All historians agree that the external activity of states and nations in their conflicts with one another is expressed in wars, and that as a direct result of greater or less success in war the political strength of states and nations increases or decreases.
Thus our conception of free will and inevitability gradually diminishes or increases according to the greater or lesser connection with the external world, the greater or lesser remoteness of time, and the greater or lesser dependence on the causes in relation to which we contemplate a man's life.
above sea-level, while toward the south-east the elevation increases until 3500 and 4000 ft.
In dry weather the electric potential in the atmosphere is normally positive relative to the earth, and increases with the height.
As the tableland runs northward it decreases both in height and width, until it narrows to a few miles only, with an elevation of scarcely 1500 ft.; under the name of the Blue Mountains the plateau widens again and increases in altitude, the chief peaks being Mount Clarence(4000 ft.), Mount Victoria (3525 ft.), and Mount Hay (3270 ft.).
This increases the resistance of the electrolytic cell.
Wherever the ship may go, the rush of water which neither directs nor increases its movement foams ahead of it, and at a distance seems to us not merely to move of itself but to govern the ship's movement also.
The proportion of freedom to inevitability decreases and increases according to the point of view from which the action is regarded, but their relation is always one of inverse proportion.
In the extreme west the salinity of the surface water is about 36 3 per mille, and it increases eastwards to 37 6 east of Sardinia and 39 0 and upwards in the Levant.
To ascertain how the increase in the voltage varies as the height in the free atmosphere increases, it is necessary to employ kites or balloons.
To this character the fungus owes its generic name (Marasmius) as well as one of its most valuable qualities for the table, for examples may be gathered from June to November, and if carefully dried may be hung on strings for culinary purposes and preserved without deterioration for several years; indeed, many persons assert that the rich flavour of these fungi increases with years.
from the mouth of the Colorado to the Andes, ranging from 57° to 55°; but the rainfall increases from 8 in.
The lack of coal in Argentina greatly increases the difficulty and cost of maintaining these industries, and high prices of the products result.
(formamide excepted) which are at first soluble in water, the solubility, however, decreasing as the carbon content of the molecule increases.
Weber showed that the specific heat increases rapidly with increasing temperature.
North of the North Atlantic maximum the waters become steadily fresher as latitude increases until the channels opening into the Arctic basin are reached.
Thus the principle of Carnot involves the conclusion that a greater proportion of the heat possessed by a body at a high temperature can be converted into work than in the case of an equal quantity of heat possessed by a body at a low temperature, so that the availability of heat increases with the temperature.
The Belgian state telegraphs were started in 1850 and were at first very profitable, but for the years 1866-9 they yielded an average profit of only 2.8 per cent., and subsequently failed to earn operating expenses, the reasons for the steady decline of the profits being the opening of relatively unprofitable lines and offices, increases in wages, and a diminution in growth of the foreign and transit messages which had constituted the most profitable part of the whole business.
Increase in the voltage acting upon a solid conductor increases the current through it, but in the case of the electric arc an increase in current is accompanied by a fall in the difference of potential of the carbons, within certain limits, and the arc has therefore been said to possess a negative resistance.'
In these circumstances, when, as frequently will be the case, the person calling desires to be put in communication with a subscriber who belongs to another section, connexions must be established in the office between the two sections; this necessitates additional switchboard arrangements, and also increases the time required to put subscribers in communication with one another.
Telephone business is characterized by two features: (I) that the capital account is never closed, and (2) that the costli - ness of the service increases with the size of the undertaking.
The results of many analyses show that the capacity of soils for moisture increases with the amount of organic substances present; decomposition appears to be most active when the moisture is about 4%, but can continue when it is as low as 2%, while it appears to be retarded by any excess over 4%.
In the case of a pure substance, and of a certain small class of mixtures, there is no further fall in temperature until the substance has become completely solid, but, in the case of most mixtures, after the freezing-point has been reached the temperature soon begins to fall again, and as the amount of solid increases the temperature becomes lower and lower.
A slump in grain prices combined with big increases in the price of luxury items put pressure on the lifestyle of the feudal aristocracy.
The subscriber pays a fixed annual rent which covers a certain number of free out - ward calls, say boo; additional calls he purchases in advance in blocks of several hundred at so much per hundred, the price being reduced as the number increases.
The figure for Sicily, which was 106,000 in 1905, reached 127,000 in 1906 (~.5%), and of these about three-fotrrths would be adults; in the meantime, how ever, the population increases so fast that even in 1905 there was a net increase in Sicily of 20,000 souls; sO that in three years 220,000 workers were replaced by 320,000 infants.
The value has, however, undoubtedly diminished, though the number of boats and crews increases.
While importation of raw cotton increases importations of cotton thread and of cotton stuffs have rapidly decreased.
Between 1881 and 1898 the chief increases took place in the endowments of hospitals; orphan asylums; infant asylums; poorhouses; almshouses; voluntary workhouses; and institutes for the blind.
The coenosteum increases in size by new growth at the surface; and in the deeper, older portions of massive forms the tissues die off after a certain time, only the superficial region retaining its vitality down to a certain depth.
The living tissues at the surface are cut off from the underlying dead portions by horizontal partitions termed tabulae, which are formed successively as the coenosteum increases in age and size.
of supporting axes from assimilating appendages, and as the body increases in size and becomes a solid mass of cells or interwoven threads, a corresponding differentiation of a superficial assimilative system from the deep-lying parts.
It is evident that as the latter increases in bulk, more and more attention must be paid to the dangers of uprooting by winds and storms. Various mechanisms have been adopted in different cases, some connected with the subterranean and others with the sub-aerial portions of the plant.
When the limit of extensibility is reached the cell wall increases in thickness from the continuation of the latter of the two processes.
The rate of growth of a cell varies gradually throughout its course; it begins slowly, increases to a maximum, and then becomes slower till it stops.
The chromatin substance increases in amount; the thread stains moie deeply, and in most cases presents a homogeneous appearance.
The opening, which is at first very small, increases in size, and before the cross-wall has entirely disappeared the contents of the two cells become continuous (Scott).
As the atomic weight of the element increases, it is found that the solubility of the sulphates in water decreases.
For instance, in the fowl its volume increases about fifty-fold, growing from some 6 in.
Sharpe increases their number to about 15,000 in the New Hand-List of Birds, published by the British Museum.
Taken internally, colchicum or colchicine markedly increases the amount of bile poured into the alimentary canal, being amongst the most powerful of known cholagogues.
At low temperatures SA predominates, but as the temperature is raised S, increases; the transformation, however, is retarded by some gases, e.g.
The number of species of herbaceous plants rapidly increases, while beyond the Volga a variety of Asiatic species are added to the W.
Russian craft play, however, a much more important part on the internal waterways, the traffic on which increases rapidly, e.g.
Thus it will be observed that the five great cities of the Pacific coast-Seattle and Tacoma, Wash., Portland, Ore., and San Francisco and Los Angeles, Cal.-were already well supplied with railways; but the growth of the fertile region lying west of the transcontinental divide was most attractive to American railway builders; and railways serving this district, almost all of them in trouble ten years before, were showing great increases in earnings.
It increases the tendency, already too strong, towards concentration of industrial life in large towns.
This rate increases as the distance increases, but not in equal proportion; while the rates from large trade centres to other trade centres at a great distance are not higher than those to intermediate points somewhat less remote; if the law permits, there is a tendency to make them actually a little lower.
Thus the characteristic defect in the British railway organization has been the tendency to put out new capital at a rate faster than has been warranted by the annual increases in earnings.
Meantime, the purchasing power of the dollar which the railway company receives for a specified service is gradually growing smaller, owing to the general increases year by year in wages and in the cost of material.
Except in hard rock, the top width of a cutting, and therefore the amount of material to be excavated, increases rapidly with the depth; hence if a cutting exceeds a certain depth, which varies with the particular circumstances, it may be more economical, instead of forming the sides at the slope at which the material of which they are composed will stand, to make them nearly vertical and support the soil with a retaining wall, or to bore a tunnel.
If therefore the outer rail is laid at a level above that of the inner rail at the curve, overturning will be resisted more than would be the case if both rails were in the same horizontal plane, since the tilting of the vehicle due to this " superelevation " diminishes the overturning moment, and also increases the restoring moment, by shortening in the one case and lengthening in the other the lever arms at which the respective forces act.
The relation between the b.h.p. and the torque on the driving-axle is 55 o B.H.P. =Tu., (9) It is usual with steam locomotives to regard the resistance R as including the frictional resistances between the cylinders and the driving-axle, so that the rate at which energy is expended in moving the train is expressed either by the product RV, or by the value of the indicated horse-power, the relation between them being 55 0 I.H.P. =RV (Io) or in terms of the torque 55 0 I.H.P.X€=RVe=TW (II) The individual factors of the product RV may have any value consistent with equation (to) and with certain practical conditions, so that for a given value of the I.H.P. R must decrease if V increases.
per second) R increases to 25,000 lb.
A side wind causes excessive flange friction on the leeward side of the train, and increases the tractive resistances therefore very considerably, even though its velocity be relatively moderate.
