Independently sentence example

independently
  • This is independently suggested by the contents and vicissitudes of the purely ecclesiastical traditions.'
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  • Kiera had suspected Romas to be independently wealthy by his complete lack of concern for being anywhere but with Evelyn for the last three months.
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  • Immediately after the battle of Rieti a Carbonarist mutiny broke out in Piedmont independently of events in the south.
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  • Only to this aim can we always strive independently of circumstances.
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  • The ship moves independently with its own enormous motion, the boat hook no longer reaches the moving vessel, and suddenly the administrator, instead of appearing a ruler and a source of power, becomes an insignificant, useless, feeble man.
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  • The first of his tours independently performed, in 1858 and 1859, were around the South Australian lakes, namely, Lake Torrens, Lake Eyre and Lake Gairdner.
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  • The impost upon land is based upon the cadastral survey independently of the vicissitudes of harvests.
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  • Very many of them, distrusting both of these kings, sought to act independently in favor of an Italian republic. Lord William Bentinck with an AngloSicilian force landed at Leghorn on the 8th of March 1814, and issued a proclamation to the Italians bidding them rise against Napoleon in the interests of their own freedom.
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  • In this position he earned a reputation as a politician of thorough straightforwardness and grit, and as one who would maintain British interests independently of party; and he shared with Mr Asquith the reputation of being the ablest of the Imperialists who followed Lord Rosebery.
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  • It follows, therefore, that they have been independently acquired in the course of the evolution of the Coleoptera.
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  • In support of this idea, independently of the ecclesiastical innovations, many significant facts could be adduced.
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  • Platov's division was acting independently of the main army.
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  • Her little feet in their white satin dancing shoes did their work swiftly, lightly, and independently of herself, while her face beamed with ecstatic happiness.
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  • So the way in which these people killed one another was not decided by Napoleon's will but occurred independently of him, in accord with the will of hundreds of thousands of people who took part in the common action.
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  • If then the screw-value in kilometres per second is known for the neighbourhood of each of the comparison lines employed, the radial velocity of the star can be independently derived directly from coincidences made in above manner in the neighbourhood of each comparison line.
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  • In 1574 the first provincial synod of Holland and Zealand was held, but William of Orange would not allow any action to be taken independently of the state.
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  • They did not dedicate each day in turn to its astrological planet; and it is therefore precarious to assume that the Sabbath was in its origin what it is in the astrological week, the day sacred to Saturn, and that its observance is to be derived from an ancient Hebrew worship of that planet.4 The week, however, is found in various parts of the world in a form that has nothing to do with astrology or the seven planets, and with such a distribution as to make it pretty certain that it had no artificial origin, but suggested itself independently, and for natural reasons, to different races.
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  • Meanwhile all hopes of an accommodation with Charles were dispelled by his flight on the 11th of November from Hampton Court to Carisbroke Castle in the Isle of Wight, his Flight object being to negotiate independently with the Scots, the parliament and the army.
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  • In 1886 he was elected mayor of New York City, his nomination having been forced upon the Democratic Party by the strength of the other nominees, Henry George and Theodore Roosevelt; his administration (1887-1888) was thoroughly efficient and creditable, but he broke with Tammany, was not renominated, ran independently for re-election, and was defeated.
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  • When fully developed the medusa is characterized by the sense organs being composed entirely of ectoderm, developed independently of the tentacles, and innervated from the sub-umbral nerve-ring.
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  • It is necessary to determine if the modification be a simple change that might have occurred in independent cases, in fact if it be a multiradial apocentricity, or if it involved intricate and precisely combined anatomical changes that we could not expect to occur twice independently; that is to say, if it be a uniradial apocentricity.
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  • A complex apocentric modification of a kind which we cannot imagine to have been repeated independently, and which is to be designated as uniradial, frequently forms a new centre around which new diverging modifications are produced.
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  • From the manner, however, in which he seeks to distinguish between matter and cause or reason, and from the earnestness with which he advises men to examine all the impressions on their minds, it may be inferred that he held the view of Anaxagoras - that God and matter exist independently, but that God governs matter.
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  • Of the 131,361 inhabitants in 1897 the Talyshes (35,000) form the aboriginal element, belonging to the Iranian family, and speaking an independently developed language closely related to Persian.
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  • These branch, and may be packed or interwoven to form a very solid structure; but each grows in length independently of the others and retains its own individuality, though its growth in those types with a definite external form is of course correlated with that of its neighbors and is subject to the laws governing the general form of the body.
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  • The loss has taken place, and still takes place, independently in widely different groups.
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  • During the first years of the French Revolution Catherine's sympathy with philosophic liberalism rapidly evaporated, and the European sovereigns to the democratic movement; but she carefully abstained from joining the Coalition, and waited patiently for the moment when the complications in western Europe would give her an opportunity of solving independently the Eastern Question in accordance with Russian interests.
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  • There were no great, well-organized secret societies, but there were many small groups, composed chiefly of male and female students of the universities and technical schools, which worked independently for a common purpose.
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  • 12, by Kuenen (afterwards withdrawn) and by Sellin, and can be independently confirmed.
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  • It is true that the dioptric apparatus was perfected independently by Fresnel, who had also the satisfaction of being the first to put it into operation.
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  • In spite of Rostopchin's broadsheets, or because of them or independently of them, the strangest and most contradictory rumors were current in the town.
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  • That unknown quantity is the spirit of the army, that is to say, the greater or lesser readiness to fight and face danger felt by all the men composing an army, quite independently of whether they are, or are not, fighting under the command of a genius, in two--or three-line formation, with cudgels or with rifles that repeat thirty times a minute.
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  • It is found in most of P all I of those Pteridophytes which we have other reasons for e considering as primitive types, and essentially the same Ontogeny type is found, as we have seen, in the independently with developed primitive conducting system of the mossPh.~logeny.
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  • This fact alone is sufficient proof that these conditions, or rather reductions, have been acquired independently of the various groups.
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  • It is therefore just as much the business of the zoogeographer, who wishes to arrive at the truth, to ascertain what groups of animals are wanting in any particular locality (altogether independently of its extent) as to determine those which are forthcoming there.
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  • Under this system each consignment of freight is compelled to pay its share of the terminal expense, independently of distance, plus a mileage charge proportionate to the length of the journey or haul.
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  • Besides the system of charges thus prescribed in the classification and rate-sheet, each tariff provides for a certain number of special rates or charges made for particular lines of trade in certain localities, independently of their relation to the general system.
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  • 7 hose conditions are to a certain extent mutually antagonistic, since an engine designed to satisfy either condition independently of the other R euld Le a different engine from that designed to make the best ccmpromise between them.
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  • He must have given general satisfaction, for even before Parker's death two persons so different as Burghley and Dean Nowell independently recommended Grindal's appointment as his successor, and Spenser speaks warmly of him in the Shepherd's Calendar as the "gentle shepherd Algrind."
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  • There is no difficulty in conceiving how a nebula, quite independently of any internal motion of its parts, shall also have had as a whole a movement of rotation.
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  • Settled in and around Jerusalem, they look upon themselves as the sole community, the true Israel, even as it was believed that once before Israel entered and developed independently in the land of its ancestors.
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  • Independently of the necessary consideration of the general economy of the farm, the choice must be influenced partly by the character of the soil, but very much more by that of the climate.
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  • It was evident that the affair so lightly begun could no longer be averted but was taking its course independently of men's will.
