This income will not be regarded as welfare.
He had a good income and access to his father's equipment.
Despite Count Bezukhov's enormous wealth, since he had come into an income which was said to amount to five hundred thousand rubles a year, Pierre felt himself far poorer than when his father had made him an allowance of ten thousand rubles.
There will be so much wealth that a minimum income will be guaranteed to everyone.
Or these jobs can be divorced from economic realities, as the struggling painter or actor decides simply to do what he loves and live off the minimum income afforded by this planet-wide prosperity.
At the same time, the percent of income we individually have to spend on feeding ourselves plummeted as well.
The price of Italian consolidated 5% (gross, 4% net, allowing for the 20% income tax) stock, which is the security most largely negotiated abroad, and used in settling differences between large financial institutions, has steadily risen during recent years.
Just half a century ago, Americans on average spent more than 20 percent of their income on food.
You boast of spending a tenth part of your income in charity; maybe you should spend the nine tenths so, and done with it.
Countries whose average income is $1,500 tax at 20 percent.
As education rises, a thousand other things rise with it: income, health, political engagement, and an overall concern for world affairs.
His income would be reduced by three fourths, but he felt it must be done.
This is simply returning to the people a portion of income from land that is publicly owned.
You expect to make an income out of the government?
She was the one who wanted Alex to make the decisions - and the goat dairy had never been more than an income to her.
Food in the United States is so inexpensive as a percentage of national income that it literally is a throwaway item.
In societies where a large percentage of income is necessary just to buy food, having volatile food prices will mean hunger sooner or later, no matter how good the factory jobs are.
Once technology allowed for the recording and sale of records, their income shot way up—they could use technology to magnify their ability.
The public schools are supported by the income from a Federal grant of 2,000,000 acres of public land (given in lieu of the usual sixteenth and thirty-sixth sections) supplemented by state and local taxation.
Income from land has diminished on the whole.
I describe these three situations because each, in its own way, illustrates how I think the future will play out regarding income and wealth.
In the United States, you could do it via the tax code, with government only acting as an income redistribution agent but not as a food distributor.
It seems that we can afford to spend more on government as income rises.
The second income would be a must if Randy were to attend college.
It is proportional, and is collected by deduction from salaries and pensions paid to servants of the state, where it is assessed on three-eighths of the income, and from interest on consolidated stock, where it is assessed on the whole amount; and by register in the cases of private individuals, who pay on three-fourths of their income, professional men, capitalists or manufacturers, who pay on one-half or nine-twentieths of their income.
of the net income, leaving a profit for the year of £914,216.
In addition to the assistance from the renters, the money finally gave her an income of her own, and the token independence that went with it.
Taxable revenue corresponds to two-thirds of actual income from factories and to three-fourths of actual income from houses; it is ascertained by the agents of the financial administration.
Income from endowments.
The gross income for the year 1907 amounted to £2,702,228, of which £257,920 was paid to the Post Office in respect of royalties.
These figures include not only the categories of income and expenditure proper, but also those known as movement of capital, railway constructions and part ite di giro, which do not constitute real income and expenditure.i Considering only income and expenditure proper, the approximate totals are:
At least this way she had no loan payments – no set business income to meet every month.
I'm offering you full funding for your endeavor; secure operating quarters, any place of your choice, sizeable salaries for all of you involved and a gift of stock to each that will assure a lifetime income from dividends.
The Venetian ambassador Gradenigo estimated the paying number of offices on Leo's death at 2150, with a capital value of nearly 3,000,000 ducats and a yearly income of 328,000 ducats.
The volume of the Italian budget has considerably increased as regards both income and expenditure.
The state owned, in 1909, 30,002 shares of stock in the North Carolina Railroad Company,' with a market value (1907) of $5,580,372 (the stock being quoted at 186), and an annual income of $210,014 and 12,666 shares of stock in the Atlantic & North Carolina Railroad Company, from which the annual income is $31,665.
The President was insistent upon the need of repealing the excess profits taxes and reducing transportation taxes and income surtaxes.
Given that inequalities in income are likely to grow, how I can I contend that we will see an end of poverty?
Finally, when the poor see their income shrink while the income of the rich rises, they will buy into the system less.
As national income increases in a given country, the size of government as a portion of gross national product (GNP) rises and the range of services people expect the government to offer rises.
Since 1895, however, the heavy import corn duty has caused a slight rise in the income from corn lands.
The principal source of income was a charge of &1,250 a year upon the Irish Church surplus, but the establishment expenses were paid by parliament.
billions in illegal income annually, his only significant source of independent funds not channeled through the United Nations.
The number of scholars was largely increased by an election of 25 new ones on the 26th of September 1444, the income being then 946, of which the king contributed £120 and Waynflete or more than half his stipend of X30 a year.
In that year their income, including revenue from capital, was 416,385, and their expenditure 300,232.
The income of 60,741,418 in 1881 rose in 1899-1900 to 69,917,126; while the expenditure increased from 58,705,929 in 1881 to 69,708,706 in 1899-1900, an increase of 9,175,708 in income and 11,002,777 in expenditure, while there has been a still further increase since, the figures for 1905-1906 showing (excluding items which figure on both sides of the account) an increase of 8,766,995 in income and 5,434,560 in expenditure over 1899-1900.
The higher the average income of the people (as expressed through per capita GNP), the higher the tax rate.
Roughly speaking, if you look at the poorest forty nations in the world, who have an average income per person of about $1,500 a year, their effective tax rates are about 20 percent.
Simply put, as income rises, we buy more things, including more government.
The proceeds were invested in such a way at Paris as to bring him in a yearly income of between 6000 and 7000 francs (equal now to more than L500).
Gaine, general manager of the company, stated before the Select Committee that in the view of the directors the bargain was a hard one, because it gave no consideration in respect of the goodwill of the great business, with its gross income of over £ 2,000,000 per annum and its net revenue of over £750,000, which the company had built up. The company had had to pay for all the experiments and mistakes which are inherent in the launching and development of any new industry.
- increased, especially that from the income tax on personal estate and the Customs, the yield from which has been nearly doubled.
The serious feature of the situation lay less in the income than in the intangible expenditure, namely, the vast sums required for interest on the various forms of public debt and for pensions.
Congress granted another township (thirty-six sections) for the university in 1892, and its income is supplemented by legislative appropriations for current expenses and special needs.
The United Kingdom famously did this after World War II by raising marginal tax rates on earned income to more than 99 percent and, for some other kinds of income, to more than 100 percent.
In its most basic form (which I'll discuss here for simplification's sake), it is a guarantee of a minimum income above the poverty line for every citizen.
It seems that as national income rises, people choose to create larger governments that offer more entitlements and have more expansive powers.
The bike was a trophy from a time when Dean's budget contained more expendable income.
I told her she didn't need to work, but she thinks we can't live without her income.
It isn't like they couldn't survive without her contribution to their family income.
Without the dairy she had no income.
It wouldn't bring in a fortune, but at least she could feel she was contributing something to the income.
I thought the dairy was nothing more than an income.
a year, nearly doubled the headmaster's income.
From the receveur is demanded a security equal to five times his total income.
£4,494,841 The states have the same powers of taxation as the Commonwealth except in regard to customs and excise, over which the Commonwealth has exclusive power, but the states are the owners of the crown lands, and the revenues derived from this source form an important part of their income.
Phillips, 1896); A Brief Introduction to the Infinitesimal Calculus (1897); The Nature of Capital and Income (1906); The Rate of Interest 0907); National Vitality (1909); The Purchasing Power of Money (1911); Elementary Principles of Economics (1913); Why is the Dollar Shrinking?
At present the main quota with the additional three-tenths amounts to 16.25% of taxable income.
Since 1880, while income from the salt and lotto monopolies hai remained almost stationary, and that from land tax and octroi har - diminished, revenue derived from all other sources has notabl)
The administration of the act was entrusted to the pharmaceutical society, and the duty of prosecuting unauthorized practitioners has been performed by the society ever since, without any pecuniary assistance from the state, although the legal expenses involved in prosecution amount to a considerable portion of its income.
In addition to the ordinary general property tax, licences and polls, there are a tax on corporations and an income tax.
Louis University (subject to the life income of certain surviving relatives) for the erection and support of a hospital and for the advancement of medicine and surgery.
Wesley rose at four, lived on X28 a year and gave away the remainder of his income.
There has been a great change in the budget of Cuba since the advent of the Republic. In 1891-1896 the average annual income was $20,738,930, the annual average expenditure $ 2 5,9 6 7, 1 39.
Its income rose to £ 25,000 in 1895, having quadrupled itself in ten years.
The trade of Greenland has on the whole much decreased in modern times, and trading and missions cost the Danish state a comparatively large sum (about £i i,000 every year), although this is partly covered by the income from the royalty of the cryolite mines at Ivigtut.
To each person hitherto appanaged an annual income of one million lives was assigned, and two millions for the brothers of the king.
