Our independence is nonnegotiable.
Who was Katie to teach her independence anyway?
"I don't like those fashionable churches," she said, evidently priding herself on her independence of thought.
In this way his independence among the people to whom he ministers is to a large extent secured.
What I say is widen the scope of our society, let the mot d'ordre be not virtue alone but independence and action as well!
Loss of independence, complete surrender, placing her fate in another's hands.
Allow Brennan to operate with total independence and no pressure from you people.
1820) and San Martin, important contributions to the history of the country and of the war of independence, by ex-President Bartolome Mitre (1821-1906).
In addition to the assistance from the renters, the money finally gave her an income of her own, and the token independence that went with it.
The history of the city is unknown, though it is regarded as probable that it preserved its independence long after the Spaniards had taken possession of the rest of the district.
By allowing their children to have independence and expecting honesty, the parents were successful in teaching integrity.
With consummate skill he has set his trap with a hair spring to catch comfort and independence, and then, as he turned away, got his own leg into it.
(3) Its independence of civil control was very imperfect.
Didn't Thomas Jefferson, author of the Declaration of Independence, believe the Constitution should be rewritten every twenty years so that no one was governed by a document they had no say in creating?
But doing so also meant sacrificing her independence and the risk of losing everything that meant something to her, a potential lifetime of pain.
An attempt at recovering their independence was temporarily quelled in a campaign by Amaziah (2 Kings xiv.
A sanguinary struggle between the party of independence and the adherents of Spain spread over the whole country.
He was a member of the New York Assembly in 1759-1769, a delegate to the Stamp Act Congress of 1765, a member of the Continental Congress from 1774 until his death and as such a signer of the Declaration of Independence, and in1777-1778was a member of the first state senate.
During the War of Independence Norfolk was bombarded on the 1st of January 1776 by the British under John Murray, 4th earl of Dunmore (1732-1809); much of the town was burned by the American troops to prevent Dunmore from establishing himself here.
- During the War of Independence the Presbyterian churches suffered severely.
The revolutionary outbreak of 1820, which extended from Spain to Naples, seemed to afford the patriots an opportunity to secure the independence of Italy.
Those who favour state connexion and those who oppose it agree in claiming spiritual independence as a fundamental principle of Presbyterianism.
In 1 9 05 he was Democratic candidate for mayor of New York on the Municipal Ownership ticket, and four years later on the Independence League ticket; in 1906 he was candidate for governor of New York on the Democratic and Independence League tickets, in every instance being defeated.
GMO could make this a crop that Africa could easily use to feed itself, gain food independence, and maybe even export.
They played a brilliant part in the War of Independence (1821-1829), and to-day supply the Greek army with its best soldiers.
He had no dream or vision of the Church's spiritual independence and prerogative.
As the War of Independence came to a close the old trouble with Pennsylvania was revived.
It must be observed that from 639 there were generally separate mayors of Neustria, Austrasia and Burgundy, even when Austrasia and Burgundy formed a single kingdom; the mayor was a sign of the independence of the region.
The Reformed churches had established themselves in independence of the state when that state was Catholic; when the government became Protestant the Church had protection and at the same time became dependent.
In 1801 and 1802 Napoleon took into his own hands the independence of both Catholic and Protestant Churches, the national synod was abolished, and all active religious propaganda was rigorously forbidden.
The Mercians, however, recovered their independence in 658, and from this time onward Northumbria played little part in the history of southern England.
By this means it was able to defy both the Seljuks and the Ottomans, and to maintain its independence against the emperors of Nicaea and Constantinople.
It also becomes clear that only where such mental life really appears need we assign an independent existence, but that the purposes of everyday life as well as those of science are equally served if we deprive the material things outside of us of an independence, and assign to them merely a connected existence through the universal substance by the action of which alone they can appear to us.
The Albanian leaders, however, soon displayed a spirit of independence, which proved embarrassing to Turkish diplomacy and caused alarm at Constantinople; their forces came into conflict with a Turkish army under Dervish Pasha near Dulcigno (November 1880), and eventually the league was suppressed.
And yet over the last century, we also have seen colonies gain their independence and become nations, and nations peaceably divide.
For this display of independence he was imprisoned at Reims, and not released till some three years later, when Napoleon had extorted terms from the captive pope at Fontainebleau.
The union was not perfect; the presbytery of Donegal was for three years in revolt against the synod; and in 1762 a second presbytery of Philadelphia was formed; but the strength of the synod increased rapidly and at the outbreak of the War of Independence it had 11 presbyteries and 132 ministers.
He continued the agitation with the object of attaining both the political and commercial independence of Hungary.
Larissa was the headquarters of Ali Pasha during the Greek War of Independence, and of the crown prince Constantine during the Greco-Turkish War; the flight of the Greek army from this place to Pharsala took place on the 23rd of April 1897.
The Brazilians were defeated, notably at Ituzaingo, and in 1827 the war issued in the independence of Uruguay.
One party threatened to return to Romanism; another threatened to sacrifice the independence of Geneva and submit to Berne.
If he replied and argued, it was only because he wished to maintain his independence and not submit to Speranski's opinions entirely.
From that time he resided in Italy; he refused to follow the other Hungarian patriots, who, under the lead of Deak, accepted the composition of 1867; for him there could be no reconciliation with the house of Habsburg, nor would he accept less than full independence and a republic. He would not avail himself of the amnesty, and, though elected to the Diet of 1867, never took his seat.
From 1816, however, the independence of the Argentine Republic was assured, and success attended the South Americans in their contest with the royal armies.
The Charleston church alone of these early churches maintains its independence of any American denomination.
Winston was founded in 1851 as the countyseat and was named in honour of Major Joseph Winston (1746-1815), a famous Indian fighter, a soldier during the War of Independence and a representative in Congress in1793-1795and 1803-1807.
She had got to know the heart of the peasant - his superstitions, his suspiciousness and low cunning, no less than his shrewdness, his sturdy independence and his strong domestic attachments.
The Spanish government did not, however, formally acknowledge the independence of the country until the year 1842.
Eadberht showed considerable independence in his dealings with the church, and his brother Ecgberht, to whom the well-known letter of Bede is addressed, was from 734 to 766 archbishop of York.
Although under the sway of the dukes of Pomerania, the city was able to maintain a marked degree of independence, which is still apparent in its municipal privileges.
A convention was signed in 1849, which secured the free navigation of the Parana and the independence of the Banda Oriental.
It was felt to be a political necessity that he should return, and in 1541, somewhat reluctantly, he returned on his own terms. These were the recognition of the Church's spiritual independence, the division of the town into parishes, and the appointment (by the municipal authority) of a consistory or council of elders in each parish for the exercise of discipline.
He represented New Jersey in the first and second Continental Congresses (1774,1775-1776), but left Philadelphia in June 1776, probably to avoid voting on the question of adopting the Declaration of Independence, which he regarded as inexpedient.
In April 1849, when the Hungarians had won many successes, after sounding the army, he issued the celebrated declaration of Hungarian independence, in which he declared that "the house of HabsburgLorraine, perjured in the sight of God and man, had forfeited the Hungarian throne."
antecedents, but not strictly causes) of the mental action, and sacrifices the independence of man to the omnipotence of God.
The Swiss, owing to their peculiar geographical position and to certain political circumstances, early manifested independence in ecclesiastical matters, and became accustomed to the Statistics.
The Picts and Britons now recovered their independence; for Aldfrith, apparently an illegitimate son of Oswio, who succeeded, made no attempt to reconquer them.
He was one of the founders of the College of New Jersey (now Princeton University), was a member of the New York Council for some years before the War of Independence, a member and president of the First Provincial Congress of New York (1775), and a member of the Second Provincial Congress (1775-1776).
Again in the Netherlands, he made a treaty with Francis II., duke of Brittany, whose independence was threatened by the French regent, Anne of Beaujeu, and the struggle with France was soon renewed.
Khokand north of the Syrdaria was annexed to Russia, and the independence of the rest of the country became merely nominal.
William's Son, (HENRY) BROCKHOLST LIVINGSTON (1757-1823), was an officer in the American War of Independence, and was an able lawyer and judge.
Since the time of Ali Pasha, who broke the power of the local chieftains, southern Albania has been subject to the central Turkish power; before that period the mountaineers of Suli and Khimara enjoyed an independence similar to that of the Gheg tribes.
Or, are you trying to organize a conference in the nation's cradle of independence.
This phobia about snakes was thwarting her attempts at independence.
In his concluding years, however, the archbishop showed rather more independence.