It is not economical to force the boiler to work at too high a rate, because it has been practically demonstrated that the boiler efficiency decreases after a certain point, as the rate of combustion increases.
- One pound of coal requires about 20 lb of air for its proper combustion in the fire-box of a locomotive, though this quantity of air diminishes as the rate of combustion increases.
As the indicated horse-power of the engine increases, the weight of steam discharged increases, and the smoke-Lox vacuum is increased, thereby causing more air to flow through the furnace and increasing the rate of combustion.
Sand, driven between the wheel and the rail by a steam jet, used just at starting, increases the adhesion beyond the normal value and enables a larger pressure to be exerted on the piston than would otherwise be possible.
This high mean pressure cannot be maintained for long, because as the speed increases the demand for steam per unit of time increases, so that cut-off must take place earlier and earlier in the stroke, the limiting steady speed being attained when the rate at which steam is supplied to the cylinders is adjusted by the cut-off to be equal to the maximum rate at which the boiler can produce steam, which depends upon the maximum rate at which coal can be burnt per square foot of grate.
The way the thermal efficiency of the ideal engine increases with the pressure is exhibited in fig.
As a rule, the elevation of the timber line on the mountains increases as the latitude decreases.
Tearing up the soil with the plough is regarded as an invasion of the domain of the earth-mother, punished by the all-devouring hunger for wealth, that increases with increasing produce.
The Piedmont Plateau Region extends from this line to the Blue Ridge Escarpment, toward which its mean elevation increases at the rate of about 32 ft.
The population of the colony increases fast, and a well-grown nest contains several " queens " and males, besides a large number of workers.
This diminution of pressure, which continues as the heat increases till it reaches its maximum in July soon after the solstice, is followed by the corresponding development of the south-west monsoon; and as the barometric pressure is gradually restored, and becomes equalized within the tropics soon after the equinox in October, with the general fall of temperature north of the equator, the south-west winds fall off, and are succeeded by a north-east monsoon, which is developed during the winter months by the relatively greater atmospheric pressure which then occurs over Asia, as compared with the equatorial region.
The quantity increases considerably on that part of the coast of the Malay peninsula which is not sheltered from the south-west by Sumatra.
The truly tropical flora of the hotter and wetter regions of eastern India is continuous with that of the Malayan peninsula and islands, and extends along the lower ranges of the Himalaya, gradually becoming less marked and rising to lower elevations as we go westward, where the rainfall diminishes and the winter cold increases.
But below that city it suddenly widens out, and the width gradually increases through the stretch of 350 m.
The average daily gain in live weight is thus arrived at, and as the animal increases in age this average gradually diminishes, until the daily gain reaches a stage at which it does not afford any profitable return upon the food consumed.
Unfortunately, from the tenable theory that the intensity of a sensation increases by definite additions of stimulus, Fechner was led on to postulate a unit of sensation, so that any sensation s might be regarded as composed of n units.
Upwards of 300,000 species have been collected and described, and at present the number of named forms increases at the rate of about 8000 species per annum.
Nevertheless, the constant increase of our knowledge of insect forms renders classification increasingly difficult, for gaps in the series become filled, and while the number of genera and families increases, the distinctions between these groups become dependent on characters that must seem trivial to the naturalist who is not a specialist.
At other times the pest is introduced, and under congenial conditions (and possibly in the absence of some other organism which keeps it in check in its native country) increases accordingly.
Viscosity increases with density, but oils of the same density often vary greatly; the coefficient of expansion, on the other hand, varies inversely with the density, but bears no simple relation to the change of fluidity of the oil under the influence of heat, this being most marked in oils of paraffin base.
The reason is that the heat produced in a given time in a wire is proportional to the square of the strength of the current passing through it, and hence the rate at which the heat is produced in the wire, and therefore its temperature, increases much faster than the current itself increases.
when exposed to the action of light its electric conductivity increases.
Weber, who showed that with rise of temperature the specific (and atomic) heat increases, finally attaining a fairly constant value; diamond, graphite and the various amorphous forms of carbon having the value about 5.6 at moo°, and silicon 5.68 at 232°; while he concluded that boron attained a constant value of 5.5.
the tint deepens as the number of auxochromes increases.
The light is supposed to descend vertically upon the country represented, and in a true scale of shade the intensity increases with the inclination from o° to 90°; but as such a scale does not sufficiently differentiate the lesser inclinations which are the most important, the author adopted a conventional scale, representing a slope of 45° or more, supposed to be inaccessible, as absolutely black, the level surfaces, which reflect all the light which falls upon them, as perfectly white, and the intervening slopes by a proportion between black and white, as in fig.
By a true confession of faith, by every good deed, word and thought, by continually keeping pure his body and his soul, he impairs the power of Satan and strengthens the might of goodness, and establishes a claim for reward upon Ormazd; by a false confession, by every evil deed, word and thought and defilement, he increases the evil and renders service to Satan.
The addition of a careful dissection of a flower greatly increases the value of the specimen.
The peculiar pouch-shape of almost all the harbours named (Matanzas being a marked exception) greatly increases their security and defensibility.
Thus population increases or decreases in fixed relation to the rise or fall of wages.
As the temperature increases the liquid becomes yellowish, the colour deepening with rise of temperature until at +15° C. it has a deep orange tint.
The cold increases not only from south to north, but to some extent from east to west.
The head is rather large, and is furnished at first with five simple eyes of nearly equal size; but as it increases in size the homologues of the facetted eyes of the imago become larger, whereas those equivalent to the ocelli remain small.
The antennae are long and thread-like, composed at first of few joints, but the number of these latter apparently increases at each moult.
The excess of heat received in equatorial regions expands the water, but at the same time excess of evaporation concentrates it, so that the density increases.
It appeared that the quantity of oil contained in the liver of a cod (per unit of weight) increases with the age of the fish.
The result of this is that the alkalinity of the sea-water increases and the hydrogen-ion concentration decreases.
That is, the concentration of H-ions decreases and that of the HO-ions increases; the water becomes more alkaline because the carbonic acid of the bicarbonate has been abstracted by the phytoplankton to the extent that normal carbonate is left.
(2) As the concentration of the solutions increases, the ionization as measured electrically and the dissociation as measured osmotically might decrease more or less together, though, since the thermodynamic theory only holds when the solution is so dilute that the dissolved particles are beyond each other's sphere of action, there is much doubt whether this second relation is valid through any appreciable range of concentration.
The yield of latex is at first small, but increases with successive tappings, which appear to stimulate the local production of latex, and finally reaches a maximum.
It will not in general move along a line of force, as would an isolated pole, but will follow the direction in which the magnetic force increases most rapidly, and in so doing it may cross the lines of force obliquely or even at right angles.
The current increases to a maximum as E approaches F, and diminishes to almost nothing when E is brought up to D; it can be completely interrupted by means of the switch H.
The distinguishing feature of the first is the steepness of its outlines; this indicates that the induction increases rapidly in relation to the magnetic force, and hence the metal is well suited for the construction of dynamo magnets.
During the first stage, when the magnetizing force is small, the magnetization (or the induction) increases rather slowly with increasing force; this is well shown by the nickel curve in the diagram, but the effect would be no less conspicuous in the iron curve if the abscissae were plotted to a larger scale.
On the application of a small magnetizing force to a bar of soft annealed iron, a certain intensity of magnetization is instantly produced; this, however, does not remain constant, but slowly increases for some seconds or even minutes, and may ultimately attain a value nearly twice as great as that observed immediately after the force was applied.'
But this " critical value " of the force is found to depend in an unexpected manner upon the hardness of the steel; the critical value diminishes as the hardness becomes greater up to a certain point, corresponding to a yellow temper, after which it increases and with the hardest steel becomes very high.
In weak fields the magnetic contraction is always diminished by pulling stress; in strong fields the contraction increases under a small load and diminishes under a heavy one.
The effects of longitudinal pressure are opposite to those of traction; when the cyclic condition has been reached, pressure reduces the magnetization of iron in weak fields and increases it in strong fields (Ewing, Magnetic Induction, 1900, 223).
The following are the chief results of Hopkinson's experiments: For small magnetizing forces the magnetization of iron steadily increases with rise of temperature till the critical temperature is approached, when the rate of increase becomes very high, the permeability in some cases attaining a value of about i i,000; the magnetization then with remarkable suddenness almost entirely disappears, the permeability falling to about 1.14.
It appears that as the temperature rises the resistance decreases to a minimum and then increases, the minimum point occurring at a higher temperature the stronger the field.
In a 29% nickel-steel, magnetization increases the constants by a small amount.
If now a gradually increasing magnetizing force is applied, the needles at first undergo a stable deflection, giving to the group a small resultant moment which increases uniformly with the force; and if the current is interrupted while the force is still weak, the needles merely return to their initial positions.
5), Dracaena and Cordyline include arborescent species in which the stem increases in thickness continually by a centrifugal formation of new tissue; an extreme case is afforded by Dracaena Draco, the dragon-tree of Teneriffe.