Fishing is a valuable source of income on the lower courses of the great rivers, especially the Ob.
It is estimated that about one-half of the Russian agricultural population supplement their income by engaging in non-agricultural pursuits, but not more than 18 to 22% carry on domestic trades, the others finding occupation in the carrying trade - which is still important, even since the construction of the railway - in hunting (chiefly squirrel-hunting) and in work in the mines.
The seigniorial taille, like the servile, had the character of a personal tax (taille personelle), a rudimentary tax on income, every man being taxed according to his wages or other income.
a tax on the whole income of the taxpayer, whatever its source.
They also endeavoured to distinguish between different kinds of income, in order to arrive at a more just estimate of the total income, and fixed by tariff the proportion in which each kind of income was to contribute.
He indulged in costly experiments in farming, so that in spite of the large income earned by his books he was not a rich man.
According to Mommsen, although the institution was not intended to be permanent, in later times vacancies in the ranks were filled in this manner, with the result that service in the cavalry, with either a public or a private horse, became obligatory upon all Roman citizens possessed of a certain income.
He was lodged in `the Louvre, received the grant of an income equal to that he had hitherto enjoyed, and, with the title of "veteran pensioner" in lieu of that of "foreign associate" (conferred in 1772), the right of voting at the deliberations of the Academy.
These measures would have put the financial affairs of the nation on a solid footing in a very few years had the government been able to keep its expenditure within its income.
He protests against Peel's Income Tax Bill of 1842; against the Aberdeen Act 1843, as conferring undue power on church courts; against the perpetuation of diocesan courts for probate and administration; against Lord Stanley's absurd bill providing compensation for the destruction of fences to dispossessed Irish tenants; and against the Parliamentary Proceedings Bill, which proposed that all bills, except money bills, having reached a certain stage or having passed one House, should be continued to next session.
In 1908 an Income Tax and a Land Tax Act was passed; the land tax being a halfpenny in the £ " on the aggregate unimproved value " - it brought in £30,000 in 1908-1909.
Up to this time Horne's fixed income consisted of those scanty emoluments attached to a position which galled him daily.
At the census of 1900 nearly 69% of the total population of the country derived their income from agriculture, forestry, horticulture and other agricultural pursuits.
57, 8 9 6, 8 45 57,894,923 The ordinary revenue of the state is derived from direct and indirect taxation, monopolies, stamp dues, &c. In 1904 direct taxes amounted to £9,048,000, and the chief heads of direct taxes yielded as follows: ground tax, £2,317,000; trade tax, £1,879,000; income tax, £1,400,000; house tax, £1,000,000.
It was founded in 1825 through the generosity of Count Szechenyi, who devoted his whole income for one year (60,000 florins) to the purpose.
He came to court in 1617 with an income of 25,000 livres from his ecclesiastical benefices.
He issued an important constitution on the 18th of July 1289, which granted to the cardinals one-half of all income accruing to the Roman see and a share in the financial management, and thereby paved the way for that independence of the college of cardinals which, in the following century, was to be of detriment to the papacy.
His debts were enormous, and in 1675 he resolved to make over to his creditors all his income except twenty thousand livres, and, as he said, to "live for" them.
Moreover, the Liberal promises of economy had been largely falsified, the reductions in the navy estimates being dangerous in themselves, while the income tax still remained at practically the war level.
The preceding tables show the estimated income and expenditure of the London County Council for 1909-1910.
Assuming, for example, the life of the mine at ten years as before, and taking the interest to be earned by the amortization fund at 3%, and that on the investment at io%, we shall find that the annual income should amount to 18.7% per year.
In Upper Burma the chief source of revenue is the thathameda, a tithe or income tax which was instituted by King Mindon, and was adopted by the British very much as they found it.
The chief seat of the industry is in the Thongwa and Bassein districts, where the income from the leased fisheries on individual streams sometimes amounts to between £6000 and £7000 a year.
The precarium was a form of renting land not intended primarily for income, but for use when the lease was made from friendship for example, or as a reward, or to secure a debt.
It should be noted that from its very beginning the land relationship of feudalism was not created primarily for the grantor's income, but that it emphasized in the most striking way his continued ownership.
Recognizing that ownership by a small payment only, not corresponding to the value of the land, it left the larger part of the income to meet the need which had arisen.
Something like taxation occasionally occurred, though the government was usually sustained by the scanty feudal payments, by the proceeds of justice and by the income of domain manors.
In 1802 he entered parliament through the duke of Norfolk's nomination as member for Thetford, and married a widow with six children, Mrs Ord, who had a life interest in a comfortable income.
A senator must be 35 years of age, and have a yearly income of $1000.
The age limit of a deputy is 25 years, and his income must be not less than $500.
In both chambers the exercise of some scientific profession is accepted in lieu of the pecuniary income.
In 1876 interest payments on account of this debt were suspended and in1879-1882the war with Chile deprived Peru of her principal sources of income - the guano deposits and the Tarapaca nitrates.
His income was insufficient for the proper support of his family, and accordingly he had become partner in a banking house in which one of his sons was interested along with other persons.
Within ten years she had created 17 counts, 46 barons and 428 lesser nobles; and, to provide these new peers with adequate appanages, she had sold or mortgaged crown property representing an annual income of 1,200,000 rix-dollars.
This and two other engagements as a teacher of mathematics secured him an income of some £400 a year.
The result was that he lost the appointment, and with it one-half of his very modest income.
From 1845 to 1848 Comte lived as best he could, as well as made his wife her allowance, on an income of 200 a year.
His little account books of income and outlay, with every item entered down to a few hours before his death, are accurate and neat enough to have satisfied an ancient Roman householder.
The salary connected with the post was very small, but it had a secondary value in greatly stimulating the sale of his books, which was his main source of income.
The facts that the outlays averaged less than 47% of the gross income, and that accidents and irregularities are not numerous, prove that Japanese management in this kind of enterprise is efficient.
Buloz is said to have eventually enjoyed an income of 365,000 francs from the Revue.
He must in some way or other have obtained a considerable income.
The moderation of the assessment is shown not only by the fact that it was paid so long without objection, but also by the individual items. Even in 425 Naxos and Andros paid only 15 talents, while Athens had just raised an eisphora (income tax) from her own citizens of 200 talents.
Affiliated with the university is a school of music. The university's income is derived from the proceeds of invested funds and lands originally given by the United States, from permanent appropriations by the state and from the proceeds of a one-fifth mill tax to be used for buildings alone.
In1907-1908the institution had 28 buildings (including the old State Capitol, built in 1840), a teaching and administrative force of nearly 200 members and 2315 students, of whom 1082 were in the college of liberal arts; the university library had about 65,000 volumes (25,000 were destroyed by fire in 1897), and the university law library, 14,000 volumes; and the total income of the university was about $611,000.
In 1909 the general income and expenditure account of International Headquarters in London dealt with a total of £64,345.
Details of the aggregate income raised in the United Kingdom by the corps are not published.
In 1909 the value of the property held under the Darkest England Scheme in the United Kingdom was returned at £329,645, and the income of the central fund at £50,594.
A voter is qualified on an income from property of £6, or by paying rent to the same amount, or having the qualifications required to serve as a common juror.
His son, though not wealthy, was never wholly dependent upon official income.
Besides the income from interest and dividends on investments, the state revenues are derived from taxes on licences, on commissions to public officers, on railway, telegraph and telephone, express, and banking companies, and to a slight extent from taxes on collateral inheritance.
The prince is supported by the income derived from crown lands.
It included: the number, character and nationality of the cardinals, the abuse of the " reservations " made by the apostolic see, the annates, the collation to benefices, expectative favours, cases to be brought before the papal Curia (including appeals), functions of the papal chancery and penitentiary, benefices in commendam, confirmation of elections, income during vacancies, indulgences, tenths, for what reasons and how is a pope to be corrected or deposed.
The value of farms on which dairying was the chief source of income in 1900 was 46% of the total farm value of the state; the corresponding percentages for livestock, vegetables, hay and grain, flowers and plants, fruit and tobacco, being respectively 14.6, 10 2, 8 o, 4.2, 3.2, and 1 8%.
He regularly spent a large income in charity, and he laboured strenuously to stay the progress of the plague and famine which broke out in 1504.
Stewart, and Stanford will cases, the Kansas prohibition cases, the Chinese exclusion cases, the Maynard election returns case, and the Income Tax Suit.
Personal property consisting of necessary household furniture, working tools and team of horses, professional instruments and a library, not exceeding $250 in value, besides the necessary food for the team for ninety days, provisions for the family, wearing apparel, wages or other income not exceeding $12 a week, and several other things, when owned by a householder or person providing for a family, are also exempt from seizure for debt, unless the debt be for purchase money or for services performed in the family by a domestic.
The colonial revenue is chiefly derived from customs, stamp duties, land tax, income tax, beer excise, postal and telegraphic services, railways, and crown land sales and rents.