Loyal to American interests and devoted to General Washington, he was one of the most useful of the state executives during the War of Independence.
From time to time the emperors of Trebizond paid tribute to the Seljuk sultans of Iconium, to the grand khans of the Mongols, to Timur the Tatar, to the Turkoman chieftains, and to the Ottomans; but by means of skilful negotiations they were enabled practically to secure their independence.
The tribes of northern Albania, or Ghegeria, may be classified in seven groups as follows: - (1) The Mirdites, who inhabit the alpine region around Orosh to the south-east of Scutari - the most important of all in respect of numbers (about 17,000) and political independence.
In 1188 William secured a papal bull which declared that the Church of Scotland was directly subject only to the see of Rome, thus rejecting the claims to supremacy put forward by the English archbishop. This step was followed by the temporal independence of Scotland, which was one result of the continual poverty of Richard I.
So long as the island retained its independence the government was an oligarchy.
In the war of independence it was repeatedly subjected to pillage and slaughter by both parties in the strife, and did not recover its losses for many years.
Leibnitz, in accord with the distinctive principle of his philosophy, affirmed the absolute independence of mind and body as distinct monads, the parallelism of their functions in life being due to the pre-established harmony.
This district, then called Port Phillip, in the time of Governor Sir George Gipps, 1838-1846, was growing fast into a position claiming independence.
The caucus, which is the natural corollary of the detachment, determines by majority the vote of the whole of the members of the party, independence of action being allowed on minor questions only.
As early as the beginning of the 9th century Ameland was a lordship of the influential family of Cammingha who held immediately of the emperor, and in recognition of their independence the Amelanders were in 1369 declared to be neutral in the fighting between Holland and Friesland, while Cromwell made the same declaration in 1654 with respect to the war between England and the United Netherlands.
should peacefully re-enter the Vatican and the independence of the Romans be assured at the same time.
Later on it came into the possession of Naples, but passed into Roman hands in 326, when Naples herself lost her independence.
Flourishing communities were likewise to be found in Hainault, Namur, Cambrai and the other southern districts of the Netherlands, but nowhere else the vigorous independence of Ghent, Bruges and Ypres, nor the splendour of their civic life.
Philip did not live to see Gelderland and Liege pass definitively under his rule; it was reserved for his son, Charles the Bold, to crush the independence of Liege (1468) and to incorporate Gelderland in his dominions (1473).
This was the turning-point of the first stage in the struggle for Dutch independence.
He was about to write a treatise on the steam-engine, when the Polish War of Independence summoned him back to Warsaw in November 1830.
He summoned experienced teachers, Protestant as well as Catholic, from Germany, established middle and higher schools in all parts of the empire, superseded the antiquated textbooks and methods of instruction, and encouraged the formation of learned societies and the growth of a professional spirit and independence among the teachers.
16-17, July 24-25, September 25-28, October 30), and on the 1 5th of January 1777 adopted a declaration of independence, assumed the name New Connecticut and appointed Dr Jonas Fay (1 737 -, 818), Thomas Chittenden (1730-1797), Hemon Allen (1740-1788), Dr Reuben Jones and Jacob Bayley a committee to submit their proceedings to the Continental Congress.
Nominally part of the sultanate of Tlemcen, Algiers had a large measure of independence under amirs of its own, Oran being the chief seaport of the Abd-elWahid.
But as in Ireland so Cromwell's policy in Scotland was unpopular and was only upheld by the maintenance of a large army, necessitating heavy taxation and implying the loss of the national independence.
aid - the religious mission of England in the world, her commercial interests, and her political independence being indissolubly connected in his mind.
In 1031 it became the capital of a small Moorish kingdom, and, though temporarily held by the Portuguese in 1168, it retained its independence until 1229, when it was captured by Alphonso IX.
He seems to have maintained to a certain degree an attitude of independence, if not of opposition, towards Augustus.
The extent to which communal independence had been maintained in Italy through all the centuries of its political disintegration was strongly in its favor.
The difficulty of Italian history lies in the fact, that until modern times the Italians have had no political unity, no independence, no organized existence as a nation.
The sea-coast cities of the south, and the islands, Sicily, Sardinia and Corsica, preserved their independence.
This pope initiated the dangerous policy of playing one hostile force off against another with a view to securing independence.
Among the centrifugal forces which determined the future of the Italian race must be reckoned, first and foremost, the new spirit of municipal independence.
While making these reservations, it is at thesame time right to observe that certain Italian communities were more advanced upon the path of independence than others.
Yet neither the acts by which their league was ratified nor the terms negotiated for them by their patron Alexander evince the smallest desire of what we now understand as national independence.
authority, coinciding as it did with the practical elimination of the empire from Italian affairs, gave a long period of comparative independence to the nation.
It was with their own militia that the burghers won freedom in the war of independence, subdued the nobles, and fought the battles of the parties.
Only Florence and Venice, at the close of the period upon which we are now entering, maintained their republican independence.
Other communes which stit preserved the shadow of independence, like Perugia and Bologna began once more to dream of republican freedom under theii own leading families.
When they might have won national independence, after their warfare with the Swabian emperors, they let the golden opportunity slip. Pampered with commercial prosperity, eaten to the core with inter-urban rivalries, they submitted to despots, renounced the use of arms, and offered themselves in the hour of need, defenceless and disunited to the shock of puissant nations.
Emmanuel Philibert, duke of Savoy, represented the oldest and not the least illustrious reigning house in Europe, and his descendants were destined to achieve for Italy the independence which no other power or prince had given her since the fall of ancient Rome.
But the citizens expelled them, and the republic kept her independence.
Early in the year 1798 the Austrians, in pursuance of the scheme of partition agreed on at Campo Formio, entered Venice and brought to an end its era of independence which had lasted some 1100 years.
The complete disregard shown by Napoleon for one of the chief conditions of the treaty of Lunville (February 1801)that stipulating for the independence of the Ligurian and Cisalpine Republicsbecame more and more apparent every year.
All who accepted the motto Unity, Independence and Victor Emmanuel were admitted into the society.
He realized how deep the Italian feeling for independence must be, and that a refusal to act now might result in further attempts on his life, as indeed Orsinis letter stated.
Thayers Dawn of Italian Independence (Boston, 1893) is gushing and not always accurate; C. Cants Dell indipendenza italiana cronistoria (Naples, 1872-1877) is reactionary and often unreliable; V.
Once in possession of Rome, and guarantor to the Catholic world of the spiritual independence of the pope, the Italian government prepared juridically to regulate its relations to the Holy See.
Article 17 maintained the independence of the ecclesiastical Jurisdiction in spiritual and disciplinary matters, but reserved for the state the exclusive right to carry out coercive measures.
Crispi, whose strong anti-clerical convictions did not prevent him from regarding the papacy as preeminently an Italian institution, was determined both to prove to the Catholic world the practical independence of the government of the Church and to retain for Rome so potent a centre of universal attraction as the presence of the future pope.
He not only re-established the Prussian legation to the Vatican, suppressed since 1874, and omitted from the imperial message to the Reichstag (17th November 1881) all reference to King Humberts visit to Vienna, but took occasion on the n9th of November to refer to Italy as a country tottering on the verge of revolution, and opened in the German semi-official press ~ campaign in favor of an international guarantee for the independence of the papacy.
Towards Prince Bjsmarck Robilant maintained an attitude of dignified independence, and as, in the spring of 1886, the moment for the renewal of the triple alliance drew near, he profited by the development of the Bulgarian crisis and the threatened Franco-Russian understanding to secure from the central powers something more than the bare territorial guarantee of the original treaty.
At the two Diets held by him, at Kassa and Talya, in 1683, the estates, though not uninfluenced by his personal charm, showed some want of confidence in him, fearing lest he might sacrifice the national independence to the Turkish alliance.
The theory that the medusa is simply an organ, which has become detached and has acquired a certain degree of independence, like the well-known instance of the hectocotyle of the cuttle-fish.
The loss of their political independence has been followed by that of the greater part of their territory, which has been divided up into the Chilean provinces of Arauco, Bio-bio, Malleco and Cautin, and the Indians, much reduced in number, now live in the wooded recesses of the three provinces last named.
The " parlements " of France were constantly insisting on the independence and irremovability of the official (Fournier, p. 219).
Throughout the United States, whatever may have been the position in some of them before their independence, the Church has now no position recognized by the State, but is just a body of believers whose relations are governed by contract and with whom ecclesiastical jurisdiction is consensual.
