How to use Including in a sentence
Was he including himself in that statement?
About twenty people were present, including Dolokhov and Denisov.
Dean gave Winston the information, including both names, Cleary and Corbin.
He was wearing a hoodie and dressed in black, including gloves.
The smile broadened, including the dimple.Advertisement
No one will stand in my way, including you, my daughter.
Before letting him read the translations, the Deans filled him in on their activities, including their forest meeting with Jerome Shipton.
The royal library contains about 400,000 printed volumes, including one of the largest collections of Bibles in the world, and also about 20,000 MSS., many of great rarity.
His multimillionaire father's picture was on the wall, and he owned two dozen restaurants in the Annapolis area, including this one.
Dean copied the information from the forms, including the license numbers, and then rang the bell summoning the manager.Advertisement
He counted a total of seven missing, including the three known traitors.
Most Guardians did, including Dusty, who personally oversaw every operation in his hemisphere.
His gaze fell on her and his smile broadened, including the dimple.
Several members, including Qatwal, may be willing to aid you in regaining your planet after you've reached a peace treaty.
Her beauty was flashier, the kind that drew every man around her, including me.Advertisement
There are a number of small manufacturing industries in Cuzco, including the manufacture of cotton and woollen fabrics, leather, beer, embroidery and articles of gold and silver.
The Alleghany Plateau consists of nearly horizontal beds of limestone, sandstone and shales, including important seams of coal; inclines slightly toward the north-west, and is intricately dissected by extensively branching streams into a maze of narrow canyons and steep-sided hills.
This per-person threshold actually exceeds the average income of three-quarters of the countries on the planet, including Mexico, Russia, and Brazil, and is about 20 percent higher than the average income of the entire planet.
And everyone, including Anna Pavlovna, felt this.
There was very little she wouldn't tackle – including things she shouldn't.Advertisement
He translated into Hebrew a large number of Arabic books (including the Arabic form of Euclid).
Several hundred books, including many fine ones, were sent to me in a short time, as well as money and encouragement.
He listened without saying a word as I revealed everything, including Julie's effort to collect the million dollars.
The men were at dinner, including Damian.
Not the abbreviated version contrived for a witless or hysterical wife, but the whole thing – including any designs Lori has on you... or you have for her.Advertisement
The Deans had utilized the site a half dozen times, including, in December, the council-sponsored full moon nighttime outing, followed by a dip in the town's hot spring pool.
Do not anchor to any manmade structures including the penstock system large metal pipe.
Somewhere in that sea of people was his family – including his sister and her husband.
Everything on mine is original - including the paint job.
On the moors to the north-west, and including Rivington Pike (1192 ft.), is another public park, and there are various smaller pleasure grounds.
In 2009, in the United States of America, the poverty threshold for a single person under sixty-five was about $11,000 a year; the threshold for a family group of four, including two children, was about $22,000 a year.
You may start with one of eight or more appetizers including gorgonzola crostini with roasted red peppers and capers.
We all reluctantly entered our vitals privately, including information on baby Claire.
The runners might encounter any kind of weather, including freezing temperatures, fog, rain, or snow.
She was human in every way, including her memories.
He needed a lot of dough in a hurry so he started putting the squeeze on everyone in sight, including Cynthia Byrne.
There wasn't a list of people with resumes including equine care.
Anything big enough to make a mature elk bolt was enough to concern him – including a bull elk.
From this point, Xander was able to see most of the city, including the white dome of the palace at its center that marked the home of one of the three Gods that ruled the immortal realm.
Her rustling around the kitchen – including dropping a can of chicken – didn't wake him.
Considering the wide differences between the two groups in the size and external characters, and in the mode of life, including the mode of feeding, it is indeed surprising that in every important organ the two groups should show a fundamental morphological identity.
I have an extensive library of very old recipe books, including several "autographs"—original, handwritten, unpublished, personal cookbooks—that date back to the early 1700s.
In 1892 appeared the Perkins Institution report for 1891, containing a full account of Helen Keller, including many of her letters, exercises, and compositions.
Four weeks should convince everyone, including herself, that she could run her own life.
Under his direction the building for the Astor library was erected, and to the library he gave about $550,000, including a bequest of $200,000.
South of the Drin is another complex mountain system, including the highlands inhabited by the Mirdites and the Mat tribe; among the principal summits are Deia Mazzuklit, Mal-i Vels, Kraba, Toli and Mnela.
Liabilities on behalf of communes and public establishments, including departmental services 17,366,520
This, however, is only to be done after certain liabilities have been met out of the estate, including the services due to the lord of the land.
Glanders (including farcy) was the subject during the twentyfour years 1877-1900 of outbreaks in Great Britain ranging between a minimum of 518 in 1877 and a maximum of 1657 in 1892; in the former year 758 horses were attacked, and in the latter 3001.
Kerbogha in the open (June 28), but not before many of their number, including even Count Stephen of Blois, had deserted and fled.
Fruits normally form the principal crop; the total value for 1907-8 of the fruit crops of the state (including oranges, lemons, limes, grape-fruit, bananas, guavas, pears, peaches, grapes, figs, pecans, &c.) was $6,160,299, according to the report of the State Department of Agriculture.
The estimated receipts from the " Tithes " (including tobacco and silk, both hypothecated to the Public Debt Administration) are £T6, 73 1,107.
A full children's menu including angel hair pasta, beef tips, and fried shrimp is also offered.
Guests can choose from a variety of foods, including butternut squash, roasted corn chowder, tuna with wasabi and streamed mussels and red curry.
Though the town is small, there are a selection of restaurants to choose from, including seafood and barbecue spots, making it a good place to stop and refuel.
Papaw's serves up all sorts of savory barbecue meats, including ribs, chicken and pork.
The natural beauty of this area is perfect for many outdoor activities, including hiking, biking, boating, fishing and skiing.
The fixed price menus offer a buffet of side dishes, including salads, assorted appetizers, black beans and rice, and peel and eat shrimp.
Both locations offer appetizers, including bacon-wrapped scallops, deep fried tofu and broiled tuna tataki.
The brick oven pizza is served in a variety of styles including a traditional pizza, chicken florentine pizza and pizza melanzane, which is topped with eggplant.
Kapaa has plenty of good restaurant choices for visitors to the islands, including amazing restaurants at the resorts and elsewhere.
In fact, she did all the chores without telling him – including feeding the buffalo.
Including the other in every plan is going to take some adjustment.