During the publication of The New Yorker he added to the scanty income which the job printing brought him by supplying editorials to the short-lived Daily Whig and various other publications.
It soon became moderately prosperous, and his assured income should have placed him beyond pecuniary worry.
His income was long above $15,000 per year, frequently as much as $ 3 5,000 or more.
Among the other sources of revenue are a poll-tax of two dollars on each man between the ages of twenty-one and sixty, licences, an inheritance tax, rent of state lands and the income from invested funds received from the sale of state lands.
For1908-1909the " ordinary " budget showed an income of £17,352,833, balanced by the expenditure.
The chief sources of income are taxes, state-railways and public forests and domains.
Of the direct taxes the land tax produced 52 millions, the house taxes 127 millions, the taxes on industry 127 millions and the income tax 102 millions.
28 seq.; see MIzRAIM), and gold accumulated in such enormous quantities that the income for one year may be reckoned at about 4,IOO,000 in weight (x.
afterwards to play an important role in Queen Victoria's life; and Leopold himself took a fatherly interest in the young princess's education, and contributed some thousands of pounds annually to the duchess of Kent's income.
The dukes of Edinburgh, Connaught and Albany were each voted an income of £15,000, and £10,000 on marrying.
The of Wales's ' 'c i evidence laid before the committee explained to the country for the first time the actual state of the royal income, and on the proposal of Gladstone, amending the proposal of the government, it was proposed to grant a fixed addition of £36,000 per annum to the prince of Wales, out of which he should be expected to provide for his children without further application to the country.
Hay and grain formed the principal source of income of 88.4% of the farms, live-stock of 6.7% and dairy produce of 2.6%.
This income is supplemented by local taxation.
1534), persuaded him to visit England in the spring of 1499 Being without a benefice, he had no settled income to look to, and apart from the precarious profits of teaching and writing books, could only wait on the generosity of patrons to supply him with the leisure he craved.
After his arrival in Basel, he received a complimentary answer, together with the nomination to the deanery of Deventer, the income of which was reckoned at 600 ducats.
This nomination was accompanied with an intimation that more was in store for him, and that steps would be taken to provide for him the income, viz., 3000 ducats, which was necessary to qualify for the cardinal's hat.
The word is particularly used of the income from an ecclesiastical benefice or of the salary paid to any minister of religion.
The first of them, in 1842, was signalized by the introduction of the Income Tax as a means of raising revenue to replace that lost by the diminished import duties.
The internal taxes of the war were applied not only in the form of income taxes, stamp taxes, licence and gross receipts taxes, but also as direct excise taxes on many commodities.
The income of the state churches is derived from four sources.
The voluntary contributions of the people are all absorbed in the common income of the national churches and are administered by the supreme council.
Many of the zoological gardens are owned by private companies and derive their income entirely from gate-money, menagerie sales, rent of refreshment rooms, concert-halls and other auxiliary public attractions, any profits being distributed amongst the members of the company.
In other cases again, as in the case of London, the income is derived partly from the subscriptions of members, who in return receive privilege§ as to admission, and partly from gate-money and menagerie receipts, all the income being expended on the maintenance of the institution and on scientific purposes.
It is maintained in part by the city, through public taxation, and in part by the income from endowment funds given by Charles M`Micken, Matthew Thoms, David Sinton and others.
He did his best to stem the Turkish advance, pledging one-fifth of the papal income to the crusade which set out in.
When the Ohio Company, through Manasseh Cutler, obtained from congress their land in what is now Ohio, it was arranged that the income from two townships was to be set aside "for the support of a literary institution."
His marriage with Catherine Wilson in 1801 made the question of a settled income even more pressing.
During the year 1905-1906 the society expended £238,632, while its income was £231,964 (of which £98,204 represented receipts from sales).
During 1905, with an income of £27,108, it issued 1,590,881 copies, 907,000 of which were circulated in China.
In the year ending March 31st 1909 the income of the Society was $502,345, and it issued 2,153,028 copies of the Scriptures, nearly half of which went to readers outside the United States.
Much of his now ample income is believed to have been spent in secret charities, and he kept a simple table at which, "without the formality of an invitation, he was always happy to receive his friends."
Rent, wages and profits, as they are the elements of price, are also the constituents of income; and the three great orders of every civilized society, from whose revenues that of every other order is ultimately derived, are the landlords, the labourers and the capital ists.
In the Constituent Assembly he was a member of the committee of taxes (comité des contributions), prepared a scheme for a new system of taxation, drew up a law on patents, occupied himself with the laws relating to stamps and assignats, and was successful in opposing the introduction of an income tax.
The national revenues are derived from import and export duties, port dues and other taxes levied on foreign commerce; from excise and stamp taxes and other charges upon internal business transactions; from direct taxes levied in the federal district and national territories, covering a land tax in rural districts, a house tax in the city, commercial and professional licences, water rates, and sundry taxes on bread, pulque, vehicles, saloons, theatres, &c.; from probate dues and registry fees; from a surcharge on all taxes levied by the states, called the " federal contribution," which is paid in federal revenue stamps; from post and telegraph receipts; and from some minor sources of income.
The income of the state, counties and towns is derived mainly from taxes levied on real estate, on male polls between the ages of twenty-one and seventy, on stock in public funds, on stock in corporations that pay a dividend and are not subject to some special form of tax, on surplus capital in banks, on stock in trade, on live-stock, on railways, on telegraph and telephone lines, on savings banks and on the stock of fire insurance companies.
The state also derives an income from fees charged for chartering banks, railways, insurance companies and other corporations.
The income of the body arises from rents on property, customs and taxes.
The budget for the years1908-1911estimates the income at £164,440 and the expenditure at the same.
The secretary of the treasury sends annually to Congress a report containing a statement of the national income and expenditure and of the condition of the public debt, together with remarks on the system of taxation and suggestions for its improvement.
A beginning has been made with income taxes.
Finally, the strain upon municipal finances incident to a realization of civic improvements has called attention to intangible wealth: street railways are no longer taxed as scrap iron but as working systems, with due attention to their franchises; and there is a beginning of the doctrine that the increase in value of unimproved realty constitutes income that should be taxed.
I, 2) upon the power of the Federal government to lay direct taxes has been interpreted by the Supreme Court, by a bare majority, in such a way as to make very difficult, if not impossible, the imposition of an income tax (although, it may be added, such taxes had been unanimously held constitutional by the court in earlier decisions, which rested in turn upon interpretations of the constitutional provision just referred to given by the court when it counted among its members justices who had been members of the convention that framed the constitution).
Very often their income has been far above the amount needed for all disbursements of the government.
A considerable and growing public sentiment in favor of the use of the taxing power for the regulation of wealth taken from society demands the introduction into the Federal system of income and inheritance taxes.
The lastinasmuch as an income tax that i~ constitutional can perhaps not be framedis the only promising source that can give the addition to the Federal revenues that must be needed in case the customs or the excise revenues are reduced.
£580,000), derived mainly from the Aden Port Trust Fund (£34,000), Aden Settlement Fund (£28,000), Local Supply Bills (£257,000), imperial and municipal receipts (£215,700), Post Office (£34,000), excise, customs and income tax.
The plant of the university in 1909 was valued at $3,193,128, and in1908-1909its productive funds amounted to about $2,000,000 and its income from all sources was about $784,000.
A strong prejudice against direct taxation exists, and none is imposed by the federal government, though it has been tentatively introduced in the provinces, especially in Quebec, in the form of liquor licences, succession duties, corporation taxes, &c. British Columbia has a direct tax on property and on income.
The income is estimated at Li 20,000, paying a revenue of £46,000.
The yearly income of more than £17,000 is disposed of in pensions and in hospital grants.
==Finance== One-half of the income of the state is derived from general taxes, the other sources of revenue being licences, a special school tax, poll tax and the lease of the convicts.
Prospects of an income from the banks led the legislature of 1836 to abolish all taxation for state purposes.
In addition to a large income from rentals, the Santa Casa receives the product of certain port taxes in return for opening its wards to the crews of all vessels in port.
After a delay of nine years, having at last obtained an adequate income, he married his cousin, Margaret Cox, who had already lived for eighteen years with his mother, the widow of John Ruskin of Edinburgh.
In 1887 it was found that he had exhausted (spent, and given away) the whole of the fortune he had received from his father, amounting, it is said, to something like £200,000; and he was dependent on the vast and increasing sale of his works, which produced an average income of £4000 a year, and at times on the sale of his pictures and realizable property.
His professional income amounted to £400 a year, equal to £4000 in present money, and, " considering the relative profits of the law and the value of money, probably indicated as high a station as £ io,000 at the present day " (Campbell).
Yet the whole of his income after resigning office did not exceed .ioo a year.
The revenue of the Territory for the fiscal year ending the 30th of June 1908 amounted to $2,669,748.32, of which $640,051.42 was the proceeds of the tax on real estate, $635,265.81 was the proceeds of the tax on personal property; and among the larger of the remaining items were the income tax ($266,241.74), waterworks ($141,898.04), public lands (sales, $37,585.75; revenue, $122,541.71) and licences ($206,374.28).