Since the War of Independence, the kingdom of Greece has been ecclesiastically organized after the model of Russia, as one autocephalous " province," separated from its old patriarchate of Constantinople, with an honorary metropolitan and honorary archbishops (Neale, op. cit.
The wealth of the burghers during this period was equalled by their turbulent spirit of independence; feuds were frequent, - against the rival city of Bruges, against the counts, or, within the city itself, between the plebeian crafts and the patrician governing class.
The gametophyte is a small thalloid structure which shows varying degrees of independence affording an interesting transition to the next group.
The conjoined organism is, in fact, a colony or association of the protoplasmic tinits, though each unit retains its independence.
The independence of the two is suggested by the fact that fungi can live, thrive and grow in nutritive media which contain carbohydrates together with certain salts of ammonia, but which are free from proteids.
As the tube grows down the hair it maintains its own independence, and does not fuse with the contents of the root-hair, whose protoplasm remains quite distinct and separate.
Isabella had been for many years prepared, and she and Ferdinand, now that the proposal for this new tribunal came before them, saw in it a means of overcoming the independence of the nobility and clergy by which the royal power had been obstructed.
The cemetery also contains monuments to Alonzo P. Stinson, the first soldier from Portland killed in the Civil War, to the Portland soldiers in the War of Independence, and to Rear-Admiral James Alden (1810-1877), of the U.S. Navy, a native of Portland.
Longfellow - which was built in1785-1786by General Peleg Wadsworth (1748-1829), a soldier of the War of Independence, a representative in Congress from 1793 to 1807, and the grandfather of the poet; was given by Longfellow's sister, Mrs Anne Longfellow Pierce (1810-1901) to the Maine Historical Society; and contains interesting relics of the Wadsworth and Longfellow families, and especially of the poet himself.
The differences between the Neotropical avifauna and that of North America are fundamental and prove the independence or superior value of the Neotropical region as one of the principal realms.
Before the rise of the First Dynasty of Babylon, however, Elam had recovered its independence, and in 2280 B.C. the Elamite king Kutur-Nakhkhunte made a raid in Babylonia and carried away from Erech the image of the goddess Nana.
In 750 B.C. Umbadara was king of Elam; Khumbanigas was his successor in 742 B.C. In 720 B.C. the latter prince met the Assyrians under Sargon at Dur-ili in Yamutbal, and though Sargon claims a victory the result was that Babylonia recovered its independence under Merodach-baladan and the Assyrian forces were driven north.
He served in the American War of Independence under Rochambeau, and in 1789 was sent as deputy to the States General by the nobles of the bailliage of Peronne.
In the same year he published Ober die Freiheit der Wissenschaft, in which he maintained the independence of science, whose goal was truth, against authority, and reproached the excessive respect for the latter in the Roman Church with the insignificant part played by the German Catholics in literature and philosophy.
Short in stature and uncouth in appearance, his individuality first shocked and then by its earnestness impressed the House of Commons; and his sturdy independence of party ties, combined with a gift of rough but genuine eloquence (of which his speech on the Royal Title Bill of 1876 was an example), rapidly made him one of the best-known public men in the country.
After the declaration of independence the history of Uruguay becomes a record of intrigues, financial ruin, and political folly and crime.
He was offered the presidency of the academy of science of St Petersburg; but he declined, preferring the leisure and independence of life in Italy.
Until the accession to power of President Barclay in 1904 (he was re-elected in 1907), the AmericoLiberian government on the coast had very uncertain relations with the indigenous population, which is well armed and tenacious of local independence.
His Essai sur la societe des gens de lettres avec les grands was a worthy vindication of the independence of literary men, and a thorough exposure of the evils of the system of patronage.
The chief features of Alembert's character were benevolence, simplicity and independence.
In response the Moravians, at the General Synod (1909), welcomed the offer, but also declared their wish (a) to preserve their independence as a "Protestant Episcopal Church"; (b) to co-operate freely as heretofore with other Evangelical Churches.
p principles: the separation of the judicial and administrative functions, the independence of the judges and courts, the publicity of trials and oral procedure, the equality of all classes before the law.
in the matter of the independence of the universities.
In neither case did the allegiance involve strict obedience to orders from the superior, and their loyalty was always in danger of being troubled by their love of independence and equality and their desire for loot.
When the patriots under Koscziusko made a desperate effort to recover the national independence the struggle produced a third partition (1795), by which the remainder of the kingdom was again divided between Russia, Prussia and Austria.
Ten years later the semblance of independence which was left to the khans of the Crimea was destroyed and the peninsula formally annexed to the empire.
After proclaiming his intention of conferring on his subjects the blessings of peace, he joined in 1798 an Anglo-Austrian coalition against France; but when Austria paid more attention to her own interests than to the interests of monarchical institutions in general, and when England did not respect the independence of Malta, which he had taken under his protection, he succumbed to the artful blandishments of Napoleon and formed with him a plan for ruining the British empire by the conquest of India.
'This attempt of Russia to secure the sole prestige of liberating Greece was, however, frustrated by the action of the other Powers in putting forward the principle of the independence of the new Greek state, with a further extension of frontiers.
In the former there had been a fusion between the Radicals, supporters of the autonomy of Poland and a federal constitution for the empire, and the Independence party (Osvobozhdenya) formed by political exiles at Paris in 1903, the fusion taking the name of Constitutional Democrats, known (from a word-play on the initials K.D.) as " Cadets."
His greatgrandfather, Benjamin Harrison of Virginia (c. 1740-17 9 1), was a signer of the Declaration of Independence.
A conference between the three powers was thereupon held at Berlin, and a treaty was executed by those powers and by Samoa, on the 14th of June 1889, by virtue of which the independence and autonomy of the islands were guaranteed, Malietoa was restored as king, and the three powers constituted themselves practically a protectorate over Samoa, and provided a chief justice and a president of the municipality of Apia, to be appointed by them, to aid in carrying out the provisions of the treaty.
Of this we have an interesting example in the vivid episode that preceded the battle of Ramoth-Gilead described in 1 Kings xxii., when Micaiah appears as the true prophet of Yahweh, who in his rare independence stands in sharp contrast with the conventional court prophets, who prophesied then, as their descendants prophesied more than two centuries later, smooth things.
His public career was marked by great independence and fidelity to principle.
He died at his home at Blechingdon in Oxfordshire on the 26th of April 1686, closing a career marked by great ability, statesmanship and business capacity, and by conspicuous courage and independence of judgment.
In the Virginia convention of 1776 he favoured the postponement of a declaration of independence, until a firm union of the colonies and the friendship of France and Spain had been secured.
During his absence several towns had asserted their independence; but he succeeded in subduing them without much difficulty and gradually suppressed their communal liberties.
He published Speeches on the Legislative Independence of Ireland (1852).
Owen Roe professed to be acting in the interest of Charles I.; but his real aim was the complete independence of Ireland, while the AngloNorman Catholics represented by the council desired to secure religious liberty and an Irish constitution under the crown of England.
During the latter part of the War of Independence (1824-1827) he accompanied Capo d'Istria to Greece, and was appointed by him minister of war.
Communal independence had probably been acquired as early as the end of the 10th century, but the first of the popes to reside in Orvieto and to recognize its communal administration was Hadrian IV.
Then (b) the former lost its independence towards the close of the 8th century B.C., when a number of its inhabitants were carried away; and the latter shared the fate of exile at the beginning of the 6th, but succeeded in making a fresh reconstruction some fifty or sixty years later.
2), there is just a possibility that Judah made some attempt to gain independence.
The assumption that the decay of Assyria awoke the national feeling of independence is perhaps justified by those events which made the greatest impression upon the compiler, and an account is given of Josiah's religious reforms, based upon a source apparently identical with that which described the work of Jehoash.
An outburst of Jewish religious feeling is dated in the second year of Darius (520), but whether Judah was making a bold bid for independence or had received special favour for abstaining from the above revolts, external evidence alone can decide.
With the growing weakness of the Persian empire Egypt reasserted its independence for a time.
But the former gained the day, and, realizing that the only hope of maintaining a pure worship of Yahweh lay in a forcible isolation from foreign influence, its adherents were prepared to take measures to ensure the religious independence of their assembly.
Dreams of political freedom gave place to hopes of religious independence, and " Israel " became a church, the foundation of which it sought in the desert of Sinai a thousand years before.
But his first act was to seize and slay sixty of them: so it was clear to Judas at any rate, if not also to the Assideans who survived, that political independence was necessary if the religion was to be secure.
If some from time to tune dared to hope for political independence their futility was demonstrated.
