955 Indians, and 3,801,782 mixed bloods.
The racial character of the people is not uniform throughout the republic, the whites predominating in the southern states, the Indians in Amazonas and, probably, Matto Grosso, and the mixed races in the central and northern coast states.
The census of 1890 divided the population into 14,179,615 Roman Catholics, 1 43,743 Protestants, 3300 of all other faiths, 7257 of no religious profession, and 600,000 unchristianized Indians.
The Goagnazes, or prevailing tribe of Indians in that neighbourhood, as soon as they discovered the intentions of the new-comers to fix themselves permanently there, collected for the purpose of expelling them.
The establishment of the Jesuit college had attracted settlers to its neighbourhood, and frequent marriages had taken place between the Indians of the district and the colonists.
While the population of Brazil continued to increase, the moral and intellectual culture of its inhabitants was left in great measure to chance; they grew up with those robust and healthy sentiments which are engendered by the absence of false teachers, but with a repugnance to legal ordinances, and encouraged in their ascendancy over the Indians to habits of violence and oppression.
The Jesuits from the first moment of their landing in Brazil had constituted themselves the protectors of the natives, and though strenuously opposed by the colonists and ordinary clergy, had gathered the Indians together in many aldeas, over which officials of their order exercised spiritual and temporal authority.
This is universally grown by the natives and forms their staple food; it is also grown by the Indians, and by the white farmers for export.
Another law, 2 directed against Indians, excludes from the franchise, natives, or descendants of natives in the male line, of countries not possessing elective representative institutions.
The Indians whose names were " rightly contained " in the voters' rolls at the date of the act retain the franchise.
This proved one of the most momentous steps taken in the history of South Africa, for the Indian population rapidly increased, the " free " Indians becoming market gardeners, farmers, hawkers, traders, and in time serious competitors with the whites.
The Amahlubi, one of the highest in rank of the Bantu tribes of South Africa, fleeing from the cruelties of ' Between 1860 and 1866 some 5000 Indians entered the colony.
Restrictions in this direction dated as far back as 1865, while in 1896 an act was passed aimed at the exclusion of Indians from the suffrage.
An act of 1895, which did not become effective until 1901, imposed an annual tax of £3 on time-expired Indians who remained in the colony and did not reindenture.
In 1906 municipal disabilities were imposed upon Asiatics, and in 1907 a Dealers' Licences Act was passed with the object, and effect, of restricting the trading operations of Indians.
But these Indians by reindenturing might come under the operation of the repatriation proposal.
The state is very sparsely populated; two-thirds of the inhabitants are Indians, forming small tribes, and subject only in small part to government control.
To this day the same book is in great estimation among the learned in the oriental nations, and by the Indians, who cultivate this art, it is called aljabra and alboret; though the name of the author himself is not known."
The number of Asiatics in the Transvaal in April 1904 was 12,320, including 904 Malays, natives of South Africa, and 9986 British Indians.
There were in the Transvaal some ro,000 British Indians, whose right to " enter, travel or reside " in the country was secured by the London convention of 1884.
Under republican rule these Indians - who were mainly small shopkeepers, but included some professional men of high standing - had suffered many restrictions, and their cause had been Position of espoused by the British government.
Nevertheless, British under British rule their situation was in no way Indians.
The problem was both economic and racial, and on both grounds South Africans showed a determination to exclude the competition of Indians and other Asiatics.
Apart from this movement the most notable events in the Transvaal at this period were the development of agriculture,' the gradual revival of trade (the output of the gold mines in 1909 totalled f 30,925,000, and at the end of the year 156,000 native labourers were employed), and the continued difficulty with regard to British Indians.
Gandhi and other leaders were imprisoned; and large numbers of Indians were deported.
By the end of 1909 it was stated that 8000 Indians - most of whom claimed the right of domicile - had been compelled to leave the country, while 2500 had been imprisoned for failure to comply with the Registration Act.
Pop. about 18,000, including a considerable number of British Indians.
All this region is densely forested, and is inhabited only by scattered tribes of Indians.
The population consists of a small percentage of whites of European descent, chiefly Spaniards, various tribes and settlements of Indians, largely of the Arawak and Carib families, and a large percentage of mestizos, or mixed bloods.
Perhaps a closer approximation would be to rate the creole element (whites of European descent) at 10%, as in Colombia, and the mixed races at 70%, the remainder consisting of Africans, Indians and resident foreigners.
As in Chile, Peru and Colombia, the ruling classes and the Church have taken little interest in the education of the Indians and mestizos.
Pop. (1895) 318,730; (1900) 360,799, a large proportion of which are Indians; area, 27,222 sq.
Pop. about 4000, of whom a third are Europeans, and some 300 Indians.
In February 1789, guided by compass, he traversed the country, practically unknown to white men, from Frederickstown to Quebec, falling in with Indians by the way, with whom he fraternized; and in a subsequent expedition he was formally adopted at Detroit by the Bear tribe of Hurons as one of their chiefs, and made his way down the Mississippi to New Orleans, whence he returned to England.
Fleet Street was the show-place of London, in which were exhibited a constant succession of puppets, naked Indians and strange fishes.