The Rev. Albert Clayton, the secretary of the fund, lavished his strength on his vast task and the total income exceeded I, 073,782.
said they alone had burdened the state with the payment of 483,000 scudi of annual interest, a tremendous item in a budget where the income was perhaps but 2,000,000.
For a while interest charges consumed 85% of the income of the government.
the secretaryship of state and gave it its present pre-eminence by refusing to deliver it up to one of his relations; and Innocent (1691-1700), whose bull Romanum decet pontificem ordered that no pope should make more than one nephew cardinal, and should not grant him an income over twelve thousand scudi.
The Pennsylvania state college at State College, Center county, was established in 1855 as the farmers' high school of Pennsylvania, in 1862 became the Agricultural College of Pennsylvania, and received its present name in 1874 after the income from the national land grant had been appropriated to the use of the institutions; in1909-1910it had 147 instructors, 1400 students and a library of 37,000 volumes.
Finally, the popes have devoted to the missions the income arising from the Chamber of Spoils (Camera Spoliorum), i.e.
that portion of the revenue from church property which cannot be bequeathed by the holders of benefices as their own property; this source of income, however, has decreased greatly.
Lord Thomas de Berkeley (1245-1321) counted on this as a regular and considerable source of income (Smyth, Lives, i.
(1326-1361), who was noted as a special lover of tournaments, spent in two years only £ 9 0, or an average of about £r5 per tournament; yet he was then laying money by at the rate of £45 0 a year, and, a few years later, at the rate of £1150, or nearly half his income !
Moreover, after the knight's liability to personal service in war had been modified in the 12th century by the scutage system, it became necessary in the first quarter of the r3th to compel landowners to take up the knighthood which in theory they should have coveted as an honour - a compulsion which was soon systematically enforced (Distraint of Knighthood, 1278), and became a recognized source of royal income.
The knighthood of St Maurice and St Lazarus is now a dignity conferred by the king of Italy (the grand master) on persons distinguished in the public service, science, art and letters, trade, and above all in charitable works, to which its income is devoted.
The yearly income of Zuniga at the time of his resignation amounted to 150,000 ducats.
Thirty years later its income was £ 200,000 a year; and now it is £300,000.
For in them the dead are not counted; and the converts who are already dead are-at least in respect of individual salvation-the surest of III.-Protestant Missionary Income.
Although pressed by the minister to prepare for them a complete course of mathematics, he declined to do so, on the ground that it would deprive Mme Bezout of her only income, from the sale of the works of her late husband; he wrote, however (1786), his Traite elementaire de la statique.
8d.) towards the income tax.
He settled finally in Edinburgh in 1769, having now through his pension and otherwise an income of £1000 a year.
income tax, and (b) to citizens of the age of twenty-five years possessing real estate to the value of 2000 f.
or Belgian state securities yielding an income of at least loo f.
The breeding of livestock (cattle, sheep and horses), is an important source of income.
Poland has had no separate budget since 1867; its income and expenditure are included in those of the empire.
This state of matters was so clearly proved that an arrangement was agreed to on the part of the vicar (Dance), by which he allowed £60 a year, out of his income X200, to a preacher who should be chosen by certain trustees.
The change, though it brought promotion in dignity, caused a diminution of income as well as of power; but Coke received some compensation in being appointed a member of the privy council.
Thus they became transferable to laymen and saleable like ordinary property, in spite of the injunctions of the third Lateran Council, and they became payable out of sources of income which were not originally tithable.
The income of the forty establishments was, in 903, 1/28,500,000 (including 1,700,000 imperial subsidy).
It may be added that employees in mercantile and trading houses, who have not exceeded the age of 40 years and whose income is below 1/215o, are allowed voluntarily to share in the benefits of this insurance.
As he had used his large personal property to organize a regiment in order to regain his possessions, the Prussian government had sequestrated that part of his income, amounting to some ~5o,ooo, over which they had control, and used it as secret service money chiefly for controlling the press; to this fund the name Welfen-Fond was commonly given.
At the same time, owing to the adoption of free trade, the income from customs was continually diminishing.
The result was that the income from customs and excise rose from about 230 million marks in 1878-1879 to about 700 millions in 1898-1899, and Bismarcks object in removing a great burden from the states was attained.
The natural course when the new source of income had been obtained would have been simply to relieve the states of part or all of their contribution.
There was therefore a constant decrease in the income from land, and this took place at a time when the great growth of wealth among the industrial classes had made living more costly.
An affectionate son, and ever ready to give of his hard-earned income to more than one ne'er-do-well brother, he maintained that natural relationship had no claim on man, nor was gratitude to parents or benefactors any part of justice or virtue.
It spread over the whole of the empire; in a few years it numbered roo,000 members, and had an income of nearly 300,000 gulden; no private society in Austria had ever attained so great a success.
He showed generosity in assigning a considerable income to be divided annually among the peasant proprietors of upper Guienne.
the land and general tax - in its nature an income tax - and the jangali or cattle tax upon nomad herdsmen.
By these means a large and rapidly increasing revenue is being secured to government; while the condition of the peasantry and people is being greatly ameliorated, an adequate but not excessive income is being secured to the native rulers; and the class of middlemen who lived by extortion and absorbed a great part of the wealth of the country is being abolished.
Properly a "duty" differs from a "tax" in being levied on specific commodities, transactions, estates, &c., and not on individuals; thus it is right to talk of import-duties, excise-duties, deathor succession-duties, &c., but of income-tax as being levied on a person in proportion to his income.
Of these deputies one-half are elected in the same way as members of the Folkething, without any property qualification for the voters; the other half of the deputy electors are chosen in the towns by those who during the last preceding year were assessed on a certain minimum of income, or paid at least a certain amount in rates and taxes.
That of Copenhagen is elected by those who are rated on an income of at least 400 kroner (2 2).
The benefices are almost without exception provided with good residences and glebes, and the tithes, &c., generally afford a comfortable income.
was obliged, in the first place, to re-establish the royal authority by providing the crown with a regular and certain income.
The Danish national debt, too, had risen enormously, while the sources of future income and consequent recuperation had diminished or disappeared.
The Left was willing to vote 30,000,000 crowns for extraordinary military expenses, exclusive of the fortifications of Copenhagen, on condition that the amount should be raised by a property and income tax; and, as the elections of 1875 had given them a majority of three-fourths in the popular chamber, they spoke with no uncertain voice.
She had been forced upon him by his father, and he had never loved her; but he always treated her with marked respect, and provided her with a generous income, half of which she gave away in charity.
At first, sees were created and bishops were nominated by the crown by means of letters patent; and in some cases an income was assigned out of public funds.
The surplus income of the gallery fund is devoted to instruction in drawing and design in the two schools.
Perhaps the best instance of this is that in 1832 he refused from Lord Goderich an offer of a position which would have given him great influence in Canada and an income of L1,50o.
His wife had made over her income to her mother, but he had saved a small sum upon which to begin housekeeping.
The administration of the fund was handed over to a body of trustees, who devote the annual income (L100,000) partly to the payment of students' fees and partly to buildings, apparatus, professorships and research.
According to the reports of the Inland Revenue Commissioners, the gross income derived from the ownership of lands in Scotland was returned in1879-1880at £7,7 6 9,3 0 3.
Royal burghs derive part of their income from ancient corporate property known as " the Common Good " and consisting mostly of land and houses.
In the summer of 1761, although still without any fixed income, he married, and for some time he found it necessary to devote himself to the duties of land-steward to the Baron von Loben in Lusatia.
The husband kept a careful record of income and expenditure.
His income amounted at Nuremberg to 1500 gulden (130) and a house; at Heidelberg, as professor, he received about the same sum; at Berlin about 3000 thalers (L300).
Though he received a large income, he was so improvident that he was frequently in want, and on the 22nd of February 1822 the legislature of Maryland passed a remarkable resolution - the only one of the kind in American history - requiring every lawyer in the state to pay an annual licence fee of five dollars, to be handed over to trustees appointed "for the appropriation of the proceeds raised by virtue of this resolution to the use of Luther Martin."
The death of his father had left him an estate of 1900 acres, the income from which (about £400) gave him the position of an independent country gentleman; and while engaged in the law he had added to his farms after the ambitious Virginia fashion, until, when he married in his thirtieth year, there were s000 acres all paid for; and almost as much more l came to him in 1773 on the death of his father-in-law.
This greatly reduced his income for a number of years.
Though not personally extravagant, his salary, and the small income from his large estates, never sufficed to meet his generous maintenance of his representative position; and after his retirement from public life the numerous visitors to Monticello consumed the remnants of his property.
In 1565 Queen Elizabeth, to supplement the meagre income derivable from the archiepiscopal see owing to the disturbed state of the country, appointed Loftus temporarily to the deanery of St Patrick's; and in the same year he became president of the new commission for ecclesiastical causes.