Though the majority of the rabbis looked for no such deliverer and refused to admit his claims, Barcochebas drew the people after him to struggle for their national independence.
Kossuth succeeded in granting them temporary emancipation, but the suppression of the War of Independence led to an era of royal autocracy which, while it advanced Jewish culture by enforcing the establishment of modern schools, retarded the obtaining of civic and political rights.
During the War of Independence the Jews of America took a prominent part on both sides, for under the British rule many had risen to wealth and high social position.
After the Declaration of Independence, Jews are found all over America, where they have long enjoyed complete emancipation, and have enormously increased in numbers, owing particularly to immigration from Russia.
The wisdom of King George Tupou in refusing to alienate an acre of land, except upon lease, has resulted in Tonga having been the last native state in the Pacific to lose its independence.
Owing to the existence of a strong Mussulman minority among its inhabitants, the warlike character of the natives, and the mountainous configuration of the country, which enabled a portion of the Christian population to maintain itself in a state of partial independence, the island has constantly been the scene of prolonged and sanguinary struggles in which the numerical superiority of the Christians was counterbalanced by the aid rendered to the Moslems by the Ottoman troops.
They seceded in 1839 and maintained their independence until 1843.
Its population is estimated at 3000, but as its inhabitants never submitted to Spanish and Mexican rule, and have maintained their independence against overwhelming odds for almost four centuries, this estimate should be accepted as a conjecture.
from its mouth, in 1774 by Phineas Lyman (1716-1774) of Connecticut and other "military adventurers," veterans of the Havana campaign of 1762; this settlement was loyal during the War of Independence.
Iron ores are widely distributed within the state, and there have been times since the eve of the War of Independence when the mining of it was an industry of relatively great importance.
The insurrection of dissenters (1708-1711), which was headed by Thomas Carey, who was deputy-governor while the trouble was brewing, was in opposition to the establishment of the Church of England; it was ultimately unsuccessful, the Church was established in 1711, a law was passed which deprived Quakers of the privilege of serving on juries or holding public office, and the establishment was continued until the War of Independence.
This insurrection was in no sense a beginning of the War of Independence; on the contrary, during that war most of Tryon's militia who fought at Alamance were Patriots and the majority of the Regulators, who remained in the province, were Loyalists.
As for the " Declaration," the original records of the transactions of Mecklenburg county were destroyed by fire in 1800, but it is claimed that a copy of the " Declaration " was made from memory in the same year, and when, in 1819, a controversy had arisen as to where the movement for independence originated, this copy was published, first in the Raleigh Register and North Carolina Gazette and then in many other newspapers.
There seems practically no basis for the contention that a declaration of independence was adopted on the 10th other than the tradition that independence was declared by the Mecklenburg Committee on that date, and the occasional.
references in print, even before 1819, to a declaration of independence in the county in 1775.
Those who believe the " Declaration " to be spurious argue that survivors remembered only one such document, that the Resolutions might easily be thought of as a declaration of independence, that Governor Martin in all probability had knowledge only of these and not of the alleged " Declaration," and that the dates of publication in the Raleigh and Charleston newspapers, and the politics of those papers, show that the Resolutions are authentic. In July 1905 there appeared in Collier's Weekly (New York) what purported to be a facsimile reproduction of a copy of the Cape Fear Mercury which was referred to by Governor Martin and which contained the " Declaration "; but this was proved a forgery.'
The first sanction of independence by any body representing the whole province was given by the fourth Provincial Congress on the 12th of April 1776, and the same body immediately proceeded to the consideration of a new and permanent form of government.
territory settlers, many of them from North Carolina, had gone immediately before and during the War of Independence, and had organized a practically independent government.
The inhabitants of the district, however, objected to the cession, especially to the terms, which, they contended, threatened them with two years of anarchy; declared their independence of North Carolina and organized for themselves the state of Franklin.
There is a considerable controversial literature concerning the Mecklenburg Declaration of Independence; W.
Hoyt's The Mecklenburg Declaration of Independence (New York, 1907) is the best presentation of the view generally adopted by competent historians that the alleged Declaration of the 10th of May 1775 is spurious; G.
Graham, The Mecklenburg Declaration of Independence (New York, 1905), and J.
Moore, Defence of the Mecklenburg Declaration of Independence (1909), are perhaps the best of the attempts to prove the same Declaration genuine.
After the outbreak of the War of Independence, the Methodists, who then numbered several thousands, fell, unjustly, under suspicion of Loyalism, principally because of their refusal to take the prescribed oath; and many of their ministers, including Rankin, returned to England.
After the withdrawal of the Romans in the 5th century the northern Britons seem to have shown greater determination in maintaining their independence than any of the southern kingdoms and, according to Welsh tradition, Cunedda, the ancestor of the kings of Gwynedd, had himself come from the north.
They recovered their independence, however, after the defeat of Ecgfrith by the Picts in 685.
Tiradentes has since been glorified as the pro-martyr of Brazilian independence.
Baluchistan independence demands qualification.
There is British Baluch Baluchistan par excellence, and there is the rest of Baluchistan which exists in various degrees of independence, but is everywhere subject to British control.
As far as any common mental characteristic can be assigned it is also somewhat negative, namely, that Asiatics have not the same sentiment of independence and freedom as Europeans.
The restored state of Jerusalem lived for about six centuries in partial independence under Persian, Egyptian, Syrian and Roman rule, often showing an aggressively heroic attachment to its national customs, which brought it into collision with its suzerains, until the temple was destroyed by Titus in A.D.
His character was marked by independence, economy and generosity.
In 1479 the native princes were deprived of all independence.
In 1908 Stamboliiski headed the Agrarian protest against the Declaration of Independence, as being in the interest of the dynasty rather than of the people.
He had read a pamphlet published in America attacking the proposed order, which was to form a bond of association between the officers who had fought in the American War of Independence against England; the arguments struck him as true and valuable, so he re-arranged them in his own fashion, and rewrote them in his own oratorical style.
He was a member of Rogers' Rangers in the Seven Years' War, served in the War of Independence, was for several years a member of the New Hampshire legislature, was a delegate to the New Hampshire convention which ratified the Federal constitution, and was a justice of the court of common pleas for his county.
His oration in 1825 at the laying of the corner stone of the Bunker Hill monument contained perhaps the clearest statement to be found anywhere of the principles underlying the American War of Independence.
In the following year Webster delivered his oration in commemoration of the second and third presidents of the United States - John Adams and Thomas Jefferson - who died on the 4th of July 1826; it is particularly remarkable for Adams's imaginary reply in the Continental 'Congress to the arguments against a Declaration of Independence, beginning with the familiar quotation: "Sink or swim, live or die, survive or perish, I gave my hand and my heart to this vote."
In 1820 Webster took an important part in the convention called to revise the constitution of Massachusetts, his arguments in favour of removing the religious test, in favour of retaining property representation in the Senate, and in favour of increasing the independence of the judiciary, being especially notable.
This was on the 29th of December 1829, and after Senator Benton of Missouri had denounced the resolution as one inspired by hatred of the East for the West, Hayne, on the 19th of January 1830, made a vigorous attack on New England, and declared his opposition to a permanent revenue from the public lands or any other source on the ground that it would promote corruption and the consolidation of the government and "be fatal to the sovereignty and independence of the states."
gave the Order the rights of a prince of the Empire in its territories: Conrad of Masovia gave it the whole of Kulmerland in 1230; while in 1234 the Order established its independence of all authorities except the Papacy, by surrendering its territories to the Holy See and receiving them back again as a fief.
The brethren of East Prussia, however, still sighed for independence; and they pursued the policy of choosing German princes to be grand masters of the Order, in the hope of regaining liberty by their aid.
The town became embroiled in the struggles that ended in the independence of Scotland.
There the hitherto indomitable champion of Caucasian independence was forced to surrender to the Russians on the 6th of September 1859.
above sea-level, where a decisive battle was fought between General Sucre and the Spanish viceroy La Serna in 1824, which resulted in the defeat of the latter and the independence of Peru.
He suppressed, however, a number of octrois and minor duties,' and opposed, on grounds of economy, the participation of France in the War of American Independence, though without success.
That originality and independence became more conspicuous when he reached his second stage as a political economist, struggling forward towards the standpoint from which his systematic work was written.
The submission of Lesser Media, which had asserted its independence under Artabazanes, followed.
As a consequence of this blow to the Seleucid power, the outlying provinces of the empire, recovered by Antiochus, reasserted their independence.