As the carbon content of the molecule increases, they become less soluble in water, and their smell becomes less marked with the increase in boiling point, the highest members of the series being odourless solids, which can only be distilled without decomposition invacuo.
This decreases as r increases; its value ranging from na/A to al(nA).
If, for instance, we inquire as to the time taken to reach a given height by a body thrown upwards with a given velocity, we find that the time increases as the height decreases.
This increases the extent of the numbers with which we have to deal; but it enables us to reduce the number of formulae.
+u r by Sr. Then (ï¿½ 56 (iii.)) (x+h)" lies between S r and Sr+i; and provided S r includes the numerically greatest term, I Sr+i-Sri constantly decreases as r increases, and can be made as small as we please by taking r large enough.
(ii.) Instead of examining what happens as r increases, let us examine what happens as h/x decreases, r remaining unaltered.
Now by (17), (18) z 1 J1(z) =Jo(z)- (z); where P increases.
As the minimum focal length increases with the square of the aperture, a quite impracticable distance would be required to rival the resolving power of a modern telescope.
Let us suppose that the light is incident perpendicularly, and that the grating interval increases from the centre towards that edge which lies nearest to the spectrum under observation, and decreases towards the hinder edge.
As this increases from zero, the two processions which correspond to the two halves of the aperture begin to overlap, and the overlapping gradually increases until there is almost complete superposition.
(19), 1 abA) ' ' we may write 12= (cos 27rv 2 .dv) 2 + (f sin zirv 2 .dv) 2 (20), or, according to our previous notation, 12 = (2 - C 2 +(z - Sv)2= G2 +H2 Now in the integrals represented by G and H every element diminishes as V increases from zero.
Hence, as CA increases, viz.
It is easy to see that the length of the chord (which passes in all cases through 0) increases to a maximum near the place where the phase-retardation is s of a period, then diminishes to a minimum when the retardation is about a of a period, and so on.
by the methods of the differential calculus or geometrically, that the deviation increases with the refractive index, the angle of incidence remaining constant.
As the quantity of contained water increases it becomes difficult or even impossible to detonate by an ordinary blow.
In the case of muscle, if the available nourishment be sufficient, and if the power of assimilation of the muscle cells remain unimpaired, its bulk increases, that is to say, it becomes hypertrophied.
The power required to circulate the air through a mine increases as the cube of the velocity of the air current.
The price, however, rapidly increases with the total bulk of perfect glass required in one piece, so that large disks of glass suitable for telescope objectives of wide aperture, or blocks for large prisms, become exceedingly costly.
The demand constantly increases, and, owing to constant improvements in material in the moulds and in the methods of working, the supply fully keeps pace with the demand.
- In a homogeneous liquid at rest under gravity the pressure increases uniformly with the depth.
3, the pressure increases 62.4 lb/ft.
For the 2 polygon has a right angle at a=a, a', and a zero angle at u = b, where 0 changes from o to 27/n and 1 - 2 increases by 21-rr/n; so that dSt A (b -a.b -a') a - (u -b),/ (u - a.u - a where A= tn (II) And the w polygon has a zero angle at u =o, oo, where 4, changes from o to m and back again, so that w changes by im, and du =B, where B=-.
This spot increases in size; in the stalks it assumes an oval shape, with its long axis parallel to the stalk, whilst in the leaves and grapes it is more or less circular in outline.
is said to produce fully developed gonads, and if kept in aquaria with Tubifex, the number of infected worms steadily increases, a fact pointing to the whole cycle being passed through, without the intermediation of a vertebrate host.
Permeability is practically identical with the speed at which percolation takes place; through clay it is slow, but increases in rapidity through marls, loams, limestones, chalks, coarse gravels and fine sands, reaching a maximum in soil saturated with moisture.
The oxygen, however, decreases with the depth, while the carbon dioxide increases.
Their highly favoured position in England, contrasting markedly with their refusal of trade facilities to the English in some of the Baltic towns and their evident policy of monopoly in the Baltic trade, incensed the English mercantile classes, and doubtless influenced the increases in customs-duties which were regarded by the Germans as contrary to their treaty rights.
As the tree increases in size, however, the upper branches become mingled together, and the tree is then clump-headed.
On distilling such a mixture pure A will come over first, followed by mixtures in which the quantity of B continually increases; consequently by a sufficient number of distillations A and B can be completely separated.
9), which is superscribed "actor," he clearly explains how the value of a number increases tenfold with every place it is moved to the left.
8 A, 9 A), but in many Cheilostomes the frontal surface is protected by a calcareous shield, which grows from near the free edges of the vertical walls and commonly increases in thickness as the zooecium grows older by the activity of the "epitheca," a layer of living tissue outside it.
The culture of the vine increases, and the wines, which are characterized by a mildness of flavour, are in good demand.
Hence Spencer concludes that the sense of duty is transitory and must diminish as moralization increases.
Sometimes he is said to live in a shell, by throwing off which from time to time he increases the world; or in an egg, which at last he breaks in pieces; the pieces are the islands.
As it dilates the blood-vessels of the skin it increases the subjective sensation of warmth.
An electrified conductor is a store of energy, and from the definition of potential it is clear that the work done in increasing the charge q of a conductor whose potential is v by a small amount dq, is vdq, and since this added charge increases in turn the potential, it is easy to prove that the work done in charging a conductor with Q units to a potential V units is z QV units of work.
As the temperature 0" is lowered, the area of the cycle increases, but since W can never exceed H', there must be a zero limit of temperature at which the pressure would vanish and the area of the cycle become equal to the whole heat absorbed at the higher temperature.
The United States (California) after 1848, and Australia after 1851, were responsible for enormous increases in the total production, which has been subsequently enhanced by discoveries in Canada, South Africa, India, China and other countries.
(b) Immigration sometimes increases the competition in the labour market, and thus lowers wages.
When given internally it increases the actual amount as well as the rate of flow of the bile.
In this way the insect increases with appalling rapidity: it has been calculated that a single mother which dies after laying her eggs in March would have over 25,000,000 descendants by October.
The separation of the images increases as the prism is approached to the object-glass, and diminishes as it is approached towards the eye-piece.
The Mediterranean Sea, the best-known member of the intercontinental class, is separated from the Atlantic Ocean by a ridge running from Cape Spartel to Cape Trafalgar on which the greatest depth is only 175 fathoms. The depth increases so rapidly towards the east that soundings exceeding 500 fathoms occur off Gibraltar.
The refraction of light passing through sea-water is dependent on the salinity to the extent that the index of refraction is greater as the salinity increases.
disk to depths of 31 and 36 fathoms in the Sargasso Sea, but in the cold currents of the north and also in the equatorial current the depth of visibility was only from zi to 162 fathoms. to the tropical parts of the Indian and the Pacific Oceans the depth of visibility increases again to from 20 to 27 fathoms. Some allowance should be made for the elevation of the sun at the time of observation.
According to Thoulet and Chevallier the specific heat diminishes as salinity increases, so that for io per mille salinity it is o 968, for 35 per mille it is only o 932, that of pure water being taken as unity.
The thermal conductivity also diminishes as salinity increases, the conductivity for heat of sea-water of 35 per mille salinity being 4.2% less than that of pure water.
The surface tension, on the other hand, is greater than that of pure water and increases with the salinity, according to Kriimmel, in the manner shown by the equation a=77.09+o 0221 S at o° C., where a is the coefficient of surface tension and S the salinity in parts per thousand.
The compressibility is in itself very small, but so great in its effect on the density of deep water in situ that the specific gravity (0 0 /4°) at 2000 fathoms increases by o 017 and at 3000 fathoms by o 026.
The electrical conductivity of sea-water increases with the salinity; at 59° F.
In the tropical and subtropical belts of the Atlantic and Indian Oceans south of the equator the salinity diminishes rapidly from the surface downwards, and at 500 fathoms reaches a minimum of 34.3 or 34.4 p e r mille; after that it increases again to 800 fathoms, where it is almost 34.7 or 34.8, and this salinity holds good to the bottom, even to the greatest depths, as was first shown by the " Gauss " and afterwards by the " Planet " between Durban and Ceylon.
Buchanan's large model they can be trusted to give a good account of the vertical distribution of temperature, provided the water grows cooler as the depth increases.
They would act equally well if the water grew continually warmer as the depth increases, but they cannot give an exact account of a temperature inversion such as is produced when layers of warmer and colder water alternate.
The regional differences of temperature at like depths become less as the depth increases.
1, which represents a sounding in the South Atlantic; and this arrangement of a rapid fall of temperature giving place gradually to an extremely slow but steady diminution as depth increases is termed anathermic (ava, back, and 8epµ6s, warm).
The freezing-point of sea-water is lower as the salinity increases and normal sea-water of 35 per mille salinity freezes at 28.6° F.
As a rule, the density increases with the amount of carbon, but in some instances a very high specific gravity is due to intermixed earthy matters, which are always denser than even the densest form of coal substance.
But he was suspicious of Sir Edward Grey's foreign policy, which he thought too slavish in its following of Lord Lansdowne; and he opposed the naval increases of the years before the World War, as the socialists in Berlin had opposed the German increases which provoked British rejoinders.
