How to use Improvements in a sentence
So these former farmers got jobs in factories, learned to repair equipment, solved problems, became line managers, suggested improvements to processes, and got paid for their effort.
With the improvements in wind instruments this continued, as a more brilliant effect was gained.
Second, in the past, technological improvements did not decrease human beings' propensity to wage war; they only made people better at killing.
Finally he looked away, shifting his attention to the improvements.
The parks are a fine feature of the city; by its charter a fixed percentage of all expenditures for public improvements must be used to purchase park land.Advertisement
South Lowestoft arose on the completion of harbour improvements, begun in 1844, when the outlet of the Waveney, reopened in 1827, was deepened.
The experience gained on the northern survey under Argelander's direction enabled Schdnfeld to introduce some improvements in the methods employed, which increased the accuracy of this work, which was practically accomplished in March 1881, some revision only remaining to be done.
And as there is no branch of art in which mechanical improvements, and the consequent change in the nature of technical difficulties, bear so directly upon the possibilities and methods of external effect, it follows that an exclusive preponderance of this view is not without serious disadvantage from the standpoint of general musical culture.
As it is with mechanical improvements, so is it to a still greater degree with changes in the function of timbre in art.
After about five years great improvements were made in the working of the telegraphs and the industry began to make progress.Advertisement
About this time he introduced various improvements into the receiving apparatus.
In later improvements the secondary circuit of this jigger was interrupted by a small condenser, and the terminals of the relay and local cell were connected to the plates of this condenser, whilst the sensitive tube was attached to the outer ends of the secondary circuit.
With the development of agricultural knowledge, notable improvements have been effected in the manufacture of oil.
The lessee, or farmer, tills the soil at his own risk; usually he provides live stock, implements and capital, and has no right to compensation for ordinary improvements, nor for extraordinary improvements effected without the landlords consent.
Improvement contracts are granted for uncultivated bush districts, where one fourth of the produce goes to the landlord, and for plantations of fig-trees, olive-trees and vines, half of the produce of which belongs to the landlord, who at the end of ten years reimburses the tenant for a part of the improvements effected.Advertisement
Under the gabella lease the contract lasts twenty-nine years, the lessee being obliged to make improvements, but being sometimes exempted from rent during the first years.
Loans on mortgage may also be granted to landowners and agricultural unions, with a view to the introduction of agricultural improvements.
These loans are regulated by special disposition, and are guaranteed by a share of the increased value of the land after the improvements have been carried out.
At first the net revenue from the impost was less than 1,100,000; but under Sellas firm administration (1869-1873), and in consequence of improvements gradually introduced by him, the net return ultimately exceeded 3,200,000.
The prime cause in most cases was the unsatisfactory economic condition of the working classes, which they realized all the more vividly for the very improvements that had been made in it, while education and better communications enabled them to organize themselves.Advertisement
The millions of roubles of redemption money received from the crown have been spent without any real or lasting agricultural improvements having been affected.
There was a waste of metal in these early rails owing to the excessive thickness of the vertical web, and subsequent improvements have consisted in adjusting the dimensions so as to combine strength with economy of metal, as well as in the substitution of steel for wrought iron (after the introduction of the Bessemer process) and in minute attention to the composition of the steel employed.
The main features of the steam locomotive were thus established, and its subsequent development is chiefly a history of gradual increase in size and power, and of improvements in design, in material and in mechanical construction, tending to increased efficiency and economy of operation.
Most of the improvements in operation and in traffic management have had their origin in one of these two countries.
Subsequent improvements on the Sessions patent have resulted in a modified form of vestibule in which the housing is made the full width of the platform, though the contact plate and springs and the flexible connexions remain the same as before.Advertisement
In 1826, in his Memoire sur les roues hydrauliques a aubes courbes, he brought forward improvements in the construction of water-wheels, which more than doubled their efficiency.
The homestead exemption extends to a dwelling-house, with its land and appurtenances, with a value not exceeding $5000; but no exemption is granted against a process to enforce the payment of purchase-money, or for improvements, or for legal taxes, or of a mortgage to which both the husband and wife have consented.
The most magnificent part of the exterior and indeed the finest polychrome monument in existence is the west façade, built of richlysculptured marble from the designs of Lorenzo Maitani of Siena, and divided into three gables with intervening pinnacles, closely resembling the front of Siena cathedral, of which it is a reproduction, with some improvements.
The homestead of a householder (with a family) who occupies it may be held exempt from sale for the collection of debts other than those for purchase-money, taxes, or improvements, or for the satisfaction of a judgment upon a forfeited recognizance or bail-bond, but a homestead so exempted is limited to $3000 in value and to 160 acres of land.
This was stubbornly resisted, and the West assumed a threatening attitude as the East opposed its projects for internal improvements for which the West had the greater need.
The river has been improved by Federal engineers since 1870; in June 1909 (up to which time $ 1, 799, 0 33 had been expended for improvements) there was a channel ioo ft.
It is the improvements in methods, implements and materials, brought about by the application of science, that distinguish the husbandry of the 10th century from that of medieval and ancient times.
This was followed by the Book of Surveying and Improvements (1523), by the same author.
But the two Acts in r695, for the division of commons and separation of intermixed properties, facilitated improvements.
The class to which he belonged was the only one which could afford to initiate improvements.
Leases for a term of years, however, were not uncommon; but the want of capital rendered it impossible for the tenantry to attempt any spirited improvements.
The quarter of a century immediately following 1760 is memorable for the introduction of various important improvements.
The improvements introduced by these energetic and skilful farmers spread rapidly, and exerted a most beneficial influence upon the border counties.
From 1784 to 1795 improvements advanced with steady steps.
This period was distinguished for the adoption and working out of ascertained improvements.
Improvements in the plough, harrow and roller were introduced, adapting those implements to different soils and purposes.
Additional facilities were granted by the act passed in 1848 for disentailing estates, and for burdening such as are entailed with the share of the cost of certain specified improvements.
The scientific and mechanical improvements of the first half of the century were widely adopted, while the prices of the protectionist period showed little decline.
Few, if any, of the faults of that classification are removed, and the improvements suggested, if not established by his successors, those especially of other countries than France, are ignored, or, as is the case with some of those of L'Herminier, are only cited to be set aside.
One of the first great public improvements made within the state was the connexion of these waterways by two canals - the Ohio & Erie Canal from Cleveland to Portsmouth, and the Miami & Erie Canal from Toledo to Cincinnati.
The bridge of chief artistic merit is the Cambridge Bridge (1908), which replaced the old West Boston Bridge, and is one feature of improvements long projected for the beautifying of the Charles river basin.
Comparatively few relics of the early town have been spared by time and the improvements of the modern city.
