10 have been imported principally from Scotland.
Structural famine exists when enough food is technically on hand or able to be imported, but some portion of the population is economically separated from it.
Many articles formerly imported are now made at home, and some Italian manufactures have begun to compete in foreign markets.
The cost of their imported food doubles, and I guarantee you the foreign-owned factory won't double wages as a result.
There is also on Keppel Island a Protestant missionary settlement for the training in agriculture of imported Fuegians.
The wealth of Russia consisting mainly of raw produce, the trade of the country turns chiefly on the purchase of this for export, and on the sale of manufactured and imported goods I in exchange.
In 1885 Uruguay imported most of her breadstuffs; now not only is wheat grown in sufficient quantities to meet the local demand, but a surplus (about 20,000 metric tons in 1908-9) is annually available for export.
In 1894 the Russian government enforced new customs regulations, by which a heavy duty is levied on Anglo-Indian manufactures and produce, excepting pepper, ginger and drugs, imported into Russian Asia by way of Persia; and the importation of green teas is altogether prohibited except by way of Batum, Baku, Uzunada and the Transcaspian railway.
The low price of grain, which was imported in huge quantities from Sicily and other Roman provinces, operated to crush the small holder, at the same time as it made arable farming unremunerative.
Fresh beef in this form is imported chiefly from the United States and Australasia, fresh mutton from Australasia and Argentina.
Much the best practical source of helium is thorianite, a mineral imported from Ceylon for the manufacture of thoria.
the kadishtu of the temples of the Babylonian Ishtar) were foreign Canaanite elements which became imported into Hebrew worship during the period of the Hebrew settlement in Canaan.
The preface to his Ever Green is a protest against "imported trimming" and "foreign embroidery in our writings," and a plea for a return to simple Scottish tradition.
Among the imported flora are tea, Siberian coffee, cocoa, Ceara rubber (which has not done well), Manila hemp, teak, cocoanut and a number of ornamental trees, fruit-trees, vegetables and garden plants.
While not strictly a meat-and-potatoes guy, he felt more comfortable with a meal he could recognize, like the weekday special at Uncle Sally's Galley, not something tiny and exotic, wrapped in dainty strands of imported grass.
Ironstone is not extensively wrought, but, on account of the abundant supply of coal, large quantities are imported for smelting purposes.
Up to 1896 store cattle were admitted into the United Kingdom for the purpose of being fattened, but under the Diseases of Animals Act of that year animals imported since then have to be slaughtered at the place of landing.
The cordage works are among the largest in the world, and consume immense quantities of sisal fibre imported from Mexico and manila from the Philippine Islands; binder-twine for binding wheat is one of the principal products.
We do not know whether the comets are really indigenous to the solar system or whether they may not be merely imported into the system from the depths of space.
Imported vases of the second half of the 5th century B.C. prove the existence of trade with Greece at that period; and the town was famous in Aristotle's day for a special breed of fowls.
Of these, 30 show returns of goods imported to the value of over £ioo,000 each, 41 from £50,000 to £roo,000, and 437 from £io,000 to £50,000 each.
It should be added that some of these large tusks came from Ceylon; such tuskers being believed to be descended from mainland animals imported into the island.
The hair imported into Europe is chiefly used in the manufacture of small brushes used by painters, while the thick hide is formed into a very durable leather.
Good cattle for breeding purposes are being imported from Switzerland and Sicily, and efforts are likewise being made to improve the breed of horses, which are bought mainly for the army.
The generally wet character of the seasons in 1879 and the two or three years following was mainly responsible for the high prices of meat, so that the supplies of fresh beef and mutton from Australia which now began to arrive found a ready market, and the trade in imported fresh meat which was thus commenced has practically continued to expand ever since.
The rate at which the trade in imported frozen mutton increased as compared with the industry in home-grown mutton is illustrated in the figures published annually by Messrs W.
Cereals are imported from the Black Sea and Danube ports, ready-made clothing from Austria and Germany, articles of luxury from Austria and France, and cotton textiles from England.
Nearly one-half of these were weaving mills, using imported yarn.
A considerable export trade in copper, tin and granite was formerly carried on, and the last is still exported, hut the chief trade is in grain; while timber, coal and limestone are imported.
The hematite is also worked at Ulverston, Askam, Dalton and elsewhere, but the furnaces now depend in part upon ore imported from Spain.
That conviction he put into practice with extreme rigour during the thirty years of his reign (1825-55), endeavouring by every means at his disposal to prevent revolutionary ideas from germinating spontaneously among his subjects and from being imported from abroad.