The remaining history of the dynasty is a wretched story of the struggle of different claimants, while the different factors of the kingdom, the cities and barbarian races, more and more assert their independence.
at Carlisle, the younger Robert joined Sir William Wallace, who raised the standard of Scottish independence in the name of Baliol after that king had surrendered his kingdom to Edward in 1296.
Prompted alike by patriotism and ambition, at the prime of manhood he chose the cause of national independence with all its perils, and stood by it with an unwavering constancy until he secured its triumph.
The chief author of Scottish independence barely survived his work.
True, she now agreed to recognise the independence of the Cisalpine, Ligurian, Helvetic and Batavian (Dutch) republics; but the masterful acquisitiveness of the First Consul and the weak conduct of Austrian and British affairs at that time soon made that clause of the treaty a dead letter.
The independence of the Ionian Isles (now reconstituted as the Republic of the Seven Islands) was guaranteed.
As to Malta, the United Kingdom was to restore it to the order of St John (its possessors previous to 1798) when the Great Powers had guaranteed its independence.
His action in the matters just named, as also in the complex affair of the secularizations of clerical domains in Germany (February 1803), belongs properly to the history of those countries; but we may here note that, even before the signature of the peace of Amiens (27th of March 1802), he had effected changes in the constitution of the Batavian (Dutch) republic, which placed power in the hands of the French party and enabled him to keep French troops in the chief Dutch fortresses, despite the recently signed treaty of Luneville which guaranteed the independence of that republic. His treatment of the Italians was equally high-handed.
The matter was of international importance; for by the treaty of Luneville (February 1801) he had bound himself to respect the independence of the two republics of North Italy, the Cisalpine and the Ligurian.
Seeing that Godoy, the all-powerful minister at Madrid, had given mortal offence to Napoleon early in the Prussian campaign of 1806 by calling on Spain to arm on behalf of her independence, it passes belief how he could have placed his country at the mercy of Napoleon at the end of the year 1807.
The negotiations which he allowed to go on with England in the spring of 1810, mainly respecting the independence of Holland, are now known to have been insincere.
But Seleucus was soon recalled by a rebellion in Syria, and Arsaces returned victorious to Parthia; " the day of this victory is celebrated by the Parthians as the beginning of their independence " (Justin xli.
On the paternal side he was descended from Oliver Cromwell, whose honest, sturdy independence of character he seemed to have inherited.
He was remarkable for both his moral and physical courage, and in politics was notable for his independence of party.
On the 8th of June he was appointed on a committee with Jefferson, Franklin, Livingston and Sherman to draft a Declaration of Independence; and although that document was by the request of the committee written by Thomas Jefferson, it was John Adams who occupied the foremost place in the debate on its adoption.
On the 4th of July 1826, on the fiftieth anniversary of the adoption of the Declaration of Independence, he died at Quincy.
One of the first military exploits of the War of Independence occurred at New Castle, where there was then a fort called William and Mary.
The second problem of prime importance was the external problem of independence.
To take the problem of independence first.
The destruction of the mainland cities, and the flight of their leading inhabitants to the lagoons, encouraged the lagoon population to assert a growing independence, and led them to advance the doctrine that they were "born independent."
But the empire was vast and weak, and its capital lay far away; in practice, no doubt, the lagoon population enjoyed virtual independence, though later the Byzantine claim to suzerainty became one of the leading factors in the formation of the state.
Narses declined to intervene, Padua was powerless to enforce its claims and Venice established a virtual independence of the mainland.
It is between the two claims of east and west that Venice struggled for and achieved recognized independence.
The external menace to their independence had welded together the place and the people; the same pressure had brought about the fusion of the conflicting parties in the lagoon townships into one homogeneous whole.
She ceased to be a great power, and was henceforth entirely concerned in the effort to preserve her remaining possessions and her very independence.
That she retained her independence so long was due to a double accident: the impregnability of the lagoons and the jealousies of the great powers.
of the Alleghanies was forbidden and on the 22nd of June 1774 parliament passed the Quebec Act which annexed the region to the province of Quebec. This was one of the grievances which brought on the War of Independence and during that war the North-West was won for the Americans by George Rogers Clark.
Virginia reserved a tract between the Little Miami and Scioto rivers, known as the Virginia Military District, for her soldiers in the War of Independence.
The War of Independence was succeeded by a series of Indian uprisings.
Until after the War of Independence the primitive topography remained unchanged, but it was afterwards subjected to changes greater than those effected on the site of any other American city.
Castle Island has been fortified since the earliest days; Fort Independence, on this island, and Forts Winthrop and Warren on neighbouring islands, constitute permanent harbour defences.
At the Charlestown navy-yard (1800) there are docks, manufactories, foundries, machine-shops, ordnance stores, rope-walks, furnaces, castingpits, timber sheds, ordnance-parks, ship-houses, &c. The famous frigate " Independence " was launched here in 1814, the more famous " Constitution " having been launched while the yard was still private in 1797.
The Old South church (1730-1782), the old state house (1748, restored 1882), and Faneuil Hall (1762-1763, enlarged 1805, reconstructed 1898) are rich in memorable associations of the period preceding the War of Independence.
The second was the seat of the royal government of Massachusetts during the provincial period, and within its walls from 1760 to 1775 the questions of colonial dependence or independence probably first came into evident conflict.
Independence is further curtailed by other state boards semi-independent of the city - the police commission of three members from 1885 to 1906, and in 1906 a single police commissioner, appointed by the governor, a licensing board of three members, appointed by the governor; the transit commission, &c. There are, further, county offices (Suffolk county comprises only Boston, Chelsea, Revere and Winthrop), generally independent of the city, though the latter pays practically all the bills.
Population.-Up to the War of Independence the population was not only American, but it was in its ideas and standards essentially Puritan; modern liberalism, however, has introduced new standards of social life.
The population, which was almost stationary through much of the century, was about 20,000 in the years immediately before the War of Independence.
The incidents that marked the approach of the War of Independence need barely be adverted to.
Boston had long since taken her place in the very front of anti-slavery ranks, and with the rest of Massachusetts was playing somewhat the same part as in the years before the War of Independence.
Moreover the Dorian population of Delphi constantly strove to establish its independence and about 590 B.C. induced a coalition of Greek states to proclaim a "Sacred War" and free the oracle from Phocian supervision.
Louis secured again a district on the left bank of the Rhine, including the cities of Mainz and Worms, but he made cessions of territory to Prussia and to Bavaria and he recognized the independence of HesseHomburg, which had recently been incorporated with his lands.
On East Rock is a monument to the Connecticut soldiers who fell in the War of Independence, the War of 1812, the Mexican War and the Civil War; on the West Rock is a cave, "Judges' Cave," in which the regicides William Goffe and Edward Whalley are said to have concealed themselves when sought for by royal officers in 1661.
When news of the embargo of the port at Boston arrived at New Haven, a Committee of Correspondence was at once formed; and in the War of Independence the people enthusiastically supported the American cause.
During the latter part of the War of Independence Peekskill was an important outpost of the Continental Army, and in the neighbourhood several small engagements were fought between American and British scouting parties.
Various elements in the Republican party, nevertheless, had stoutly opposed their appointment, so that the President's choice showed that he was prepared to exert his independence of party managers and to insist upon administrative efficiency.
He had faced difficult problems with independence and yet he had been able to inaugurate something of an " era of good feeling."
Apart from this, the characteristic of seignorial justice is its independence and its freedom from the central court; though, when we reflect that the central court is a court of seigneurs, this characteristic is seen to be the logical result of the whole system.
Thereafter the Mesopotamian powers prevailed, even if in some cases a certain degree of independence was preserved, as e.g.
In 409 Britain and Armorica declared their independence, which was confirmed by Honorius himself, and were thus practically lost to the empire.
1088), medieval theologian, was born at Tours early in the iith century; he was educated in the famous school of Fulbert of Chartres, but even in early life seems to have exhibited great independence of judgment.
Though he was always an enemy to liberalism, his natural independence of character prevented him from acquiescing in the reactionary measures of the king.
In a great meeting at Cologne in March 1887 he defended and justified his action, and claimed for the Centre full independence of action in all purely political questions.
Consequently, the people of Florida were for the most part loyal to Great Britain during the War of American Independence.
This event, which took place on the 1st of April 1572, was the first blow in the long war of Dutch independence, and was followed by a general outbreak of the patriotic party (Motley, Rise of the Dutch Republic, part iii.
They naturally favoured the city at the expense of the rural districts, so that in 1832 the latter proclaimed their independence, and in 1833 were organized into the half canton of Basel Landschaft, the city forming that of Basel Stadt.