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  • A powerful stimulus was thus given to the growth of cotton in all directions; a degree of activity and enterprise never witnessed before was seen in India, Egypt, Turkey, Greece, Italy, Africa, the West Indies, Queensland, New South Wales, Peru, Brazil, and in short wherever cotton could be produced; and there seemed no room to doubt that in a short time there would be abundant supplies independently of America.
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  • This would be so if people acted independently and without guidance, but actually they are sometimes misled by published advice and movements in the market intended to deceive them, and, even when they are not, they watch each other's attitudes and tend to act as a crowd.
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  • The princes on their side acted independently: if they joined the king with their armies, it was as equals doing a favour; and they sometimes refused to join until they were coerced.
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  • 27; if there be borrowing in these passages, it is not clear on which side it lies; and it is not certain that there is borrowing - the thoughts may have been taken independently by the two authors from the same source.
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  • The art of writing also appears to have been independently invented by the Malayan races, since numerous alphabets are in use among the peoples of the archipelago, although for the writing of Malay itself the Arabic character has been adopted for some hundreds of years.
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  • He worked quite independently of Captain Mahan, and his chief conclusions were published before Captain Mahan's works appeared.
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  • From such a rudis indiges-, taque moles, after it had attained an almost world-wide distribution, have arisen the various Ratitae, independently at various epochs and in various countries.
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  • The preparation of crystalline boron in 1856 by Wohler and Sainte Claire Deville showed that this element also existed in allotropic forms, amorphous boron having been obtained simultaneously and independently in 1809 by Gay Lussac and Davy.
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  • The geological surveys of Great Britain and Ireland were connected from 1832 to 1853 with the ordnance survey, but are now carried on independently.
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  • Quakerism was preached in Scotland; very soon after its rise in England; but in the north and south of Scotland there existed, independently of and before this, preaching, groups of persons who were dissatisfied with the national form of worship and who met together in silence fordevotion.
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  • In 1887 Svante Arrhenius, professor of physics at Stockholm, put forward a new theory which supposed that the freedom of the opposite ions from each other was not a mere momentary freedom at the instants of molecular collision, but a more or less permanent freedom, the ions moving independently of each other through the liquid.
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  • Clausius extended to electrolysis the chemical ideas which looked on the opposite parts of the molecule as always changing partners independently of any electric force, and regarded the function of the current as merely directive.
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  • But the ions of an electrolytic solution can move independently through the liquid, even when no current flows, as the consequences of Ohm's law indicate.
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  • The ions will therefore diffuse independently, and the faster ion will travel quicker into pure water in contact with a solution.
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  • - The liturgical vestments of the Catholic Church, East and West, are not, as was at one time commonly supposed, borrowed from the sacerdotal ornaments of the Jewish ritual, although the obvious analogies of this ritual doubtless to a certain extent determined their sacral character; they were developed independently out of the various articles of everyday dress worn by citizens of the Graeco-Roman world under the Empire.
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  • Hesse showed independently that the general ternary cubic can be reduced, by linear transformation, to the form x3+y3+z3+ 6mxyz, a form which involves 9 independent constants, as should be the case; it must, however, be remarked that the counting of constants is not a sure guide to the existence of a conjectured canonical form.
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  • Although these conclusions were arrived at independently, and, as it would seem, several years previous to their publication, they were in great measure anticipated by the communications on the same subject of John Wallis and Christopher Wren, made respectively in November and December 1668.
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  • The following may be taken as the most probable values of the solar parallax, as derived independently by the five methods we have described: From measures of parallax.
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  • Villari in 1868 that the magnetic susceptibility of an iron wire was increased by stretching when the magnetization was below a certain value, but diminished when that value was exceeded; this phenomenon has been termed by Lord Kelvin, who discovered it independently, the " Villari reversal," the value of the magnetization for which stretching by a given load produces no effect being known as the " Villari critical point " for that load.
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  • They have appeared independently in connexion with a change in the excretion of nitrogenous waste in Arachnids, Crustacea, and the other classes of Arthropoda when aerial, as opposed to aquatic, respiration has been established - and they have been formed in some cases from the mesenteron, in other cases from the proctodaeum.
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  • Probably tracheae have developed independently by the same process in several groups of tracheate Arachnids.
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  • During those critical times the government of the state was strengthened by a new executive magistracy called the balia, which from 1455 began to act independently of the priors or consistory.
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  • The Anglicans are divided into two parties - those belonging to " the Church of the Province of South Africa," the body in communion with the Church of England, and those who act independently and constitute " the Church of England in Natal."
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  • He concludes that the genera and species exist as universals only in thought; but, inasmuch as they are collected from singulars on account of a real resemblance, they have a certain existence independently of the mind, but not an existence disjoined from the singulars of sense.
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  • The long-sought cause of the "great inequality" of Jupiter and Saturn was found in the near approach to commensurability of their mean motions; it was demonstrated in two elegant theorems, independently of any except the most general considerations as to mass, that the mutual action of the planets could never largely affect the eccentricities and inclinations of their orbits; and the singular peculiarities detected by him in the Jovian system were expressed in the so-called "laws of Laplace."
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  • They have arisen as the coefficients in the expansion of (A+a)"; but they may be considered independently as a system of numbers defined by (I) of � 41.
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  • Henceforth the Yugosla y s acted independently of both Vienna and Budapest: and when on Oct.
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  • On the ether hand, a survey of the facts of cellular embryology which were accumulated in regard to a variety of classes within a few years of Kovalevsky's work led to a generalization, independently arrived at by Haeckel and Lankester, to the effect that a lower grade of animals may be distinguished, the Protozoa or Plastidozoa, which consist either of single cells or colonies of equiformal cells, and a higher grade, the Metazoa or Enterozoa, in which the egg-cell by " cell division " gives rise to two layers of cells, the endoderm and the ectoderm, surrounding a primitive digestive chamber, the archenteron.
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  • That which we term the Record of the Past comprises the " taboos,' the customs, the traditions, the beliefs, the knowledge which are handed on by one generation to another independently of organic propagation.
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  • If it be desired to see a given number of bands in the whole or in any part of the spectrum, the thickness of the retarding plate is thereby determined, independently of all other considerations.
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  • - The church in Hamburg is completely separated from the state and manages its affairs independently.
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  • It is certainly not impossible that the two groups of " Davidic " psalms once formed separate collections independently compiled, and that the subscription to Ps.
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  • 1 Of the various explanations that have been given of Selah the only one which possesses any probability is that given independently by Baethgen and others, viz.
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  • Assuming, with Sedgwick and others, this amassed and bound condition of the tissues to be true, it would be necessary to reject the cell-doctrine in pathology altogether, and to regard the living basis of the organism as a continuous substance whose parts are incapable of living independently of the whole.
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  • Tumours Or New Growths The various definitions of the term " new growth " leave us with a definite conception of it as a new formation of tissue which appears to originate and to grow independently.
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  • It can be formed independently of cell activity, nor does it require oxygen.
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  • Independently of his system, which has long ceased to exert any influence, Hoffmann made some contributions to practical medicine; and his great knowledge of chemistry enabled him to investigate the subject of mineral waters.
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  • But it is on the combination of the two methods - that of Sydenham and of Morgagni - that modern medicine rests; and it is through these that it has been able to make steady progress in its own field, independently of the advance of physiology or other sciences.
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  • His beliefs or absence of beliefs emancipated him from conventional scruples; and he is not a good subject for those who maintain that a nice morality may exist independently of religion.