The most patient of the White God's brothers, Jule had a calming influence on those around him, including Xander, who felt his ever-present restlessness retreat some.
The building was burnt to the ground with all that it contained, including his private diary for forty years.
There are mines of silver, copper, lignite and salt, and many hot springs, including some of great repute medicinally.
A decree of the parlement (1606), obtained by Marguerite de Valois, deprived him of nearly all his possessions, including Auvergne, though he still retained the title.
Garibaldi and a few followers, including his devoted wife Anita, after vainly attempting to reach Venice, where the tricolor still floated, took refuge in the pine forests of Ravenna; the Austrians were seeking him in all directions, and most of his legionaries were captured and shot.
The cathedral contains other 14th-century and early Renaissance paintings, the former including some Passion scenes, the only certain work of Barna da Siena, and some fine choir stalls.
The Latin term is consecratio, which of course has a variety of senses, including simple burial.
Pop. (1906) 36,070; including suburbs, 56,020.
Besides the Belt there are several parks and reserves, including botanical and acclimatization gardens, the so-called Ocean Beach, and two race-courses.
Pop. (1901) 24,685; or 40,406, including suburbs.
In 1905 exports reached a value of £3,816,000, and imports a value of £4,834,000 (not including treasure and transit trade).
The industries of the town and its environs (Sandnaes, &c.) are prosperous, including factories for preserved foods, woollens and linens, lime, iodine from seaweed, and domestic commodities.
During the continuance of the lease Germany exercises all the rights of territorial sovereignty, including the right to erect fortifications.
All the essential parts of the micrometer, including the slides, micrometer box, tube, etc., are of steel or cast-iron, so that changes of temperature do not affect the adjustments.
In the western region all the Mesozoic systems, including the Trias, are well developed.
There are besides in the island 10 gymnasia, 3 lycees, 6 technical and nautical schools and institutes (including a school of mines at Iglesias), and 9 other institutes for various branches of special education.
He sat on various royal commissions, including those on the Civil Service and Venereal Diseases, and from 1917 to 1919 was again chairman of the Independent Labour party.
We find that all our ideas of limits, sorrows and weaknesses presuppose an infinite, perfect and ever-blessed something beyond them and including them, - that all our ideas, in all their series, converge to one central idea, in which they find their explanation.
Some of Ivan's advisers, including both Sylvester and Adashev, now advised him to make an end of the Crimean khanate, as he had already made an end of the khanates of Kazan and Astrakhan.
All remaining impurities, including the excess of oxygen, can then be taken out of the gas by Sir James Dewar's ingenious method of absorption with charcoal cooled in liquid air.
Porus held the opposite bank with a powerful army, including 200 elephants.
Save for occasional pilgrimages, including one to Jerusalem in 1373, she remained in Rome till her death on the 23rd of July 1373.
He was a priest of the Jerusalem temple, probably a member of the dominant house of Zadok, and doubtless had the literary training of the cultivated priesthood of the time, including acquaintance with the national historical, legal and ritual traditions and with the contemporary history and customs of neighbouring peoples.
In the town hall (1618) are some corporation pictures, portraits of the counts of Orange and Nassau, including several by Michiel van Mierevelt (1567-1641), one of the earliest Dutch portrait painters, and with his son Pieter (1595-1623), a native of Delft.
Among other buildings are the modern "Phoenix" club-house of the students; the hospital, containing some anatomical pictures, including one by the two Mierevelts.
Among the principal buildings are the First National bank, the immense Union station and the Saint Vincent hospital; besides several fine office and school buildings (including the beautiful manual training high school) and churches.
Immediately outside the city limits in 1905 there were many large manufactories, including the repair shops of the Southern railroad; iron and steel, car wheels and cotton-oil were among the products of the suburban factories.
At least four species of fleas (including Pulex irritans) which infest the common rat are known to bite man, and are believed to be the active agents in the transmission of plague from rats to human beings.
Scarcely any member of the Arabian circle of the sciences, including theology, philology, mathematics, astronomy, physics and music, was left untouched by the treatises of Avicenna, many of which probably varied little, except in being commissioned by a different patron and having a different form or extent.
The highland region of northern Albania is divided into two portions by the lower course of the Drin; the mountains of the northern portion, the Bieska Malziis, extend in a confused and broken series of ridges from Scutari to the valleys of the Ibar and White Drin; they comprise the rocky group of the Prokletia, or Accursed Mountains, with their numerous ramifications, including Mount Velechik, inhabited by the Kastrat and Shkrel tribes, Bukovik by the Hot, Golesh by the Klement, Skulsen (7533 ft.), Baba Vrkh (about 7306 ft.), Maranay near Scutari, and the Bastrik range to the east.
These limits, however, are far from including all the members of a widely scattered race.
The northern portion of the "kingdom of Albania," including Durazzo and Kroia, was ruled by the family of Thopia (1359-1392) and afterwards by that of Kastriota, to which Scanderbeg belonged; the southern portion with Berat, by the Musaki (1368-1476).
Josephus used the name Idumaea as including not only Gobalitis, the original Mount Seir, but also Amalekitis, the land of Amalek, west of this, and Akrabatine, the ancient Acrabbim,, S.W.
Visitors are shown the "Church of the Annunciation" with caves (including a fragment of a pillar hanging from the ceiling, and said to be miraculously supported) which are described as the scene of the annunciation, the "workshop of Joseph," the "synagogue," and a stone table, said to have been used by Christ.
A zealot for monastic and clerical reform, he introduced a more severe discipline, including the practice of flagellation, into the house, which, under his rule, quickly attained celebrity, and became a model for other foundations.
Lydgate's most doughty and learned apologist is Dr Schick, whose preface to the Temple of Glass embodies practically all that is known or conjectured concerning this author, including the chronological order of his works.
It has oversight of all the congregations within its bounds; hears references from kirk-sessions or appeals from individual members; sanctions the formation of new congregations; superintends the education of students for the ministry; stimulates and guides pastoral and evangelistic work; and exercises discipline over all within its bounds, including the ministers.
The Phddon was an immediate success, and besides being often reprinted in German was speedily translated into nearly all the European languages, including English.
Indian corn, quinoa, mandioca, possibly the potato, cotton and various fruits, including the strawberry, were already known to the aborigines, but with the conqueror came wheat, barley, oats, flax, many kinds of vegetables, apples, peaches, apricots, pears, grapes, figs, oranges and lemons, together with alfalfa and new grasses for the plains.