Although the school of Bec was firmly attached to the doctrine of papal sovereignty, he still assisted William in maintaining the independence of the English Church; and appears at one time to have favoured the idea of maintaining a neutral attitude on the subject of the quarrels between papacy and empire.
At St Paul's the legatine constitutions of Otto were published in a synod of 1237, those of Ottobon in 1268: these were the most important national councils held after the independence of York had been established.
It belongs to the group of old Slavonic states which have preserved their nationality while losing their political independence.
After the death of Charlemagne the Moravian princes took advantage of the dissensions of his successors to enlarge their territories and assert their independence, and Rastislaus (c. 850) even formed an alliance with the Bulgarians and the Byzantine emperor.
While modern research has added considerably to our knowledge of prehistoric Athens, a still greater light has been thrown on the architecture and topography of the city in the earlier historic or " archaic " era, the subsequent age of Athenian greatness, and the period of decadence which set in with the Macedonian conquest; the first extends from the dawn of history to 480-479 B.C., when the city was destroyed by the Persians; the second, or classical, age closes in 322 B.C., when Athens lost its political independence after the Lamian War; the third, or Hellenistic, in 146 B.C., when the state fell under Roman protection.
At the conclusion of the Greek War of Independence, Athens was little more than a village of the Turkish type, the poorly built houses clustering on the northern and eastern slopes of the Acropolis.
By her treacherous attack upon the frontier-town of Oropus (156) Athens indirectly brought about the conflict between Rome and the Achaean League which resulted in the eventual loss of Greek independence, but remained herself a free town with rights secured by treaty.
He came to the front in the war of independence against Spain, and his military career, which began about 1810, was distinguished by the defeat of the Spanish forces at Mata de la Miel (1815), at Montecal and throughout the province of Apure (1816), and at Puerto Cabello (1823).
He maintained that the deposition of Bishop Colenso endangered the independence of bishops.
After the Jameson raid and the Emperor's telegram to President Kruger, in the drafting of which Baron Marschall, according to the later testimony now available, bore a leading part, it was he who declared in the Reichstag that the maintenance of the independence of the Boer republics was a " German interest."
Cheyne thinks this story the attempt of a later age to explain the long independence of Gibeon and the use of the Gibeonites as slaves in Solomon's temple.
Early in the War of Independence Paulus Hook was fortified by the Americans, but soon after the battle of Long Island they abandoned it, and on the 23rd of September 1776 it was occupied by the British.
On the morning of the 19th of August 1779 the British garrison was surprised by Major Henry Lee ("Light Horse Harry"), who with about 50o men took 159 prisoners and lost only 2 killed and 3 wounded, one of the most brilliant exploits during the War of Independence.
In May 1 775 a British schooner in the Mystic defended by a force of marines was taken by colonial militia under General John Stark and Israel Putnam, - one of the first conflicts of the War of Independence.
Having thus hemmed in the Gond states, however, they made no efforts to assert any effective sovereignty over them; the Gond rajas for their part were content with practical independence within their own dominions.
But the War of Independence was practically at an end, and in 1783 he finally quitted active service, with the rank and half-pay of a lieutenant-colonel.
Government at the same time, as an Oriental despotism understands it, often has little in view but the gathering in of the tribute and compulsion of the subjects to personal service in the army or in royal works, and if satisfied in these respects will leave much independence to the local authorities.
In the loosely-knit Seleucid realm it is plain that a great deal more independence was left to the various communities, - cities or native tribes, - than in Egypt, where the conditions made a bureaucratic system so easy to carry through.
In their outlying possessions the Ptolemies may have suffered as much local independence as the Seleucids; the internal government of Jerusalem, for instance, was left to the high priests.
On the 6th of August 1831 the Dutch troops obtained here their chief success over the Belgian nationalists during the War of Independence.
He was a friend of Franklin, a member of Congress for the state of Pennsylvania in 1776, and one of those who signed the Declaration of Independence the same year.
After the treaty of Adis Adowa, recognizing the independence of Abyssinia, had been concluded in 1896, negotiations were opened for defining the Italian-Abyssinian frontier in the Somali regions.
In July 1899 the Acreanos declared their independence and set up a republic of their own, but in the following March they were reduced to submission by Brazil.
Personal independence was largely sacrificed, but those still more important ends were in a great measure attained.
The British slave trade reached its utmost extension shortly before the War of American Independence.
The wish of Toussaint was that San Domingo should enjoy a practical independence whilst recognizing the sovereignty and exclusive commercial rights of France.
By the peace of Ghent, December 1814, the United States and England mutually bound themselves to do all in their power to extinguish the traffic. It was at once prohibited in several of the South American states when they acquired independence, as in La Plata, Venezuela and Chile.
Several of the Spanish American states, on declaring their independence, had adopted measures for the discontinuance of slavery within their limits.
Throughdut the War of Independence he and his sons (see below) were prominent patriots.
It only needed a comparison of the theory with the visible facts to refute it at once, but nearly three centuries elapsed before the independence of the arenariae and the catacombs was established.
The discovery of this independence is due to Marchi.
He took an active part in the movements in Connecticut preceding the War of Independence, and from 1774 to 1776 was a delegate from Connecticut to the Continental Congress.
In the days of its independence it issued an important series of coins, and in luxury it vied with Capua.
When the colonists found protests at Paris unavailing, they turned to the idea of independence, but sought in vain the armed support of the British at Pensacola.
There is no doubt that the men who led the Creole opposition contemplated independence, and this gives the incident peculiar interest.
During the American War of Independence he gave valuable aid to the United States; and when Spain finally joined in the war against Great Britain, Galvez, in a series of energetic and brilliant campaigns (1779-1781), captured all the important posts in the British colony of West Florida.
In the quinquennial period 1890-1894 (immediately preceding the War of Independence) the average yearly commerce of the island in and out was $86,875,663 with the United States; and $28,161,726 with Spain.'
The attainment of independence freed the island from this debt, and from enormous contemplated additions to cover the expense incurred by Spain during the last insurrection.
The debt of the Republic in April 1908 was $48,146,585, including twenty-seven millions which were assumed in 1902 for the payment of the army of independence, four for agriculture, and four for the payment of revolutionary debts, and $2,196,585, representing obligations assumed by the revolution's representative in the United States during the War of Independence.
between those born in Cuba and those born in Spain), the question of annexation to the United States or possibly to some other power, the plotting for independence, all go back to the early years of the century.
Among those who waged the war were men who fought to compel reforms, others who fought for annexation to the United States, others who fought for independence.
By these Cuba was bound not to incur debts her current revenues will not bear; to continue the sanitary administration undertaken by the military government of intervention; to lease naval stations (since located at Bahia Honda and Guantanamo) to the United States; and finally, the right of the United States to intervene, if necessary, in the affairs of the island was explicitly affirmed in the provision, " That the government of Cuba consents that the United States may exercise the right to intervene for the protection of Cuban independence, the maintenance of a government adequate for the protection of life, property and individual liberty, and for discharging the obligations with respect to Cuba imposed by the treaty of Paris on the United States, now to be assumed and undertaken by the government of Cuba."
Congress neglected to pass certain laws which were required by the constitution, and which, as regards municipal autonomy, independence of the judiciary, and congressional representation of minority parties, were intended to make impossible the abuses of centralized government that had characterized Spanish administration.
When once the fixed conditions which any hypothetical group of entities are to satisfy have been precisely formulated, the deduction of the further propositions, which also will hold respecting them, can proceed in complete independence of the question as to whether or no any such group of entities can be found in the world of phenomena.
At this time the pine-apple was introduced as an article of cultivation at Eleuthera; and a few years subsequently, during the American war of independence, colonists arri.ved in great.
The dynasty established its independence of the Afghans towards the end of the 18th century, and made a treaty with the British in 1838 to which it has always been loyal.
Thenceforward, until i 180, the bans continued subject to the Eastern empire or Hungary, with brief intervals of independence.
His absolute independence was as little gained as if he had camped out in Hyde Park; relatively he lived the life of a recluse.
It retained its independence till 1803, when it came into the possession of Wurttemberg.
- The Turkish sea-power, already decayed owing to a variety of causes (for the effect of the revolt of the Greek islanders see Greek Independence, War Of), was shattered by the catastrophe of Sinope (1853).