The Indians in hunting them employ the grison (Galictis vittata), a member of the weasel family, which is trained to enter the crevices of the rocks where the chinchillas lie concealed during the day.
About 1818 most of the Indians were expelled from the vicinity, and a settlement was made by the whites.
At Merry Mount, in that part of Braintree which is now Quincy, a settlement was established by Thomas Morton in 1625, but the gay life of the settlers and their selling rum and firearms to the Indians greatly offended the Pilgrims of Plymouth, who in 1627 arrested Morton; soon afterward Governor John Endecott of Massachusetts Bay visited Merry Mount, rebuked the inhabitants and cut down their Maypole.
There are more numerous traces of the Carib Indians here than in any other of the Antilles.
The chief items of imports are arms and ammunition, rice, coffee and piece goods; the staple export is dates, which in a good year accounts for nearly half the total; much of the trade is in the hands of British Indians, and of the shipping 92% is British.
The roots are dug up in Mexico throughout the year, and are suspended to dry in a net over the hearth of the Indians' huts, and hence acquire a smoky odour.
The Mosquito Coast is so called from its principal inhabitants, the Misskito Indians, whose name was corrupted into Mosquito by European settlers and has been entirely superseded by that form except in the native dialects.
The Mosquito Indians, of whom there are several tribes, are an unusually intelligent people, short of stature and very dark-skinned.
The first white settlement in the Mosquito country was made in 1630, when the agents of an English chartered company - of which the earl of Warwick was chairman and John Pym treasurer - occupied two small cays, and established friendly relations with the Indians.
From 1655 to 1850 Great Britain claimed a protectorate over the Mosquito Indians; but little success attended the various endeavours to plant colonies, and the protectorate was disputed by Spain, the Central American republics, and the United States.
In 1848, the seizure of Greytown (San Juan del Norte) by the Mosquito Indians, with British support, aroused great excitement in the United States, and even involved the risk of war.
This caused great dissatisfaction among the Indians, who shortly afterwards revolted; and on the 28th of January 1860 Great Britain and Nicaragua concluded the treaty of Managua, which transferred to Nicaragua the suzerainty over the entire Caribbean coast from Cape Gracias a Dios to Greytown, but granted autonomy to the Indians in the more limited Mosquito Reserve (the area described above).
The reserve nevertheless continued to be governed by an elected chief, aided by an administrative council, which met in Bluefields; and the Indians denied that the suzerainty of Nicaragua connoted any right of interference with their internal affairs.
The question was referred for arbitration to the emperor of Austria, whose award published in 1880, upheld the contention of the Indians, and affirmed that the suzerainty of Nicaragua was limited by their right of self-government.
After enjoying almost complete autonomy for fourteen years, the Indians voluntarily surrendered their privileged position, and on the 10th of November 1894 their territory was formally incorporated in that of the republic of Nicaragua, as the department of Zelaya.
Ottawa University (Baptist) was established here in 1865, as the outgrowth of Roger Williams University, which had been chartered in 1860 for the education of Indians on the Ottawa Reservation, and had received a grant of 20,000 acres from the Federal government in 1862.
There is a little bird, the size of a starling, with brown back striped with black, and white breast, which the Indians call yncahualpa; it utters a monotonous sound at each hour of the night.
Viceroy Toledo's enumeration of the Indians in 1575 gave them a total of 8,000,000, the greater part of whom had been sacrificed by Spanish cruelty.
One estimate places the total at 2,660,881, comprising about 13.8% whites, 57.6% Indians, 1 .
The population of Peru is mixed, including whites, Indians, Africans, Asiatics, and their mixtures and sub-mixtures.
The Indians are in great part descendants of the various tribes organized under the rule of the Incas at the time of the Spanish conquest.
In addition to these are the tribes of wild Indians of the montana region, or eastern forests, who were never under Inca rule and are still practically independent.
These Indians are generally described as Cholos, a name sometimes mistakenly applied to the mestizos, while the tribes of the eastern forests are called Chunchos, barbaros, or simply Indians.
The Africans were introduced as slaves soon after the conquest, because the coast Indians were physically incapable of performing the work required of them on the sugar estates.
Practically the whole of the region through which these rivers runthe montana of Peru-is undeveloped, and is inhabited by Indians, with a few settlements of whites on the river courses.
The chief breeding industry is that of the llama, alpaca and vicuiiaanimals of the Auchenia family domesticated by the Indians and bred, the first as a pack animal, and the other two for their wool, hides and meat.
The alpaca and vicuña are smaller and weaker and have never been used for this service, but their fine, glossy fleeces were used by the Indians in the manufacture of clothing and are still an important commercial asset of the elevated table-lands of Peru and Bolivia.
Long ditches with stone-paved sluices for washing this mineral-bearing material have long been used by the Indians, who also construct stone bars across the beds of the streams to make riffles and hold the deposited grains of gold.
The Incas had made much progress in weaving, and specimens of their fabrics, both plain and coloured, are to be found in many museums. The Spanish introduced their own methods, and their primitive looms are still to be found among the Indians of the interior who weave the coarse material from which their own garments are made.
The plaiting of Panama hats from the specially prepared fibre of the " toquilla " palm is a domestic industry among the Indians at Catacoas (Piura) and Eten (Lambayeque).