Of birds the number of species greatly exceeds that of the mammals, including the rhea of the pampas and condor of the Andes, and the tiny, brilliant-hued humming-birds of the tropical North.
The number of newspapers published is large, especially in Buenos Aires, where in 1902 the total, including sundry periodicals, was 183.
The lower valley of the Loire, including Touraine and Anjou, and the district of Saumur.
The Burgundian region, including Cte dOr and the valley of the Sane (Beaujolais, Mconnais).
For the years I8961905-this was 1,010,000 tons, including both rock- and sea-salt.
Local Government.France is divided into 86 administrative departments (including Corsica) or 87 if the Territory of Belfort, a remnant of the Haut Rhin department, be included.
First there is the office or cabinet of the prefect for the general police (la police gnrale), with bureaus for various objects, such as the safety of the president of the republic, the regulation and order of public ceremonies, theatres, amusements and entertainments, &c.; secondly, the judicial police (la police judiciaire), with numerous bureaus also, in constant communication with the courts of judicature; thirdly, the administrative police (la police administrative) including bureaus, which superintend navigation, public carriages, animals, public health, &c. Concurrently with these divisions there is the municipal police, which comprises all the agents in enforcing police regulations in the streets or public thoroughfares, acting under the orders of a chief (chef de la police municipale) with a central bureau.
These two cables did not have a very long life, that of 1865 breaking down in 1877 and that of 1866 in 1872, but by the later of these dates four other cables had been laid across the Atlantic, including one from Brest to Duxbury, Mass.
It established that all Italian cabinets since 1880 had grossly neglected the state banks; that the two preceding cabinets had been aware of the irregularities committed by Tanlongo; that Tanlongo had heavily subsidized the press, paying as much as 20,000 for that purpose in 1888 alone; that a number of deputies, including several ex-ministers, had received from him loans of a considerable amount, which they had apparently made no effort to refund; that Giolitti had deceived the Chamber with regard to the state banks, and was open tosuspicion of having,after the arrest of Tanlongo, abstracted a number of documents from the latters papers before placing the remainder in the hands of the judicial authorities.
Besides the university library, there is the Ohio state library occupying a room in the capitol and containing in 1908 126,000 volumes, including a "travelling library" of about 36,000 volumes, from which various organizations in different parts of the state may borrow books; the law library of the supreme court of Ohio, containing complete sets of English, Scottish, Irish, Canadian, United States and state reports, statutes and digests; the public school library of about 68,000 volumes, and the public library (of about 55,000), which is housed in a marble and granite building completed in 1906.
Some of his early Mantuan works are in that apartment of the Castello which is termed the Camera degli Sposi - full compositions in fresco, including various portraits of the Gonzaga family, and some figures of genii, &c. In 1488 he went to Rome at the request of Pope Innocent VIII., to paint the frescoes in the chapel of the Belvedere in the Vatican; the marquis of Mantua (Federigo) created him a cavaliere before his departure.
In catalogues and bibliographies, however, the expression is now generally used, conveniently if incorrectly, as synonymous with Jewish literature, including all works written by Jews in Hebrew characters, whether the language be Aramaic, Arabic or even some vernacular not related to Hebrew.
He was distinguished in his profession as a physician, and wrote a number of medical works in Arabic (including a commentary on the aphorisms of Hippocrates), all of which were translated into Hebrew, and most of them into Latin, becoming the text-books of Europe in the succeeding centuries.
Ganglbauer (1892) divides the whole order into two sub-orders only, the Caraboidea (the Adephaga of Sharp and the older writers) and the Cantharidoidea (including all other beetles), since the larvae of Caraboidea have five-segmented, two-clawed legs, while those of all other beetles have legs with four segments and a single claw.
Lameere (1900) has suggested three sub-orders, the Cantharidif ormia (including the Phytophaga, the Heteromera, the Rhynchophora and most of the Polymorpha of Sharp's classification), the Staphyliniformia (including the rove-beetles, carrion-beetles and a few allied' amilies of Sharp's Polymorpha), and the Carabidiformia (Adephaga).
A considerable number of new railways, including the Siberian, have been built with money obtained from that source.
Accompanied by these so-called Oprichniki, who have been compared to the Turkish Janissaries of the worst period, he ruthlessly devastated large districts - with no other object apparently than that of terrorizing the population and rewarding his myrmidons - and during a residence of six weeks in Novgorod, lest the old turbulent spirit of the municipal republic should revive, he massacred, it is said, no less than 60,000 of the inhabitants, including many women and children.
Stolypin indeed defended the coup d'etat in the Duma on the ground that the autocrat had merely altered what the autocrat had originally granted; but, while laying stress on the necessity for restoring order in the body politic, he announced a long programme of reforms, including agrarian measures, reform of local government and its extension in the frontier provinces, and state insurance of workmen.
Sand bars keep filling up the mouths of these channels, necessitating frequent dredging and extension of the breakwaters, work undertaken by the Federal government, which also maintains a most comprehensive and completeystem of aids to navigation, including lighthouses and lightships, fog alarms, gas and other buoys, life-saving, storm signal and weather report stations.
Taking Varro for his model, Fenestella was one of the chief representatives of the new style of historical writing which, in the place of the brilliant descriptive pictures of Livy, discussed curious and out-of-the-way incidents and customs of political and social life, including literary history.
Simply put, as income rises, we buy more things, including more government.
The United States contributes much to this, including its movies, products such as iPhones, and websites such as Google, YouTube, Twitter, Amazon, and eBay.
Pierre respected this class of Brothers to which the elder ones chiefly belonged, including, Pierre thought, Joseph Alexeevich himself, but he did not share their interests.
Try one of the homemade pastas, and sauces, including marinara, pesto, and alfredo.
The park has a variety of fields, including soccer and baseball, as well as a basketball court.
With hearty meals including philly cheese steaks, cajun catfish grinders and dinner platters, a traveler is quickly revitalized after a long active day.
Beverages, including liquor and wine are not included in the price.
Meals are inexpensive, even including wine, cocktails and pints.
Once you finish your meal, try one of the desserts, including the smallest sundae in the world, served in an egg cup.
This cafe has specialty pizzas, sandwiches, seafood, soups and salads, all of which, including the pastas and sauces, are made fresh daily.
The Direction gnrale de lenregistrement, des domasnes et du timbre, comprising a central department and a director and staff of agents in each department, combines the administration of state property (not including forests) with the exaction of registration and stamp duties.