To this council, with these extended powers, was handed over the absolute administration, collection and control of the " six indirect contributions " above enumerated, for the benefit of the bondholders, and in addition, it was to encash for the same purpose bills on the customs, to be drawn half-yearly in its favour by the minister of finance, amounting annually to £T180,000, representing the tax on Tumbeki (£TSo,000) and the surplus revenue of Cyprus (£T130,000); and the Eastern Rumelian annuity, originally fixed at £T245,000, but gradually reduced by force of circumstances, until after frequent suspensions of payment it reached in 1897 the level of £T114,000, and has, since the declaration of Bulgarian independence, been definitely stopped.
that Osman declared his independence, and accordingly the Turkish historian dates the foundation of the Ottoman Empire from this event.
The Black Sea was practically a Turkish lake, only the Circassians on the east coast retaining their independence; and as a result of the wars with Persia the whole Euphrates valley, with Bagdad, had fallen into the sultan's power, now established on the Persian Gulf.
The governors of the more distant provinces enjoyed a considerable amount of independence, which in the case of the Barbary states was more or less complete; these entered into treaties with foreign powers, and by their piratical outrages frequently caused the Porte considerable embarrassment.
The princes of the Crimea were invested with many of the prerogatives of independence, e.g.
It was not long before Russia showed that it was not the independence but the absorption of the Crimea which she desired.
The acceptance of the principle of complete independence, once more warmly advocated by Metternich, seemed now essential if Greece was not to become, like the principalities, a mere dependency of Russia.
But Kiamil Pasha was not subservient enough to his imperial master's will, and his place was taken by a military man, Jevad Pasha, from whom no independence of action was to be apprehended.
The independence of Bulgaria was proclaimed on the 5th.
was next required to renounce his rights, and this he did, with as much independence as dignity, through a legate, who previously convoked the council in the name of his master, and thus in some sort gave it the necessary confirmed authority.
Much had been done to create an efficient staff, but though the idea of the army corps command was now no new thing, the senior generals entrusted with these commands were far from having acquired the independence and initiative of their French opponents.
The inhabitants are a brave and warlike race of mountaineers, and aided by the natural strength of their countr y they have hitherto preserved their independence.
From time immemorial the Atlas have been the home of Berber races, and those living in the least accessible regions have retained a measure of independence throughout their recorded history.
Astrup, crossing by land from Inglefield Gulf, Smith Sound, discovered Independence Bay on the north-east coast in 81° 37' N.
He settled in the island of Hydra on the east of the Morea, and when the Greek War of Independence began was known among his fellow townsmen as a trader in corn who had gained wealth, and who made a popular use of his money.
When independence had been obtained, Miaoulis in his old age was entangled in the civil conflicts of his country, as an opponent of Capodistrias and the Russian party.
He had in 1854 been appointed secretary to the prison board, an office which gave him entire pecuniary independence, and the duties of which he discharged most assiduously, notwithstanding his literary pursuits and the pressure of another important task assigned to him after the completion of his history, the editorship of the National Scottish Registers.
The clergy, thus deprived of its wealth, privileges and jurisdiction, is further to be deprived of independence, for the civil power is to have the right of appointing to benefices, &c. The supreme authority in the church is to be the council, but a council summoned by the emperor.
The new city was strongly fortified and figured prominently in the struggle for independence, and also in the various revolutions which have convulsed the republic. Its political autonomy dates from 1836, when it was made a coast department.
Under the long peace which followed the close of the Napoleonic wars, its trade gradually revived, fostered by the declaration of independence of South and Central America, with both of which it energetically opened close commercial relations, and by the introduction of steam navigation.
It is possible that Montefiascone occupies the site of the Fanum Voltumnae, at which the representatives of the twelve chief cities of Etruria met in the days of their independence; while under the Empire the festival was held near Volsinii.
Politically, he was an ardent patriot during the War of Independence, and a strong Federalist afterwards, several of his political discourses attracting wide attention.
Under Venetian protection, freely accepted in 1401, the inhabitants maintained their municipal independence and commercial prosperity down to the destruction of the Venetian republic in 1797, though on two occasions, in 1500 and 1560, their city was burned by the Turks.
In 1807 the Servians, having risen for their independence, forced the Turkish garrison to capitulate, and became masters of Belgrade, which they kept until the end of September 1813, when they abandoned it to the Turks.
Brechin Castle played a prominent part in the Scottish War of Independence.
He appealed to the powers, who had, in 1815, created and guaranteed the independence of the kingdom of the Netherlands.
BATTLE OF NAVARINO, fought on the 10th of October 1827, the decisive event which established the independence of Greece.
CONFEDERATION OF BAR, a famous confederation of the Polish nobles and gentry formed at the little fortress of Bar in Podolia in 1768 to defend the internal and external independence of Poland against the aggressions of the Russian government as represented by her representative at Warsaw, Prince Nicholas Repnin.
In 1607-1610 the Tunguses fought strenuously for their independence, but were subdued about 1623.
During the War of Independence his early training at the French military college at Caen enabled him to render effective service to General Benjamin Lincoln in 1778-1779, to Count d'Estaing (1779), to General Lincoln in the defence of Charleston and afterwards to General Horatio Gates.
This renders the more remarkable their attitude in the War of Independence, for which they made great sacrifices.
They are very tenacious of their independence, but accepted without opposition the establishment of a British protectorate, which, while putting a stop to inter-tribal warfare, slave-raiding and human sacrifices, and exercising control over the working of the laws, left to the people executive and fiscal autonomy.
Settled soon after the close of the War of Independence, Auburn was laid out in 1793 by Captain John L.
For further information concerning the compatibility and independence of a system of linear equations, see Gordon, Vorlesungen fiber Invariantentheorie, Bd.
Huntington, named in honour of Samuel Huntington (1736-1796), of Connecticut, a signer of the Declaration of Independence, was first settled about 1829, was incorporated as a town in 1848 and was chartered as a city in 1873.
During the War of Independence the village was bombarded by the British on the 7th of October 1775, but suffered little damage; on the 25th of May 1778 it was visited and partially destroyed by a British force.
30 on behalf of Lettish independence.
23, independence was declared, and K.
The Lettish Government decided to stop the advance on Dvinsk and Rezhitsa at any cost, as a danger to Latvia's independence, and succeeded in obtaining British and Esthonian support.
In 1678 it was recaptured by the Venetians, but was again restored in 1699, by the treaty of Karlowitz to the Turks; in the war of independence it finally became Greek once more (March 1829).
It suffered considerably in the various wars of the middle ages, but generally managed to maintain its independence.
kingdom of Oman on that coast, is ruled by a sultan, whose independence both Great Britain and France had, in March 1862, ' ` reciprocally engaged to respect."
Such exemption would be contrary to the engagement to respect the independence of the sultan solemnly made in 1862.
This treaty contains reservations of all questions involving the vital interests, the independence or the honour of the contracting parties.
What, for instance, is meant by the phrase " national independence " in this connexion?
Rio and Santos, although both evinced a desire of independence, followed the example of the Paulistas.
The northern provinces had fallen into the power of Holland; the southern, peopled in a great measure by the hardy descendants of the successive colonists who had issued on all sides from the central establishment of Sao Paulo, had learned from their habits of unaided and successful enterprise to court independence.
In independ- Rio the agitation for independence continued.
In Sao Paulo, on the 7th of September 1822, he proclaimed the independence of Brazil.
The Cortes at Lisbon chose Bahia as a centre for resisting the independence, and large forces were sent thither.
Before the end of 1823 the authority of the new emperor and the independence of Brazil were undisputed throughout the whole country.
Negotiations were opened in London between the Brazilian and Portuguese plenipotentiaries, treating for the recognition of the independence of Brazil; and on the 25th of August 1825 a treaty was signed by which the Portuguese king, Dom John VI., assumed the title of emperor of Brazil, and immediately abdicated in favour of his son, acknowledging Brazil as an independent empire, but the treaty obliged Brazil to take upon herself the Portuguese debt, amounting to nearly two millions sterling.
He had given himself up to the influence of the Portuguese; the most popular men who had worked for the independence were banished; and a continual change of ministry showed a disposition on the part of the sovereign to prosecute obstinately measures of which his advisers disapproved.
Alarmed at length at the ground gained by this idea in the provinces, the emperor set off to Minas to stir up the former enthusiasm in his favour from recollections of the independence, but was coldly received.
This province, being difficult of access, was able for a time to assert a practical independence.
Here in December 1880 a great meeting of Boers resolved again to proclaim the independence of the Transvaal.
A prominent part in the War of Independence was played by the Maniates or Mainotes, the inhabitants of the rugged peninsula formed by the southern part of Taygetus.