Formerly the Indians were forcibly pressed into the service and the whites filled the positions of officers, in great part untrained.
The country was then ruled by the judges of the Audiencia, and a formidable insurrection broke out, headed by Francisco Hernandez Giron, with the object of maintaining the right of the conquerors to exact forced service from the Indians.
His Libro de Tasos fixed the tribute to be paid by the Indians, exempting all men under eighteen and over fifty.
Between 1581 and 1776 as many as fifty-nine heretics were burned at Lima, and there were twenty-nine " autos "; but the Inquisition affected Europeans rather than natives, for the Indians, as catechumens, were exempted from its terrors.
This was the last effort of the Indians to throw off the Spanish yoke and the rising was by no means general.
The army which overthrew Tupac Amaru consisted chiefly of loyal Indians, and the rebellion was purely anti-Spanish, and had no support from the Spanish population.
It is similar in shape to those of historic Indians of the region.
See Handbook of American Indians (Washington, 1907).
In 1752 he was taken prisoner by the Indians but was ransomed by Massachusetts.
Natick is the Indian name, signifying " our land," or " hilly land," of the site (originally part of Dedham) granted in 1650 to John Eliot, for the praying " Indians.
Until 1719 the Indians held the land in common.
In 1735 the few Indians remaining were put under guardianship. The township owns a copy of Eliot's Indian Bible.
The first Ohio Company was organized in 1749, partly to aid in securing for the English control of the valley, then in dispute between England and France, and partly as a commercial project for trade with the Indians.
He was most successful in his translation of popular song, in which he shows a rare sympathetic insight into the various feelings and ideas of peoples as unlike as Greenlanders and Spaniards, Indians and Scots.
The place was formerly a favourite camping ground of the Indians, and was settled by whites in 1829.
Let us pass on to the Thlinkit Indians of the N.W.
About 1725 there were built, to protect the carrying-place here, Fort Bull, on Wood Creek, which was surprised and taken by French and Indians in March 1756, and Fort Williams, on the Mohawk, which, like Fort Craven, also on the Mohawk, was destroyed by Colonel Daniel Webb after the reduction of Oswego by the French in August 1756.
On the 2nd of August an advance party of Colonel Barry St Leger's forces coming from the west arrived before the fort, and the main body (altogether about 650 whites, including loyalists - the Royal Greens - under Sir John Johnson, and more than Boo Indians, some led by Joseph Brant) arrived soon afterwards.
The danger to the fort roused General Nicholas Herkimer to gather a force of between 700 and moo men (including some Oneida Indians), who during their advance on the 6th of August were ambuscaded in a ravine near Oriskany, about 8 m.
His first field service was in Florida against the Seminole Indians.
The city was incorporated in 1862, and according to the census of 1886 the population was 14,000, including Chinese and Indians, spread over an area of 4 sq.
The coloured population included about 7000 British Indians - chiefly small traders.
Pop. (1900), 161,697, including a large percentage of Indians and mixed bloods.
In India itself opinion was more divided, both among the English and among the Indians; but there was a large moderate section among both which welcomed the proposed reforms. In Dec. 1919 he had the satisfaction of passing the Government of India bill, embodying the recommendations of the report, through Parliament, and on its third reading he described it as a step in the discharge of our trusteeship for India; the ultimate justification of our rule would be in the capacity of the Indian peoples to govern themselves.
The province once formed part of the territory occupied by the Araucanian Indians, and its present political existence dates from 1887.
The significance of Parkman's work consists partly in the success with which he has depicted the North-American Indians, those belated children of the Stone Age, who have been so persistently misunderstood alike by romancers, such as Cooper, and by detractors like Dr Palfrey.
It was a post of the Hudson's Bay Company in 1828-1846, and was protected by a large stockade, to which settlers fled for protection when attacked by the Indians.
During this year he took an active part in the minor campaigns which preceded General Arthur St Clair's disastrous defeat by the Indians.
He seems to have tried to stir up both the Indians and the Spaniards to prevent the survey of the southern boundary of the United States in 1797 and 1798, and succeeded in delaying Commissioner Andrew Ellicott for several months in this important task.
On the 17th of July 1814 a force of British, Canadians and Indians under Major William McKay captured the fort,.
The new settlement prospered from the start, and a valuable trade was built up with the Indians, over whom Johnson exercised an immense influence.
From July 1756 until his death he was "sole superintendent of the Six Nations and other Northern Indians."
The population is composed mainly of Indians, distantly related to the tribes of the mainland, and mestizos.
Across Oneida Creek, to the south-east, in Oneida county, is the village of Oneida Castle (pop. in 1905, 357), situated in the township of Vernon (pop. in 1905, 3072), and the former gathering place of the Oneida Indians, some of whom still live in the township of Vernon and in the city of Oneida.
In Indian River Hundred, Sussex county, there formerly lived a community of people, - many of whom are of the fair Caucasian type, - called " Indians " or " Moors "; they are now quite generally dispersed throughout the state, especially in Kent and Sussex counties.
The settlement, however, was soon completely destroyed by the Indians.
In 1638 Peter Minuit on hehalf of this company established a settlement at what is now Wilmington, naming it, in honour of the infant queen Christina, Christinaham, and naming the entire territory, bought by Minuit from the Minquas Indians and extending indefinitely westward from the Delaware river between Bombay Hook and the mouth of the Schuylkill river, " New Sweden."