Deposit and current accounts of Caisse des dpts, &c., including savings banks 15,328,840
Besides the Conseil superiezr the minister is advised on a very wide range of naval topics (including pay, quarters and recruiting) by the Comite consultatif de la Marine.
In regard to the constitution and maintenance of the naval forces, the administration of the arsenals is divided into three principal departments, the first concerned with naval construction, the second with ordnance, including gun-mountings and small-arms, and the third with the so-called submarine defences, dealing with all torpedo materiel.
Each colony and protectorate, including Algeria, has a separate budget.
The governor is aided by a privy council, an advisory body to which the governor nominates a minority of unofficial members, and a council general, to which is confided the control of local affairs, including the voting of the budget.
The ordinary business of the ports was conducted in two courts known respectively as the court of brotherhood and the court of brotherhood and guestling, - the former being composed of the mayors of the seven principal towns and a number of jurats and freemen from each, and the latter including in addition the mayors, bailiffs and other representatives of the corporate members.
The excavations have laid bare several other buildings, including an altar, early propylaea, houses for the priests and remains of an earlier temple.
The city is generously provided with all the modern public services, including two street car lines, local and long distance telephone lines, electric power and light, and waterworks.
Tail of moderate length, thick at the base and tapering towards the apex, clothed with short hair_ First hind toe (including the metacarpal bone) absent.
Nehemiah mentions a number of places on the eastern hill, including the tomb of David, the positions of which cannot with our present knowledge be fixed with any certainty.
There are portions probably of the 12th and 13th centuries, but the bulk of the building is of the 17th century, and considerable additions, including the tower and spire, were made in the 19th.
At Delphi he erected a great group in bronze including the figures of Apollo and Athena, several Attic heroes, and Miltiades the general.
The first eruptions piled up huge domes of lavas rich in soda, including the geburite-dacites and sOlvsbergites of Mount Macedon in Victoria, and the kenyte and tephrite domes of Dunedin, in New Zealand.
Other precious stones, including the sapphire, emerald, oriental emerald, ruby, opal, amethyst, garnet, chrysolite, topaz, cairngorm, onyx, zircon, etc., have been found in the gold and tin bearing drifts and river gravels in numerous localities throughout the states.
The nationality of the tonnage was, British 2,771,000, including Australian 288,000, and foreign 948,000.
Some of his discoveries, including those of Pandora's Pass and the Darling Downs, were of great practical utility.
In the latter direction, explored by Mitchell in 1834 and 1836, lay Australia Felix, now Victoria, including the well-watered, thickly-wooded country of Gipps' Land.
The expenditure, including a civil list of £20,000, stands at £445,000.
He purchased from the family of Neleus of Skepsis in the Troad manuscripts of the works of Aristotle and Theophrastus (including their libraries), which had been given to Neleus by Theophrastus himself, whose pupil Neleus had been.
The former Royal Dockyard was made over to the War Office in 1872 and converted into stores, wharves for the loading of troopships, &c. The Royal Artillery Barracks, facing Woolwich Common, originally erected in 1775, has been greatly extended at different times, and consists of six ranges of Brick building, including a church in the Italian Gothic style erected in 1863, a theatre, and a library in connexion with the officers' mess-room.
The total area under cotton in 1916, including that grown in Khiva and Bukhara, was 1,838,215 acres, yielding about 18,000,000 poods or 290,000 tons of raw cotton.
The scenery of the Wye valley, including a succession of rapids just above the town, also attracts many tourists.
The Malay population of the peninsula, including immigrants from the eastern archipelago, number some 750,000 to Soo,000, while the Tamils and other natives of India number about ioo,000, the aboriginal natives of the peninsula perhaps 20,000, Europeans and Americans about 6500, and Eurasians about 9000.
The principal mineral resource of Vermont is its building and monumental stone, including marble and granite and a small amount of limestone.
At Rutland, Proctor and Dorset many darker shades are found, including "moss vein," olive green and various shades of blue, green, yellow and pink, which are used for ornamental purposes.
The revenues for educational purposes are derived mainly from a state tax of 8 on the general list, from local taxes, and from the interest on the permanent school fund, which (including the money paid to Vermont by the United States government when a portion of the treasury surplus was distributed among the states in 1837) amounted in 1908 to $1,120,218.
There are extensive manufactures, including those of motors and cycles with their accessories, also papermills, breweries, &c., and the population is largely industrial.
Among these are to be found a singularly large number of both active and inactive volcanoes, including the well-known Salak and Gede in the north, and bunched together at the eastern end the Chikorai, Papandayan, Wayang, Malabar, Guntur, &c., ranging from 6000 to 10,000 ft.
Cromwell soon restored order, and the representative council, including privates as well as officers chosen to negotiate with the parliament, was subordinated to the council of war.
On the 25th of lvIarch the Remonstrance, now termed the Petition and Advice, and including a new scheme of government, was passed by a majority of 123 to 62 in spite of the opposition of the officers; and on the 31st it was presented to Cromwell in the Banqueting House at Whitehall whence Charles I.
Pop. including a large rural district and several villages (1890), 31,498; (1908, estimate), 33,000.
Several of the leading United Irishmen, including Reynolds and Hamilton Rowan, immediately fled the country; the papers of the United Irishmen were seized; and for a time the organization was broken up. Tone, who had not attended meetings of the society since May 1793, remained in Ireland till after the trial and suicide of Jackson in April 179.
Having friends among the government party, including members of the Beresford family, he was enabled to make terms with the government, and in return for information as to what had passed between Jackson, Iowan and himself he was permitted to emigrate to America, where he arrived in May 179 5.
Pop. (1890) 5090; (1900) 6280, including 660 foreign-born; (1910) 6987.
Shakespeare's Taming of the Shrew has been influenced in several respects (including the names Tranio and Grumio) by the Mostellaria.
The natives have several industries, including pottery, straw plaiting, smithwork and woodcarving.
The so-called " contracts," including a great variety of deeds, conveyances, bonds, receipts, accounts and, most important of all, the actual legal decisions given by the judges in the law courts, exist in thousands.
The woodwork, including doors and door frames, was removable, and the tenant might bring and take away his own.
Hughes's form was taken up by the French government in 1860, and is very largely in use not only in France but in all European countries, including Great Britain.
A cord circuit, similar in many respects, including the method .y.^9 Jr '' of operation, but equipped with condensers and impedance coils, in place of the repeating coil, is shown in fig.