Great improvements of the harbour were undertaken in 1902 by the United States government, looking to the creation of two broad channels 35 ft.
The remaking of the city was enormously expensive, especially the alteration of the streets after 1866, when the city received power to make such alterations and assess a part of the improvements upon abutting estates.
In the case of proposed drainage improvements, notice in writing must be given to the landlord, who may then execute the improvements himself and charge the tenant with interest not exceeding 5% per annum on the outlay, or such annual instalments, payable for a period of twenty-five years, and recoverable as rent, as will repay the outlay, with interest at the rate of 3% a year.
Compensation was given to market gardeners for unexhausted improvements by the Market Gardeners' Compensation Act 1895 and by the Agricultural Holdings Act 1906 for improvements effected before the commencement of that act on a holding cultivated to the knowledge of the landlord as a market garden, if the landlord had not dissented in writing to the improvements.
The Agricultural Holdings (Scotland) Acts 1883 and 1900, already referred to incidentally, contain provisions - similar to those of the English acts - as to a tenant's right to compensation for unexhausted improvements, removal for non-payment of rent, notice to quit at the termination of a tenancy, and a tenant's property in fixtures.
A Crofters' Commission constituted under the acts has power to fix fair rents, and the crofter on renunciation of his tenancy or removal from his holding is entitled to compensation for permanent improvements.
The improvements desired in cotton vary to some degree in different countries, according to the present character of the plants, climatic conditions, the chief pests, special market requirements, and other circumstances.
The improvements introduced in 1890 and 1891, whereby this state of affairs was put an end to, consisted in the introduction of the principle of supply by meter, and the adoption of a comprehensive system of reducing the initial pressure of the gas, so as to diminish loss by leakage.
A large number of arrangements for carrying out the cracking process have been proposed and patented, probably the earliest directly bearing on the subject being that of James Young, who in 1865 patented his " Improvements in treating hydrocarbon oils."
Improvements in the breed have been effected by the introduction of Arab stallions.
He is also to be credited with the abolition of the gladiatorial shows in 404 (although there is said to be evidence of their existence later), a reduction of the taxes, improvements in criminal law, and the reorganization of the defensores civitatum, municipal officers whose duty it was to defend the rights of the people and set forth their grievances.
The numerous harbours are chiefly artificial, usually located at the mouths of streams, the improvements consisting of two parallel piers extending into the lake and protecting a dredged channel.
Amid many difficulties, and thwarted even by Jefferson himself in the matter of the navy, Gallatin pushed on; and after six years the public debt was decreased (in spite of the Louisiana purchase) by $14,260,000, a large surplus was on hand, a comprehensive and beneficent scheme of internal improvements was ready for execution, and the promised land seemed in sight.
This classical work is still a favourite among students, the improvements on its methods made since its publication being rather in details than in general principles.
In 1868 the Japanese government converted the shipyard into a naval dockyard, and subsequently carried out many improvements.
In 1829 the hand of its leaders was shown, when, in addition to its antagonism to the Masons, it became a champion of internal improvements and of the protective tariff.
The president of the board has charge of public work and improvements.
Messinger, and we may hope that with subsequent improvements it may be adapted to all classes of organic compounds.
During his residence in London he applied himself to the discovery of methods for curing smoky chimneys and the contrivance of improvements in the construction of fireplaces.
Any suggestions as to improvements in institutions must be approved by the majority of the governing body of that institution before they may be put into effect.
Among the governors of the 19th century Miguel Tacon, governor in 1834-1839, a forceful and high-handed soldier, deserves mention, especially in the annals of Havana; he ruled as a tyrant, made many reforms as regarded law and order, and left Havana, in particular, full of municipal improvements.
Many improvements were, nevertheless, introduced by the government after 1878.
For the introduction of improvements something, however, was done by the creation in 1892 of a special ministry of agriculture, to which is attached the department of mines and forests, formerly under the minister of finance.
In 1871 he had so far advanced as to receive the silver medal of the Edinburgh Society of Arts for a paper suggesting improvements in lighthouse apparatus.
Its public buildings are good and it has the improvements of a modern town.
Many improvements and extra protective works were carried out after 1816, and it was estimated that the total cost of this great engineering undertaking from 1807 to 1902 amounted to about X200,000, the date for the completion of the work being 1911.
He at first favoured internal improvements, and in 1824 proposed a constitutional amendment to authorize such undertakings, but the next year took ground against them.
Important improvements have been undertaken in some of these ports.
The gas and electric lighting is in the hands of private firms. The administration of the park, the city improvements and the water and sewerage departments have been handed over to boards and trusts.
The appropriation of 1806 for the construction of the road had brought into national politics the question of the authority of the Federal government to make " internal improvements."
This latter process is growing every year, and is coupled with great improvements in agricultural methods, such as more intensive cultivation, the use of the most modern implements and the application of scientific discoveries.
Although great improvements have been effected in the educational system of the country since 1867, Hungary is still backward in the matter of general education, as in 1900 only a little over 50% of the population could read and write.
But though reaction was the motive power of this new machinery of government, it could not do away with many of the practical and obvious improvements of 1848, and it was not blind to some of the indispensable requirements of a.
The Romans, who succeeded the Greeks as the chief civilized power in Europe, failed to set store on their literary and scientific treasures; mathematics was all but neglected; and beyond a few improvements in arithmetical computations, there are no material advances to be recorded.
These works possess considerable originality, and contain many new improvements in algebraic notation; the unknown (res) is denoted by a small circle, in which he places an integer corresponding to the power.
Huxley adopted in his lectures (1869) a classification which was in many respects similar to both of the foregoing, but embodied improvements of his own.
It would seem, however, that further improvements are not excluded.
A department of agriculture was established in 1902, and through its efforts great improvements have been made in the methods of farming.
General statistical information, and improvements in the metallurgy, &c., are recorded annually in The Mineral Industry.
Since 1842, but more especially since 1871, improvements have been made in the navigability of the Elbe by all the states which border upon its banks.
Since 1896 great improvements have been made in the Moldau and the Bohemian Elbe, with the view of facilitating communication between Prague and the middle of Bohemia generally on the one hand, and the middle and lower reaches of the Elbe on the other.
The mere control of existing traffic, local street improvements and provision of new means of communication between casual points, were felt to miss the root of the problem, and in 1903 a Royal Commission was appointed to consider the whole question of locomotion and transport in London, expert evidence being taken from engineers, representatives of the various railway and other companies, of the County Council, borough councils and police, and others.
The commission reported in 1905.1 regard to street improvements the most important commis- recommendation was that of the construction of two 1903, main avenues 140 ft.