The ratio W/p increases very rapidly as 0 is increased,, and therefore, by making 0 sufficiently large, p may conveniently be made a small fraction of W, thereby rendering errors of observation of the spring balance negligible.
Loblolly pine, cypress, oaks, hickory, ash, pecan, maple, beech and a few other deciduous trees are interspersed among both the long-leaf and the short-leaf pines, and the proportion of deciduous trees increases to the westward.
Boscovich himself, in order to obviate the possibility of two atoms ever being in the same place, asserts that the ultimate force is a repulsion which increases without limit as the distance diminishes without limit, so that two atoms can never coincide.
As the temperature of a body increases the average energy of the molecules will increase, and therefore the range of their excursions from their positions of equilibrium will increase also.
We have already seen that the#mean energy increases with the temperature: it will now be supposed that the mean energy is exactly proportional to the ture.
Population.-The population of the state in 1910 was 3,366,416, the increases in successive decades after 1790 being respectively 11 6, 11 6, 10.9, 16.6, 20.9, 34.8, 23.8, 18.4, 22.4, 2 5.6, 25.3 and 20%.
The Mississippi valley tribes are nearly brachycephalic; the index increases around the Great Lakes, and lessens farther east.
to the left, so that as the scale rises, i.e., as the range increases, the notch is carried more and more to the left, and an increasing --4 - 3 FIG.
In the peripheral ring farming increases, especially dairying; and manufacturing industries connected with the products of forests, farms and mines are developed.
The attribution of the book to an eye-witness nowhere resolves, it everywhere increases, the real difficulties; and by insisting upon having history in the same degree and way in John as in the Synoptists, we cease to get it sufficiently anywhere at all.
At K it increases by RR' forwards, or the motion is forwards towards B.
If V is the undisturbed volume of a small portion of the air at the undisturbed pressure P, and if it becomes V - v when the pressure increases to P+w, the average pressure during the change may be taken as PH-1-a), since the pressure excess for a small change is proportional to the change.
It is, of course, a matter of common observation that the wind increases in velocity from the surface upwards.
Since the velocity increases as we go upwards the front tends to swing round and travel downwards, as shown in the successive positions a I, 2, 3 and 4, in fig.
As he travels further round the frequency increases still more.
The pitch of this note will rise as the rate of rotation increases,_and becomes steady when that rotation is maintained uniform.
The result is a note whose pitch rises as the velocity of rotation increases, and becomes steady when that velocity reaches its constant value.
The membrane vibrates, and alternately checks and increases the gas supply, and the flame jumps up and down with the frequency of the source.
But there is always leakage of energy either through friction or through wave-emission, so that the vibration only increases up to the point at which the leakage of energy balances the energy put in by the applied force.
According to this theory, then, when a pure tone is received the auditory apparatus corresponding to that tone is most excited, but the apparatus on each side of it is also excited, though by a rapidly diminishing amount, as the interval increases.
As the interval between two tones, and consequently the number of beats, increases the effect on the ear becomes more and more unpleasant.
The cost of the superstructure increases very much as the span increases, but the greater the cost of the substructure, the larger the span which is economical.
The larger the bridge, the more important is economy of material, not only because the total expenditure is more serious, but because as the span increases the dead weight of the structure becomes a greater fraction of the whole load to be supported.
In fact, as the span increases a point is reached at which the dead weight of the superstructure becomes so large that a limit is imposed to any further increase of span.
For concrete the coefficient of elasticity E varies with the amount of stress and diminishes as the ratio of sand and stone to cement increases.
But if a load is so applied that the deflection increases with speed, the stress is greater than that due to a very gradually applied load, and vibrations about a mean position are set up. The rails not being absolutely straight and smooth, centrifugal and lurching actions occur which alter the distribution of the loading.
The weight of main girders increases with the span, and there is for any type of bridge a limiting span beyond which the dead load stresses exceed the assigned limit of working stress.
The real nature of the action is not well understood, but the word fatigue may be used, if it is not considered to imply more than that the breaking stress under repetition of loading diminishes as the range of variation increases.
- The revenue from taxation rose year by year, partly owing to the increased profits of industry, partly to fresh increases in taxation.
1915 no increases in taxation were introduced in Austria, except a slight increase in the duty on beer; neither were any new taxes created.
It was not until 1916 that increases took place in every field of taxation.
The price of tobacco and the tariff of the State railways were considerably increased, special war increases were introduced in the direct taxes, and in April 1916 an entirely new tax was imposed - the " war profits tax," the name of which was subsequently altered to " war tax."
But all these taxes and increases of taxation were quite inadequate to meet the enormous expense of conducting the war.
The gain was chiefly confined to cattle, but the number of horses, sheep and swine also showed substantial increases.
above the mouth, but here, with a great shallow bay on the Yorkshire side, it increases to 8 m.
The mass of mercury is thus set in motion owing to the tendency of a conductor conveying an electric current to move transversely across lines of magnetic force; it becomes in fact the armature of a simple form of dynamo, and rotates with a speed which increases with the strength of the current.
Hence when a current is passed through the meter, the armature rotates and increases its speed until the driving force is balanced against the retarding force due to the eddy currents in the copper brake disk.
On electrolysis a layer of metallic calcium is formed at the lower end of this rod on the surface of the electrolyte; the rod is gradually raised, the thickness of the layer increases, and ultimately a rod of metallic calcium, forming, as it were, a continuation of the iron cathode, is obtained.
Tibet, the Kalta-alaghan does not decrease, but it increases in elevation towards the east, where, like the Chimen-tagh, it abuts upon and merges in the ranges that border Tsaidam on the south.
Soc., 1889, 55, p. 163) determined the vapour density of hydrofluoric acid at different temperatures, and showed that there is no approach to a definite value below about 88° C. where it reaches the value 10.29 corresponding to the molecular formula HF; at temperatures below 88° C. the value increases rapidly, showing that the molecule is more complex in its structure.
Nevertheless, the advances then made were of little importance as compared with the far-reaching increases of duty during the Civil War.
The value of, the Chronicle in its early stages is not great, but this increases when dealing with the reign of Henry VII.
The situation as to the Fourth Gospel has been altered in recent years by the statement attributed to Papias that the two sons of Zebedee (and not only one) were slain by the Jews - a statement which becomes more difficult to put aside as the evidence for it increases (full details in Burkitt, Gosp. Hist.
A narrow strip of cold water runs along the equator, widest to the east and narrowing westward, and separates two areas of maximum which have their greatest intensity in the western part of the ocean, and have their central portions in higher latitudes as depth increases, apparently tending constantly to a position in about latitude 30° to 35° N.
South and east of the axis mentioned salinity becomes less to just north of the equator, where it increases again, and the saltest waters of the whole Pacific are found, as we should expect, in the south-east trade-wind region, the maximum occurring in about 18° S.
The soil in the valleys is volcanic and fertile, but the gradual utilization of natural timber increases the liability to drought, as there are no streams. The climate is variable and rainy.
broad at Agen increases to about 650 yds.
These generally succeed one another as the altitude increases, although the heat is greater at the same elevation on the Pacific than on the Atlantic coast.
In what are commonly called loans of money, it is not really the money, but the money's worth, that the borrower wants; and the lender really assigns to him the right to a certain portion of the annual produce of the land and labour of the country, As the general capital of a country increases, so also does the particular portion of it from which the possessors wish to derive a revenue without being at the trouble of employing it themselves, and, as the quantity of stock thus available for loans is augmented, the interest diminishes, not merely "from the general causes which make the market price of things commonly diminish as their quantity increases," but because, with the increase of capital, "it becomes gradually more and more difficult to find within the country a profitable method of employing any new capital" - whence arises a competition between different capitals, and a lowering of profits, which must diminish the price which can be paid for the use of capital, or in other words the rate of interest.
The function log x as x increases from o towards w steadily increases from - co towards +co.
It is positive for all values of y and increases steadily from o toward as y increases from -co towards + oo.
It can be shown mathematically that the velocity of propagation will be greatly increased if the frequency of the light-wave is slightly greater, and greatly diminished if it is slightly less than the natural frequency of the molecules; also that these effects become less and less marked as the difference in the two frequencies increases.
Although the altitude of plains increases gradually from,6oo or 1200 ft.
This sort of rock increases in importance southward and has great development in Mexico.
The ranges of the Rocky Mountains in their turn receive some rainfall from the passing winds, but it is only after the westerlies are reinforced by a moist indraft from the Gulf of Mexico and the Atlanticthe result of summer or of cyclonic inflowthat rainfall increases to a sufficient measure on the lower lands to support agriculture without irrigation.
In the two twenty-year periods after 1860 the increases of the North were 61.9 and 48.7%; of the South, 48.4 and 48.5%.
The increases from 1845 to 1850, in each decennial period thereafter, and from 1901 to 1908, were as follcws, in percentages: 50.0, 27.0, 6.1, 7~2, f48, 9.1 and 5.8.