The average cost of constructing an exchange circuit in the metropolitan area (including the installation of telephone instruments and of exchange apparatus, but excluding the provision of spare plant) has been £33.
The mineral springs are important, including those at Wiesbaden, Homburg, Langenschwalbach, Nenndorf, Schlangenbad and Soden.
Many of the islands are of volcanic formation; and a well-defined volcanic chain bounds the Cretan Sea on the north, including Milo and Kimolos, Santorin (Thera) and Therasia, and extends to Nisyros.
One chief result of the manner in which the Apennines traverse Italy from the Mediterranean to the Adriatic is the marked division between Northern Italy, including the region north of the Apennines and extending thence to the foot of the Alps, and the central and more southerly portions of the peninsula.
The whole course of the river, including its windings, is estimated at about 450 m.
Agricultural (including hunt ing and fishing) - - 9,666,467 6,466,165 3,200,302
The total length, including the Sardinian railways, was 10,368 m.
The number of post offices (including collettorie, or collecting offices, which are rapidly being eliminated) increased from 2200 in 1862 to 4823 in 1881, 6700 in I891 and 8817 in 1904.
The regulations provide that if there is a greater weight of correspondence (including bookpackets) than 13/4 lb for any individual by any one delivery, notice shall be given him that it is lying at the post office, he being then obliged to arrange for fetching it.
The most important imports are minerals, including coal and metals (both in pig and wrought); silks, raw, spun and woven; stone, potters earths, earthenware and glass; corn, flour and farinaceous products; cotton, raw, spun and woven; and live stock.
In that year their income, including revenue from capital, was 416,385, and their expenditure 300,232.
The Italian parishes had in 1901 a total gross revenue, including assignments from the public worship endowment fund, of 1,280,000 or an average of 63 per parish; 51% of this gross sum consists of revenue from glebe lands.
Statistics of offences, including contravvenzioni or breaches of by-laws and regulations, exhibit a considerable increase per 100,000 inhabitants since 1887, and only a slight diminution on the figures of 1897.
Including officers on special service or in the reserve.
In 1915 the field army should, including officers and permanent cadres, be about 1,012,000 strong.
In 1902 the special corps in Eritrea numbered about 4700 of all ranks, including nearly 4000 natives.
In 1894 the quota, including the additional tenth, was raised to the uniform level of 20%.
We know from the Roman historians that a large force of Gauls came as far south as Rome in the year 390 B.C., and that some part of this horde settled in what was henceforward known as the Ager Gallicus, the easterdmost strip of coast in what was later known as Umbria, including the towns of Caesna, Ravenna and -Ariminum.
Cisalpine Gaul, including the whole of northern Italy, still constituted a province, an appellation never applied to Italy itself.
The first region comprised Latium (in the more extended sense of the term, as including the land of the Volsci, Hernici and Aurunci), together with Campania and the district of the Picentini.
The sixth region was formed by Umbria, in the more extended sense of the term, as including the Ager Gallicus, along the coast of the Adriatic from the Aesis to the Ariminus, and separated from Etruria on the west by the Tiber.
The former possessed the rich duchies Frecch of Milan (including Mantua) and Tuscany; while Revolu through a marriage alliance with the house of Este UoI, of Modena (the Archduke Ferdinand had married the heiress of Modena) its influence over that duchy was supreme.
It is more important to observe that under Joseph and his ministers or advisers, including the Frenchmen Roederer, Dumas, Miot de Melito and the Corsican Saliceti, great progress was made in abolishing feudal laws and customs, in reforming the judicial procedure and criminal laws on the model of the Code Napoleon, and in attempting the beginnings of elementary education.
By an imperial decree of the I7th of February 1810, Rome and the neighboring districts, including Spoleto, became part of the French empire.
Austria recovered the Milanese, and all the possessions of the old Venetian Republic on the mainland, including Istria and Dalmatia.
Charles Albert could dispose of 90,000 men, including some 30,000 from central Italy, but he took the field with only half his force.
His forces amounted to 80,000 men, including a Lombard corps and some Roman, Tuscan and other volunteers.
On the 2nd of April 1860 the new Italian parliament, including members from central Italy, assembled at Turin.
Thq latter retreated south of the river Mareb, leaving the whole of the cis-Mareb territory, including the provinces of Hamasen, Agameh, Sera and Okul-Kusai, in Italian hands.
The latter, indeed, prosecuted the former for libel and for abuse of his position when premier, but after many vicissitudes, including the flight of Giolitti to Berlin in.
The Italians, including camp-followers, numbered less than 25,000 men, a force too small for effective action, but too large to be easily provisioned at 200 m.
At Genoa, which was in the hands of the teppisti for a couple of days, three persons were killed and 50 wounded, including 14 policemen, and railway communications were interrupted for a short time.
The agitation ceased in June with the defeat of the strikers, but not until a vast amount of damage had been done to the crops and all had suffered heavy losses, including the government, whose expenses for the maintenance of public order ran into tens of millions of lire.
But while the majority of the deputies, were nominally in favor of the bill, the parliamentary committee reported against it, and public opinion was so hostile that an anti-divorce petition received 3,500,000 signatures, including not only those of professing Catholics, but of free-thinkers and Jews, who regarded divorce as unsuitable to Italian conditions.
A pantheist may believe in Law of Nature and go no further; a theist who accepts Law of Nature has a large instalment of natural theology ready made to his hand; including an idealist, or else an intuitionalist, scheme of ethics.
It suggests in every deed a personal but limited God, or a number of Gods - " Religions of spiritual Individuality," including, along with " Judaism," the anthropomorphic religions of Greece and Rome.
The preamble states that the king has granted the charter on the advice of various prelates and barons, some of whom, including the archbishop of Canterbury, the papal legate Pandulf, and William Marshal, earl of Pembroke, are mentioned by name.
Corymorphidae (including the medusa-family Hybocodonidae).--, Trophosome solitary polyps, with two whorls of tentacles; gonosome, free medusae or gonophores.
The town library contains about 100,000 volumes, including some valuable examples of early printing.
The modern doctrine of evolution or " evolving," as opposed to that of simple creation, has been defined by Prof. James Sully in the 9th edition of this encyclopaedia as a " natural history of the cosmos including organic beings, expressed in physical terms as a mechanical process."
At the same time all forms, including the higher intelligible ones, are said to have their existence only in matter.
The city is divided by the rivers (including the small streams Lieve and Moere) and by canals, some navigable, into numerous islands connected by over 200 bridges of various sorts.