Many widenings and other improvements of existing thoroughfares, and extensions of tramways were proposed, and detailed recommendations were made as regards urban and suburban railways, and the rehousing of the working population on the outskirts of London.
This authority, it was advised, should consist of 40 members, of whom II should be nominated by the London County Council and 3 by the Corporation of the City (supposing these bodies to accept certain financial responsibilities proposed in the direction of river improvements), 5 by the governors of the Bank of England from the mercantile community, 2 by the London Chamber of Commerce, and I each by the Admiralty, Board of Trade and Trinity House.
Many improvements upon the original construction have been FIG.
The demand constantly increases, and, owing to constant improvements in material in the moulds and in the methods of working, the supply fully keeps pace with the demand.
The process originally suggested by Mansfield is generally followed, the success of the operation being principally conditioned by the efficiency of the dephlegmator, in which various improvements have been made.
The Assyrian forces became a standing army, which, by successive improvements and careful discipline, was moulded into an irresistible fighting machine, and Assyrian policy was directed towards the definite object of reducing the whole civilized world into a single empire and thereby throwing its trade and wealth into Assyrian hands.
Successive improvements were introduced into it by the kings of the second Assyrian empire; chariots were superseded by cavalry; Tiglath-pileser III.
Great improvements have been made in the means of feeding the mills with canes by doing away with hand labour and substituting mechanical feeders or rakes, which by means of a simple steam-driven mechanism will rake the canes from the cane waggons on to the cane-carriers.
But this competition among inventors, whatever the incentive, has not been without benefit, because to-day, by means of very simple improvements in details, such as the addition of circulators and increased area of connexions, what may be taken to be the standard type of multiple-effect evaporator (that is to say, vertical vacuum pans fitted with vertical heating tubes, through which passes the liquor to be treated, and outside of which the steam or vapour circulates) evaporates nearly double the quantity of water per square foot of heating surface per hour which was evaporated by apparatus in use so recently as 1885 - and this without any increase in the steam pressure.
At the present day, thanks to the careful study of many years, the improvements of cultivation, the careful selection of seed and suitable manuring, especially with nitrate of soda, the average beet worked up contains 7% of fibre and 93% of juice, and yields in Germany 12.79% and in France 11.6% of its weight in sugar.
Among the most recent improvements must be mentioned the Brausenwerther Platz, flanked by the theatre, the public baths, and the railway station and administrative offices.
The chief improvements in the plant of these processes are concerned with the manufacture of the retorts or muffles, and especially with the introduction of gas-firing.
In the latter part of the 10th century there were numerous improvements but no fundamental alterations in the construction of the ordinary plough.
In regard to methods and apparatus, mention should be made of his improvements in the technique of organic analysis, his plan for determining the natural alkaloids and for ascertaining the molecular weights of organic bases b y means of their chloroplatinates, his process for determining the quantity of urea in a solution - the first step towards the introduction of precise chemical methods into practical medicine - and his invention of the simple form of condenser known in every laboratory.
There is a good public library; much attention has been devoted to public improvements; and the water works and the electric lighting plants are owned and operated by the city.
Later critics, judging from their own notions of the natural course of development in art, ascribed to Daedalus such improvements as separating the legs.
During the administration (1872-1876) of President Pardo the government borrowed heavily from the banks to avoid the suspension of work on the railways and port improvements.
He was anticipated in the improvements he claimed to have made in it, and all he seems really to have done was to popularize it.
The acreage of improved farm land in Rhode Island decreased from 356,487 in 1850 to in 1900, but the value of farm property (including land with improvements, implements, machinery and live stock) increased in the same period from $19,100,640 to $26,989,189.
In the session of 1870 Gladstone's principal work was the Irish Land Act, of which the object was to protect the tenant against eviction as long as he paid his rent, and to secure to him the value of any improvements which his own industry had made.
In the words of Dr Kriegk, Geschichte von Frankfurt, (1871), the insurrection completely destroyed the political power of the gilds, gave new strength to the supremacy of the patriciate, and brought no further advantage to the rest of the citizens than a few improvements in the organization and administration of the magistracy.
From 1853 to 1855 he was employed on Western river improvements, and in 1855 he became lieut.-colonel of the 1st U.S. Cavalry.
Of the many different improvements mention may scope FIG.
He, the satirist of the true-born Englishman, was himself a model, with some notable variations and improvements, of the Englishman of his period.
It was proposed in 1838 by Lewis Thompson, but it was only applied commercially after Miller's improvements in 1867, when it was adopted at the Sydney mint.
At the same time improvements in agriculture and the opening up of new countries have enabled the modern community to gain its food and raw material with a less expenditure of labour force, and the surplus agricultural population has gone to the city.
By the Belfast Harbour Acts the commissioners were empowered to borrow more than 2,500,000 in order to carry out several new works and improvements in the port.
Le Marchant, and considerable municipal improvements and embellishments were completed.
The mayor is superintendent of the department of public affairs, and each of the other administrative departments (accounts and finances, public safety, streets and public improvements, and parks and public property) is under the charge of one of the councilmen.
After the accession of the Whigs to office in 1832 he held various important offices in the ministry, and most of the measures of reform for Scotland, such as burgh reform, the improvements in the law of entail, and the reform of the sheriff courts, owed much to his sagacity and energy.
Many regions of Italy and the provinces besides the city itself benefited by the care and munificence which the emperor bestowed on such public improvements.
The telegraph cable companies were quick to apply and to extend the oceanographical methods useful in cable-laying, and to their practical acuteness many of the most important improvements in apparatus are due.
In the course, of investigating this special problem great improvements were made in the methods of observing in the deep sea, and also in the representation and discussion of the data obtained, and a powerful stimulus was given to the study of oceanography in all the countries of Europe.
This work led to important improvements in the processes of candle-manufacture.
Other federal improvements undertaken are a harbour at Muscatine, a harbour of refuge below Davenport and channel improvements at Clinton.
A homestead cannot be conveyed or encumbered without the consent of both husband and wife, if held by a married man; and a homestead, to the value of $500, is exempt from liability for debts postdating the purchase, unless for improvements on the property.
But in 1753 he was eagerly engaged in having several of his improvements incorporated in a new press, and more than twenty years after was actively interested in John Walter's scheme of " logography."
In addition to his interest in politics and public improvements, he devoted much study to the natural sciences; among his published works are a Memoir on the Antiquities of Western New York (1818), and Letters on the Natural History and Internal Resources of New York (1822).
Improvements were introduced much more slowly than in England, the cost of cotton machinery as late as 1826 being 50-60% greater in America.
Armstrong resigned his position in 1863, and for seventeen years the government adhered to the older method of loading, in spite of the improvements which experiment and research at Elswick and elsewhere had during that period produced in the mechanism and performance of heavy guns.