Polished rocks outside the cavern and pictographs in the vicinity indicate the work of a prehistoric race earlier than the Osage Indians, who were the historic owners previous to the advent of the white man.
This is the story of the appearance at Rome (1122), in the pontificate of Calixtus II., of a certain Oriental ecclesiastic, whom one account styles "John, the patriarch of the Indians," and another "an archbishop of India."
There were in 1900, 2,249,088 native whites, 1 79,357 persons of foreign birth, 836 Chinese, 470 Indians and 13 Japanese.
In 1727 the territory, with vaguely defined limits, was formed into a province and named Tejas, or Texas, after the tribe or the confederacy of Tejas Indians.
It is estimated that the population, exclusive of Indians, increased from four thousand in 1821 to ten thousand in 1827, and nearly twenty thousand in 1830.
Of the population in 1905, 1, 26 4,443 (5 7.2%) were native whites of native parentage, 6 4 8, 53 2 (2 9.3%) were native whites of foreign parentage, 289,296 (12.8%) were foreign-born and 14,832 (0.7%) were coloured, including 346 Indians.
The Indians, a remnant of the Sauk and Foxes, are most unprogressive, and are settled on a reservation in Tama county in the eastcentral section of the state.
The name Iowa (meaning "sleepy ones") was taken from a tribe of Siouan Indians (probably of Winnebago stock), which for some time had dwelt in that part of the country and were still there when the first white men came - the Frenchmen,.
The Indians refused permission to others to work the mines, and when intruders attempted to do so without it United States troops protected the red man's rights, especially from 1830 to 1832.
This quiet was interrupted, however, by the " Paxton Massacre " (Dec. 14, 1763) - the slaughter of a score of Indians (children, women and old men) at Lancaster, Pennsylvania, by some young rowdies from the town of Paxton, who then marched upon Philadelphia to kill a few Christian Indians there.
Through his father's relatives in South Carolina, McGillivray received a good education, but at the age of seventeen, after a short experience as a merchant in Savannah and Pensacola, he returned to the Muscogee Indians, who elected him chief.
The inhabitants in 1909 numbered about 3,5 00, 000 natives, 3000 British Indians and Arabs, and 507 Europeans (British, French, Germans, Italians and Maltese).
On the outskirts of the city, near Eastlake Park, is the Indian Crafts Exhibition, which contains rare collections of aboriginal handiwork, and where Indians may be seen making baskets, pottery and blankets.
The members of the first group of settlers in these colonies were mostly small farmers, belonged to the same church, and dwelt in a village for protection from the Indians.
The early history was rendered unquiet at times by wars with the Indians, the chief of which were the Pequot War in 1637, and King Philip's War in 16 75-7 6; and for better combining against these enemies, Massachusetts, with Connecticut, New Haven and New Plymouth, formed a confederacy in 1643, considered the prototype of the larger union of the colonies which conducted the War of American Independence (1 7758 3).
The popular majority kept up the feeling of hostility to the royal authority in recurrent combats in the legislative assembly over the salary to be voted to the governor; though these antagonisms were from time to time forgotten in the wars with the French and Indians.
In 1773 (Dec. 16) a party of citizens, disguised as Indians and instigated by popular meetings, boarded some tea-ships in the harbour of Boston, and to prevent the landing of their taxable cargoes threw them into the sea; this incident is known in history as the " Boston tea-party."
The Federal government now attempted to enlist recruits, ostensibly to protect the western frontier from the Indians, but actually for the suppression of the insurrection; but the plan failed from lack of funds, and the insurgents continued to interrupt the procedure of the courts.
The flesh of the American beaver is eaten by the Indians, and when roasted in the skin is esteemed a delicacy and is said to taste like pork.
The Indians and white settlers used it as a manure, and the name is Narragansett for "fertilizer."
In Mexico they found "pueblo" or town Indians who possessed an organized government and had made some progress in civilization.
But the bulk of the inhabitants of the Spanish possessions were of pure or mixed Indian blood, and many Indians were prosperous as traders, manufacturers, farmers and artisans.
Pious people were eager to bring about the conversion of the Indians, and were zealously served by missionaries.
A revolt of the Indians in Peru in 1780, which was savagely suppressed, forced the government to take note of the abuses of its colonial administration.
A summary account is here given of the American aborigines, who are discussed in more detail under North American Indians.
Professor Putnam measured for the World's Columbian Exposition 1700 living Indians, and the results have been summed up by Boas.
The Indians are on the whole a tall people.
PreColumbian or pre-historic material is further classified into that which had been used by Indians before the discovery, and such as is claimed to be of a prior geological period.
In some tribes this would bring the student very near to the present time; for example, before Steinen, the Indians in Matto Grosso were in the precontact period.
The north-west coast Indians hoisted the logs that formed the plates of their house frames into position with skids and parbuckles of rope.
It must be admitted, however, that both the tools and the processes have escaped the archaeologist, as they did "the ablest goldsmiths in Spain, for they never could conceive how they had been made, there being no sign of a hammer or an engraver or any other instrument used by them, the Indians having none such" (Herrera).