Since 1886 an assessed tax has been levied on all sources of income except that derived from land.
The rate is a little more than 2l% on all incomes exceeding £133 a year, and a little more than 2% on incomes exceeding £66, the minimum income liable to assessment having been raised in 1903 from £33.
In1907-1908the gross receipts from income tax amounted to £1,504,000.
In these forests every reasonable facility is afforded to the people concerned for the full and easy satisfaction of their needs, which are generally for small timber for building or fuel, fodder and grazing for their cattle, and edible products for themselves; and considerations of forest income are subordinated to those purposes.
He reorganized the customs system, imposed an income tax and licence duty and created a state paper currency.
These troubles and a narrow income conspired to make Lowell almost a recluse in these days, but from the retirement of Elmwood he sent forth writings which show how large an interest he took in affairs.
Up to 1854 there was a surplus in hand, but since that time expenditure has on many occasions exceeded income, and the public debt in 1908 was £1,305,000, mainly incurred however on reproductive works.
In spite of this proceeding Henry wished to live at peace with his northern neighbour, and soon contemplated marrying his daughter to James, but the Scottish king was not equally pacific. When, in 1 495, Perkin Warbeck, pretending to be the duke of York, Edward IV.'s younger son, came to Scotland, James bestowed upon him both an income and a bride, and prepared to invade England in his interests.
In 1908 the two descendants of the old sultans of Cheribon still resided there in their respective Kratons or palaces, and each received an annual income of over X1500 for the loss of his privileges.
The diet consists of one chamber with thirty-eight members, of whom five are chosen by owners of land worth at least i 50 a year, five by those who derive a similar income from other sources, five by the university of Jena and other public bodies, and twenty-three by the rest of the inhabitants.
That from 1908 to 1910 estimated an annual income and an annual expenditure of about 620,000.
A large income is derived from the state forests.
In 1848 $500-$700 a day was not unusual luck; but, on the other hand, the income of the great majority of miners was certainly far less than that of men who seriously devoted themselves to trade or even to common labour.
The emoluments of his office were poor, but he also enjoyed the income of a canonry at Aberdeen and of the vicarage of Tullynessle.
She did not give up her claim until after the death of Charles of Anjou (1285), when Philip the Bold succeeded in getting her to accept an income from the county of Anjou in exchange for her rights in Provence.
The common schools are maintained with the proceeds of school taxes and an annual income from school funds which are derived principally from lands.
On coming of age he made an arrangement with the British government by which his income was reduced to £25,000 in consideration of advances for the purchase of an estate, and he finally settled at Elvedon in Suffolk.
A land revenue is derived from the sale of government lands, from quit rents and fees of transfer, &c. Judicial fees bring in a small amount, and the issue and sale of postage and revenue stamps have proved a fruitful source of income.
The cost of instruction and experimentation is met by the income from national grants (under the Morrill Acts of 1862 and 1882) and by state appropriations.
Sweden during her temporary occupation of these ports had derived from them an annual income of 3,600,000 gulden.
Fishing is an important item of income.
The gross income from the state railways is 26,607,622, and the net income 4,684,856 marks.
He was tail, rawboned and awkward; his early instruction was scant; but he "read books," talked well, and so, after his admission to the bar at Richmond, Virginia, in 1797, and his removal next year to Lexington, Kentucky, he quickly acquired a reputation and a lucrative income from his law practice.
The first problem on this side of expenditure is the due balancing of outlay by income.
Historically, there is, first, the tendency towards increase in state income to balance the advance in outlay.
The produce, at first distributed amongst the citizens, was later a part of the state income, and forms the subject of some of the suggestions respecting the revenue in the treatise formerly ascribed to Xenophon.
The idea that the ruler possessed a normal income in certain rents and dues of a quasi-private character, which on emergency he might supplement by calls on the revenues of his subjects, was a bequest of feudalism which gave way before the increasing power of the state.
The replacement of the four direct taxes by the income tax in France, as proposed in 1909, is a very recent example.
As tax contributions have taken the places of the revenue from land and fees, so, it would seem, are the taxes on commodities likely to be replaced or at least exceeded by the imposts levied on income as such, in the shape either of income taxes proper or of charges on accumulated wealth.
Financial adjustment implies the conception of a balance, and this should be found in the relation of outlay and income.
At the same time the average size of farms (not including farms with an area of less than 3 acres, which reported an annual income of less than $500) increased from 124.9 acres in 1880 to 433.6 acres in 1900.
In this year 39.6% of the farms derived their principal income from hay and grain, 33.2% from live stock, 5.5% from dairy produce, 3.5% from vegetables, 2.8% from fruits.
In 1572 a kind of Episcopacy was set up in the interest of the nobles, who in order to draw the income of the episcopal sees had to arrange with men possessing a legal title to them.
A lay association was formed, which raised large sums of money for the missionary schemes, so that their income was not allowed seriously to decline.
The Free Church in 1909 had 150 congregations and 77 ministers; its members and adherents are stated to number 60,000, and its income, apart from investments, is k22,542.
Large pension charities are administered by the governing body, and part of the income of the hospital (about L60,000 annually) is devoted to apprenticing boys and girls, to leaving exhibitions from the school, &c.
The income of this society was X1146 in 1905.
In 1812 they had only one degree-conferring college with a small faculty, a small student body and almost no endowment; in 1906 they had more than Too universities and colleges with endowment and equipment valued at about $30,000,000, and an annual income of about $3,000,000.
In 1809 his mother handed over to him (aged twenty-one) the third part of the paternal estate, which gave him an income of r50, and in October 1809 he entered the university of GÃ¶ttingen.
Latin, still the universal language of learning, formed no part of Jewish education; and Spinoza, after learning the elements from a German master, resorted for further instruction to a physician named Franz van den Ende, who eked out an income by taking pupils.
Like every Jew, Spinoza had learned a handicraft; he was a grinder of lenses for optical instruments, and was thus enabled to earn an income sufficient for his modest wants.
Boehm von Bawerk; Nature of Capital and Income, by Irving Fisher (1906).
The principal sources of income in the ordinary revenue are railways, forests, telegraphs and rent from Crown lands; and those in the revenue voted (bevillningar), which is about seven-eighths of the whole, customs, the taxes on spirits and beetsugar, and income from the post office.
The greater proportion of communal revenue comes from income and property tax, the sale of spirits under the Gothenburg System, and contributions from the treasury.
Eligibility necessitates Swedish birth, an age of at least 35 years, and the possession, at the time of election and for three years previously, either of real property to the value of 80,000 kronor (£4400), or an annual income on which taxes have been paid of 4000 kronor (£220).
Both senators and deputies must have reached the age of thirtysix, must have a specified income, and are required to serve without salary.
A considerable part of its income is derived from a subsidy included in the annual budget, which makes it a charge upon the national treasury like any other public service.
The revenues from the captured Peruvian nitrate fields then became an important part of the national income, which ten years later (1902) reached an aggregate of 138,507,178 pesos (of 18d.), of which 105,072,832 pesos were in gold.
To ensure an income that would meet its foreign engagements, the government collected the nitrate and iodine taxes and import duties in gold.
Mme de Montespan did yet more for her, for when, in 1669, her first child by the king was born, Mme Scarron was established with a large income and a large staff of servants at Vaugirard to bring up the king's children in secrecy as they were born.
The companys income is derived from tolls levied on vehicles and animals using the road.
Until 1888 the yearly expenditure was less than the yearly income, but subsequently the revenues were not sufficient to cover the expenditure, and many payments fell in arrear in spite of emptying the treasury of its reserve and contracting numerous loans.
form is derived), the name applied to an account of the ways and means by which the income and expenditure for a definite period are to be balanced, generally by a finance minister for his state, or by analogy for smaller bodies .2 The term first came into use in England about 1760.
In the United Kingdom the chancellor of the exchequer, usually in April, lays before the House of Commons a statement of the actual results of revenue and expenditure in the past finance year (now ending March 31), showing how far his estimates have been realized, and what surplus or deficit there has been in the income as compared with the expenditure.
If the estimated revenue, after allowing for normal increase of the principal sources of income, be less than the estimated expenditure, this is deemed a case for the imposition of some new, or the increase of some existing, tax or taxes.
The Indian budget, giving the results of income and expenditure in the year ending 31st of December, and the prospective estimates, is laid before the imperial parliament in the course of the ensuing session.
The farm was assiduously, if not very skilfully, cultivated, and other industries were established - most of the members paying by labour for their board - but nearly all of the income, and sometimes all of it, was derived from the school, which deservedly took high rank and attracted many pupils.
In 1812 his income from the Wedgwoods was reduced, and he settled the remainder on his wife.
The Commission estimated the annual income of the companies to be from £750,000 to £800,000, about f200,000 of that amount being trust income, the balance corporate income.
A handsome income was assured to him.
John returned with his wife to Oxford, and continued to hold his fellowship for what is called the year of grace given after marriage, and added to his income by acting as a private tutor.