They had all along maintained a virtual independence of the Turks and until quite recently retained their medieval customs, living in fortified towers and practising the vendetta or blood-feud.
Bocskay, to save the independence of Transylvania, assisted the Turks; and in 1605, as a reward for his part in driving Basta out of Transylvania, the Hungarian diet, assembled at Modgyes, elected him prince (1605), on which occasion the Ottoman sultan sent a special embassy to congratulate him and a splendid jewelled crown made in Persia.
In the 11th century the beginnings of its independence may be traced.
A rare capacity for tedious work, a dour Catonian rectitude, a passion for truth, pride, irritability at criticism and independence of character, are the marks of Herculano as a man.
His father, Samuel Davis (1756-1824), who served in the War of Independence, was of Welsh, and his mother, Jane Cook, of Scotch-Irish descent; during his infancy the family moved to Wilkinson county, Mississippi.
They had declared themselves a free and independent state under the title of " The Republic of Port Natal and adjacent countries," 1 and sought (September 1840) from Sir George Napier at the Cape an acknowledgment of their independence by Great Britain.
Having at length received an intimation from London that the queen " could not acknowledge the independence of her own subjects, but that the trade of the emigrant farmers would be placed on the same footing as that of any other British settlement, upon their receiving a military force to exclude the interference 1 Commonly called the Republic of Natalia or Natal.
Its investigations pointed to the loosening of tribal ties and to the corresponding growth of a spirit of individual independence.
When the empire decayed, the satraps often enjoyed practical independence, especially as it became customary to appoint them also as generals in chief of their army district, contrary to the original rule.
For many years the city maintained its independence, though surrounded by the hostile native inhabitants of Lucania.
At the age of sixteen he entered the College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, Virginia, but in 1776 he left college to take part in the War for Independence.
This book, which comes down to the year 1526 and the extinction of Czech independence,'was founded on laborious research in the local archives of Bohemia and in the libraries of the chief cities of Europe, and remains the standard authority.
Moreover, by accepting Christianity from Germany, he ran the risk of imperilling the independence of Hungary.
The political independence of Hungary was ultimately secured by the outbreak of the quarrel about investiture (1076), when L Geza I.
The Hungarian diet frantically opposed every Austrian alliance as endangering the national independence, but to any unprejudiced observer a union with the house of Habsburg, even with the contingent probability of a Habsburg king, was infinitely preferable to the condition into which Hungary, under native aristocratic misrule, was swiftly drifting.
The separatist movement was strongest in the south, where the Rumans were in touch with their kinsmen in Walachia and Moldavia, the Serbs with their brethren in Servia, and the Croats intent on reasserting the independence of the" Tri-une Kingdom."
He not only refused to obey, but on the 5th of June convoked to Agram the Croatian national diet, of which the first act was to declare the independence of the Tri-une Kingdom.
On the 1 ith, on his motion, a decree was passed by acclamation for a levy of 200,000 men and the raising of £4,500,000 for the defence of the independence of the country.
The news of this manifesto, arriving as it did simultaneously with that of Gdrgei's successes, destroyed the last vestiges of a desire of the Hungarian revolutionists to compromise, and on the 14th of April, on the motion of Kossuth, the diet proclaimed the independence of Hungary, declared the house of Habsburg as false and perjured, for ever excluded from the throne, and elected Kossuth president of the Hungarian Republic. This was an execrable blunder in the circumstances, and the results were fatal to the national cause.
This was the last great battle of the War of Independence.
Broadly speaking, there have been in Hungary since 1867 two parties: those who accept the compromise with Austria, and affirm that under it Hungary, so far from having surrendered any of her rights, has acquired an influence which she previously did not actually possess, and secondly, those who see in the compromise an abandonment of the essentials of independence and aim at the restoration of the conditions established in 1848.
Fortunately, in Kalman Tisza, the leader of the Liberal From the first, Tisza was exposed to the violent attacks of the opposition, which embraced, not only the party of Independence, champions of the principles of 1848, but the so-called National party, led by the brilliant orator Count Albert Apponyi, which aimed at much the same ends but looked upon the Compromise of 1867 as a convenient substructure on which to build up the Magyar state.
Neither could forgive Tisza for repudiating his earlier Radical policy, the so-called Bihar Programme (March 6, 1868), which went far beyond the Compromise in the direction of independence, and both attacked him with a violence which his unyielding temper, and the ruthless methods by which he always knew how to secure victory, tended ever to fan into fury.
The usual coronation gifts he devoted to the benefit of the Honved invalids who had fought in the War of Independence.
The various parties meanwhile had split up into some half a dozen sub-sections; but the expected fusion of the party of independence and the government fell through, and the barren struggle continued till the celebration of the millennium of the foundation of the monarchy produced for some months a lull in politics.
the Liberals and Clericals, desired to maintain the compact with the crown; their colleagues of the Independence party were eager to advance the cause they have at heart by pressing on the question of a separate Hungarian bank.
Finally, the prime minister, Dr Wekerle, mainly owing to the pressure put upon him by Mr Justh, the president of the Chamber, yielded to the importunity of the Independence party, and, in the name of the Hungarian government, laid the proposals for a separate bank before the king-emperor and the Austrian government.
But the issues involved affected the stability of the Dual Monarchy and its position in Europe; and neither the king-emperor nor his Austrian advisers, their position strengthened by the success of Baron Aehrenthal's diplomatic victory in the Balkans, were prepared to make any substantial concessions to the party of Independence.
Kossuth and Justh, on the other hand, competitors for the leadership of the Independence party, declared themselves not prepared to accept anything short of the full rights of the Magyars in those matters.
The plan, concerted by Kossuth and Apponyi, with the approval of Baron Aehrenthal, was to carry on a modified coalition government with the aid of the Andrassy Liberals, the National party, the Clerical People's party 2 and the Independence party, on a basis of suffrage reform with plural franchise, the 2 The People's party first emerged during the elections of 1896, when it contested 98 seats.
The Independence party was now split into two groups: the " Independence and 1848 party," and the " Independence, 1848 and Kossuth party."
In their efforts to establish Hungarian independence on the firm basis of national efficiency they had succeeded in changing their country from one of very backward economic conditions into one which promised to be in a position to hold its own on equal terms with any in the world.
The suppression of the independence of the feudal aristocracy was inaugurated in 1626 by an edict calling for the destruction of all fortified castles not needed for defence against invasion.
He co-operated with Franklin and others in the periodical work entitled Affaires de l'Anglcterre et de l'Amerique (1776, sqq.), which was devoted to the support of American independence.
It fell later to the counts of Henneberg; but, receiving civic rights in the 13th century, it maintained its independence as a free imperial city with few interruptions until 1803, when it passed to Bavaria.
They were in close and cordial contact with the Serbian Government, but rightly insisted on retaining entire independence of action, their funds being derived from their wealthy S.
It was left to the Yugoslav Committee abroad to claim independence as well as unity, to repudiate the Habsburgs (in a manifesto on the eve of the Budapest coronation) and to exalt the achievements of Serbia and the Karagjorgjevic dynasty.
Further causes for alarms were the secret meeting between General Smuts and Count Mensdorv, to discuss a separate peace between Austria and the Entente (Dec. 1917) and the public pronouncements of President Wilson and Mr. Lloyd George in favour of " autonomy " for the subject races, instead of the independence held out to them by the Allied pronouncement of Jan.
Among the latter were the mayor of Zagreb, the poet Vojnovic, and prominent Serb, Croat and Slovene deputies of all parties, including the peasant leader Stephen Radic and the future minister Pribicevic. Their resolutions, though necessarily vague, amounted to a pledge of mutual support in the cause of unity and independence.
On the 28th (the same day on which the Czechoslovak Republic was born in Prague) the military command in Zagreb handed over its authority to the National Council, and next day the diet proclaimed the independence of Croatia from Hungary, and assumed control of Fiume.
He issued an important constitution on the 18th of July 1289, which granted to the cardinals one-half of all income accruing to the Roman see and a share in the financial management, and thereby paved the way for that independence of the college of cardinals which, in the following century, was to be of detriment to the papacy.
There at first he helped Denikin to maintain the independence of the Caucasus, but when the latter made a political approach towards the Entente, Enver left him, stayed for a short time in Azerbaijan, and was mixed up 1 A German version was issued in 1918.
When the British government decided to recognize the independence of the Transvaal Boers it was with Pretorius that negotiations were conducted.
They had obtained independence, but they were far from being a united people.
It was not until 1869 that peace was patched up, and the settlement arrived at left the mountain tribes in practical independence.