In spite of its classical associations and of modern improvements, Weimar still retains much of its medieval character.
With the exception of the addition of a pin-hole to the tangent sight and cross wires to the fore-sight, and of minor improvements, and Field of the introduction of French's crossbar sight and the artillery reciprocating sight, of which later, no great advance was sights.
The improvements in gun mountings mentioned above led the way to the introduction of the automatic sight.
On the 30th of September 1909 the state debt, most of which was created since 1895 for the purpose of canal improvements, amounted to $41,230,660.
The importance of hemp as an export - increasing from £26,000 in 1898 to £832,000 in 1907 - has led to improvements in cleaning and grading it.
Buildings, improvements, and live stock are exempted.
In 33 he was chosen aedile and signalized his tenure of office by effecting great improvements in the city of Rome, restoring and building aqueducts, enlarging and cleansing the sewers, and constructing baths and porticos, and laying out gardens.
He was one of the most conspicuous advocates of the Pacific railroads, and of many other internal improvements.
These improvements caused Galle to be abandoned as a port of call for steamers in favour of Colombo, while Trincomalee has been abandoned as a naval station.
His results, according to Kelvin, led directly and speedily to the present practical method of surface-condensation, one of the most important improvements of the steam engine, especially for marine use, since the days of James Watt.
His programme was to be an honourable mediator in the German-Bohemian quarrel, to extend the railway system, and to satisfy the wishes of the Poles in the waterways question by an expenditure of 73.4 million kronen on canal construction in Galicia, to which Galicia was to contribute only 9.4 million kronen, the State finding the other 64, and by an expenditure of 125 millions on river improvements, 99 of which would be contributed by the State.
Sir Isaac Newton introduced several important improvements into the Cambridge edition of 1672; in 1715 Dr Jurin issued another Cambridge edition with a valuable appendix; in 1733 the whole work was translated into English by Dugdale; and in 1736 Dugdale's second edition was revised by Shaw.
During his brief reign at Naples, Joseph effected many improvements; he abolished the relics of feudalism, reformed the monastic orders, reorganized the judicial, financial and educational systems, and initiated several public works.
The exemption is not valid against a debt created for the purchase money, or against taxes levied on the property, or against mechanics' or labourers' liens for work done or material furnished for improvements, or against a mortgage acknowledged by both husband and wife.
Since the institution of the Ministry of Justice in 1892 very great improvements have been effected in this branch of the administration.
This convention also modified the extra-territorial rights enjoyed by France in Siam, and disclosed an inclination to recognize the material improvements of the preceding years.
Imports, principally timber, grain, cotton and linseed, increased owing to these improvements from L116,179 in 1881 to £816,698 in 1899; and exports (coal, machinery and manufactured goods) from £83,000 in 1883 to £261,873 in 1899.
In Military Park is a monument to MajorGeneral Philip Kearny (1815-1862), and in Washington Park is a monument to Seth Boyden (1785-1870), a Newark inventor of malleable iron, of machinery for making nails, and of improvements in the steam-locomotive.
The improvements effected in Brussels during the 19th century were enormous, and completely transformed the city.
Other improvements projected in 1908 on the slope of the hill immediately below the Place Royale included the removal of the old tortuous and steep street called the "Montagne de la Cour" to give place to a Mont des Arts.
These improvements connote the obliteration of the insanitary and overcrowded courts and alleys which were to be found between all the main streets, few in number, connecting the upper and the lower towns.
In the course of a few years this mileage was to be largely increased, Parliament having voted some 6,500 million crowns for further construction and improvements.
Then the great improvements in transportation caused competition in agricultural products to be felt, especially from the United States.
In this post he was responsible for several improvements in the service; and when the Civil War opened he accompanied Scott, then assistant secretary of war, to the front.
In 1862 he received the gold medal of the latter society, and in 1864 a Royal medal from the Royal Society, for his observations on the total eclipse of the sun in 1860, and for his improvements in astronomical photography.
He introduced several practical improvements, such as the measurement of time to tenths of a second; and he prevailed upon the government to replace Bird's mural quadrant by a repeating circle 6 ft.
In 1850-1851 he was a member of the convention to revise the Virginia constitution, and advocated white manhood suffrage, internal improvements, and the abolition of imprisonment for debt.
Deville made many improvements, but the method remained wasteful and uneconomical, and in 1872 the metal cost 4s.
In 1749, having been selected as a Harbour of Refuge for the Downs, it underwent great improvements, and henceforward paid £200 yearly to Sandwich out of the droits for clearing the Channel and repairing the banks of the river Stour within the Liberty; but by 1790 the harbour was of small account.
Personally most frugal, Leo reduced taxes, made justice less costly, and was able to find money for certain public improvements; yet he left the finances more confused than he had found them, and even the elaborate jubilee of 1825 did not really mend matters.
From 1820 to 1836 Maryland, in its enthusiasm over internal improvements, incurred an indebtedness of more than $16,000,000.
The system of representation that, with the rapid growth of population in the north-east sections, especially in the city of Baltimore, placed the government in the hands of a decreasing minority also began to be attacked about this time; but the fear of that minority which represented the tobacco-raising and slave-holding counties of south Maryland, with respect to the attitude of the majority toward slavery prevented any changes until 1837, when the opposition awakened by the enthusiasm over internal improvements effected the adoption of amendments which provided for the election of the governor and senators by a direct vote of the people, a slight increase in the representation of the city of Baltimore and the larger counties, and a slight decrease in that of the smaller counties.
Scarcely had these amendments been carried when the serious financial straits brought on by debt incurred through the state's promotion of internal improvements gave rise to the demand for a reduction of governmental expenses and a limitation of the power of the General Assembly to contract debts.
There was also a useful collection of texts by Prof. Charteris of Edinburgh, Canonicity (1880), based on Kirchhofer, Quellensamm- lung (1844), but with improvements.
In 1900 the value of farm land and improvements was $291,117,430; of buildings on farms, $90,887,460; of livestock, $73,739,106.
At first only one surface of the copper was plated with silver and thus its usefulness was necessarily restricted, but it was a simple matter to apply the silver to both sides and thenceforward whatever was made in solid metal could be reproduced in plate, and firm after firm went into the business, ever and anon introducing further improvements.
Its fixed capital consists chiefly of (1) machines, (2) buildings which are the means of procuring a revenue, (3) agricultural improvements and (4) the acquired and useful abilities of all members of the society (since sometimes known as "personal capital").
This was published in 1876 under the title Tables for the formation of logarithms and antilogarithms to twenty-four or any less number of places, and contains the most complete and useful application of the method, with many improvements in points of detail.