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  • In literary criticism pure and simple his principal work is the Commentaire sur Corneille, though he wrote a good deal more of the same kind - sometimes (as in his Life and notices of Moliere) independently sometimes as part of his Siecles.
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  • Though this book has not come down to us independently, it has in large measure been incorporated in the Ethiopic Book of Enoch, and can in part be reconstructed from it.
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  • Before its incorporation in the latter work circulated independently in Greek.
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  • They were successful at first, but Venice made a truce with the Scala independently of the Florentines, and by the peace of 1339 they only obtained a part of Lucchese territory.
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  • The replacement of detached mature proglottides at the distal end of the Cestode-body by others is not regeneration, for the replacing set has already developed, and in certain cases they can complete their development quite independently after being detached from the parent.
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  • - Independently of the question of the application of external heating, the furnaces used in electrometallurgy may be broadly classified into (i.) arc furnaces, in which the intense heat of the electric arc is utilized, and (ii.) resistance and incandescence furnaces, in which the heat is generated by an electric current overcoming the resistance of an inferior conductor.
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  • Sainte Claire Deville working independently obtained aluminium by the electrolysis of the fused double sodium aluminium chloride.
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  • Independently of him Klaproth in 1793 discovered a new metal in rutile, and called it titanium; he subsequently found that it was identical with Gregor's element.
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  • It is an unprofitable inquiry who first made this blunder; probably many fell into it independently.
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  • In the Metaphysical state, for volition is substituted abstract force residing in the object, yet existing independently of the object; the phenomena are viewed as if apart from the bodies manifesting them; and the properties of each substance have attributed to them an existence distinct from that substance.
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  • After the death in 950 of Lothair, king of Italy, Berengar sought the hand of his widow Adelaide for his son Adalbert; and Henry of Bavaria and Ludolf of Swabia had already been meddling independently of each other in the affairs of northern Italy.
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  • They possess few reliable characters; their modifications are not weighty, and it is almost certain that some of these characters, and even combinations thereof, have been developed independently and in different countries.
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  • The metropolitans now commonly assumed the title of archbishop to mark their preeminence over the other bishops; at the same time the obligation imposed upon them, mainly at the instance of St Boniface, to receive thepallium from Rome, definitely marked the defeat of their claim to exercise metropolitan jurisdiction independently of the pope.
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  • Henry Wurtz in America (1864) and Sir William Crookes in England (1865) made independently the discovery that, by the addition of a small quantity of sodium to the mercury, the operation is much facilitated.
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  • It must be noticed, however, that Percy independently made the same discovery, and stated his results at the meeting of the British Association (at Swansea) in 1849, but the Report was not published until 1852.
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  • The special characteristic of its theology is in the first part where it owes most to the teaching of Augustine, who in his striving after self-knowledge analysed the mystery of his own triune personality and illustrated it with psychological images, " I exist and I am conscious that I exist, and I love the existence and the consciousness; and all this independently of any external influence."
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  • Chase has pointed out: (r) the terms KX?Jtol, awrnpia, IrLaTCS, have attained their later technical sense; (2) " the writer is steeped in the language of the LXX.," employing its phraseology independently of other N.T.
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  • But when a committee of the Royal Asiatic Society, with George Grote at its head, decided that the translations of an Assyrian text made independently by the scholars just named were at once perfectly intelligible and closely in accord with one another, scepticism was silenced, and the new science was admitted to have made good its claims. Naturally the early investigators did not fathom all the niceties of the language, and the work of grammatical investigation has gone on continuously under the auspices of a constantly growing band of workers.
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  • The conclusion arrived at here is that of Henderson, but it is reached independently.
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  • In 1863 it was independently discovered by Westwood in an English vinery at Hammersmith; he was ignorant of Fitch's observation, and called it Peritymbia vitisana.
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  • Whether Bessel communicated such a course of reasoning to Fraunhofer, or whether that great artist arrived independently at like conclusions, we have been unable to ascertain with certainty.
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  • The reading micrometers e, f also serve to measure, independently, the separation of the segments, by scales attached to the slides; such measurements can be employed as a check on those made by the screws.
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  • Thus the simple connexion of the two screws by cogwheels to give them automatic opposite motion is not an available method unless the separation of the segments is independently measured by scales.
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  • Four continental scholars, Fritzsche, Benary, Hitzig and Reuss, independently recognized that Nero was referred to under the mystical number 666.
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  • Nay more, the difficulties attending on the assumption of a common authorship of the Gospel and Apocalypse, independently of the question of the apostolic authorship of the Gospel, are practically insuperable.
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  • The factors s or 0 are observed independently.
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  • We are therefore called upon, not to trace the series of configurations of any single gas, starting from definite initial conditions, but to search for features and properties common to all series of configurations, independently of the particular initial conditions from which the gas may have started.
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  • If it be not the same it shows the Corinthian church exercising discipline independently of apostolic advice.
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  • Species of Palaquium, the genus from which, in the Indian Archipelago, the best gutta-percha is obtained, occur on the hills, and from their cultivation there might in time be obtained a large revenue independently of European labour.
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  • - Down to near the close of the republic a naval command was never held independently but only in connexion with the command of an army, and, when the general appointed an officer to command the fleet in his room, this lieutenant was styled "praefect of the fleet" (praefectus classium).
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  • The idea of the supreme power on earth of a general council of Christendom, deliberating in the name of the Holy Spirit, convoked, if necessary, independently of the popes, was defended by many, and advocated by the university of Paris.
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  • We have no ground for thinking that the second part ever existed independently as a separate book.
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  • Like others of the Reformers he had been led independently to preach justification by faith and to declare that Jesus Christ was the one and only Mediator between sinful man and God; but his construction rested upon what he regarded as biblical conceptions of the nature of God and man rather than upon such private personal experiences as those which Luther had made basal.
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  • Enumerations were conducted independently by the different states until 1871, when the first federal census was taken of the older parts of the Dominion.
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  • Each of the small administrative groups here included takes its census independently of the rest, though since 1871 all take it about the date fixed for that of the United Kingdom.
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  • Coining originated independently in China at a later date than in the western world, and spread from China to Japan and Korea.
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  • Recently the practice of driving rolls by electricity has been growing, the advantage being that each pair of rolls can be driven independently without the intervention of cumbrous shafting.
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  • The power is usually transmitted through toothed wheels, each roll being driven independently in some cases, while sometimes power is applied to the lower roll only, the upper roll being coupled to it.
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  • The tone of the frequency of the beats was discovered by Georg Andreas Sorge in 1740, and independently a few years later by Giuseppe Tartini, after whom it is named.
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  • Here Josiah Wedgwood was born in 1730, his family having practised the manufacture in this locality for several generations, while he himself began work independently at the Ivy House pottery in 1759.
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  • Walker and known as "Walker's Point," was subsequently platted independently.
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  • Under this act the east and west sides were independently incorporated in February 1837.
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  • But independently of the public anxieties of the war, and of those aroused by the violent and unexpected outbreak of fanaticism in China, the year brought deep private griefs to the queen.
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  • This may be taken to indicate the possible earnings of trained nurses working independently, as they usually do in America.
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  • After 1860 a change towards a more liberal policy was brought about by the efforts of Prussia, which concluded independently a commercial treaty with France, forcing on the other members of the Zollverein the alternative of either parting company French with Prussia or of joining her in her relations with treaty France.
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  • Its various constituents, however, and of these there were three - the Martyrdom of Isaiah, the Testament of Hezekiah and the Vision of Isaiah - circulated independently as early as the 1st century.