Peers, naturalized foreigners and certain employees of the state were unable to sit in the House of Commons; members were required to be graduates of one of the highest, secondary or professional schools, or to possess an income of not less than 400 milreis (88).
The right of suffrage is exercised by all male citizens, twenty-one years of age, or over, if single, and eighteen years, or over, if married, who can read and write, and own real estate or have an income of 200 bolivianos a year, said income not to be compensation for services as a servant.
collegiate foundations, which provide a home and an income for unmarried ladies, generally of noble birth, called canonesses (Kanonissinen) or more usually Stiftsdamen.
The income from agriculture in 1899 was almost equally divided between crops ($ 8, 95 1, 44 0) and animal products ($8,784,364)-in that year forest products were valued at $315,821.
The fund yields an income of £200 per annum.
Crowned in St Peter's on the 31st of August at the age of sixty-three, he entered upon the lonely path of the reformer_ His programme was to attack notorious abuses one by one; but in his attempt to improve the system of granting indulgences he was hampered by his cardinals; and reducing the number of matrimonial dispensations was impossible, for the income had.
In this last year 27.5% of the farms derived their principal income from live stock, 20.3% from vegetables, 17.2% from dairy produce, 7.8% from fruits and 7.8% from hay and grain.
they derived at least 40% of their income from dairy products; and the total value of dairy products was $8,436,869, the larger items being $6,318,568 for milk sold and $818,624 for butter sold.
Funds for the support of the public schools are derived from various sources: (1) the interest on the " surplus revenue " ($760,670), deposited with New Jersey by the Federal government in 1836; (2) the income from the state school fund, consisting largely of receipts from the sale and rental of riparian lands 1; (3) a state school tax; (4) a direct appropriation by the legislature to supplement the school tax, so that the two combined will form a sum equal to a tax of two and three-fourths mills on each dollar of taxable property; and (5) local taxes.
At the close of the fiscal year 1908 the school fund of the state was $4,850,602.41; the income for the year was $224,233.56 and the disbursements were $373, 0 95.7 6.
The income from the state school fund is divided among the counties on the basis of the total number of days of attendance of the public school pupils; the legislative appropriation, however, is apportioned among the counties according to their assessed property values.
There are, besides, the Edward Latymer foundation school for boys (1624), part of the income of which is devoted to general charitable purposes; the Godolphin school, founded in the 16th century and remodelled as a grammar school in 1861; Nazareth House of Little Sisters of the Poor, the Convent of the Sacred Heart, and other convents.
During 1906 the income derived under each of these heads was: from taxation £1,297,776; from lands £1,729,887; from railways and other services £5,856,826; from commonwealth £2,742,770; these with miscellaneous collections to the amount of £655,823 made up a total revenue of £12,283,082.
The direct taxation is represented by a tax of one penny in the pound on the unimproved value of land, sixpence in the pound on the annual income derived in the state from all sources, except the use and occupation of land and improvements thereon.
The income of the postal and telegraph department in 1905 was £1,065,618 and the expenditure £933,121, but there were some items of expenditure not included in the sum named, such as interest charges, &c., and cost of new buildings.
The sources of revenue of the council are the exchequer contribution, income from property and fees, and rates.
Another source is the income of any property belonging to the council, but the amount of this is usually small.
The remaining source of income of a county council is the county rate, the manner of levying which is hereafter stated.
As a general rule the poorlaw valuations are followed, but this is not universally the case, some county councils adopting the assessment to income tax, schedule A, and others forming an independent valuation of their own.
The entire income of the borough council is paid into the borough fund, and that fund is charged with certain payments, which are specifically set out in the 5th schedule to the act of 1882.
If the income from such property is insufficient for the purposes to which it is applicable, as usually, is the case, it has to be supplemented by a borough rate, which may be a separate rate made by the council or may be levied through the overseers as part of the poor rate' by means of a precept addressed to them.
The income which the Cossack voiskos receive from the lands which they rent to different persons, also from various sources (trade patents, rents of shops, fisheries, permits of gold-digging, &c.), as also from the subsidies they receive from the government (about £712,500 in 1893), is used to cover all the expenses of state and local administration.
His professional income as a lawyer was estimated at $ioo,000 per annum shortly before his death at Washington, D.C., on the nth of January 1893.
For the maintenance of the common schools each town is required (since 1905) to raise annually at least fifty-five cents per capita, exclusive of what may be received from other sources, and to this is added the proceeds of a state tax of one and a half mills on a dollar, onehalf the proceeds of the tax on savings banks, a 6% income from the permanent school fund (derived mainly from the sale of school lands), and state appropriations for the payment in part of the superintendence in towns that have united for that purpose.
In 1899 hay and grain furnished the principal income from 35.4% of all farms in the state, and live-stock from 28.1% of all farms. In 1899, 255,699 acres, or 37.3% of the acreage of all crops, was sown to cereals, which were valued at $2,386,789, or 29% of the value of all crops.
These exercises were not of a nature to add to his income, which was extremely small.
This mitigated form of appropriation of human beings by their conquerors may be brought about as well by the paucity or comparative weakness of the victors as by the difficulty for them to draw income from pure slaves.
On the other hand, the growth of the Muscovite state with its fiscal and governmental requirements involved a watchful repartition of burdens among the population and led ultimately to a system of collective liability in which the farms were considered chiefly as the sources of taxable income.
In both cases there is absorption and administration by the state of so much of the income of the community, and it may be a question whether the private ownership of the property would not be more expedient both for the state and its subjects than state ownership is, in spite of the apparent advantage to all concerned in the state getting so much of its income without the compulsion of a tax.
Taxes are distinguished as direct, because they are charged directly upon the tax-payer from whose income they are supposed to be taken.
The income tax, a direct charge upon all incomes above a certain limit, is the principal type in the United Kingdom of a direct tax.
The income tax itself is not, in all cases, really paid to the state directly by the person out of whose income it comes.
A householder is assessed as occupier, but he may be "compounded for," and really know nothing of the payment, though it is supposed to come out of his income.
Direct taxation in the shape of income tax was substituted for indirect taxation previously levied, in order to relieve trade from the shackles of duties and charges which had become allembracing.
In France the direct taxes above referred to are described officially as direct, having been originally, there is little doubt, the main sources of government income; and there is equally an official designation of certain heads of revenue as "contributions et taxes indirectes."
The income tax (q.v.) for many years has been the most prominent, and latterly it has been the most productive, single tax.
Its technical name is the property and income tax, but it is essentially a charge upon all incomes or profits, whether arising from property, or from the remuneration of personal services, or from annuities, income being applied with the widest possible meaning.
In December of the same year this impost was repealed, and a true income tax of io per cent.
The reasons are that with the tax at a low rate it has been found much less intolerable than during the Napoleonic War, when it was at the rate of 10 per cent., while the pressure of the tax has also been greatly mitigated by placing very high the minimum income subject to it, and giving abatements upon the lower taxable incomes.
There have been great complaints also of injustice by the possessors of temporary and precarious incomes, who have to pay the same rate of tax as the owners of permanent incomes from property, although these complaints have been diminished to some small extent by the raising of the minimum limit of the income assessed and the increase of the principle of abatements.
The varieties of income charged being very great, and special claims for consideration having been set up at different times, the result has been the formation of an income tax code, defining the methods and rules for assessing the different classes of profits and income, and prescribing the way in which abatements and exemptions are to be obtained.
The character of the tax is accordingly much less odious than it would be if an account of individual incomes were invariably demanded, as was the case in the United States during the Civil War, when an income tax existed for a short time.
Other taxes grouped with the income tax by the authorities are house duty and land tax, but they are unimportant by comparison.
The house duty replaced a window tax and other charges which were formerly not unimportant, especially in the interval between 1815 and 1843, when there was no income tax.
The incidence is probably much the same as that of the income tax itself, though there are curious questions as to the ultimate incidence as between owners and occupiers of houses.
The land tax is quite unimportant, being an ancient tax upon an old assessment which has long become obsolete, and it interests economists most of all by the illustration it furnishes of what may be called a rentcharge tax - a tax, that is, which has been so long in existence and so fixed in its basis that it becomes in reality a charge upon the property, and not a direct burden upon the person who pays it, as the income tax is upon the person who pays it or for whom it is paid.
The excuse, as a rule, may hold good, that the postal charge is only a reasonable one for service rendered, so that the net income of the post office really resembles the profit of a business, but the element of taxation appears undoubtedly to enter.
If the government derived a large income from post office and telegraph service in excess of the amount expended, the whole income would be generally, and not improperly, described as taxation; but consideration, of course, must be given to the difference made by the working of the service generally for the public advantage rather than for purposes of revenue.
Another source of revenue in British imperial finance is that from fees in courts of justice, patent stamps and the like, which is usually classified, like the income of the post office, as revenue derived from other sources than taxes.