James Fergusson wrote of this temple that "each part increases in dignity to the sanctuary; and whether looked at from its courts or from outside, it possesses variety without confusion, and an appropriateness of every part to the purpose for which it was intended."
accelerare, to hasten, celer, quick), hastening or quickening; in mechanics, a term employed to denote the rate at which the velocity of a body, whose motion is not uniform, either increases or decreases.
Northwards chinooks become less frequent and the winter's cold increases, but the coming of spring is not much later, and the summer temperatures, with sunshine for twenty hours out of twenty-four in June, are almost the same as for hundreds of miles to the south, so that most kinds of grain and vegetables ripen far to the north in the Peace river valley.
Occasionally in certain localities in the north-west the grain is liable to injury from frost in late summer; but as the proportion of land under cultivation increases the climate becomes modified and the danger from frost is appreciably less.
This deterioration increases with the number of successive copyings.
These two operations are not quite equivalent, since a weight added to the interior does not affect the volume of liquid displaced when the instrument is immersed up to a given division of the scale, while the addition of weights to the exterior increases the displacement.
The first degree is then found by placing on the top of the stem a weight equal to i oat h of the weight of the instrument, which increases the volume immersed by i - 0 th of the original volume.
The blood loses its transparency and becomes milky, its volume increases so that the skin cannot hold it, and it escapes through the pores.
Street in 1860, is remarkable; the richness of the work within increases from west to east, culminating in a choir arcade decorated with work among the finest of its period extant; the period is that of the choir of Westminster Abbey, and from a comparison of building materials, choir arcades and sculpture of foliage, a common architect has been suggested.
Let somehow or other retardations be introduced so that the optical length of the successive parts increases by the same quantity nX, n being some number and X the wave-length.
But we know also that in the complete radiation of a white body the radiative energy increases with the fourth power of the absolute temperature.
highest temperatures at our command it is small compared with the energy of translatory motion, but as the temperature increases, it must ultimately gain the upper hand, and if there is anywhere such a temperature as that of several million degrees, the greater part of the total energy of a body will be outside the atom and molecular motion ultimately becomes negligible compared with it.
If N be the frequency of a homogeneous vibration sent out by a molecule at rest, the apparent frequency will be N (1 v/ V), where V is the velocity of light and v is the velocity of the line of sight, taken as positive if the distance from the observer increases.
If we compare together the spectra of the alkali metals, we find that the doublets of the branch series separate more and more as the wave-length increases.
The roots of the three series have frequencies which diminish as the atomic weight increases, but not according to any simple law.
The brightest line, for which s=o, is called the " head " of the band; and as s increases the lines diminish in intensity.
A band might in that case fade away towards zero frequencies, and as s increases, return again from infinity with diminishing distances, the head and the tail pointing in the same direction; or with a different value of constants a band might fade away towards infinite frequencies, then return through the whole range of the spectrum to zero frequencies, and once more return with its tail near its head.
As the atomic weight of the haloid increases the spectrum is displaced towards the red.
In both cases an increased number of carbon atoms increases the absorption at the most refrangible end.
More rain falls from January to May than during the other months; very much more falls on the windward side of the principal islands than on the leeward; and the amount increases with the elevation also up to about 4000 ft.
R'; the yield increases with the complexity of the organic residue of the acid amide.
He generalized Weber's law in the form that sensation generally increases in intensity as the stimulus increases by a constant function of the previous stimulus; or increases in an arithmetical progression as the stimulus increases in a geometrical ratio; or increases by addition of the same amount as the stimulus increases by the same multiple; or increases as the logarithm of the stimulus.
The first question he answered from his imagination by supposing that, while the external world is stimulus of the nervous process, the nervous process is the immediate stimulus of the sensation, and that the sensation increases by a constant fraction of the previous stimulus in the nervous system, when Weber's law proves only that it increases by a constant fraction of the previous stimulus in the external world.
Mag., 1904 , 7, p. 113.) In the case of the vibration experiment correction terms have to be introduced to allow for the temperature of the magnet, for the inductive effect of the earth's field, which slightly increases the magnetic moment of the magnet, and for the torsion of the suspension fibre, as well as the rate of the chronometer.
Fifteen or twenty years later, the movement increases.
wide, but as it flows northwards it increases its width until, at the point where it receives its Apure affluent, it is over 2 m.
On the other hand, since the spurs of the Taurus bring the winter cold a long way south, and the cold increases from west to east as we leave the mild coast of the Mediterranean, far down into the Mesopotamian plain the influence of the snowcovered ridges can be felt, and in the higher parts of the plain snow and ice are not infrequent; and although there is no point of sufficient altitude to retain snow for long, the temperature may fall as low as 14° F., especially if the cold north winds are blowing.
above the sea and about one-half that height above the surrounding country; in the Cumberland Prong their height increases to the southward until, on the Maryland border, they rise 2100 ft.
in width on the Maryland border and to the north-east its width increases to 20 m.
That the proportion of oxygen increases at the same time is little or no drawback.
It excites the motor areas of the spinal cord and increases their reflex irritability.
As the sun rises, the rays enter the prisms more and more obliquely, and the angle of minimum deviation increases; but since the emergent ray makes the same angle with the refracting edge as the incident ray, it follows that the parhelia will remain on the parhelic circle, while receding from the inner halo.
The proportion of northern forms, as regards both species and individuals, increases as we ascend to the higher regions.
The electromotive force is practically constant no matter what the velocity of the disks, but according to some observers the internal resistance decreases as the velocity increases.
Here the rainfall for the year increases from the southern and northern extremities towards the middle.
The tenacity or tensile strength increases till the carbon-content reaches about 1.25%, and the cementite about 19%, and then in turn falls, a result by no means surprising.
As the carbon-content increases the welding power naturally decreases rapidly, because of the rapid fall of the " solidus curve at which solidification is complete (Aa of fig.
80000 -in C o 40000 ti 3.5404 5 carbon-content increases the shock-resisting power decreases.
smaller and smaller proportion of the whole, and the austenitecementite eutectic which forms at the eutectic freezing-point, 1130° (aB), increases in amount until, when the carbon-content reaches the eutectic ratio, 4 30%, there is but a single freezing-point, and the whole mass when solid is made up of this eutectic. If there is more than 4-30% of carbon, then in cooling through region 3 the excess of carbon over this ratio freezes out as " primary " cementite.
In it the normal constituents are, for region II., molten metal+primary austenite; for region III., molten metal+primary graphite; for region IV., primary austenite; for region VII., eutectic austenite, eutectic graphite, and a quantity of pro-eutectoid graphite which increases as we pass from the upper to the lower part of the region, together with primary austenite at the left of the eutectic point B' and primary graphite at the right of that point.
The degree of hardening which the steel undergoes increases with its carbon-content, chiefly because, during sudden cooling, the presence of carbon acts like a brake to impede the transformations, and thus to increase the quantity of 0-iron caught in transit, but probably also in part because the hardness of this 0-iron increases with its carbon-content.
Although the presence of 1.50% of manganese makes steel relatively brittle, and although a further addition at first increases this brittleness, so that steel containing between 4 and 5.5% can be pulverized under the hammer, yet a still further increase gives very great ductility, accompanied by great hardness-a combination of properties which was not possessed by any other known substance when this remarkable alloy, known as Hadfield's manganese steel, was discovered.
brittle in the cold, apparently because it increases the size and the sharpness of demarcation of the crystalline grains of which the mass is made up. The specific effect of sulphur is to make the metal red-short, i.e.
Manganese by itself rather lessens than increases the malleableness and, indeed, the general merit of the metal, but it is added intentionally, in quantities even as large as 1 5 to palliate the effects of sulphur and oxygen.
Moreover, this resistance increases much more rapidly than the height of the furnace, even if the rapidity with which the blast is forced through is constant; and it still further increases if the additional space gained by lengthening the furnace is made useful by increasing proportionally the rate of production, as indeed would naturally be done, because the chief motive for gaining this additional space is to increase production.
In short, to increase the rate of production by lengthening the furnace increases the frictional resistance of the rising gases, both by increasing their quantity and hence their velocity and by lengthening their path.
Clearly this raising the level of the water by ro% increases tenfold, or by r000%, the volume of water which is above the level of the weir.
The length of the process increases with the proportion of pig used.
The gangue of the ore increases the quantity of slag, which separates the metal from the source of its heat, the flame, and thus delays the rise of temperature; and the purification by " oreing," i.e.
Second, though the brittleness should be lessened somewhat by the decrease in the extent to which the continuity of the strong matrix is broken up by the graphite skeleton, yet this effect is outweighed greatly by that of the rapid substitution in the matrix of the brittle cementite for the' very ductile copper-like ferrite, so that the brittleness increases continuously (RS), from that of the very grey graphitic cast irons, which, like that of soapstone, is so slight that the metal can endure severe shock and even indentation without breaking, to that of the pure white cast iron which is about as brittle as porcelain.
3), increases with the carboncontent till this reaches about 1.25%, and then in turn decreases (fig.
Hence, as with the progressive transfer of the carbon from the graphitic to the cementite state in our imaginary series of cast irons, the combined carbon present in the matrix increases, so does the tensile strength of the mass as a whole for two reasons; first, because the strength of the matrix itself is increasing (DE), and second, because the discontinuity is decreasing with the decreasing proportion of graphite.