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  • The archetype of this section existed independently in Greek; for the second Latin and the Slavonic Versions presuppose an independent circulation of their Greek archetype in western and Slavonic countries.
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  • Legendre had pursued the subject which would now be called elliptic integrals alone from 1786 to 1827, the results of his labours having been almost entirely neglected by his contemporaries, but his work had scarcely appeared in 1827 when the discoveries which were independently made by the two young and as yet unknown mathematicians Abel and Jacobi placed the subject on a new basis, and revolutionized it completely.
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  • The task of maintaining the position of France was then divided between Thomas Robert Bugeaud (1784-1849), acting independently in the west, and Damremont, who directed all his efforts towards the east.
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  • Heinrich Eduard Heine has shown that the functions of higher orders may be considered as limiting values of the associated functions; this relation was discussed independently, in 1878, by Lord Rayleigh.
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  • The literary differences are, moreover, often accompanied by differences of treatment, or representation of the history, which, where they exist, confirm independently the conclusions of the literary analysis.
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  • To Ceriani is due the discovery that the text preserved by codices 19, 82, 93, 108, really represents Lucian's recension; the same conclusion was reached independently by Lagarde, who combined codex 118 with the four mentioned above.
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  • The exact dates of events in Hebrew history can be determined only when the figures given in the Old Testament can be checked and, if necessary, corrected by the contemporary monuments of Assyria and Babylonia, or (as in the post-exilic period) by the knowledge which we independently possess of the chronology of the Persian kings.
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  • This was ratified by Pope Gelasius (492-496), and independently confirmed for the province of Africa by a series of Synods held at Hippo Regius in 393, and at Carthage in 397 and 419, under the lead of Augustine.
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  • But if the tradition of the consulship was thus, it would seem, already an old one about the year 200, there is at least some reason to conclude that trustworthy information in early Christian circles pointed, independently of the Gospels, to the year 29 as that of the Crucifixion.
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  • Independently of its value as being compiled from original documents, it bears evidence of great research, and has been of essential benefit to later writers.
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  • The former, "fire-air," or oxygen, he prepared from "acid of nitre," from saltpetre, from black oxide of manganese, from oxide of mercury and other substances, and there is little doubt but that he obtained it independently a considerable time before Priestley.
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  • Jacobi (1801-1874) in Russia, working independently, succeeded in contriving methods which could be made commercially profitable.
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  • More likely then the 147 and 129 units originated independently in Egypt and Babylonia.
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  • When Neoplatonism appeared, the Christian church had already laid down the main positions of her theology; or if not, she worked them out alongside of Neoplatonism - that is not a mere accident - but still independently.
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  • Stewart gives us to understand that he had, as early as 1752, adopted the liberal views of commercial policy which he afterwards preached; and this we should have been inclined to believe independently from the fact that such views I These two numbers were reprinted in 1818.
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  • The work, which was performed wholly in duplicate, and independently by two divisions of computers, occupied two years.
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  • It became established as a distinct branch in the beginning of the 19th century, and somewhat later received the appellation " palaeontology," which was given independently by De Blainville and by Fischer von Waldheim about 1834.
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  • Thus the recapitulation law, which had been built up independently from the observations and speculations on vertebrates by Lorenz Ofen (1779-1851), Johann Friedrich Meckel (1781-1833), St Hilaire, Karl Ernst von Baer (1;92-1876) and others, and had been applied (1842-1843) by Karl Vogt (1817-1895) and Agassiz, in their respective fields of observation, to comparison of individual stages with the adults of the same group in preceding geological periods, furnished the key to the determination of the ancestry of the invertebrates generally.
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  • More or less independently, Huxley, Kowalevsky and Cope restored the stem ancestor of the hoofed animals, or ungulates, a restoration which has been nearly fulfilled by the discovery, in 1873, of the generalized type Phenacodus of northern Wyoming.
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  • In the Jurassic period there were no less than six orders of reptiles which independently abandoned terrestrial life and acquired more or less perfect adaptation to sea life.
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  • Smith Woodward has observed that the decline of many groups of fishes is heralded by the tendency to assume elongate and finally eel-shaped forms, as seen independently, for example, among the declining Acanthodians or palaeozoic sharks, among the modern crossopterygian Polypterus and Calamoichthys of the Nile, in the modern dipneustan Lepidosiren and Protopterus, in the Triassic chondrostean Belonorhynchus, as well as in the bow-fin (A7nia) and the garpike (Lepidosteus).
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  • This proof has been reached quite independently by a very large number of observers studying a still greater variety of animals.
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  • Thus both invertebrate and vertebrate palaeontologists have reached independently the conclusion that the evolution of groups is not continuously at a uniform rate, but that there are, especially in the beginnings of new phyla or at the time of acquisition of new organs, sudden variations in the rate of evolution which have been termed variously " rhythmic," "pulsating," " efflorescent," "intermittent " and even " explosive " (Deperet).
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  • Yet there is strong evidence against the existence of any law in the nature of an internal perfecting tendency which would operate independently of external conditions.
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  • Leishman in 1900, but before his first account of them (36) was published they were also seen quite independently by C. Donovan.
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  • Among hospitals those of special general interest are the Steevens, the oldest in the city, founded under the will of Dr Richard Steevens in 1720; the Mater Misericordiae (1861),which includes a laboratory and museum, and is managed by the Sisters of Mercy, but relieves sufferers independently of their creed; the Rotunda lying-in hospital (1756); the Royal hospital for incurables, Donnybrook, which was founded in 1744 by the Dublin Musical Society; and the Royal Victoria Eye and Ear hospital, Adelaide Road, which amalgamated (1904) two similar institutions.
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  • It consists of sacred songs or chants, partly composed independently, partly formed out of the contents of the Bible, which, however, has evidently been gathered by them orally, as until quite lately they were almost entirely illiterate and did not possess any written book.
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  • The village was incorporated in 1825, Salina being incorporated independently at the same time.
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  • Apollonius' genius takes its highest flight in Book v., where he treats of normals as minimum and maximum straight lines drawn from given points to the curve (independently of tangent properties), discusses how many normals can be drawn from particular points, finds their feet by construction, and gives propositions determining the centre of curvature at any point and leading at once to the Cartesian equation of the evolute of any conic.
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  • Each suburb is laid out independently, with straight streets where the ground permits, and crooked ones where the shore-line or mountain contour compels.
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  • In 1844 he began, independently of his father, the issue of the Toronto Globe.
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  • The announcement of the first discoveries made through the application of spectroscopy, then called spectrum analysis, appealed to the imagination of the scientific world because it revealed a method of investigating the chemical nature of substances independently of their distances: a new science was thus created, inasmuch as chemical analysis could =rT?
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  • According to an important law discovered by Rydberg and shortly afterwards independently by the writer, the frequency of the common root of the two branches is obtained by subtracting the frequency of the root of the trunk from that of its least refrangible and strongest member.
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  • In the original experiments 2 the pressures could only be increased to 15 atmospheres, but in a more recent work Humphreys,' and independently Duffield, were able to use pressures up to ioo atmospheres.
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  • The study of Rhabdocoels (7) has led to the important discovery that the rudiment of the gonads and that of the pharynx are the first organs to appear, and that the alimentary sac arises independently of them.
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  • Partly co-operative with James Thorne and at his death independently, the Church was favoured with the influence of Frederick William Bourne.