It was first formally proposed as an independent method, with great improvements, by Robert Flower in The Radix, a new way of making Logarithms, which was published in 1771; and Leonelli, in his Supplement logarithmique (1802-1803), already noticed, referred to Flower and reproduced some of his tables.
The homestead law of New Hampshire exempts from seizure for debt five hundred dollars' worth of any person's homestead except for the enforcement of a mortgage upon it, for the collection of debts incurred in making repairs or improvements, or for the collection of taxes.
These improvements, inter alia, enabled vessels drawing up to 23 ft.
The corporation has shown some concern for the housing of the poor, and an extensive scheme taken up in 1904 included the provision of cottage dwellings in the suburbs, as at Clontarf, besides improvements within the city itself.
He made important researches in photochemistry, made portrait photography possible by his improvements (1839) on Daguerre's process, and published a Text-book on Chemistry (1846), Text-book on Natural Philosophy (1847), Textbook on Physiology (1866), and Scientific Memoirs (1878) on radiant energy.
National Wealth.Mulhall has estimated the aggregate wealth of the United States in 1790 at $620,000,000, assigning of this value $479,000,000 to lands and $141,000,000 to buildings and improvements.
This is due to improvements in mining methods and reduction processes, which have made profitable low-grade ores that were not commercially available in 1880.
Of recent years there has been a great revival of interest in the improvement of inland waterways upon systematic plans, which promises better than an earlier period of internal improvements in the first half of the 19th century, the results of which were more or less disastrous for the state and local governments that undertook them, and only less so for the national government.
The department of war controls the formerly very small, but now largely increased, army of the United States; and its corps of engineers execute the river and harbour improvements ordered by Congress.
Improvements, however, in the beartrap have been introduced in the United States, one of the best novel forms being shown in fig.
Leonhard Euler took up the subject several times during his life, effecting mainly improvements in the theory of the various series.
The Aldine (Venice, 1516) was unfortunately based on a very corrupt MS. The first substantial improvements in the text were due to Casaubon (Geneva, 1587; Paris, 1620), whose text remained the basis of subsequent editions till that of Coraes (Paris, 1815-1819), who removed many corruptions.
There are also annual agricultural exhibitions of a highly important character, where improvements in connexion with agricultural and horticultural products, live-stock, implements, &c., are shown in competition.
Up to the 30th of June 1907 the government of the United States expended $2,384,557 on improvements along the Arkansas.
But it will be the most ancient one according to the direct line of transmission, and the purest in the sense of being the freest from traceable errors of copying and unauthorized improvements.
Here he introduced many improvements in map-making, and gained a scientific reputation which led (in 1751) to his election to the chair of economy and mathematics in the university of Gottingen.
His name is best known for the improvements he effected in the mirrors of reflecting telescopes and especially in the construction of the microscope.
Repsold introduced essential improvements in the meridian circles by substituting microscopes (on Jesse Ramsden's plan) for the verniers to read the circles, and by making the various parts perfectly symmetrical.
Several improvements have been carried out in the city and port, and the place is developing rapidly as an industrial centre.
In 1835-1837 and 1839-1841 Johnson was a Democratic member of the state House of Representatives, and in 1841-1843 of the state Senate; in both houses he uniformly upheld the cause of the " common people," and, in addition, opposed legislation for " internal improvements."
He also advocated the homestead law and low tariffs, opposed the policy of " internal improvements," and was a zealous worker for budget economies.
One of these improvements consists of a central avenue cut across the old city from a point on the water-front near the Passeio Publico northward to the Sande water-front.
An extensive system of sewers was constructed by the City Improvements Co., an English corporation, which initiated the work in 1853; and a separate system of rain-water drains.
With the completion of these improvements the water-front of the city will consist entirely of deep-water walls from Botafogo to the Ponta do Caju, with the exception of a short section between the Ponta do Calabougo and the Avenida Central.
Here are narrow streets typical of the medieval mercantile town, though modern improvements have destroyed some of them; and there are a few ancient houses.
These improvements comprise a series of inner breakwaters and piers and an outer breakwater of stone and cement, 4 m.
Since that time numerous improvements have been carried out.
The measures by which the government of India chiefly endeavours to reduce the liability of the country to famine are the promotion of railways; the extension of canal and well irrigation; the reclamation of waste lands, with the establishment of fuel and fodder reserves; the introduction of agricultural improvements; the multiplication of industries; emigration; and finally the improvement where necessary of the revenue and rent systems. In times of famine the function of the railways in distributing the grain is just as important as the function of the irrigation-canals in increasing the amount grown.
Having grown up within fortifications, where every foot of ground was precious, it is mostly, in spite of recent improvements, a labyrinth of narrow, tortuous, up-and-down streets, accommodating themselves to the irregularities of the ground, few of them fit for wheel carriages.
These great improvements, due to the genius of Galileo, of Bacon, of Descartes, are the fresh beginnings of modern thought, from which we dare not turn back without falling into obscurantism.
Great improvements took place likewise in armour and weapons; the equipment of the warriors whose relics have been found in the Schleswig bog-deposits, dating from the 4th and 5th centuries, appears to have been vastly superior to that which Tacitus represents as normal among the Germani of his day.
The quaint characteristics of the hilly site of the old town have largely been destroyed by modern improvements, which began in 1836 and were not quite completed in 1910.
The committee reported in July 1840, and after minor improvements by the makers the admiralty compass, the card of which is shown in figs.
Apparently the real problem is one of population adequate to effect the improvements demanded.
In 1824 the state legislature authorized the appointment of a commission to explore routes from the Schuylkill to Pittsburg, and from the West Branch of the Susquehanna to the Allegheny, and in the three or four succeeding years the state committed itself to a very extensive system of internal improvements.
A second hospital was opened at Pittsburg in 1853 (act of 1848), but the location was ruined by Pennsylvania railway improvements, and in 1862 it was removed to a new site about 7 m.
The state was also carried along by the movement which began about 1825 for the expenditure of public funds on internal improvements.
A split among the Democrats in 1835, due to the opposition of the Germans to internal improvements and to the establishment of a public school system, resulted in the election as governor of Joseph Ritner, the antiMasonic candidate.
A Republican in politics, and a firm believer in the doctrines of strict construction and state sovereignty which Thomas Jefferson had been principally instrumental in formulating, he opposed consistently the demand for internal improvements and increased tariff duties, and declined to follow Henry Clay in the proposed recognition of the independence of the Spanish colonies in South America and in the Missouri Compromise legislation.
The improvements at Antwerp are not confined to the construction of new docks.
It is policed, however, by troops of United States cavalry with headquarters at Fort Yellowstone, near the Mammoth Hot Springs, and the building of roads and other improvements is under the direction of the Secretary of War.