To sum this up, as graphite is replaced by carbon combined as cementite, the hardness, brittleness and density increase, and the expansion in solidification decreases, in both cases continuously, while the tensile strength increases till the combined carbon-content rises a little above I %, and then in turn decreases.
The expense of cutting castings accurately to shape, cutting on them screw threads and what not, called " machining " in trade parlance, is often a very large part of their total cost; and it increases rapidly with the hardness of the metal.
Hence the manganesecontent needed increases with the sulphur-content which has to be endured.
But, because preventing blowholes increases the volume of the pipe, it is often better to allow them to form, but to control their position, so that they shall be deep-seated.
Jochem (Ber., 1901, 34, p. 3337), who arrived at the conclusion that the normal decomposition of diazonium salts by alcohols results in the formation of phenolic ethers, but that an increase in the molecular weight of the alcohol, or the accumulation of negative groups in the aromatic nucleus, diminishes the yield of the ether and increases the amount of the hydrocarbon formed.
Its lower course lies for some distance through marshes, where in times of overflow its breadth increases from the normal 700 ft.
Briefly, it prevents the dealing with the right of presentation as a thing apart from the advowson itself; increases the power of the bishops to refuse the presentation of unfit persons, and removes several abuses which had arisen in the transfer of patronage.
The direct-acting lift is perhaps the simplest of all machines using pressure-water, but as the height of the lift increases, certain problems in construction become exceedingly difficult to cope with, notably those due to the great increase in the weight and displacement of the ram.
As the ram ascends it apparently increases in weight, but this is balanced by the greater pressure on the two balance pistons as they descend, owing to the increase of the head of water acting on them.
of rainfall in central Poland, and the quantity increases slowly towards the south on account of the proximity of the Carpathians, where it is 30.3 in.
It is probable that digitalis increases the amount of water rather than that of the urinary solids.
The drug is contra-indicated in all cases where the heart is already beating too slowly; in aortic incompetence - where the prolongation of diastole increases the amount of the blood that regurgitates through the incompetent valve; in chronic Bright's disease and in fatty degeneration of the heart - since nothing can cause fat to become contractile.
The coefficient of expansion increases very rapidly above 750°, and diminishes very rapidly at low temperatures; the maximum density is attained about - 42° C.
The specific heat increases rapidly with rising temperature up to 60° C., and then more slowly.
The first desideratum here mentioned - the want, namely, of an accurate statement of the relation between the increase of population and food - Malthus doubtless supposed to have been supplied by the celebrated proposition that "population increases in a geometrical, food in an arithmetical ratio."
In the middle section the salinity of the surface layers increases to o or 5%, though it is of course greater along the shores.
After flowering the plant dies down, but increases by new lateral growths from the rootstock.
This, at first sight, paradoxical result is explained by the fact that the mean free path of each molecule increases in the same proportion as the density is diminished, so that as the number of molecules crossing each square centimetre decreases, the distance to which each carries its momentum increases, and the total transfer of momentum is unaffected by variation of density.
It appears probable that the conductivity of a liquid increases considerably with rise of temperature, although the contrary would appear from the work of Lees.
The most searching scrutiny of his private life only increases the respect due to the memory of Grattan as a statesman and the greatest of Irish orators.
Prolonged infusion increases the amount extracted.
Although in many cases it is easy to explain the reasons why water artificially applied to land brings crops or increases their yield, the theory of our ordinary water-meadow irrigation is rather obscure.
In May, or earlier when the river is late in rising, when the demand for water increases, first the upper and then the under sluices are gradually opened, so as to increase the river supply, until July, when all the gates are open, to allow of the free passage of the flood.
According to numerous observations made at Cape Thorsden, the apparent angular velocity of arcs increases on the average with their altitude.
Usually the electric potential near the ground is positive compared to the earth and increases with the height (see Atmospheric Electricity).
Especially in alligators the upper teeth overlap laterally those of the lower jaw, whilst in most crocodiles the overlapping is less marked and the teeth mostly interlock, a feature which increases with the slenderness of the snout.
But the volume of the cell is not appreciably altered, despite the change of its shape, for its one diameter increases in proportion as its other is diminished.
But in the ordinary skeletal muscles the amount of the muscular contraction is for a short range of quantities of stimulus (of above threshold value) proportioned to the intensity of the stimulus and increases with it.
Conversely, a cold bath increases it.
It has been suggested that the gradual cumulative result of the activity of the nerve cells during the waking day is to load the brain tissue with "fatigue-substances" Theories of which clog the action of the cells, and thus periodi cally produce that loss of consciousness, &c., which is sleep. Such a drugging of tissue by its own excreta is known in muscular fatigue, but the fact that the depth of sleep progressively increases for an hour and more after its onset prevents complete explanation of sleep on similar lines.
Moreover they contain no cambium and the stem once formed increases in diameter only in exceptional cases.
As the embryo develops it may absorb all the food material available, and store, either in its cotyledons or in its hypocotyl, what is not immediately required for growth, as reserve-food for use in germination, and by so doing it increases in size until it may fill entirely the embryo-sac; or its absorptive power at this stage may be limited to what is necessary for growth and it remains of relatively small size, occupying but a small area of the embryo-sac, which is otherwise filled with endosperm in which the reserve-food is stored.
The altitude of the valleys generally increases towards the east of Transylvania, the lowest depression being found in the western part of the Maros valley.
Michaelis, and undoubtedly increases the strength of the material, but it has not become general.
It divides its waters, splitting into many channels, leaving broad central islands; and as the width increases, and the depth during dry seasons diminishes, opportunities for fords become comparatively frequent.
News, 188 7, 55, p. 67):-at a moderate heat: 8KC103= 5KC104-I-3KC1+202, succeeded by the following reactions as the temperature increases: 2KC10 3 =KC10 4 +KC1+0 2 and 2KC10 3 =2KC1+30 2 (see also F.
border, is 47° F., and it increases to the southward at the rate of about 2° for every degree of latitude, being 52° F.
The mean annual snowfall increases from 12 in.
The average increases of invested capital and products for each decade from1850-1900were, respectively, 189.26% and 152.9%; in 1900 the capital invested ($776,829,598, of which $732,829,771 was in establishments under the "factory system"), and the product ($ 1, 2 59,73 0, 168, of which $1,120,868,308 was from establishments under the "factory system"), showed unusually small percentages of increase over those for 1890 (54.7% and 38.6% respectively); and in 1905 the capital and product of establishments under the "factory system" were respectively $975,844,799 and $1,410,342,129, showing increases of 33.2% and 25.8% over the corresponding figures for 1900.
This canal provides, with the Illinois & Michigan canal and the Illinois river, an improved waterway from Chicago to the Mississippi river, and greatly increases the commercial and industrial importance of the "twin cities" of Sterling and Rock Falls, where the Rock river is dammed by a dam nearly 1500 ft.
In all cases the strength increases proportionately with the density of the wood.
The value of the oranges exported from Jaffa in 1906 was £162,000; this amount increases annually, and of course in addition a considerable quantity is retained for home consumption.
The diameter increases with the size of the globules making up the mist.
Not only is more powerful machinery required for the latter, but in bending it allowance has to be made for the difference in radius of outer and inner layers, which increases with increase of thickness.
The number of workers increases largely during the summer, and so hard do the insects work that the life of an individual may last only a few weeks.
He found that pressure increases luminosity, so that hydrogen, for example, the flame of which in normal circumstances gives no light, burns with a luminous flame under a pressure of ten or twenty atmospheres, and the inference he drew was that the presence of solid particles is not the only factor that determines the light-giving power of a flame.
The Arab, transported to a soil which does not always suit him, so far from thriving, tends to disappear, whereas the Berber becomes more and more aggressive, and yearly increases in numbers.
Throughout the archipelago the mean annual temperature varies much more with the altitude than with the latitude, but the range in mean monthly temperatures increases from 3.96° F.
This method has been very generally recommended, but it is really bad, because, although it diminishes the absolute magnitude of the correction, it greatly increases the uncertainty of it and therefore the probable error of the result.
Admitting That The Electro Chemical Equivalent Of Silver Increases With The Age Of The Solution, A Fact Subsequently Discovered, And That The E.M.F.
The Specific Heat Itself Can Be Deduced Only By Differentiating The Curve Of Observation, Which Greatly Increases The Uncertainty.
They Also Indicate That It Is Much Larger, And Increases Considerably With Rise Of Temperature, In The Case Of More Condensible Vapours, Such As C1 2J Br 2, Or More Complicated Molecules, Such As Co 2, N 2 0, Nh 3, C 2 H 4.
It will be noticed that there are very few periods between 50 and 150 days, that a considerable number are less than 50 days (actually a large majority of these are less than 10 days), and that from 150 days upwards the number of periods increases to a; maximum at about 350 days and then diminishes.
According to their results the star-density increases continuously from 109 per square degree at the poles to 2019 along the galactic equator.