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  • Although documents might be known and used, they would not be regarded as the authorities for that which was independently remembered, and would not, therefore, necessarily be mentioned.
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  • It is introduced into the Synoptic Outline very differently in those two Gospels, which clearly suggests that it existed in a separate form, and was independently combined by the first and third evangelists with their other document.
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  • But they may very well have been developed independently in Germany and in England from their common source in Hume.
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  • But the view that the invasion was effected throughout by small bodies of adventurers acting independently of one another, and that each of the various kingdoms owes its origin to a separate enterprise, has little probability in its favour.
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  • He was never worshipped independently, however, though the worship of the Great Mother was not always accompanied by his.
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  • This common source we may believe with Lightfoot to have been the Persian religion, which we know to have profoundly influenced that of Israel, independently of the Essenes.
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  • Familiar cases can readily be found of the perception of the mass of bodies, independently of their tendency to fall towards the earth.
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  • The conquest of Ireland was carried out independently of his assistance, and perhaps against his wishes.
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  • This action was opposed by the church of New York City, and partly through this difference and partly because of quarrels over the denominational control of King's College (now Columbia), five members of the Coetus seceded, and as the president of the Coetus was one of them they took the records with them; they were called the Conferentie; they organized independently in 1764 and carried on a bitter warfare with the Coetus (now more properly called the American Classis), which in 1766 (and again in 1770) obtained a charter for Queen's (now Rutgers) College at New Brunswick.
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  • By observation and experiment it was discovered independently by Messrs Bates, Wallace and Bell that they are not attacked by birds nor by many other enemies that prey upon unprotected Lepidoptera.
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  • But in England knighthood has always been conferred to a great extent independently of these considerations.
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  • The non-episcopal missions thus formed and supported are worked quite independently of the home societies of the denominations respectively.
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  • It is also possible in the absence of satisfactory intermediate forms that the Ascomycetes and Basidiomycetes have also been derived from the algae independently of the Phycomycetes, and perhaps of one another.
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  • Moreover, the use of each metal must have originated in many different places independently.
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  • In the Bell-Krupp or "pig-washing" process, invented independently by the famous British iron-master, Sir Lowthian Bell, and Krupp of Essen, advantage is taken of the fact that, at a relatively low temperature, probably a little above 1200° C., the phosphorus and silicon of molten cast iron are quickly oxidized and removed by contact with molten iron oxide, though carbon is thus oxidized but slowly.
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  • In his dictionary, again, he recast the lexicological materials independently, and enriched lexicography itself, especially by his numerous etymological explanations.
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  • Both were made independently from earlier manuscripts.
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  • In treating mathematically the propagation of other kinds of waves, it is necessary to analyse them into their simple-harmonic components, which may be treated as being propagated independently.
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  • The conductivity of the same bars was independently determined by the method of Forbes, employing an ingenious formula for the heat-loss in place of Newton's law.
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  • Avicebron develops his philosophical system throughout quite independently of his religious views - a practice wholly foreign to Jewish teachers, and one which could not be acceptable to them.
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  • Only Armenia, the Persian Empire, and the neighbouring regions of the East are independently described from local information, and on these sections the value of the little work depends.
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  • 160-170), and Nau (B ulletin critique, 3 who independently reached the same conclusion, that Assemani's opinion was a mistake, and that the chronicle in question was the work not of Dionysius of Tell-Malire but of an earlier writer, a monk of the convent of Zuknin near Amid (Diarbekr) on the upper Tigris.
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  • Each delegation has the right to formulate resolutions independently, and to call to account and arraign the common ministers.
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  • The general Jafar, hoping to deal with this enemy independently of Jauhar, met the Carmathians without waiting for reinforcements from Egypt, and fell in battle, his army being defeated.
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  • Each neuron or nerve cell is a morphologically distinct and discrete unit connected functionally but not structurally with its neighbours, and leading its own life independently of the destiny of its neighbours.
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  • The Steenwyker Aa, however, enters the Zuider Zee independently.
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  • 2 So Hitzig (Ostern and Pfcngsten im zweiten Dekalog, Heidelberg, 1838), independently of a previous suggestion of Goethe in 1783, who in turn appears to.
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  • In his Antient Metaphysics (1 779- 1 799), Monboddo conceived man as gradually elevating himself from an animal condition, in which his mind is immersed in matter, to a state in which mind acts independently of body.
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  • It would further appear that oogamous reproduction has arisen independently in each of the three main groups of Euchlorophyceae, viz.
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  • Independently of the illustration of written or printed books, for which purpose woodcuts were almost exclusively used, separate engravings or sets of engravings in both kinds were produced, the more finely wrought and more expensive, appealing especially to the more educated classes, on copper, the bolder, simpler and cheaper on wood; and both kinds found a ready sale at all the markets, fairs and church festivals of the land.
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  • You should assume we have not checked the information independently.
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  • His influence in the country was still a strong one on personal grounds, and he came forward now and again to give expression independently to popular feeling.
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  • The service was reorganized in 1662, and in 1711 the postal establishments of the United Kingdom, hitherto conducted independently in each country, were consolidated into one.
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  • It would appear from the way in which Anabaptism sprang up everywhere independently, as if more than one ancient sect took in and through it a new lease of life.
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  • Tell is represented as being one of those who swore at the Ruth to drive out the oppressors; but the narrative of his doings is merely one incident in the general movement which began quite independently of him.
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  • When two thinkers of such eminence (probably the two greatest ethical thinkers of antiquity) have arrived independently at this strange"--conclusion, have agreed in ascribing to cravings, felt in this life, so great, and to us so inconceivable, a power over the future life, we may well hesitate before we condemn the idea as intrinsically absurd, and we may take note of the important fact that, given similar conditions, similar stages in the development of religious belief, men's thoughts, even in spite of the most unquestioned individual originality, tend though they may never produce exactly the same results, to work in similar ways.
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  • Scheele, working independently, also announced in 1775 the discovery of this element which he called "empyreal air" (Crells' Annalen, 1785, 2, pp. 229, 291).
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  • But here we have entered upon a region of less certainty, in which critical scholarship has still much to do; and these passages are mentioned here only as a reminder that the document must have contained more than what St Matthew and St Luke each independently determined to borrow from it.
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  • Bach's method is to treat each clause of his text as a separate movement, alternating choruses with groups of arias; a method which was independently adopted by Mozart in those larger masses in which he transcends the Neapolitan type, such as the great unfinished Mass in,C minor.
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  • Reason abandons her efforts to mould the world, and is content to let the aims of individuals work out their results independently, only stepping in to lay down precepts for the cases where individual actions conflict, and to test these precepts by the rules of formal logic.
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  • Its appearance has been associated with the invasion of the Israelites or with the establishment of the independent monarchy, but on very inadequate grounds; and since it has been independently placed at the latter part of the monarchy, its historical explanation may presumably be found in that break in the career of Palestine when peoples were changed and new organizations slowly grew up. 5 The great significance of these vicissitudes for the course of internal conditions in Palestine is evident when it is observed that the subsequent cleavage between Judah and Samaria, not earlier than the 5th century, presupposes an antecedent common foundation which, in view of the history of the monarchies, can hardly be earlier than the 7th century.
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  • Sellin, working independently, has excavated Tell Ta'nuk (Taanach), and in 1907 began work upon the mount of Jericho.
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  • Moreover, independently of special incentives to the alarmist and the man of property, the opinions of many Americans turned again, after the war, into a current of sympathy for England, as naturally as American commerce returned to English ports.