The object of the hybridizer is to obtain varieties exhibiting improvements in hardihood, vigour, size, shape, colour, fruitfulness, resistance to disease or other attributes.
At one time these gardens were in the centre of the city itself, but owing to modern improvements they have been gradually pushed out beyond the city boundaries farther and farther.
Statistics.-The cheapening of manufacture by improvements in processes and machinery, and by the increase in the scale of operations, has been very great.
This diversion may be unwelcome, but it is inevitable for the two simple reasons that the wonderful improvements in agriculture decrease the number of men needed to raise a given quantity of food, i.e.
By the completion of the engineering works on the Weser in 1887-1899, whereby, among other improvements, the river was straightened and deepened to 18 ft., large ocean-going vessels are able to steam right up to the city itself.
But the maintenance of the " servitudes," the want of pasture-land, the lack of money for improvements, and the very rapid increase in the price of land, all helped to counteract the benefits of the agrarian measures of 1864.
For these improvements co-operation was necessary; the better claims, which in 1872 had risen from £100 to more than £4000 in value, began to be consolidated, and a Mining Board was introduced.
Many improvements have been made in and about the city since the American occupation in 1898.
Manila is important chiefly for its commerce, and to make it the chief distributing point for American goods consigned to Eastern markets the American government undertook the harbour improvements, and abolished the tonnage dues levied under Spanish rule.
The improvements he introduced in the tenures of his peasantry anticipated in some respects the agricultural reforms of the next generation.
But the editors omitted, altered, added, separated, combined and so forth entirely at their pleasure, actually making some changes which seem to have been thought improvements of style.
Fizeau's method, introducing various improvements in the apparatus, which added greatly to the accuracy of the results.
In the legislature, like the other representatives of that county, who were called the "Long Nine," because of their stature, he worked for internal improvements, for which lavish appropriations were made, and for the division of Sangamon county and the choice of Springfield as the state capital, instead of Vandalia.
Great improvements have been made in the city since the end of colonial rule, especially as regards the streets, the water-supply and other public works, and sanitation.
In 1876 he exhibited an apparatus embodying the results of his studies in the transmission of sound by electricity, and this invention, with improvements and modifications, constitutes the modern commercial telephone.
Owing to tariff restrictions, the United States' market is being more and more abandoned, and improvements in cold storage are making it possible to export to Great Britain increasing quantities of butter and cheese.
For example, he seems to have occasionally dictated the same sura to different persons in slightly different terms. In such cases, no doubt, he may have partly intended to introduce improvements; and so long as the difference was merely in expression, without affecting the sense, it could occasion no perplexity to his followers.
In 1709 he became professor of botany and medicine, and in that capacity he did good service, not only to his own university, but also to botanical science, by his improvements and additions to the botanic garden of Leiden, and by the publication of numerous works descriptive of new species of plants.
The pasha was Alls no longer a figure in Europeanpolitics,buthe continued authority to occupy himself with his improvements, real or imaginary, in Egypt.
P. de Candolle introduced several improvements into the system.
Drainage works were continued, roads cut, and other improvements effected during the 9th century.
Owing to the improvements effected by the European Commission, there is a depth of 24 ft.
This new and unexpected knowledge, and modern improvements in the science of excavation, have led to the reexploration of several old sites.
This contained some elegant and valuable improvements on then existing methods, which have themselves, however, long been superseded.
It was reprinted in 1738, with great alterations and improvements; and a third edition was afterwards published with additions in 1756.
Many of the most important improvements in the construction of ships, especially steam vessels, are due to the enterprise and skill of the Clyde shipbuilders, who, from the time of Robert Napier of Shandon (1791-1876), who built and engined the first steamers for the Cunard Company, formed in 1840, have enjoyed an unrivalled reputation for the construction of leviathan liners, both as regards mechanical appliances and the beauty and convenience of the internal arrangements.
In 1910 contractors were at work on improvements to the port to cost about 1,666,000, under a decree of the 3rd of December 1908.
We hear of frequent improvements being made in it during the imperial period.
Apart from these the act of 1850 respecting improvements in towns initiated consultative committees.
That the principle of exempting or allowing for improvements is one of general acceptance, but may be capable of further extension.
Though Hastings always prided himself specially upon that reform, as well as upon the improvements he introduced into the collection of the revenues from salt and opium, his name will be remembered in history for the boldness d success of his foreign policy.
In spite of the improvements in the manufacture of optical glass practically the same crown and flint glasses as used by John Dollond in 1758 for achromatic objectives are still used for all the largest of the modern refracting telescopes.
Successive Arab dynasties looted it, and many monuments of antiquity suffered (to be finally swept away by "municipal improvements" under the French regime).
The friars promoted the social and economic advancement of the islands, cultivated the native taste for music, introduced improvements in agriculture and imported Indian corn and cacao from America.
The international position of the Ottoman empire was strengthened by the able, if Machiavellian, statecraft of the sultan; while the danger of disruption from within was lessened by the more effective central control made possible by railways, telegraphs, and the other mechanical improvements borrowed from western civilization.
His services to industry included his improvements in the processes for the manufacture of sulphuric acid (1818) and oxalic acid (1829); methods of estimating the amount of real alkali in potash and soda by the volume of standard acid required for neutralization, and for estimating the available chlorine in bleaching powder by a solution of arsenious acid; directions for the use of the centesimal alcoholometer published in 1824 and specially commended by the Institute; and the elaboration of a method of assaying silver by a standard solution of common salt, a volume on which was published in 1833.
Among his research work of this period may be mentioned the improvements in organic analysis and the investigation of fulminic acid made with the help of Liebig, who, gained the privilege of admission to his private laboratory in 1823-1824.
In the article Deportation it is shown how the discoveries in the southern seas led to the adoption of penal exile in preference to other suggested improvements in the English prison systems. The penitentiary scheme proposed by Howard was not, however, abandoned.
Nor is it only in distant corners of the great continent that this criticism applies, though constant improvements are removing the grounds for it.
Khalid lived on a very rich scale and was extraordinarily liberal, and he was charged with having carried out all his improvements for his own interests, and upbraided for selling the corn of his estates only when the prices were high.
Instead of managing the land by the constant repetition of the same processes, by a customary immobility of tenure and service, by communalistic restrictions on private enterprise and will, local society began to try improvements, to escape from the bounds of champion farming.
Of recent years many improvements have been made in the town, which has two important suburbsParadiso to the south and Cassarate to the east.
Some improvements, however, have been effected under Japanese direction.
Subsequent improvements included the formation of two new dry docks (1896) with a floor-length of 557 ft.