For a comprehensive bibliography, including monographs and published documents, see Ulysse Chevalier, Repertoire des sources hist.
What is greatly needed is a new edition of this work including the Asoka inscriptions discovered during the last twenty years, and a similar edition of the other inscriptions.
It is a native of North Africa and Western and Central Asia, including North-West India.
The custom, however, increased, vigils being instituted for the other festivals, including those of saints.
The other vigils are recognized in the calendar (including those of the saints) and the rubric directs that "the collect appointed for any Holy-day that hath a Vigil or Eve, shall be said at the Evening Service next before."
Two or three years of apprenticeship is required in most countries, including Great Britain, but none in Belgium, Greece, Italy or Spain.
In the library of All Souls at Oxford are preserved a large number of drawings by Wren, including the designs for almost all his chief works, and a fine series showing his various schemes for St Paul's Cathedral.
The bestknown name in connexion with them is that of Onomacritus, who, in the time of the Peisistratidae, made a collection (including forgeries of his own) of Orphic songs and legends.
Cuvier's term in its wide extension, however, passed into general use; but, as the anatomy of the different forms became more fully known, the difficulty of including them under the common designation made itself increasingly obvious.
Various local hypertrophies, including galls, result from the increased growth of young tissues irritated by the punctures of insects, or by the presence of eggs or larvae left behind.
The principal symptom may show itself in general pallor, including all cases where the normal healthy green hue is replaced by a sickly yellowish hue indicating that the chlorophyll apparatus is deficient.
Yet in 1886 Treub found that it was beginning to cover itself again with plants, including eleven species of ferns; but the nearest source of supply was 10 m.
China has 66 species of Quercus, 35 of Vitis, 2 of Aesculus, 42 of Acer, 33 Magnoliaceae (including two species of Liriodendron), 12 Anonaceae, 71 Ternstroemiaceae (including the tea-plant), and 4 of Clethra, which has a solitary western representative in Madeira.
On the eastern side the southern flora finds representatives in Abyssinia, including Protea, and on the mountains of equatorial Africa, Calodendron capense occurring on Kilimanjaro.
The most dominant order in Australia is Leguminosae, including the acacias with leaf-like phyllodes (absent in New Zealand).
The fundamental conception of geography is form, including the figure of the earth and the varieties of crustal relief.
In Asia they held Asia Minor and Syria, had sent expeditions into Arabia, and were acquainted with the more distant countries formerly invaded by Alexander, including Persia, Scythia, Bactria and India.
Thus he placed on record the voyages of the merchant Ulfsten in the Baltic, including particulars of the geography of Germany.
Geomorphology is the part of geography which deals with terrestrial relief, including the submarine as well as the subaerial portions of the crust.
Oceanic islands are divided according to their geological character into volcanic islands and those of organic origin, including coral islands.
The city has several parks, including the Franklin of 90 acres, the Goodale of 44 acres, and the Schiller of 24 acres, besides the Olentangy, a well-equipped amusement resort on the banks of the river from which it is named, the Indianola, another amusement resort, and the United States military post and recruiting station, which occupies 80 acres laid out like a park.
Immediately outside the city limits in 1905 were various large and important manufactories, including railway shops, foundries, slaughterhouses, ice factories and brick-yards.
James Hepburn succeeded in 1556 to his father's titles, lands and hereditary offices, including that of lord high admiral of Scotland.
Pop. (1885) 95,725; (1905) including Burtscheid, 143,906.
Bubastis, capital of the 19th nome of Lower Egypt, is now represented by a great mound of ruins called Tell Basta, near Zagazig, including the site of a large temple (described by Herodotus) strewn with blocks of granite.
The former is morphologically the more primitive condition, and is found in the overwhelming majority of birds, including many Passeriformes.
The Miocene has yielded by far the greatest number of bird-bones, including even eggs and imprints of feathers.
The Ethiopian Subregion comprises the whole of Africa and Madagascar, except the Barbary States, but including Arabia; in the north-east the subregion melts into the Palaearctic between Palestine and the Persian Gulf.
Ardeidae, cosmopolitan; including Cancroma, Neotropical, Balaeniceps, Scopidae, Ethiopian.
The second duke, twice married, was father of at least eleven sons and six daughters, the sons including Edward the lord high admiral, killed in boarding Pregent's galleys at Brest, Edmund the knight marshal of the army at Flodden, and William the first Lord Howard of Effingham.
Pop. (1900) 2752; (1905, state census) 533 2, of whom 2975 were foreign-born, including 1145 Finns, 676 Austrians and 325 Swedes.
In the course of his long life he held various civil offices, including that of consul in 273, with universal respect.
This series of frescoes, including a noted " Baptism of Christ," was ruthlessly destroyed by Pius VI.
The surface of the summit (the highest point is variously stated at 3549, 35 82 and 3850 ft.) is broken into small valleys and hills, and is covered with luxuriant vegetation, its flora including the superb orchid Disa grandiflora and the well-known silver tree.
Taking in the suburban population the inhabitants numbered in 1905 about 1 io,000, including 103,000 Annamese, 2289 Chinese and 2665 French, exclusive of troops.
The whole work, including Bower's continuation, was published by Walter Goodall at Edinburgh in 1759.
In 1741 he received his first public distinction in being admitted a member of the Academy of Sciences, to which he had previously presented several papers, including a Memoire sur le calcul integral (1739).
By the Sudan administration this region has been divided into mudirias (provinces), one, including the central portion, retaining the name of Sennar.
The city 1 The state of Panama, with boundaries nearly corresponding to those of the present republic, and including the province of Panama and other provinces, was created in 1855 by legislative enactment.
In the classification adopted in this article, the attempt has been made to combine the best points in old and recent schemes, and to avoid the inconvenience of a large heterogeneous group including the vast majority of the families.
Naturally he selects fire, according to him the most complete embodiment of the process of Becoming, as the principle of empirical existence, out of which all things, including even the soul, grow by way of a quasi condensation, and into which all things must in course of time be again resolved.
It is, however, but thinly peopled on the average, including only one-twelfth of the inhabitants of the earth.
Thus it consists of the immense plains and flat lands which extend between the plateau formation and the Arctic Ocean, including the series of parallel chains and hilly spurs which skirt the former region on the N.W.
It shares with the emperor the legislative power, including the discussion and sanctioning of the budget.
In addition there are governors-general, generally placed over several governments and armed with more extensive powers, usually including the command of the troops within the limits of their jurisdiction.