John Smith's Indians had a fleet of dugouts.
Among the Caribs a like social order prevailed; indeed, their family system is identical with the totem system of North American Indians.
Dominated by the rule of blood relationship, the Indians regulated all co-operative activities on this basis.
In each culture province the Indians studied the heavenly bodies.
The Arctic peoples regulated their lives by the long day and night in the year; among the tribes in the arid region the place of sunrise was marked on the horizon for each day; the tropical Indians were not so observant, but they worshipped the sun-god above all.
Ameghino argues that this creature is still living, while Dr Moreno advances the theory that the animal has been extinct for a long period, and that it was domesticated by a people of great antiquity, who dwelt there prior to the Indians.
His half-brother, Lewis Morris (1726-1798), a signer of the Declaration of Independence, was educated at Yale, served in the Continental Congress from 1775 until early in 1777, and went on a mission to the western frontier in 1775 to win over the Indians from the British to the American side.
He summoned the first Intercolonial Congress in America, which met in New York on the 1st of May 1690 to plan concerted action against the French and Indians.
Of the total, 88 were Indians.
In 1511 he passed over to Cuba to take part in the work of "population and pacification," and in 1513 or 1514 he witnessed and vainly endeavoured to check the massacre of Indians at Caonao.
Soon afterwards there was assigned to him and his friend Renteria a large village in the neighbourhood of Zagua, with a number of Indians attached to it in what was known as repartimiento (allotment); like the rest of his countrymen he made the most of this opportunity for growing rich, but occasionally celebrated mass and preached.
With the consent of his partner he resolved to go to Spain on behalf of the oppressed natives, and the result of his representations was that in 1516 Cardinal Jimenes caused a commission to be sent out for the reform of abuses, Las Casas himself, with the title of "protector of the Indians," being appointed to advise and report on them.
During this stay in Europe, which lasted more than four years, he visited Germany to see the emperor; he also (1542) wrote his Veynte Razones, in defence of the liberties of the Indians and the Brevisima Relation de la Destruycion des las Indias occidentales, the latter of which was published some twelve years later.
Of these it is enough to name John Cotton, able both as a divine and as a statesman, potent in England by his expositions and apologies of the " New England way," potent in America for his organizing and administrative power; Thomas Hooker, famed as an exponent and apologist of the " New England way "; John Eliot, famous as the " apostle of the Indians," first of Protestant missionaries to the heathen; Richard Mather, whose influence and work were carried on by his distinguished son, and his still more distinguished grandson, Cotton Mather.
Ten years after the foundation of Harvard, missionary work among the Indians was undertaken by John Eliot and Thomas Mayhew.
In 1763 at Wehaloosing (now Wyalusing), on the Susquehanna, he preached to the Indians; and he always urged the whites to pay the Indians for their lands and to forbid the sale of liquor to them.
Salt was discovered by the Jesuits in Western New York about the middle of the 17th century, and was manufactured by the Indians in the Onondaga region.
New York Bay and the Hudson river were discovered by Giovanni da Verrazano in 1524, and were probably seen by Estevan Gomez in 1525; for many years following French vessels occasionally ascended the Hudson to trade with the Indians.
In 1610 a vessel was despatched with merchandise suitable for traffic with the Indians, the voyage resulted in profit, and a lucrative trade in peltry sprang up. Early in 1614 Adriaen Block explored Long Island Sound and discovered Block Island.
Peter Minuit, the first director-general, arrived with more colonists in May 1626, and soon afterwards Manhattan Island was bought from the Indians, Fort Amsterdam was erected at its lower end, and the settlement here was made the seat of government.
The colony of Swaanendael was destroyed by the Indians in 1632.
But the freedom of trade promoted dangerous relations with the Indians, and an attempt of Kieft to collect a tribute from the Algonquian tribes in the vicinity of Manhattan Island and other indiscretions of this officer provoked Indian hostilities (1641-1645), during which most of the outlying settlements were laid waste.
Pursuing the same wise policy he established a trading post at Oswego in 1722 and fortified it in 1727, and thereby placed the Iroquois in the desirable position of middlemen in a profitable fur trade with the " Far Indians."
But it was left alone to protect its own frontier against the French, and while the assembly was wrangling with Governor Clinton for the control of expenditures the French and their Indians were burning farm houses, attacking Saratoga (November r6, 1745), and greatly endangering the English-Iroquois alliance.
Sir William Johnson died in 1774, but under his influence and that of his son, Sir John Johnson, and his nephew Guy Johnson, the Mohawks and other Iroquois Indians had become firmly attached to the British side and threatened the western frontier.
The population of Kerbela, necessarily fluctuating, is estimated at something over 60,000, of whom the principal part are Shiites, chiefly Persians, with a goodly mixture of British Indians.
The Indians on reservations in 1909 were chiefly those on Colville Reservation (1,297,000 acres unallotted), in the N.E.
Suffrage is conferred upon all adult citizens of the United States (including women, 1910) who have lived in the state one year, in the county ninety days, and in the city, town, ward or precinct thirty days immediately preceding the election, and are able to read and speak the English language; Indians who are not taxed, idiots, insane persons and convicts are debarred.