It melts between 1400-1600° C. Its specific heat increases with rise of temperature, the mean value from 15° to 100° C. being 0.1084 (A.
ee and Argand had done, the expression a(cos 8 + i sin 0) as a directed line, let us suppose it to represent the operator which, when applied to any line in the plane in which 0 is measured, turns it in that plane through the angle 0, and at the same time increases its length in the ratio a : 1.
Since the specific heat of the liquid increases rapidly at high temperatures, while dH/d0 diminishes, it is clear that the latent heat must diminish more and more rapidly as the critical point is approached.
in height (Mount Diablo, 3856 ft.; Mount St Helena, 4343 ft.), and to the north and south the elevation of the ranges increases.
In the mountains the precipitation increases with the altitude; above 6000 or 7000 ft.
On nearly all lands irrigated some crops will grow in ordinary seasons without irrigation, but it is this that makes possible selection of crops; practically indispensable for all field and orchard culture in the south, save for a few moist coastal areas, it everywhere increases the yield of all crops and is practised generally all over the state.
The growth of the former from 1890 to 1900 was only 2.5%, one of the smallest increases among all the states.
The hexachloride, WC1 6, is obtained by heating the metal in a current of dry chlorine in the absence of oxygen or moisture, otherwise some oxychloride is formed; a sublimate of dark violet crystals appear at first, but as the hexachloride increases in quantity it collects as a very dark red liquid.
Thus, as the atomic weight increases, the state of aggregation changes from that of a gas in the case of fluorine and chlorine, to that of a liquid (bromine) and finally to that of the solid (iodine); at the same time the melting and boiling points rise with increasing atomic weights.
All four of the halogens unite with hydrogen, but the affinity for hydrogen decreases as the atomic weight increases, hydrogen and fluorine uniting explosively at very low temperatures and in the dark, whilst hydrogen and iodine unite only at high temperatures, and even then the resulting compound is very readily decomposed by heat.
On the other hand the stability of the known oxygen compounds increases with the atomic weight, thus iodine pentoxide is, at ordinary temperatures, a well-defined crystalline solid, which is only decomposed on heating strongly, whilst chlorine monoxide, chlorine peroxide, and chlorine heptoxide are very unstable, even at ordinary temperatures, decomposing at the slightest shock.
In some places the oblique Mongolian eye is noticed, and (together with certain Indo-Chinese customs) there is often a scantiness of beard and general "Malay" look, which increases westwards, and seems to imply relations with the archipelago subsequent to the departure thence of the pure Polynesians.
In the former the poison clearly fastens on the locality, and gradually increases its hold.
If the string be on the point of slipping in the direction in which i/i increases, the lower sign is to be taken; hence T = Fs = uT~, whence T=T0ei4, (2)
It increases somewhat with the latitude, the extreme variation from the equator to the pole being about ~ %.
In the present case the instantaneous axis returns to its initial position in the body whenever 4 increases by 2w, i.e.
whenever increases by 4K/cr, when K is the complete elliptic integral of the first kind with respect to the modulus k.
The effect of the pressures applied to a piece, consisting of the load and the sispporting resistances, is to force the piece into a state of strain or disfigurement, which increases until the elasticity, or resistance to strain, of the material causes it to exert a stress, or effort to recover its figure, equal and opposite to the system of applied pressures.
It increases with the sectional area of the rope, and is inversely proportional to the radius of the curve into which it is bent.
The assumption that the pistons of an engine move with simple harmonic motion is increasingly erroneous as the ratio of the length of the crank r, to the length of the con oecting rod 1 increases.
This expression shows that as a increases y increases until when Wa = gc, y becomes infinitely large.
long and 40 broad, with a long north-eastern arm which increases the greatest length to 80 m.
As human intelligence and industry come into play the means of livelihood are proportionately extended; population multiplies, and with this multiplication production increases.
generally, the opposite to that of temperature; salinity increases from the surface downwards, and from the south northwards, and it is greater towards the western than the eastern side.
The result is that - as compared with beer or spirits - the fermentation at first is relatively slow, but it rapidly increases in intensity and continues until practically the whole of the sugar is converted.
As the berry grows the amount of sugar gradually increases, and the same up to a certain point applies to the acidity.
The character of the acidity, however, changes, the free tartaric acid gradually disappearing, forming bitartrate of potash and being otherwise broken up. On the other hand, the free malic acid increases and the tannin decreases.
It is frequently assumed that a wine is necessarily good because it is old, and that the quality of a wine increases indefinitely with age.
The foreign trade of Finland increases steadily, and reached in 1904 the following values: - The chief trade of Finland is with Russia, and next with Great Britain, Germany, Denmark, France and Sweden.
This theory was founded on the following principles: - (I) the particles of the electric fluid repel each other with a force decreasing as the distance increases; (2) the particles of the electric fluid attract the atoms of all bodies and are attracted by them with a force obeying the same law; (3) the electric fluid exists in the pores of all bodies, and while it moves without any obstruction in conductors such as metals, water, &c., it moves with extreme difficulty in so-called non-conductors such as glass, resin, &c.; (4) electrical phenomena are produced either by the transference of the electric fluid of a body containing more to one containing less, or from its attraction and repulsion when no transference takes place.
For that is always and necessarily present when the nature is present, absent when it is absent, decreases and increases according as the nature decreases and increases.
If allowed to remain under water too long, the fibre is weakened by what is termed " over-retting," a condition which increases the amount of codilla in the scutching process; whilst " under-retting " leaves part of the gummy or resinous matter in the material, which hinders the subsequent process of manufacture.
The first products of this reaction are copper nitrate and nitric oxide, but, as the concentration of the copper nitrate increases, nitrous oxide and, eventually, free nitrogen are liberated.
Each layer of rove increases the diameter of the material on the bobbin shank; hence, at the beginning of each layer, the speed of the bobbin must be increased, and kept at this increased speed for the whole traverse from top to bottom or vice versa.
In the above expression R, it and L are constant, therefore as d increases the term (R - r) must decrease; this can happen only when r is increased, that is, when the bobbin revolves quicker.
In this adjustment the lowest stage is taken by 'reflex action and instinct, where Spencer the change of the organs is purely automatic. As the external complexity increases, this automatic regularity fails; there is only an incipient excitation of the nerves.
In the typical form the stripes do not extend on to the limbs or tail; but there is a great variation in this respect, and as we proceed north the striping increases, till in the north-eastern E.
Going south the temperature slowly falls and the rainfall gradually increases, the year being divided into a short rainy season and a long, dry, cloudless season.
At the same time the internal debt was 107,000,000 pesos (0,025,000), which increases the funded indebtedness to £29,725,000.
The interval O'O", termed the astigmatic difference, increases, in general, with the angle W made by the principal ray OP with the axis of the system, i.e.
It increases rapidly with the aperture, and is more important with medium apertures than the secondary spectrum of par-axial rays; consequently, spherical aberration must be eliminated for two colours, and if this be impossible, then it must be eliminated for those particular wave-lengths which are most effectual for the instrument in question (a graphical representation of this error is given in M.
On the east the watershed of the Caspian gradually increases in breadth, the foot of the scarp extending considerably to the north of the south-eastern angle of that sea, three degrees east of which it turns to the south-east, parallel to the axis of the Kopet Dagh.
For advances with good security a native sarraf charges at least 12% interest per annum; ac the security diminishes in value the rate of interest increases, and transactions at 10% a month, or more than 120% per annum, are not infrequent.
When this gland becomes enlarged, and its secretion consequently increases, the vessels dilate, the heart beats more rapidly, the skin becomes too hot, the nervous system becomes irritable, and tremors occur in the limbs.
Bier increases the blood in a part by compressing the veins and thus producing passive instead of active congestion.
Now we can see the reason for their administration, because the nitrous ether, consisting chiefly of ethyl nitrite, dilates the superficial vessels and thus allows greater escape of heat from the surface; while acetate of ammonia, by acting as a diaphoretic and stimulating the secretion of sweat, increases the loss of heat by evaporation.
In very bad cases of heart disease, where the patient is unable to go about, the best plan of treatment usually is to make him stay absolutely quiet in bed and have massage, which aids the circulation, tends to remove waste, and increases the appetite.
While this treament by itself would aid recovery from nervous exhaustion, it would lessen appetite and thus interfere with nervous repair; but the want of exertion is supplied by means of massage, which stimulates the circulation and increases the appetite, so that the patient gets all the benefit of exercise without any exhaustion.
An attack may come on suddenly, but, in general, begins by a dull aching pain in the brow or temple, which steadily increases in severity and extent, but remains usually limited to one side of the head.
The pain which is felt at first a little behind the hip-joint steadily increases in severity and extends along the course of the nerve and its branches in many instances as far as the toes.
As population increases the total number of members may be raised to 150.
Thus as it passes out by the bronchial mucous membrane it increases the amount of secretion and so acts as an expectorant.
Speaking broadly, the general type of the flora of the lower, hotter and wetter regions, which extend along the great plain at the foot of the Himalaya, and include the valleys of the larger rivers which penetrate far into the mountains, does not differ from that of the contiguous peninsula and islands, though the tropical and insular character gradually becomes less marked going from east to west, where, with a greater elevation and distance from the sea and higher latitude, the rainfall and humidity diminish and the winter cold increases.