European plains - the tundras, including the Arctic islands, the forest region, especially the coniferous part of it, and the ante-steppe and steppes of the black earth region.
But generally in from 18 to 33 out of the 72 governments in European Russia (including Caucasia) and Poland the yield of cereals is not sufficient for the wants of the people.
Europe, including Great Britain.
Notwithstanding the wealth of the country in minerals and metals of all kinds, and the endeavours made by government to encourage mining, including the imposition of protective Mining tariffs even against Finland (in 1885), this and the related and re- industries are still at a low stage of development.
As for the revolutionary " intellectuals," without the lever of agrarian discontent they In 1897 only 15% of the population were engaged in commerce or industry, including the work-people.
He first came into public notice as a member of the factory commission of 1874, and afterwards acted as chairman of many other commissions, including that on educational endowments (1882-9).
The example of the Stockton & Darlington line was followed by the Monklands railway in Scotland, opened in 1826, and several other small lines - including the Canterbury & Whitstable, worked partly by fixed engines and partly by locomotives - quickly adopted steam traction.
Germany 36,066 Austria-Hungary,including Bosnia and Herzegovina 25,853 GreatBritain and Ireland 23,108 France 29,717 EuropeanRussia, includ ing Finland 36,280 Italy..
In the thickly settled parts of the United States the number of trespassers killed on the railway tracks, including vagrants who suffer in collisions and derailments while stealing rides, is very large.
In the latest years in which comparisons can be made, the passenger journeys in the United Kingdom amounted to 1500 millions (including season-ticket holders, estimated) and the train n iles to 428.3 millions, while the corresponding figures in the United States were 873.9 millions and 1171.9 millions.
Of train men (including engine-drivers and firemen), one out of 125 employed was killed (all causes), and one in eight injured.
But British share capital has been issued so freely for extension and is ?- provement work of all sorts, including the costly requirements of the Board of Trade, that a situation has been reached where the return on the outstanding securities tends to diminish year by year.
The relation between the b.h.p. and the torque on the driving-axle is 55 o B.H.P. =Tu., (9) It is usual with steam locomotives to regard the resistance R as including the frictional resistances between the cylinders and the driving-axle, so that the rate at which energy is expended in moving the train is expressed either by the product RV, or by the value of the indicated horse-power, the relation between them being 55 0 I.H.P. =RV (Io) or in terms of the torque 55 0 I.H.P.X€=RVe=TW (II) The individual factors of the product RV may have any value consistent with equation (to) and with certain practical conditions, so that for a given value of the I.H.P. R must decrease if V increases.
Such trains, therefore, range in weight from 600 to 1800 tons or even more, and the journey speeds from terminus to terminus, including stops, vary from 15 to 30 m.
The total cost per mile of such a line, including all bolts, nuts, fish-plates and fastenings, ready for laying,, delivered in the United Kingdom, is under Soo a mile.
Among proposed normal explanations of these phenomena that of hallucination (q.v.), including illusion as to what is seen almost amounting to hallucination, deserves careful consideration.
In 1218 he set sail for Esthonia with one of the largest fleets ever seen in northern waters, including a Wendish contingent led by Prince Vitsla y.
There was disagreement from the first, however, with regard to the measure of loyalty to the king, and in 1643, when Massachusetts had asserted her claim to this region and the other three New Hampshire towns had submitted to her jurisdiction, the majority of the inhabitants of Exeter also yielded, while the minority, including the founder, removed from the town.
The schools include the lyceum for philosophy and Catholic theology (a survival of the university suppressed in 1803), a seminary, two gymnasia, a Realschule, and several technical schools, including one for porcelainpainting.
From them it was purchased by the English in 1690, the purchase including not only the fort but the adjacent towns and villages "within ye randome shott of a piece of ordnance."
A great gun was fired to different points of the compass and all the country within its range, including the town of Cuddalore, passed into the possession of the English.
On the 2nd Anne herself was committed to the Tower on a charge of adultery with various persons, including her own brother, Lord Rochford.
The most productive part of the state is the Humboldt Valley and the region near Pyramid Lake, including the counties of Humboldt, Elko and VVashoe.
Until 1870 the state was regularly Republican, but in this year the Democrats gained most of the offices, including the seat in the national House of Representatives.
Of Roman Ravenna nothing remains above ground, though a little has been found by excavation, including a mosaic pavement at Classe.
Pilgrim Hall, a large stone building erected by the Pilgrim Society (formed in Plymouth in 1820 as the successor of the Old Colony Club, founded in 1769) in 1824 and remodelled in 1880, is rich in relics of the Pilgrims and of early colonial times, and contains a portrait of Edward Winslow (the only extant portrait of a "Mayflower" passenger), and others of later worthies, and paintings, illustrating the history of the Pilgrims; the hall library contains many old and valuable books and manuscripts - including Governor Bradford's Bible, a copy of Eliot's Indian Bible, and the patent of 1621 from the Council for New England - and Captain Myles Standish's sword.
Plymouth was the first permanent white settlement in New England, and dates its founding from the landing here from the "Mayflower" shallop of an exploring party of twelve Pilgrims, including William Bradford, on the 21st of December (N.s.) 1620.
Ward left the Church of England in September 1845, and was followed by many others, including Newman himself.
His collected works, including the series of articles on the proper-
It has a wide geographical distribution, being found in Europe (including England), Asia Minor, Burma, Straits Settlements, Java, China, Formosa, Egypt; west, south and Central Africa; Australia, South America, West Indies, United States and Canada, but is generally confined to local centres in those countries.
The ova of Culex, on the other hand, are deposited in any stagnant water, including cesspools, drains, cisterns, or water collected in any vessel; they float in boat-shaped masses on the surface.
Bermondsey is in the parliamentary borough of Southwark, including the whole of Rotherhithe and part of the Bermondsey division.
At the Restoration he received many marks of favour from the king, including grants of land and lucrative monopolies.
Including the suburbs it had, in 1884, 31,400 inhabitants, and 31,413 in 1900.
Thirteen churches, including the Troitskiy (Trinity) and Uspenskiy cathedrals, a bell-tower, a theological academy, various buildings for monks and pilgrims, and a hospital stand within the precincts, which are two-thirds of a mile in circuit.
The city has various manufactures, including flour, cotton-seed oil, lumber, furniture and farm implements.