Olympia was chosen as the temporary seat of government, and Governor Stevens at once set to work to extinguish the Indian titles to land and to survey a route for a railway, which was later to become the Northern Pacific. The Indians, alarmed by the rapid growth of the white population, attempted to destroy the scattered settlements and the wandering prospectors for gold, which had been discovered in eastern Washington in 1855.
Between 1855 and 1859, after many sharp contests, the Indians were partially subdued.
Many of the Indians are engaged in stock-raising; the Crows have an irrigation system and are extensively engaged in farming.
In 1841 Father Peter John De Smet (1801-1872), a Belgian Jesuit missionary established Saint Mary's Mission in Bitter Root Valley, but, as the Indians repeatedly attacked the mission, it was abandoned in 1850.
Many traders and trappers were butchered by the Indians, who became still more troublesome after the invasion of the Territory by the gold-seekers, and the surveying of railway routes had been undertaken.
On the 17th of June General Crook with 1000 men defeated a large force of the Indians near the Rosebud river.
Continuing a few miles down stream, he came upon what was supposed to be a single Sioux village; the Indians, however, proved to number from 8000 to 10,000, including 2500 to 3000 warriors.
Here on the 3rd of July 1778 about 400 men and boys met, and under the command of Colonel Zebulon Butler (1731-95) went out to meet a force of about Iioo British troops and Indians, commanded by Major John Butler and Old King (Sayenqueraghte).
Of the Indians 9293 were taxed.
There is a Federal hospital for insane Indians at Canton.
Among the passengers on the second trip was the wellknown painter and ethnologist, George Catlin, who spent several weeks at Fort Pierre studying the manners and customs of the Indians.
In the meantime several small colonies had been established east of the Missouri River, but growth was much hampered by the Civil War and by Indians.
In 1876 the Indians ceded their title to lands in the Black Hills.
Under the Dawes Allotment Act of February 1887, and a special statute of March 1889, an agreement was made with some Indians, and about 11,000,000 acres, or about half of the reserve, was thrown open to settlement on the 10th of February 1890.
Doubtless the coureurs du bois who at this time began to frequent the Wisconsin forests, touched at the bay many times within the succeeding years as the place was known to be a favourite rendezvous of the Fox (or Outagamie) Indians.
Unsupported by shipping, the American armies fought toward the sea with the mountains at their back protecting them against Indians leagued with the British.
Of these municipalities Wyandotte, the oldest, was originally settled by the Wyandotte Indians in 1843; it was platted and settled by whites in 1857; and was incorporated as a town in 1858, and as a city in 1859.
Civilized Indians who have severed their tribal relations two years before an election are entitled to vote.
The name of the Territory was derived from the Dakota Indians; the word " Dah-ko-ta " (signifying " allied " or " confederated "), being originally applied to the Sioux Confederation.
In 1862 the Indians began a series of bloody massacres along the frontiers of Minnesota and Dakota.
In 1905 an art pottery was established for making "crystal patina" and "robin's egg blue" wares, in imitation, to a certain extent, of old oriental pottery, and Clifton India ware, in imitation of pottery made by the American Indians.
They bought practically all of what is now Essex county from the Indians for "fifty double hands of powder, one hundred bars of lead, twenty axes, twenty coats, ten guns, twenty pistols, ten kettles, ten swords, four blankets, four barrels of beer, ten pairs of breeches, fifty knives, twenty horses, eighteen hundred and fifty fathoms of wampum, six ankers of liquor (or something equivalent), and three troopers' coats."
Their first church was in Broad Street, nearly opposite the present First Presbyterian Church, with cupola and flankers from which "watchers" and "wards" might discover the approach of hostile Indians, and as an honour to their pastor, Rev. Abraham Pierson (1608-1678), who came from Newark-on-Trent, they gave the town its present name, having called it Milford upon their first settlement.
The site of Hoboken (originally "Hobocanhackingh," the place of the tobacco pipe) was occupied about 1640 as a Dutch farm, but in 1643 the stock and all the buildings except a brew-house were destroyed by the Indians.
When discovered by Europeans Staten Island was occupied by the Aquehonga Indians, a branch of the Raritans, and several Indian burying-grounds, places where wampum was manufactured, and many Indian relics, including a stone head with human features, have been found here.
It was destroyed by the Indians in the same year, was immediately rebuilt, was again destroyed in 1642 and was again rebuilt, but was abandoned after its destruction for the third time in 1655.
Its fur is usually of a yellowish-brown colour, coarse and grizzled, and of little value commercially, while its flesh, unlike that of other bears, is uneatable even by the Indians.
Its name is said to be a corrupted form of "Pani" (Pawnee), the name of a tribe of Indians.
Champlain at once established friendly relations with the Indians and explored the St Lawrence to the rapids above Montreal.
That year he got as far as Allumette Island in the Ottawa, but two years later, with a "Great War Party" of Indians, he crossed Lake Nipissing and the eastern ends of Lakes Huron and Ontario, and made a fierce but unsuccessful attack on an Onondaga fortified town a few miles south of Lake Oneida.
In its earlier years this frontier town suffered severely from the forays of the Indians, and in 1690 the abandonment of the settlement was contemplated.