It is even at times a very burdensome tax, falling upon a family when its sources of income are otherwise diminished, while it has the demerit of striking a small number annually instead of being diffused equally.
upon the capital charged, and they have to be paid at such times as to cause their being paid out of capital and not out of income, so that their tendency is to diminish the capital available for productive enterprises.
The local authorities derive a large income from private property, and from monopolies such as water, gas, electric light, telephones and tramway service, which they carry on, and on which the same observations may be made as on the post office and telegraph services; but in addition there is a large amount of taxation.
The principal portion of this taxation consists of rates, that is, a direct charge upon the income or rental of real property, such as lands, houses, railways and mines, but mainly lands and houses.
Rates are even a more important factor in direct taxation than the income tax, and they have given rise to even greater complaints and discussion.
Rates were imposed, therefore, on all kinds of property and the income arising from them, just as they are imposed in the United States on the capital of the property itself.
The frank recognition that local income taxes are impossible, and that taxation on property for local purposes can only be applied to real property, where it becomes, usually or frequently, in the nature of a rent-charge, would have saved the legislature and the public an infinity of laborious discussion.
They take the place, to some extent, of the income tax, and are usually classed with the direct taxes.
Recent discussion, however, has gone rather to the point which Adam Smith neglected, that of inequality generally, not merely as between different sorts of income, but as between individuals and classes.
Along with this view has arisen the question whether the burden of taxation should not be progressive - the proportion of the sum taken by the state from the tax-payers increasing with the wealth of the individual; because ability to pay taxes is assumed to be not in proportion to, but to increase with the size of, the income.
There remain principally the income tax and one or two minor "direct" taxes, and the customs and excise duties.
These, it is said, can be distributed among different classes of tax-payers, because the income tax falls on the owners of incomes of all kinds of property subject to the duty, if their incomes are above a certain limit, while the incidence of customs and excise duties can be ascertained by inquiries as to the consumption of dutiable articles by different classes.
The payers of income tax, unfortunately, are not one class but many, and although the rate of duty is the same, the definition of income seems imperfect, so that many pay on a much larger assessment of income than seems fair in comparison with other incomes of nominally the same amount, but really of much greater value when all deductions from the gross sum are fairly reckoned.
If all who pay income tax are lumped together and contrasted with those who do not pay, then there is a false division to begin with, and there is so far no means of establishing equality or inequality.
On the other hand, the consumption by the income tax paying classes of customs and excise articles must vary indefinitely amongst themselves, according to personal habits, size of families, and even their geographical distribution.
As to progressive taxation based on the assumption that equality requires a larger proportionate charge upon a big income than on one of a smaller amount, the practical application of the principle, if true, would be impossible.
Of course there may be single taxes which are progressive in form, such as the licence tax in France, or the income tax in Great Britain, where progression is established by abatements, or the death duties, where progression by scale is very common.
The amount yielded, moreover, was considerable, being equal to a penny on the income tax, which it is desirable to maintain as a reserve of taxation.
Apart from the merits or demerits of particular taxes or groups of taxes, and the questions as to inequality, injury to trade, and the like already discussed, the aggregate of taxation, or rather revenue, of a state may be considered in the most general way, having regard to the proportion appropriated by the state of the total income of the community, and the return made by the state therefor.
On the other hand, some years ago in the United Kingdom, before the high expenditure on army and navy began, and before the South African war of 1899-1902, it is probable that with an outlay of less than roo,000,000 by the central government, the proportion of this outlay to the aggregate income of the people was not higher than onefourteenth.
The Revolution deprived him of his income and left him in great destitution.
But his idea certainly was that his friars should not only practise the utmost personal poverty and simplicity in their life, but that they should have the minimum of possessions - no lands, no funded property, no fixed sources of income.
Senators must be forty years old and possess an income of 9400 lei (£376).
They are chosen by two colleges of electors; one composed of citizens with an income of £80; the other, of citizens with incomes varying from £32 to £80.
All persons with an income of £50 vote in the first; all residents in an urban commune who pay taxes amounting to sixteen shillings yearly, with those who have been through the primary course of education, and all members of the liberal professions, retired officers and state pensioners, vote in the second.
Within its borders or close about them are the centres of total and of improved farm acreage, of total farm values, of gross farm income, of the growth of Indian corn, of wheat, and of oats.
The age of admission to the Samaj is eighteen, and members are expected to contribute to its funds at least 1% of their income.
Of this $30,000 was to found Smith's Agricultural School at Northampton, which opened for instruction in 1908; an income of $10,000 was to be paid to the American Colonization Society, but this society failed to comply with the restrictions imposed by the will, and the $Io,000 was incorporated with the Agricultural School fund; and $360,000 was devoted to indigent boys and girls, indigent young women and indigent wido«s.
The fund is administered by a board consisting of the governor, the secretary of state and the state treasurer, and the income from it is apportioned among the counties according to the number of children of school age.
In 1909 the invested funds of the university amounted to about $8,594,300, yielding an annual income of about $428,800; the income from state and nation was about $232,050, and from tuition fees about $336,100; the campus and buildings were valued at about $4,263,400, and the Library, collections, apparatus, &c. at about $1,826,100.
It is true that the loss to his income which this would have caused was obviated by a patent from the crown in April 1675, allowing him as Lucasian professor to retain his fellowship without the obligation of taking holy orders.
Income tax, for instance, is calculated on income, and is in the nature of a deduction from the income; but local rates are calculated in proportion to certain other payments, actual or potential, and could without absurdity exceed 20s.
It is now liberally supported by the state; in 1908 its annual income was about $650,000.
Almost nine-tenths of all farms derived their principal income from livestock or hay and grain, these two sources being about equally important.
In the budget of 1842 Sir Robert Peel terminated the deficit by reviving the income tax.
Instead of allowing the income tax to expire, he induced parliament to continue it for a further period, and with the resources which were thus placed at his disposal he purged the tariff of various small duties which produced little revenue, and had been imposed for purposes of protection.
increased armaments, and to raise the income tax to Is.
A certain increase of the income tax to a shilling seemed a much more serious calamity than the uncertain prospect of a possible invasion.
He suggested that the cost of these measures should be defrayed by extending the income tax to Ireland to industrial incomes of 100 and to permanent incomes of 50 a year, as well as by doubling the house tax, and extending it to all 10 householders.
swept away the duty on one great necessary of life soap; he repealed the duties on 123 other articles; he reduced the duties on 133 others, among them that on tea; and he found means for paying for these reforms and for the gradual reduction and ultimate abolition of the income tax, which had become very unpopular, by (I) extending the tax to incomes of ioo a year; (2) an increase of the, spirit duties; and (3) applying the death duties to real property, and to property passing by settle-, ment.
In order to enable him to accomplish these great changes, Gladstone temporarily raised the income tax, which he found at 9d.
The revenue increased by leaps and bounds, and the income tax was gradually reduced till it stood at 4d.
But it was proposed that these extensions should be accompanied by an educational franchise, and a franchise conferred on persons who had paid twenty shillings in assessed taxes or income tax; the tax-payers who had gained a vote in this way being given a second vote in respect of the property which they occupied.
He announced his decision in an address to his constituents, in which, among other financial reforms, he promised to repeal the income tax.
At the Diet of 1825, when the motion for founding a Hungarian academy was made by PM Nagy, who bitterly reproached the Magyar nobles for so long neglecting their mother-tongue, Szechenyi offered to contribute a whole year's income (60,000 florins) towards it.
Burke made some sort of income out of his 600 acres; he was for a short time agent for New York, with a salary of £700; he continued to work at the Annual Register down to 1788.
He did not enjoy the income long.
His title was to be Lord Beaconsfield, and it was designed to annex to the title an income for three lives.
Insurance companies are taxed on premiums and income.
The total income for schools in1907-1908was $1,773,659, of which $1,379,410 was from the seven-tenths-of-a-mill tax, $200,000 was from licence fees and taxes upon corporations (for salaries of rural school inspectors) and $194,249 the income from the common school fund which in that year amounted to $3,845,929.
The board has also power of visitation and inspection over the Wisconsin Veterans' Home at Waupaca, founded in 1887 by the state department of the Grand Army of the Republic. In the state's treatment of the insane, chronic cases are separated and sent to the county asylums. The labour of convicts in the state prison is leased; until 1878 the state itself supervised manufacturing in the prison; then for twenty-five years the convicts were employed in making shoes for a Chicago firm; and since 1903 the state has received 65 cents a day for the labour of each convict, and at least 300 convicts are employed in the manufacture of socks and stockings, from which in1906-1908(two years) the income to the state was $156,890.
The public having shown no eagerness to subscribe, Necker proposed that every man should be invited to make a patriotic contribution of onefourth of his income.
A Law of Hostages, which was really a new Law of Suspects, and a progressive income tax showed the temper of the majority.
The total income and expenditure are each about £ 70,000 per financial period.
The wines of Rioja are highly esteemed and are an important source of income for the district.
They marry and work, and sometimes even bear arms like their parishioners, from whom a large part of their income is derived, in the shape of offerings and fees.