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  • If Hippias, Polus and Thrasymachus defied conventional morality, they did so independently of one another, and in this, as in other matters, they were disputants maintaining paradoxical theses, rather than thinkers announcing heretical convictions.
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  • The conclusion is that Lippershey was the first person who independently invented the telescope, and at the same time made the instrument known to the world.
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  • Galileo may thus claim to have invented the telescope independently, but not till he had heard that others had done so.
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  • We have thus followed somewhat minutely the history of the gradual process by which Dollond arrived independently at his invention of the refracting telescope, because it has been asserted that he borrowed the idea from others.
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  • Thus, any fixed telescope directed towards the mirror of a properly adjusted coelostat in motion will show all the stars in the field of view at rest; or, by rotating the polar axis independently of the clockwork, the observer can pass in review all the stars visible above the horizon whose declinations come within the limits of his original field of view.
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  • Finally, owing largely to Jay, who suspected the good faith of France, the American negotiators decided to treat independently with Great Britain.
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  • But the occurrence of the name in both India and Europe is prima facie evidence in favour of a connexion between those who bore it, for, though civilized races often lumped all their barbarian neighbours together under one general name, it would seem that, when the same name is applied independently to similar invaders in both India and eastern Europe, the only explanation can be that they gave themselves that name, and this fact probably indicates that they were members of the same tribe or group. What we know of the history and distribution of the Huns does not conflict with this idea.
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  • The Petrine Matthew bears the closest relationship to this original Gospel (Urevangelium); the Pauline Luke is later and arose independently; Mark represents a still later development; the account in John is idealistic: it "does not possess historical truth, and cannot and does not really lay claim to it."
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  • When he failed to convince Falkenhayn that the effort should be a joint one, he determined to attack independently, and, according to Krauss, he endeavoured to conceal his preparations from the Germans.
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  • Thus, behind the screen of the normal shares a number of small tenancies arise which run their economic concerns independently from the cumbersome arrangements of tenure and service, and, needless to add, all these tenancies are burdened with money rents.
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  • Such rents were called mal or mail in contrast with the gafol, ancient rents which had been imposed independently, apart from any buying off of customary services.
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  • The laws of the pure activity of thought must be independently determined, and since the contribution of thought to knowledge is form they must be formal only.
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  • And one of Hamilton's earliest advances in the study of his system (an advance independently made, only a few months later, by Arthur Cayley) was the interpretation of the singular operator q()q1, where q is a quaternion.
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  • Shaw, in America, independently of Joly, has interpreted the quaternion as a point-symbol.
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  • The more logical method of procedure is to determine the specific heat independently of the total heat, and then to deduce the variations of total heat by equation (52).
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  • The value of c is determined by the throttling experiments, so that all the coefficients in the formula with the exception of A are determined independently of any observations of the saturationpressure itself.
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  • It has two general departments, the college of arts and engineering and the preparatory school, which are conducted independently of one another.
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  • Originally any inhabitant holding a certain measure of land, freehold or subject to the mere nominal ground-rent abovementioned, was a full citizen independently of his calling, the clergy and the lord's retainers and servants of whatever rank, who claimed exemption from scot and lot, to use the English formula, alone excepted.
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  • A married woman may hold, acquire, manage and convey property and carry on business independently of her husband.
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  • It is not implied that in the formation of the " natural " religions individuals were not of great importance, nor, on the other hand, that in individual religions the founder formed his faith independently of the community of which he was a part; but only that as undoubted historic facts certain religions, in tracing their lines to individuals, thereby acquired a distinctive character, and retain the impress of their founder.
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  • The modern theory of the relations between the sovereign and the parties, by which the former identifies himself with the faction for the time in power while maintaining his detachment from all, had not then been invented; and Anne, like her Hanoverian successors, maintained the struggle, though without success, to rule independently, finding support in Harley.
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  • That the alphabet was borrowed and adapted independently by different places not widely separated, and that the earliest Greek alphabets did not spread from one or a few centres in Greek lands, seem clear (a) from the different Greek sounds for which the Phoenician symbols were utilized; (b) from the different symbols which were employed to represent sounds which the Phoenicians did not possess, and for which, therefore, they had no symbols.
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  • But it is not probable that the Ionic and Phoenician developed independently from the closed form.
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  • In particular, in the case of a frame which is just rigid, the principle enables us to find the stress in any one bar independently of the rest.
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  • When a frame has a critical form it may be in a state of stress independently of the action of extraneous forces; moreover, the stresses due to extraneous forces are F indeterminate, and may be infinite.
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  • It is more probable, surely, that the name Artacia occurred independently (as most geographical names are found to occur) in more than one place.
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  • The French authors argue that from the macruran lobsters (Nephropsidae) anciently diverged two lines: one leading through the Dromiidea to the genuine Brachyura; or crabs, the other independently to the Anomura proper, which may conveniently be named and classed as Macrura anomala.
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  • In philosophy, the term (with its antithesis "heteronomy") was applied by Kant to that aspect of the rational will in which, qua rational, it is a law to itself, independently alike of any external authority, of the results of experience and of the impulses of pleasure and pain.
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  • The press is practically four quadruple machines built together, each of which can be worked independently of the other.
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  • The Sandy Creek Association, with Stearns as leader, undertook to "unfellowship ordinations, ministers and churches that acted independently," and provoked such opposition that a division of the association became necessary.
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  • It should be observed that the free acid is gradually neutralized, partly by chemical action on certain constituents of the slime, partly by local action between different metals of the anode, both of which effect solution independently of the current, and partly by the peroxidation (or aeration) of ferrous sulphate formed from the iron in the anode.
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  • The Free Colonies were designed for the reception of indigent persons, for the purpose of teaching them agriculture, and so enabling them eventually to earn their own living independently.
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  • The Scots confession, though of course drawn up independently, is in substantial accord with the others then springing up in the countries of the Reformation, but is Calvinist rather than Lutheran.
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  • This would be merely carrying oyster culture a step farther back, and instead of collecting the newly fixed oysters, to obtain the free larvae in numbers and so insure a fall of spat independently of the uncertainty of natural conditions.
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  • The theory of utility was about 1870 being independently developed on somewhat similar lines by Carl Menger in Austria and M.E.L.
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  • It might be mistaken for pleurisy or some inflammatory affection of the lungs; but the absence of any chest symptoms, its occurrence independently of the acts of respiration, and other considerations well establish the distinction.
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  • Govan is supplied with Glasgow gas and water, and its tramways are leased by the Glasgow corporation; but it has an electric light installation of its own, and performs all other municipal functions quite independently of the city, annexation to which it has always strenuously resisted.
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  • The determining cause of the formation of the tubers is not certainly known, but Professor Bernard has suggested that it is the presence of a fungus, Fusarium solani, which, growing in the underground shoots, irritates them and causes the swelling; the result is that an efficient method of propagation is secured independently of the seed.
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  • Independently of the enormous variety of topographical conformation contained in the Himalayan system, the vast altitude of the mountains alone is sufficient to cause modifications of climate in ascending over their slopes such as are not surpassed by those observed in moving from the equator to the poles.
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  • Nor did these write independently of each other, for Sozomen (q.v.) certainly had before him the work of Socrates, and Theodoret (q.v.) knew both of them.
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  • The water-supply system was greatly improved after the earthquake of 1906; whereas before the earthquake one main supply pipe brougnt all the water to the city, there have since been installed five systems which work independently of each other.