Here in the night Mrs Dustin, assisted by her nurse and by a captive English boy, tomahawked and scalped ten Indians (two men, the others children and women) and escaped down the river to Haverhill; a monument to her stands in City Hall Park.
In 1708 250 French and Indians attacked the village, killing 40 of its inhabitants.
Friendly relations were at the outset established with the Indians, and the province never had much trouble with that race; but with William Claiborne (1589?-1676?), the arch-enemy of the province as long as he lived, it was otherwise.
After 1878 Indians were also admitted to the Institute, and during the last fifteen years of his life Armstrong took a deep interest in the "Indian question."
These fish are eaten by the Indians, who, before attempting to capture them, seek to exhaust their electrical power by driving horses into the ponds.
It was the starting-point of various expeditions sent against the Sioux Indians of the Black Hills.
The last of the Dakota bisons were destroyed by Indians in 1883, leaving then less than b000 wild individuals in the United States.
The percentage of Spanish blood is greater than in the other Central American republics; but there is also a large population of half-castes (ladinos or mestizos) due to intermarriage with native Indians.
The native Indians, though exterminated in many districts, and civilized in others, remain in a condition of complete savagery along parts of the Nicaraguan border, where they are known as Prazos or Guatusos, in the Talamanca country and elsewhere.
The Mosquito Indians come every summer to fish for turtle off the Atlantic coast.
The Indians were enslaved, and their welfare was wholly subordinated to.
Tot/15,s de Acosta, governor from 1797 to 1809, confirmed this report, and stated that the Indians were clothed in bark, and compelled in many cases to borrow even this primitive attire when the law required their attendance at church.
The early settlers and the Indians came to the springs to shoot large game for food, and by boiling the waters the settlers obtained valuable supplies of salt.
The early settlers were often attacked by Indian raiders from what is now Tennessee or from the country north of the Ohio, but the work of colonization would have been far more difficult if those Indians had lived in the Kentucky region itself.
The first permanent English settlement was established at Harrodsburg in 1774 by James Harrod, and in October of the same year the Ohio Indians, having been defeated by Virginia troops in the battle of Point Pleasant (in what is now West Virginia), signed a treaty by which they surrendered their claims south of the Ohio river.
In March 1 775 Richard Henderson and some North Carolina land speculators met about 1200 Cherokee Indians in council on the Watauga river and concluded a treaty with them for the purchase of all the territory south of the Ohio river and between the Kentucky and Cumberland rivers.
During the War of Independence the colonists were almost entirely neglected by Virginia and were compelled to defend themselves against the Indians who were often under British leadership. Boonesborough was attacked in April and in July 1777 and in August 1778.
Bryant's (or Bryan's) Station, near Lexington, was besieged in August 1782 by about 600 Indians under the notorious Simon Girty, who after raising the siege drew the defenders, numbering fewer than 200, into an ambush and in the battle of Blue Licks which ensued the Kentuckians lost about 67 killed .and 7 prisoners.
The people still continued to have troubles with the Indians and with the Spanish at New Orleans.
The power of the Indians was overthrown by General Anthony Wayne's victory in the battle of Fallen Timbers, fought the 10th of August 1794 near the rapids of the Maumee river a few miles above the site of Toledo, Ohio; and the Mississippi question was settled temporarily by the treaty of 1795 and permanently by the purchase of Louisiana in 1803.
A tract along the Tunxus (now Farmington) river, called Massacoe or Saco by the Indians, was ceded to whites in 1648, and there were settlers here from Windsor as early as 1664.
In 1675, during King Philip's War, Simsbury was abandoned; and in 1676 it was burnt and pillaged by the Indians; but it was resettled in the following year.
He led the unsuccessful opposition to the Indian policy of General Jackson (the removal of the Cherokee and other Indians, without their consent, from lands guaranteed to them by treaty).
The Corporation for the Promoting and Propagating of the Gospel of Jesus Christ in New England (founded in 1649) bore the expense of printing both the New Testament and the Bible as a whole (Cambridge, Mass., 1663 - the earliest Bible printed in.America), which John Eliot, one of the Pilgrim Fathers, translated into "the language of the Massachusetts Indians," whom he evangelized.
According to the census of 1900 the population of Mexico numbered 13,607,259, of which less than one-fifth (19%) were classed as whites, 38% as Indians, and 43% as mixed bloods.
For many years, however, the Indians remained in subjection and took no part in the political activities of their native country.
According to Humboldt, the census of 1810 gave a total population of 6,122,354, of which the whites had 18%, the mestizos 22% and the Indians 60%.
The census of 1895 increased the whites to 22%, which was apparently an error, the mixed bloods to 47%, and reduced the Indians to 31%.
It is probable that the returns have never been accurate in regard to the mixed bloods and Indians, but it is the general conclusion that the Indians have been decreasing in number, while the mixed bloods have been increasing.
Recent observers, however, deny the assertion that the Indians are now decreasing in number except where local conditions are exceptionally unfavourable.
In the nearly unexplored central part of Nicaragua Dr Lehmann found fragments of painted polychrome clay pottery similar to objects known from the Ulloa Valley (Honduras) amongst other ceramic pieces which seem to have been left by the ancestors of the Sumo Indians, now extinct in that territory.
The barbarians belonged to the great family of the SumoMisquito Indians, the civilized race was that of the Chorotega or Mangue (Dirian, Orotinan, &c.).