To these must be added the fattening of geese for Strassburg's celebrated pâtés de foie gras, which forms a useful source of income to the poorer classes.
The plague having visited Noyon, the young Hangests were sent to Paris in August '523, and Calvin accompanied them, being enabled to do so by the income received from his benefice.
There is a tax on the gross receipts of corporations, a graduated land tax on all holdings exceeding 640 acres, a tax on income exceeding $3500, and a tax on gifts and inheritances.
More rapacious than ambitious, she concerned herself little with government, but devoted her energies chiefly to augmenting her income, and providing for her family and friends.
£300 a year was a very comfortable income at Athens, and it was possible to live decently on a tenth of it.
From special returns to parliament the following table shows net income and expenditure over a series of years up to 1868: The amount of imperial revenue collected and expended in Ireland under various heads for the five years1902-1906appears in the following tables: Subtracting in each year the total expenditure from the estimated true revenue it would appear from the foregoing table that Ireland contributed to imperial services in the years under consideration the following sums: £2,570,000, £2,852,000, £2,200,500, £2,186,500 and £1, 811,500.
In 1906 the net value of property assessed to estate duty, &c., in Ireland was £16,016,000 as compared with £306,673,000 in England and £38,451,000 in Scotland; and in 1905 the net produce of the income tax in Ireland was £983,000, as compared with £ 2 7,4 2 3, 000 in England and £2,888,000 in Scotland.
Some idea of the style of living of the learned professions in early Ireland may be gathered from the income enjoyed in later times by the literati of Tir Conaill (Co.
The 28 representative peers, with 75 other members having an income of £ 200, or a capital of £4000, elected for ten years by £25 occupiers, were to constitute the first order.
Lord Dunraven presided, and it was agreed to recommend a great extension of the Land Purchase system with a view to give the vendor as good an income as before, while decreasing the tenants' annual burden.
It has now an average annual income of about £80,000 derived from taxes paid by ships when 1 leaving the river.
privileged persons, who were equally brought under the tax; in 1710 was added the tithe (dixime), a tax upon income from all landed property.
The corporation owns valuable forests on the mountains of Upper Lusatia and other estates, the annual income of which is about £15,000..
The senate is composed of members of three classes: (I) members by right of birth or officeprinces, nobles who possess an annual income of 60,000 pesetas (L2,400), and hold the rank of grandee (grande), a dignity conferred by the king either for life or as an hereditary honor, captains-general of the army, admirals of the navy, the patriarch of the Indies, archbishops, cardinals, the presidents of the council of state or of the Supreme Court, and other high officials, all of whom must have retained their appointments for two years; (2) members nominated by the sovereign for life; and (3) members elected three each by the 49 provinces of the kingdom, and the remainder by academies, universities, dioceses and state corporations.
BEE-KEEPING Bee-keeping, or the cultivation of the honey-bee as a source of income to those who practise it, is known to have existed from the most ancient times.
the cultivation of the honey-bee as an appreciable source of income to the farmer, the peasant cultivator, and dwellers in districts where bee-forage is abundant and, if unvisited by the bee, lies wasting its sweetness on the desert air.
As a rule, it may be said that the man content to start with an apiary of moderate size - say fifty stocks - may realize a fair profit from comb-honey only; but so limited a venture would need to be supplemented by some other means before an adequate income could be secured.
The census of 1900 showed that not less than two-fifths of the total net income came from live stock or from hay, grain and forage on farms representing together 96% of the farm-value of the state - live stock being a trifle more important; dairying was similarly predominant for 1.6%, and beet-sugar for ' 9.1%.
The revenue of the university is from the income of Congressional land grants under the Morrill Acts and from a one mill per one dollar tax on the current assessment roll of the state.'
The principal source of revenue was an indirect tax on corporations, the tax on railways, savings banks and life insurance companies, yielding 70% of the state's income.
The St Spiridion Foundation (due to the liberality of Prince Gregory Ghika in 1727, and available for the sick of all countries and creeds) has an annual income of over £80,000, and maintains hospitals and churches in several towns of Moldavia, besides the baths at Slanic in Walachia.
This increased income enabled the elector to take a more considerable part in European politics.
of the salary, wages or income of each person eighteen years of age or over is also exempt from attachment provided such salary, wages or income does not exceed $40 per month, and in any case $36 per month of the salary, wages or income of a person eighteen years of age or over cannot be attached.
The income to the state from the prison is greater than the disbursements for its maintenance.
The state revenue is derived from a general property tax, a poll tax, an income tax, a tax on transfers of realty, an ad valorem tax on the average capital invested by merchants in their business, a privilege tax on merchants and many other occupations and businesses; a tax on litigation, levied on the unsuccessful party, a collateral inheritance tax, and fines and forfeitures.
In addition to the assistance from the renters, the money finally gave her an income of her own and the token independence that went with it.
She contributed nothing to their income.
The fact that he lived so far below his income, yet was focused on accumulating more wealth indicated she might be correct.
That's not uncommon for Big Apple young people, living on a modest income in a financially immodest city.
While these endeavors had produced zero income, the activities endeared him to the local ladies of the historical society who fluttered around the dapper gentleman like chicks at feed time.
It isn't like they couldn't survive without her contribution to the income.
At least this way she had no loan payments â€“ no set business income to meet every month.
He was looking for antecedent recoveries, income payments and aging book debts or equity in the matrimonial home.
Any expenses incurred by the trustees in publishing notices can be met out of the charity's income.
Savings and shares raising the program income is advocated within both the financial sustainability paradigm and poverty alleviation paradigms.
accounts hsas further results that income eligible for.
actuaryad they have employed actuaries to calculate the net present value of the income streams they buy with the properties.
adjusted to reflect actual income.
My household income is over 0,000 a year and I could barely afford a 1950s rambler with a 0,000 downpayment.
after-tax income from the Duchy in support of his official work.
agreed target of 0.7% of national income in overseas aid.
The United States does not tax non-resident aliens for any interest income or dividend income derived from the United States.
allowable against the rental income.
allowable expense which you can set off against your rental income.
This particularly affects people who claim income support or jobseeker's allowance.
annual fee based on their total income.
They do this to ensure that the details given in the application form are correct before paying the annuitant an income.
Part of this money is returned to the other annuitants in the form of more income.
However, with an enhanced or impaired life annuity the worse the medical conditions the higher will be the income paid to an annuitant.
This annuity taxation can be compared to a compulsory purchase annuity taxation can be compared to a compulsory purchase annuity for a pension where all the income is taxed as earned income.
We also review the amount of your income payments each year at the anniversary of the date your with-profits annuity policy started.
In lieu of the original lifetime tenancy granted the home income plan provider will provide you with a lifetime annuity.
A pension annuity is used to convert capital within a pension plan into a regular guaranteed lifetime income.
One way of having a higher income is to initially select a With profits annuity.
apparent in relation to organizational income and the uptake and application of ICTs.
apply Section applies in all cases where " foreign loan interest " is trading income.
apportioned using the same principles as described in paragraphs 31-32 to ensure that income is not double counted.
argues in favor of taxing land rather than income.
Place in a everyone feel like income said Arthur a the board at.
Enron was " looking for a quick way to sell assets to generate income, " said one long-time Enron finance person.
assumed income " figure.
Whose geico automobile insurance income is them in response.
Our research income per researcher exceeds the sector average, reaching over £ 104,000 per active researcher in 2002/03.
The former approach reveals comparatively high levels of inequality aversion (implying a high level of income weighting) in contrast to the latter.
avoidance of double taxation of income earned in any of these countries.
balance sheet components with reference to the associated financial flows and income.
ICT seen to remove barriers - or create barriers where inequalities of family income or school funding exist.
beneficiaryough people income inequality measures of medicare beneficiaries.
bleak economic outlook is the result of BNFL's loss of income from domestic reprocessing work.
Pensioner claimants can deduct £ 20.00 for each one. £  Income from non-family boarders (meals included ).
Some smaller LLCs use a single-entry bookkeeping system such as a simple business check register to keep track of their expenses and income.
In consultation with the IES office, contact publishers to arrange bookstalls where possible (these provide an extra source of income ).
borrow less than 75% of your gross annual income.
bounteous arrangement transferring income from one spouse to the other.
Crop waste is being used to make biomass briquettes for the stoves, providing an extra income to farmers.
Revenue at Merrill's retail brokerage rose 5 percent to $ 2.8 billion, buoyed by higher interest income.
Budget You will usually need to prepare a balanced budget You will usually need to prepare a balanced budget showing all your other income sources and everything that you will need to spend.
burley tobacco are significantly adding to their income.
business model based around growing income from a satisfied customer base of occupiers.
Parental guidance First-time buyers whose income is too low can ask their parents to act as guarantors.
cent of such households had less than half average income in 1996/97.
The lands themselves, of course, were originally chantry lands, providing income for paying chantry lands, providing income for paying chantry priests in this very church.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.