As a result of these improvements land and timber values have markedly risen, and great impetus has been given to traffic on the rivers, which carry a large part of the cotton, lumber, coal, stone, hay and miscellaneous freights of the state.
The greatest of these internal improvements is the St Francis levee, from New Madrid, Missouri, to the mouth of the St Francis, 212 m.
Homesteads belonging to the head of a family and containing 80 to 160 acres (according to value) if in the country, or a lot of ¢ to one acre (according to value), if in town, village or city, are exempt from liability for debts, excepting liens for purchase money, improvements or taxes.
The hydraulic process received an immense development through successive improvements of method and machinery.
In 1904, when the U.S. Census Report showed California to be the twenty-first state of the Union in population but the sixth in wealth, the total estimated true value of all property was $4,115,491,106, of which $2,664,472,025 was the value of real property and improvements thereon.
A homestead, entered upon record and limited to a value of $5000 if held by the head of a family and to a value of $loon if held by one not the head of a family, is exempt from liability for debts,except for a mortgage; a lien before it was claimed as a homestead is a lien afterward for improvements.
The homestead of a householder who is the head of a family or of any resident of the state who has attained the age of sixty years is exempt, to the value of $1500, or 160 acres of land, from execution and attachment arising from any debt, contract or civil obligation other than taxes, purchase money or improvements, so long as it is occupied by the owner or his or her family, and the exemption inures for the benefit of a widow, widower or minor children.
It is now generally admitted that the improvements of the alphabet were made by traders in the interests of commerce, and that these improvements began from the great Greek emporia of Asia Minor, above all from Miletus.
Under his guidance great improvements were made in schools and sanitation.
Its commerce developed rapidly in the last quarter of the 19th century, largely as a result of improvements in its communications by road and rail; the population in the same period increased by more than one-third.
A fresh patent, taken out in 1775, covered several additional improvements in the processes of carding, roving and spinning.
Towards the close of this period many improvements were introduced, although the want of irrigation is still keenly felt.
By the 1st of January 1861 Virginia had incurred a debt amounting to nearly $39,000,000, principally in aid of internal improvements.
At the beginning Virginia colonists had held their land and improvements in common.
After assisting the minister in his wiselyconceived but unavailing schemes of reform during the brief period of his tenure of office, Du Pont shared his dismissal and retired to Gatinais, in the neighbourhood of Nemours, where he employed himself in agricultural improvements.
About 1839, on the recommendation of Graham, whom in 1837 he had accompanied to University College, London, he was appointed chemist at James Muspratt's alkali works in Lancashire; in connexion with alkali he showed that cast-iron vessels could be satisfactorily substituted for silver in the manufacture of caustic soda, and worked out improvements in the production of chlorate of potash.
In the latter year $49,954,311 'of this was in live-stock (increase 1890-1900, 121.1%), the remaining value in land with improvements and machinery.
Two large rivers, Kemi and Tornea, enter the head of the Gulf of Bothnia, while the Ulea is now navigable throughout, owing to improvements in its channel.
From the beginning of his career he was in favour of internal improvements as a means of opening up the fertile but inaccessible West, and was opposed to the abuse of official patronage known as "the spoils system."
He was only twenty-two, when, as an opponent of slavery, he vainly urged an emancipation clause for the new constitution of Kentucky, and he never ceased regretting that its failure put his state, in improvements and progress, behind its free neighbours.
Davy, and improvements initiated by Wollaston and Robert Hare (1781-1858) of Philadelphia.
Weber effected great improvements in them and in the construction and use of galvanometers.
The uniform result of all experiments has only been to demonstrate the scientific soundness of the ordinary process of water-retting, and all the proposed improvements of recent times seek to obviate the tediousness, difficulties and uncertainties of the process as carried on in the open air.
In connexion with improvements in retting, Mr Michael Andrews, secretary of the Belfast Flax Supply Association, made some suggestions and experiments which deserve close attention.
The soil is extremely fertile, and, with a fair rainfall, say 13 in., between November and April, yields magnificent crops, but the improvements in agriculture are scarcely satisfactory.
Modern improvements and the use of imported machinery have, however, been adopted by some.
A director of agriculture was appointed in 1896, and leaflets are issued pointing out improvements within the means of the villager, and how to deal with plant diseases and insect pests.
The production of qualities which would have suited many purposes of consumption was prohibited, and the odious supervision which became necessary involved great waste of time and a stereotyped regularity which resisted all improvements.
This same press, with a few modifications, was apparently still in general use till the early part of the 17th century, when Willem Janszon Blaeu (1J71-1638) of Amsterdam, who was appointed map maker to the Dutch Republic in 1633, made some substantial improvements in it.
The value of these various improvements, which were in details rather than in principles, was speedily recognized, and the press was introduced into England and became known as the " new fashion."
In this class of machine various improvements were made from time to time by different manufacturers, each profiting by the experiences of the others, and two kinds of such revolving presses may now be given as examples.
The past generation has seen many improvements in printing machinery, all tending to an increased production, and generally to the betterment of the work turned out.
The most important improvements in connexion with electrometers are due, however, to Lord Kelvin, who introduced the guard plate and used gravity or the torsion of a wire as a means for evaluating the electrical forces.
Miss Nightingale followed with interest all the later improvements in sanitation, and was frequently consulted about hospital plans both at home and abroad.
At the close of the 18th century the duke of Devonshire, lord of the manor (whose ancestor Sir Ralph de Gernons was lord of Bakewell in 1251), spent large sums of money on improvements in the town.
He desired that it should be applied to a fund for insurance and old age pensions for workmen and old people, to the lightening of the municipal taxes by state contributions to the schools and workhouses, to the abolition of the land taxes and of the obligation of keeping a horse and man for military service, and, lastly, to the improvement of the shipping trade; but the Riksdag decided to devote it to other objects, such as the payment of the deficit in the budget, the building of railways and augmentation of their material, as well as to improvements in the defences of the country.
Recent reforms in education, &c., together with the growth of manufacturing industries, are slowly leading to improvements in the material condition of the common people.
The national expenditures are chiefly for the interest and amortization charges on the public debt, official salaries, military expenses in connexion with the army and navy, public works (including railway construction, port improvements, water and sewage works), the administration of the state railways, telegraph lines and post office, church subsidies, public instruction and foreign representation.
Foucault, which, with improvements in detail, were based on the plan proposed by him.
The Moors introduced many improvements, especially in the system of irrigation; the characteristic Portuguese wells with their perpetual chains or buckets are of Moorish invention, and retain their Moorish name of noras.
In 1909 extensive improvements to the water front were under way, and land has been purchased west of Fort Mason for the construction of wharves and warehouses for the United States Transport Service.