The Sumo-Misquito Indians occupied the Atlantic coast and the interior of Nicaragua and Honduras, where they still live in small tribes; a dialect of the hitherto unknown Sumo languages.
To the east of the three places whose names are compounded with " Nonohualco," must have dwelt, in the time of the Pipil Indians, the Nonoualca, called also by Mexican tribes Chontales or Popoloca.
The western neighbours of the Sumo Indians were and are (though few still survive) the Lenca Indians, who formerly occupied large parts of Honduras.
The position of the isolated Xinca (or Sinca) Indians, regarded from this point of view, becomes very interesting.
The notion that the ruined cities now buried in the Central-American forests were of great antiquity and the work of extinct nations has no solid evidence; some of them may have been already abandoned before the conquest, but others were inhabited by the ancestors of the Indians who now build their mean huts and till their patches of maize round the relics of the grander life of their ancestors.
Local government till 1786 was largely in the hands of alcaldes majores and corregidores, the latter established in 1531 to look after the Indians, and both appointed by purchase.
Towns, which were to some extent founded after the conquest as centres of civilization for the Indians, were governed by civic officials appointed in the first instance by the governor of the province, but subsequently as a rule purchasing their posts.
With the natives south of the latitude of Tampico there was little trouble after the Mixton War (in Guadalajara) in 1540-1562, save for occasional risings in Yucatan, Tehuantepec, and in 1711 in the Nayarit mountain region west of Zacatecas, and Tamaulipas was conquered in 1748; but the wild Indians of Sonora and New Mexico gave constant trouble to the missions and outlying settlers.
Hidalgo, a parish priest, and Allende, a captain of cavalry, with forces consisting largely of Indians, captured a stronghold at Guanajato and even threatened the capital; but the revolutionists were defeated in 181r at Calderon, and the leaders executed.
The Laconia Company received - its first grant under the erroneous impression that the Piscataqua river had its source in or near Lake Champlain, and its principal object was to establish an extensive fur trade with the Iroquois Indians.
This was the principal outcome of Mason's persistent efforts to establish his rights to the land; for although he succeeded in procuring the appointment of officers who supported his claims, and although decrees were issued in his favour, the tenants, who contended that they had profited nothing from what his grandfather had done or that they were on lands which Wheelwright had bought from the Indians, resisted the enforcement of those decrees.
From 1676 to 1759 New Hampshire suffered greatly from the Indians, and the fear of them, together with the boundary disputes and Mason's claims, retarded settlement.
After a fortnight natives, swarthy and ill-looking, with ugly hair, great eyes and_broad cheeks (Beothuk or Micmac Indians?) appeared with many skin canoes; in the spring following these Skraelings came back and bartered with their visitors.
During the summer General John Sullivan marched with a large force against the Indians (all the Iroquois tribes except the Oneidas and part of the Tuscaroras siding with the British during the war) and against the Loyalists of western New York, who had been committing great depredations along the frontier; and on the 29th of August he inflicted a crushing defeat upon them at Newtown, on the site of the present Elmira.
In addition several Indian villages and the crops of the Indians were destroyed in the lake region of western New York.
The population of the entire country, which includes the Elizabeth Islands, north-west of Martha's Vineyard; Chappaquiddick Island (Edgartown township), and No Man's Land (a small island south-west of Martha's Vineyard), was 4561 in 1900 (of whom 645 were foreign-born, including 79 Portuguese and 72 English-Canadians, and 154 Indians), and in 1905, 455 1.
The younger Mayhew, soon after removing to Martha's Vineyard, devoted himself to missionary work among the Indians, his work beginning at about the same time as that of John Eliot; he was lost at sea in 1657 while on his way to secure financial assistance in England, and his work was continued successfully by his father.
The Martha's Vineyard Indians were subject to the Wampanoag tribe, on the mainland, were expert watermen, and were very numerous when the whites first came.
Tisbury township was bought from the Indians in 1669 and was incorporated in 1671.
In the same county, on or near the site of the present city of Niles (pop. 1910, 5156), French Jesuits established an Indian mission in 1690, and the French government in 1697 erected Fort St Joseph, which was captured from the English by the Indians in 1763, and in 1781 was seized by a Spanish party from St Louis.
For some of the Red Indians the Roman custom of receiving the breath of a dying man was no mere pious duty but a means of ensuring that his soul was transferred to a new body.
The lands included in the township of Litchfield (originally called Bantam) were bought from the Indians in1715-1716for 115, the Indians reserving a certain part for hunting.
The greater part of this region is uncultivated, and only utilized as pasture by the Indians, who form the majority of its inhabitants.
There are important German agricultural settlements, and many colonists from north Italy who are locally called Tiroleses, and despised by the Indians for their.
About half the births among the Indians and onethird among the whites are illegitimate.
The Indians belong chiefly to the Maya stock, which predominates throughout Peten, or to the allied Quiche race which is well represented in the Altos and central districts.
In character the Indians are, as a rule, peaceable, though conscious of their numerical superiority and at times driven to join in the revolutions which so often disturb the course of local politics; they are often intensely religious, but with a few exceptions are thriftless, indolent and inveterate gamblers.