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  • These component deformations are in general infinite in number, of very wave-length and of arbitrary phase; but in the first stages of the motion, with which alone we are at present concerned, each produces its effect independently of every other, and may be considered by itself.
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  • Instead of 3 divisions, I only was to operate in Macedonia, and this was directed to move independently from Dupnitsa in the direction of Seres and Salonika.
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  • By the Greek constitution of 16th/28th November 1864 " the Orthodox Church of Greece remains indissolubly united, as regards dogmas, to the great Church of Constantinople, and to every other church professing the same doctrines, and, like these churches, it preserves in their integrity the apostolical constitutions and those of the councils of the Church, together with the holy traditions; it is aiTacE4aXos, it exercises its sovereign rights independently of every other church, and it is governed by a synod of bishops."
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  • Sertiirner, a German apothecary, independently obtained this same substance, naming it " morphium," and recognized its basic nature; he also isolated an acid, meconic acid.
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  • Eusebius often fails to appreciate the significance of the events which he records; in many cases he draws unwarranted conclusions from the given premises; he sometimes misinterprets his documents and misunderstands men and movements; but usually he presents us with the material upon which to form our own judgment, and if we differ with him we must at the same time thank him for the data that enable us independently to reach other results.
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  • We may regard it as a form of unipolar immigration in which the immigrating cells pass into the interior in a connected epithelial layer, instead of going in singly and independently.
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  • The sixteen tentacles of the scyphistoma disappear, and in the place of the four perradial and four interradial tentacles, the eight tentaculocysts of the adult are formed as outgrowths of the subumbral margin, independently of the tentacles of the scyphistoma (Friedemann).
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  • These roads also operate numerous branch lines and control other short lines built independently.
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  • The railways operating independently of the great " trunk " systems are few and unimportant.
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  • Each of them was independently governed, and furnished together 363 horse-power in actual effect, an amount which, considering that their total weight was only 600 lb, gave the extraordinary efficiency of over i horsepower for every 2 lb weight.
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  • This problem was solved independently by Vicenzo Viviani in Italy.
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  • To suppose that the technical terminology of Paul, including even his classic example of the faith of Abraham, could be employed here independently of Rom.
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  • Independently of the literary contacts we should judge the period to be about A.D.
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  • The many characters which they possess in common can hardly have been independently acquired by so many distinct species; so that these characters must have been inherited.
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  • Many of these points are of so unimportant, or of so singular a nature, that it is extremely improbable that they should have been independently acquired by aboriginally distinct species or races.
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  • The advantages that led to the very rapid introduction of this system were not only the power of greatly reducing the size of the piers, but the enormous facility afforded for quick construction, the small amount of materials relatively used and the proportionately small load upon the foundations, and the fact that as the walls are supported at each storey directly from the cage, the masonry can be begun at any storey independently of the masonry below it.
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  • Readman, experimenting with a Cowles furnace in Staffordshire in 1888, patented his process, and in the same year Parker and Robinson, working independently, patented a similar one.
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  • These were translated independently by Dositheiu under the title of Pirimiar (Jassy, 1683), and were almost the last work that came from his prolific pen.
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  • The superstitions of one are often found to be those of the others, and in such a form that they could not have been taken over independently from a third source; they show too much family likeness.
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  • It is probable that independently of the Hradcany and Vysehrad settlements a certain number of buildings existed as early as 993 on the site of the present Pofie Street (near the station of the state railway).
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  • The city is served by the Port Townsend Southern railway (controlled by the Northern Pacific, but operated independently) and by steamship lines to Victoria (British Columbia), San Francisco, Alaska and Oriental ports.
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  • At this conference it is worthy of note that Mr Hofmeyr propounded a sort of " Zollverein " scheme, in which imperial customs were to be levied independently of the duties payable on all goods entering the empire from abroad.
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  • Empirical rules have grown up assigning to each district, according to its average rainfall, a particular number of days' supply, independently of any inflow, as the contents of the reservoir necessary to secure a given yield throughout the driest seasons.
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  • The brushes have the same diameter, but one is much longer than the other, and they move independently of one another.
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  • 1 The right, moving more or less independently, was at Dobrinishte in the Mesta valley.
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  • This scholium was- " The inverse law of gravity holds in all the celestial motions, as was discovered also independently by my countrymen Wren, Hooke and Halley."
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  • 8d., on the grouping system, we split up each quantity into its denominations, perform the subtractions independently, and then regroup the results as the " remainder " £6, 2s.
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  • Causality might tell us that a cause there is of sensation somewhere and of some sort; but that this cause is a force or sum of forces, existing in space, independently of us, and corresponding to our sensations, it could never tell us, for the simple reason that such a notion is not supposed to exist in our consciousness.
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  • Indeed, Bury is constrained to admit that the view of Semon and others may be correct, and that these so-called calycinal systems may not be heirlooms from a calyculate ancestor, but may have been independently developed in the various classes owing to the action of similar causes.
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  • The classes of the Eleutherozoa probably arose independently from different branches of the Pelmatozoan stem.
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  • If then we place these groups in a single class, it is not on account of a few anomalous genera, but because the characters set forth above sharply distinguish them from all other echinoderms, and because we have good reason to believe that the ophiurans did not arise independently but have descended from primitive starfish.
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  • Why should the vessel of the Last Supper, jealously guarded at Castle Corbenic, visit Arthur's court independently?
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  • In his election speeches Gladstone had insisted on the necessity of the country returning a Liberal majority which could act independently of the Irish vote; and the result of the general election had left the Irish the virtual arbiters of the political situation.
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  • Others however (inclusive of Tritylodon and Microlestes, if they be really mammals), seem nearer to the Monotremata; and the question has yet to be decided whether placentals and marsupials on the one hand, and monotremes on the other are not independently derived from reptilian ancestors.
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  • As the indisputable facts became known, the world recognized that the two astronomers had independently solved the problem of Uranus, and ascribed to each equal glory.
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  • Darazi, who had acted independently in his apostolate, was branded by Hamza as a heretic, and thus, by a curious anomaly, he is actually held in detestation by the very sect which perhaps bears his name.
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  • The place in Attica which has been the chief scene of excava tions (independently of Athens and its vicinty) is Eleusis, where the remains of the sanctuary of Demeter, the home of the Eleusinian Mysteries, together with other buildings in its neighbourhood, were cleared by the Greek Archaeological Society in 1882-1887 and 1895-1896.
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  • The population, however, has undergone a great change, independently of the large admixture of Slavonic blood that has affected the Greeks of the mainland generally, by the immigration of Albanian colonists, who now occupy a great part of the country.
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  • It may even be regarded as an open question whether some of them may not have arisen independently and represent parallel lines of evolution from Bryophytic or Algal forms. This leads us to consider the question whether any indications exist as to the manner in which the Pteridophyta arose.
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  • Such chelate rami or limbbranchesare independently developed in Crustacea and inArachnida, and are carried by somites of the body which do not correspond in position in the two groups.
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  • There is no reason to suppose that any of the forms of limb observed in Arthropoda may not have been independently developed in two or more separate diverging lines of descent.
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  • We are driven by the conclusions arrived at as to the derivation of the Arachnida from branchiate ancestors, independently of the other tracheate Arthropods, to formulate the conclusion that tracheae have been independently developed in the Arachnidan class.
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  • We are also, by the isolation of Peripatus and the impossibility of tracing to it all other tracheate Arthropoda, or of regarding it as a degenerate offset from some one of the tracheate classes, forced to the conclusion that the tracheae of the Onychophora have been independently acquired.