On the drier and higher mountains of the interior of the chain, the forests become more open, and are spread less uniformly over the hill-sides, a luxuriant herbaceous vegetation appears, and the number of shrubby Leguminosae, such as Desmodium and Indigofera, increases, as well as Ranunculaceae, Rosaceae, Umbelliferae, Labiatae, Gramineae, Cyperaceae and other European genera.
What really is - the Pneuma - neither increases nor diminishes; but its modes of working, its different currents, can be conveniently distinguished and enumerated as evidence of so many distinct attributes.
He further supposed that the attractive force is constant throughout the minute distance to which it extends, but that the repulsive force increases rapidly as the distance diminishes.
This, however, often produces a worse disturbing effect, because a thin film of grease spreads over the water and increases its surface-viscosity.
If the electromotive force is from the acid to the mercury the surface-tension increases; if it is from the mercury to the acid, it diminishes.
He has also found that this action is reversible, for when the area of the surface of contact of the acid and mercury is made to increase, an electric current passes from the mercury to the acid, the amount of electricity which passes while the surface increases by one square centimetre being sufficient to decompose.
When the conjugate axis of the hyperbola increases without limit, the loops of the nodoid are crowded on one another, and each becomes more nearly a ring of circular section, without, however, ever reaching this form.
The analytical expression for the motion in the latter case involves exponential terms, one of which (except in case of a particular relation between the initial displacements and velocities) increases rapidly, being equally multiplied in equal times.
But as the head increases, so do the lateral velocities which go to form the transverse vibrations.
Lord Kelvin has applied the principles of Thermodynamics to determine the thermal effects of increasing or diminishing the area of the free surface of a liquid, and has shown that in order to keep the temperature constant while the area of the surface increases by unity, an amount of heat must be supplied 275 to the liquid which is dynamically equivalent to the product of the absolute temperature into the decrement of the surface-tension per degree of temperature.
Characteristic forms may be assumed by the young zoogloea of different species, - spherical, ovoid, reticular, filamentous, fruiticose, lamellar, &c., - but these vary considerably as the mass increases or comes in contact with others.
Fluid containing these aggressins greatly increases the toxic effect of the corresponding bacteria, and may produce death at an earlier stage than ever occurs with the bacteria alone.
In some abdominal conditions, for instance, opium is still preferred by the majority of practitioners, though certainly not in gastric cases, where morphine gives the relief for which opium often increases the need, owing to the irritant action of some of its constituents.
Thus arsenic, antimony, bismuth, tin or zinc render the metal brittle, so that it fractures under a die or rolling mill; copper, on the other hand, increases its hardness, makes it tougher and more readily fusible.
wide, but within the width increases to 3 m.
During the summer months the general course of the wind along the sea-coast is interrupted about midday by an incoming current of air, the " sea breeze," which gradually increases until about three o'clock in the afternoon, and then gradually lessens until the offshore wind takes its place.
The rate of this tax decreases as the amount of capital stock increases, thus favouring large corporations.
West of the tableland the amount of rainfall decreases as the distance from the Pacific increases, and in a large area west of the Darling the average annual rainfall does not exceed io in.
The copper lodes of New South Wales contain ores of a much higher grade than those of many well-known mines .worked at a profit in other parts of the world, and, with a fair price for copper, the production largely increases.
While, however, diminishing the surfaces of the flying animal as a whole, she increases as occasion demands the active or wing surfaces by wing movements, and the passive or dead surfaces by the forward motion of the body in progressive flight.
Thus, when the wing descends it draws after it a strong current, which, being met by the wing during its ascent, greatly increases the efficacy of the up stroke.
De Lucy tabulated his results as under: - " It is easy, by the aid of this table, to follow the order, always decreasing, of the surfaces, in proportion as the winged animal increases in size and weight.
The year saw considerable increases in the periods for which aviators were able to remain in the air, and Roger Sommer's flight of nearly 22 hours on August 7th was surpassed by Henry Farman on November 3rd, when he covered a distance estimated at 1374 m.
One such outcrop of Carboniferous Limestone in the south forms the Mendip Hills; another of the Coal Measures increases the importance of Bristol, where it stands at the head of navigation on the southern Avon.
From July to August the heat increases slightly, with a more rapid rise to November.
Lancaster, the Belgian meteorologist, formulated, as the result of a study of all the available data, the following rule: - That the rainfall increases in the Congo basin (1) in proportion as one nears the equator from the south, (2) as one passes from the coast to the interior.
The tendency to a celibate clergy increases, together with other romanizing usages, promoted by the papal legate in Beirut, the Catholic missioners, and the higher native clergy who are usually educated in Rome or at St Sulpice.
It increases as we ascend and reaches a maximum at a certain height, and then decreases according to the normal variation.
At an early stage of development a large cell makes its appearance in the central region of the nucellus; this increases in size and eventually forms three cells; the lowest of these grows vigorously and constitutes the megaspore (embryo-sac),which ultimately absorbs the greater part of the nucellus.
The average annual rainfall on the coast is 10o 8 in.; it increases to about 120 in.
The birch and larch woods of this zone give way to pine forests as the altitude increases; and the pines to mosses, lichens and alpine plants, just below the jagged iron-grey peaks, many of which attain altitudes of 6000 to 8000 ft.
The climate in the valley of the Rhone is, in general, warm, and sometimes very hot; but westward, as the elevation increases, the cold becomes more intense and the winters longer.
The equations of surfaces of equal angular motion would be of the form r =R (i --6 cos 2 0), where e is proportional to the square of the angular motion, supposed small, and R increases as e diminishes.
Now generally, u will decrease as r increases, but the initial value of µ is not likely to be more than, say, twice its final value of unity, while r increases manifold in the same range, hence in general rµ will increase with r, and therefore for a given value of d, i will continually increase as we go inwards up to 90°, which it will attain for a certain value of r, and this will be the deepest FIG.
But if there is a region, say from r to r" throughout which rµ decreases as r increases, any ray which cuts the outer envelope r at an acute angle will cut the inner one r" also, and can be traced still further inwards before the angle i amounts to 90°.
at Cape Town, increases to the east, the coast not only trending north towards the equator but feeling the effect of the warm Mozambique or Agulhas current.
This he did principally by means of two great loans, and by immense increases of taxation.
Mr. Law's first budget, that of 1917, coming as it did after the great increases which Mr. McKenna had made in taxation, only raised the excess profits tax from 60 to 80%, and increased the taxes on entertainments, tobacco and dogs.
It may be taken as an axiom that the variation of minimum discharges from their mean values increases as the separate areas diminish.
It has been commonly stated that rainfall increases with the altitude.
If, therefore, instead of regarding only the mean rainfall of several gauges over a series of years, we compare the relative falls in short intervals of time among gauges yielding the same general averages, the discrepancies prove to be very great, and it follows that the maximum possible intensity of discharge from different areas rapidly increases as the size of the watershed decreases.
They show generally that, as the rainfall increases on any given area evaporation increases, but not in the same proportion.
The evaporation slightly increases as the rainfall increases, but at nothing like so high a rate.
As the formation approaches the condition of pure sand, the water-bearing property of any given mass increases, but the difficulty of drawing water from it without admixture Wells is of sand also increases.
The loss of water by leakage through such joints or fissures below the puddle wall may or may not be a serious matter in itself; but if at any point there is sufficient movement of water across the base of the trench to produce the slightest erosion of the clay above it, that movement almost invariably increases.
As the pressure of water is nil at the surface and increases in direct proportion to the depth, the overturning moment is as the cube of the depth; and the only figure which has a moment of resistance due to gravity, varying also as the cube of its depth, is a triangle.
The chemists and bacteriologists do not appear to have finally determined the true nature and origin of this growth, but it is found in the impounded waters, and passes into the pipes, where it rapidly increases.
If the length of the arms AC =BC =/,CD =a,SD=s, the angle of deviation of ° Z the balance from the horizontal =4), the weight of the beam alone G, the weight on one side = P, that on the other = P +Z, and lastly the weight of each scale with its appurtenances = Q then Zl tan:473 - 12 (P+Q)+Z la+G sj From this it is inferred that the deviation, and therefore the sensitive - ness, of the balance increases with the length of the beam, and de - creases as the distances, a and s, increase; also, that a heavy balance is, ceteris paribus, less sensitive than a light one, and that the sensitive - ness decreases continually the greater the weight put upon the scales.
Weisbach also shows that if Gy 2 is the moment of inertia of the beam, the time, t, of a vibration of the balance is 2 (P+Q) (I' a 2) G y2 t = r gt2 (P+Q) a+Gs) This shows that the time of a vibration increases as P, Q and / increase, and as a and s diminish.
At higher altitudes, however, the moisture increases and scattered junipers begin to appear.
It is only by careful investigation, by the method of comparisons, that these elements can be disentangled; but as the number of documents of this class known to us is continually increasing, their value increases even more than proportionately.
It increases the depth of water on the bar from a few feet to 2 2 or 24 ft.