Portions of the abbey buildings, including the Lady chapel of the church, now converted into a dwelling-house, are incoporated in those of Sherborne grammar school, founded (although a school existed previously) by Edward VI.
Further, as confederates of the senate and people of Rome, the Jews had received accession of territory, including the port of Joppa and, with other material privileges, the right of observing their religious customs not only in Palestine but also in Alexandria and elsewhere.
Imports in 1904 were valued at £549, 66 5, including agricultural products (mainly flour and corn), value £162,535, and textiles, £129,349.
Here too were found the repositories of an early shrine containing exquisite faience figures and reliefs, including a snake goddess - another aspect of the native divinity - and her votaries.
The drainage system here, including a water-closet, is of the most complete and modern kind.
In the neighbourhood are remains of Coptic buildings, including a subterranean church (discovered 1895) in the desert half a mile beyond the limits of cultivation.
A considerable amount of personal property, including furniture, a small library, provisions, tools, agricultural implements, livestock and the proceeds of a life insurance policy, is also exempt from seizure for the satisfaction of debts.
Of the total number of farms 128,978 were operated by owners or part owners, of whom 17,434 were coloured (including Indians); 19,916, by cash tenants, of whom 10,331 were coloured; and 73,092 by share tenants, of whom 26,892 were coloured.
After the outbreak of the War of Independence, the Methodists, who then numbered several thousands, fell, unjustly, under suspicion of Loyalism, principally because of their refusal to take the prescribed oath; and many of their ministers, including Rankin, returned to England.
Bishops alone, including of course the pope and his cardinals, are entitled to wear the pretiosa and auriphrygiata; the others wear the mitra simplex.
On the south this kingdom bordered on the territories of the Niduari Picts of Galloway, including the modern counties of Wigtown and Kirkcudbright, a region which from the middle of the 7th century seems to have been in the possession of the Northumbrians.
Towards the middle of the 8th century Strathclyde was again threatened by an alliance between the Northumbrians and Picts, and in 750 the Northumbrian king Eadberht wrested from them a considerable part of their territories in the west including Kyle in Ayrshire.
In tropical countries ants sometimes make their nests in the hollow thorns of trees or on leaves; species with this habit are believed to make a return to the tree for the shelter that it affords by protecting it from the ravages of other insects, including their own leaf-cutting relations.
Laeliinae, with 22 genera, natives of the warmer parts of America, including three of those best known in cultivation, Epidendrum, Cattleya and Laelia.
Pop. (1890) 2530; (1900) 3072; (1905, state census) 6117, of whom 2755 were foreign-born, including 716 Swedes, 689 Finns, 685 Canadians, and 334 Norwegians.
The river furnishes good water-power, and the city has various manufactures, including lumber, paper, wood pulp, match blocks and boxes.
Only a part of this great continental divide (including such ranges as the Hindu Kush, Tian-shan, Altai or Khangai) rises to any great height, a considerable portion of it being below 5000 ft.
The islands of Japan, not including Sakhalin, of which half is Japanese, lie between the 30th and 45th parallels.
North of the folded belt, and including Emery the greater part of Siberia, Mongolia and northern China, lies another area which is, in general, free from any important folding of Mesozoic or Tertiary age.
The greater part of western Asia, including the basin of the Obi, the drainage area of the Aral Sea, together with Afghanistan, Baluchistan, Persia and Arabia, was covered by the sea during the later stages of the Cretaceous period; but a considerable part 3f this region was probably dry land in Jurassic times.
South and east of the Palaeozoic plateau is an extensive area consisting chiefly of Archean rocks, and including the greater part of Mongolia north of the Tian-shan.
In the spring there is an abundant herbaceous vegetation, including many bulbous plants, with genera, if not species, identical with those of the Syrian region, some of which extend to the Himalaya.
The insects of all southern Asia, including India south of the Himalaya, China, Siam and the Malayan Islands, belong to one.
In general terms they extend, with modifications of character probably due to admixture with other types and to varying conditions of life, over the whole of northern Asia as far south as the plains bordering the Caspian Sea, including Tibet and China, and also over the IndoMalayan peninsula and Archipelago, excepting Papua and some of the more eastern islands.
Persia, including Syria and Arabia, besides extending into North Africa.
It has profoundly affected and to a large extent subjugated all western Asia including India, all eastern and northern Africa as well as Spain, and all eastern Europe.
At present it occupies the extremity of the Malay Peninsula, Java, Sumatra, Borneo, the Philippines and other islands of the Malay Archipelago as well as Madagascar, while the inhabitants of most islands in the South Seas, including New Zealand and Hawaii, speak languages which if not Malay have at least undergone a strong Malay influence.
Mathematics were cultivated by the Chinese, Indians and Arabs, but nearly all the sciences based on the observation of nature, including medicine, have remained in a very backward condition.
Among interesting ancient buildings may be mentioned the palace within the fort, containing an armoury and fine library; and the Brihadiswaraswami temple, of the r rth century, enclosed in two courts, surmounted by a lofty tower and including the exquisitely decorated shrine of Subrahmanya.
The prostomium has many long filaments which recall the gills of the Sabellids, &c. The nephridia are specialized into two series, as in the last-mentioned worms. (5) Spioniformia (including Chaetopterus, Spio, &c.) and (6) Scoleciformia (Arenicola, Chloraema, Sternaspis) are the remaining groups.
As the sentence is about to be carried into execution Lancelot and his kinsmen come to her rescue, but in the fight that ensues many of Arthur's knights, including three of Gawain's brothers, are slain.
For this purpose he wrote the necessary school-books himself, including his well-known History of England.
Remains of some ancient buildings, including a bath and gymnasium, can be traced within this area.
Saalfeld is situated in one of the busiest parts of Meiningen and has a number of prosperous industries, including the manufacture of machinery, bricks, colours, malt, cigars, hosiery and vinegar.
But there were many, including the empress herself, who looked upon him as a man of manifold and commanding genius.
This large tract, extending from the Arabian Sea on the west to the Satpura mountains in the north, comprises a good part of western and central India, including the modern provinces of the Konkan, Khandesh, Berar, the British Deccan, part of Nagpur, and about half the nizam's Deccan.
Some remaining territories of small extent were acquired by the French after the revolution of 1789, including Miilhausen, which had been a republic allied to Switzerland.
The towns were large and flourishing; as many as sixty arose in the period between 1233 and 1416, including Thorn and Elbing, Danzig and Konigsberg (named after Ottocar of Bohemia, who took part in the campaign during which it was founded).