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  • It seems that we have to suppose that the vasifactive tissue of Arthropoda can readily take the form of air-holding instead of blood-holding tubes, and that this somewhat startling change in its character has taken place independently in several instances - viz.
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  • As regards kinds of knowledge, he finds that " all knowledge we are capable of " must be assertion or denial of some one of three sorts of relation among our ideas themselves, Four sorts or else of relations between our ideas and reality that of know- exists independently of us and our ideas.
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  • Nevertheless, the belief that material processes must be held sufficient to account for material changes in the human organism as in all other regions of the material world, can be held quite independently of any particular theory as to the relation between mind and body, and in many of its forms is equally destructive of a belief in the freedom of the will.
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  • He then returned to America, where he found the board ready to act independently.
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  • The truth is that, while Locke agrees entirely with Hobbes as to the egoistic basis of rational conduct, and the interpretation of " good " and " evil" as " pleasure " and " pain," or that which is productive of pleasure and pain, he yet agrees entirely with Hobbes's opponents in holding ethical rules to be actually obligatory independently of political society, and capable of being scientifically constructed on principles intuitively known, - though he does not regard these principles as implanted in the mind at birth.
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  • Taking the different impulses in detail, he first shows how the individual's happiness is promoted by developing 1 It should be observed that, while Clarke is sincerely anxious to prove that most principles are binding independently of Divine appointment, he is no less concerned to show that morality requires the practical support of revealed religion.
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  • Fifty-five of these chapels existed altogether in Babylon, but some of them stood independently in other parts of the city.
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  • The action of the sun alone would completely throw them out of these planes as each satellite orbit would rotate independently; but the effect of the mutual action is to keep all of the planes in close coincidence with the plane of the planet's equator.
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  • Kugler 7 that the various periods underlying their lunar predictions were identical with those heretofore believed to have been independently arrived at by Hipparchus, who accordingly must be held to have borrowed from Chaldaea the lengths of the synodic, sidereal, anomalistic and draconitic months.
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  • His loans from Chaldaean experts appear, indeed, to have been numerous; but were doubtless independently verified.
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  • And similar results to his were in fact independently obtained in various parts of Europe by Christopher Scheiner at Ingolstadt, by Johann Fabricius at Osteel in Friesland, and by Thomas Harriot at Syon House, Isleworth.
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  • Observational astronomy, meanwhile, was advancing to some extent independently.
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  • In 1856 William Ferrel showed that the action of the moon on the ocean tidal waves would result in a retardation of the earth's rotation, a result, at first unnoticed, which was independently reached a few years later by Delaunay.
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  • There seems, however, no room for doubt that Torricelli's was arrived at independently.
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  • What Irish missionaries and their foreign pupils had implanted for more than a century quite independently of Rome, Winfrid organized and established under Roman authority partly by force of arms.
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  • Bigotry rather than religion was Tyrconnel's ruling passion, and he filled up offices with Catholics independently of character.
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  • There are traces 1 The close relation between what may be called the Deuteronomic history (Joshua - Kings) and its introduction (the legal book of Deuteronomy) independently show the difficulty of supporting the traditional date ascribed to the latter.
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  • Independently of introduced plants, fifty-five species have been collected in the group, twenty-nine being flowering plants and twenty-six ferns and lycopods.
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  • Thus by means of immunities, of the beneficium nnd of patronage, society gradually organized itself independently of the state, since it required further security.
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  • Marshall independently investigated the whole question, and showed that there is no evidence that Dr Whitman influenced or attempted to influence the State Department.
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  • The phenomenon of polarization observed by Huygens remained an isolated fact for over a century, until Malus in 1808 discovered that polarization can be produced independently of double refraction, and must consequently be something closely connected with the nature of light itself.
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  • This result is not, however, conclusive; for an application of Huygens's principle shows that it is a consequence of the rotation of the plane of polarization by an amount proportional to the distance traversed, independently of the state of affairs within the active medium.
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  • King James is also said to have provided Bellenden with the means of living independently at Paris, where he became professor at the university, and advocate in the parliament.
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  • On the side of Portugal a tract of inhospitable country sled originally to the separation between the two kingdoms, inasmuch as it caused the reconquest of the comparatively populous maritime tracts from the Moors to be carried out independently of that of the eastern kingdoms, which were also well peopled.
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  • As the Republic was to be federal when finally organized many parts of Spain proceeded to act independently.
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  • The police force of each mudiria is independently organized under the control of the mudirs.
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  • The organization of the industry has undergone many transformations, but a notable feature is the general practice - especially since modern methods have necessitated larger vessels and more costly gear, and correspondingly greater capital - of profit-sharing; all the crew entering on that basis and not independently.
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  • David's history is handled independently of Saul in I Sam.
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  • There seems to be no near affinity between these genera, in which the seed-habit must have arisen independently.
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  • The substitution of the elector for the pope as head of the church; the introduction of Roman law with its emphasis on a central authority and a central administration; the determined and successful efforts to avoid any partition of the electorate; and the increasing tendency of the separate sections of the diet to act independently; all tended in this direction.
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  • Many of these conclusions were arrived at independently by a French scholar, De Faye (Les Apocalypses juives, 1892, pp. 25-28, 76-103, 192-204).
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  • Abbe, after the founding of -the glassworks at Jena, who effected, independently of his predecessors,.
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  • Perhaps independently of Aryabhatta (born at Pataliputra on the Ganges 476 A.D.), he introduced the use of sines in calculation, and partially that of tangents.
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  • If this be so, we have the development of a monodactyle foot in this genus independently of Equus.
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  • We definitely need your vitals but the stuff is spread among different people working independently of each other.
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  • Clients are offered an opportunity to attend various courses which are designed to enable them to live independently.
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  • Blair is so far into the US pocket that he has completely lost the ability to be able to act independently of the US.
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  • Allows you to fine-tune your call-to-action with multiple lines of text or images each with independently addressable hyperlinks.
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  • Britain must in the ultimate resort have independently controlled nuclear power to deter an aggressor.
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  • The project uses state-of-the art " smart technologies ", which help frail elderly people to live independently in their own homes.
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  • British farmers and growers producing food bearing the logo are independently inspected under a range of farm assurance schemes.
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  • This in turn allows decisions to be made on how often various points about Jesus are independently attested.
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  • You can click it to see our independently authenticated company information.
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  • For example, some customary land registration systems require women to receive authorization from their husbands to independently acquire a land title.
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  • Quite soon you will have the learner ringing the backstrokes independently.
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  • These two features operate independently, i.e. it's possible to have a high precision bevel but low Object Quality, and vice-versa.
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  • Were they actual bodily things, or things but not bodily things, or perhaps they didn't really exist independently at all?
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  • Administrative functions and miscellaneous The SAI can not expend resources budged independently.
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  • The Group remains committed to increasing the quantity of timber sourced from independently certified well-managed forests.
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  • The resulting bands were independently removed for biochemical and structural characterization.
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  • The RAS may operate independently of or in close coordination with the ACS, or it may provide troops to the ACS.
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  • Acting independently, he argues, governments make policy decisions that are too egalitarian.
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  • An awareness raising course with professionals " Carers Caring Safely " has also been independently evaluated.
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  • It is designed for use independently in traditional or timber framed construction.
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  • The top deck will be able to move independently from the lower deck, providing greater headroom between the decks.
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  • The gamble is if someone will independently invent the same thing.
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