The board of public works, composed of engineers, controls streets, sewers, buildings and public improvements.
The number of farms increased from 1885 in 1880 to 6603 in 1890 and to 17,471 in 1900; the farm acreage from 327,798 in 1880 to 1,302,256 in 1890 and to 3,204,903 acres in 1900; the irrigated area (exclusive of farms on Indian reservations) from 217,005 acres in 1889 to 602,568 acres in 1899; the value of products increased from $1,515,314 in 1879 to $3,848,930 in 1889, and to $18,051,625 in 1899; the value of farm land with improvements (including buildings) from $2,832,890 in 1880 to $17,431,580 in 1890 and $42,318,183 in 1900; the value of implements and machinery from $363,930 in 1880 to $1,172,460 in 1890 and to $3,295,045 in 190o; and that of live-stock from $4,023,800 in 1880 to $7,253,490 in 1890 and to $21,657,974 in 1900.
Owing to the improvements in refining, Bohemia has become an important centre of the iron industry.
In entering upon the work of public improvements in 1837 the state borrowed $5,200,000, and the greater portion of the bonds were sold to the Morris Canal and Banking Company and to the Pennsylvania United States Bank, both of which failed when they had only in part paid for the bonds.
About this time it was seen that the cost of the improvements undertaken would be much greater than the original estimate and that several of them were impracticable.
The early experience of the state with banks was scarcely less serious than that with public improvements.
Since admission into the Union the more interesting experiences of the state have been with internal improvements and with banking, which together resulted in serious financial distress; in the utilization of its natural resources, which have been a vast source of wealth; and in the development of its educational system, in which the state has exerted a large influence throughout the Union.
His talent for experimental research was utilized in investigation into improvements of the army rifle, and he was largely responsible for starting the Hythe School of Musketry.
From 1816 to 1819 Harrison was a representative in Congress, and as such worked in behalf of more liberal pension laws and a better militia organization, including a system of general military education, of improvements in the navigation of the Ohio, and of relief for purchasers of public lands, and for the strict construction of the power of Congress over the Territories, particularly in regard to slavery.
He opposed the Bank Act of 1816, the "internal improvements" policy of Calhoun (in the early part of his career) and Clay, and the Missouri Compromise, his speech against the last being especially able.
The direct taxation is represented by a tax of one penny in the pound on the unimproved value of land, sixpence in the pound on the annual income derived in the state from all sources, except the use and occupation of land and improvements thereon.
The Pharisees even improved upon the Temple ritual, and their popularity enabled them to force the Pharisees into adopting the improvements.
Thanks, however, to the efforts of automobile engineers, great improvements were now being effected in the petrol engine, and, although the certainty and trustworthiness of its action still left something to be desired, it provided the designers of flying machines with what they had long been looking for - a motor FIG.
The Harbour Board, which was formed in 1881 and ceased to exist in 1893, effected, under the guidance of Mr Harry Escombe, enarmous improvements in the port - on which the prosperity of Durban is dependent.
The value of farm property, including land with improvements, implements and machinery, and live-stock was $19,333,569 in 1880 and $75,175,141 in 1900; the average value per farm was $2045 in T880 and $3878 in 1900; and the average value per acre of farm land was $29.49 in 1880 and $18.26 in 1900.
Although he made several ingenious improvements in scientific instruments, his mind was rather imitative and critical than creative.
He looked askance at all projects for the emancipation of the serfs, but, as one of the largest landowners of Denmark, he did much service to agriculture by lightening the burdens of the countrymen and introducing technical and scientific improvements which greatly increased production.
Entering politics as a Jacksonian Democrat, Mason was throughout his career a consistent strict constructionist, opposing protective tariffs, internal improvements by the national government, and all attempts to restrict or control the spread of slavery, which he sincerely believed to be essential to the social and political welfare of the South.
In addition to the actual mortality it inflicted, the plague caused an exodus of the population from the island, disorganized the labour at the docks and in the mills, and swallowed up large sums which were spent by the municipality on plague operations and sanitary improvements.
Defoe writing in 1724-1727 mentions the recent improvements in the Bedfordshire bone-lace manufacture.
In this he used Joule's paddle-wheel method, though with many improvements, the whole apparatus being on a larger scale and the experiments being conducted over a wider range of temperature.
Great improvements were effected between 1900 and 1907, the number of schools increasing from 3643 to 4463, and the pupils from 298,000 to 515,000.
The eighth edition, which contains the last improvements made by the author, was published in 1682, the ninth in 1684, the tenth in 1685.
For his next four pieces, which were comedies, there is claimed the introduction of some important improvements, such as the choosing for scenes places well known in actual life (as in the Galerie du palais), and the substitution of the soubrette in place of the old inconvenient and grotesque nurse.
The Public Money Drainage Acts 1846-1856 authorized the advance of public money to landowners to enable them to make improvements in their lands, not only by draining, but by irrigation, the making of permanent roads, clearing, erecting buildings, planting for shelter, &c. The rapid absorption of the funds provided by these acts led to further legislative measures by which private capital was rendered available for the improvement of land.
A series of special improvement acts were passed, authorizing companies to execute or advance money for executing improvements in land.
From 1823 to 1829 Marcy was comptroller of the state, an office then especially important on account of the large expenditures for internal improvements, and during this period he became the leading member of the famous " Albany Regency," a group of able Democratic politicians who exerted a powerful influence throughout the state by their control of the party patronage and machinery.
Of course a great many special improvements have been made in the plant and the working of chamber systems; of these we mention only some of the most important.
The amir, however, effected many improvements.
A board of estimate, composed of the mayor, the city solicitor, the comptroller, the president of the second branch of the city council, and the president of the board of public improvements, has control over appropriations, the council having power to decrease the amount of any item but not to enlarge it.
He introduced many improvements into the Canadian postal service, and in 1898 in face of much opposition induced the Inter-Imperial Postal Conference to adopt the principle of penny postage within the British Empire.
It was soon afterwards translated into English by Raphson; and a second edition of it, with improvements by the author, was published at London in 1712, by Dr Machin, secretary to the Royal Society.
In the latter case compensation was made for unexhausted improvements.
The problem of " internal improvements" came to be of paramount importance in the decade 1820-1830.
In 1836 the state legislature passed a law providing for an elaborate system of public improvements, consisting largely of canals and railways.
The value of all farm property was $864,100,286 - of which land and improvements (including buildings), livestock and implements and machinery represented respectively 74'5, 22'1 and 3'4%.
A homestead of this size is exempt from levy for the debts of the intestate except in case of an incumbrance given by consent of both husband and wife, or of obligations for purchase money, or of liens for making improvements, and the homestead of a family cannot be alienated without the joint consent of husband and wife.