Amongst its chief recommendations were those relating to amendments in the Agricultural Holdings Acts, and to tithe rentcharge, railway rates, damage by game, sale of adulterated products, and sale of imported goods (meat, for example) as home produce.
manures), manufactured or imported, to state the percentage of the nitrogen, of the soluble and insoluble phosphates, and of the potash in each article sold, and this statement was to have the effect of a warranty.
The Diseases of Animals Act 1896 provided for the compulsory slaughter of imported live stock at the place of landing.
[[Table Xiv]].-Numbers of Cattle, Sheep and Pigs imported into the United Kingdom, 1891-1905 The animals come mainly from the United States of America, Canada and Argentina, and the traffic in cattle is more uniform than that in sheep, whilst that in pigs seems practically to have reached extinction.
The bar boasts a selection of imported sake, shouchu, plum liqueur and beer sure to help comfort any achy muscles you might have from your active day.
The soil is not very productive, although agriculture flourishes in the valleys and on the level ground; grain has to be imported to meet the demand.
Though they now use metal tools imported by the Malays, it is noticeable that the names which they give to those weapons which most closely resemble in character the stone implements found in such numbers all over the peninsula are native names wholly unconnected with their Malay equivalents.
Timber is largely imported from the United States, Sweden and Russia; coal from Great Britain; dried codfish from Norway and Newfoundland.
The production of maize is, however, insufficient, and 208,719 tons were imported in 1902about double the amount imported in 1882.
Turkestan is a good wheat-producing country, cereals were actually imported from Russia and Siberia and cotton exported in exchange.
In 1905 Italy exported 32,786 and imported 17,766 head of cattle; exported 33,574 and imported 6551 sheep; exported 95,995 and imported 1604 swine.
In Columbus there is a large market for imported horses.
The former attacks apple and pear; the latter, which selects orange and citron, was introduced into America from Australia, and carried ruin before it in some orange districts until its natural enemy, the lady-bird beetle, Vedalia cardinalis, was also imported.
Immense quantities are imported into Britain from Norway, Sweden and Prussia, under the names of "white Norway," "Christiania" and "Danzig deal."
The younger and smaller trees are remarkably durable, especially when the bark is allowed to remain on them; and most of the poles imported into Britain for scaffolding, ladders, mining-timber and similar uses are furnished by this fir.
A variety of the spruce, abounding in some parts of Nor way, produces a red heartwood, not easy to distinguish from that of the Norway B pine (Scotch fir), and imported with it into England as "red deal" or "pine."
In addition to the native stuffs, an immense quantity of costly Oriental carpets, wall-hangings and other textiles was imported into Venice, partly for its own use, and partly for export throughout western Europe.
Like many other arts in Venice, that of glass-making appears to have been imported from Moslem countries, and the influence of Oriental design can be traced in much of the Venetian glass.
Large cargoes are annually imported in ice from Norway to the English market.
The custom of the district, in the absence of stipulations between the parties, would be imported into their contract - the tenant going out on the same conditions as he came in.
Steamers ascend this river as far as Bilyutai, near the Mongolian frontier, and bring back tea, imported via Kiakhta, while grain, cedar nuts, salt, soda, wool and timber are shipped on rafts down the Khilok, Chikoi and Uda (tributaries of the Selenga), and manufactured goods are taken up the river for export to China.
It has, however, certain characteristics which cause it to be in demand even in the United States, where during recent years Egyptian cotton has comprised about 80% of all the " foreign " cottons imported.
Hull is the principal seat of the industry in Great Britain, and enormous quantities of Indian and Egyptian cotton seed are imported and worked up.
In 1792 the quantity exported from the United States was only 1 It is related that in the year 1784 William Rathbone, an American merchant resident in Liverpool, received from one of his correspondents in the southern states a consignment of eight bags of cotton, which on its arrival in Liverpool was seized by the customhouse officers, on the allegation that it could not have been grown in the United States, and that it was liable to seizure under the Shipping Acts, as not being imported in a vessel belonging to the country of its growth.
From 'goo to 1905 the crop was about ioo,000 bales per annum; the whole is consumed in local mills, and cotton is imported also from the United States.
During recent years a considerable quantity of cotton has been exported, but more than a compensating amount of raw cotton, yarns and textiles, is imported.
The production is not sufficient to meet the home demand; during the five years of normal trade before the war with Russia Japan imported annually about 800,000 bales of cotton, chiefly from British India, China and the United States, and during the same period exported each year some 2000 bales, mainly to Korea.
Some Manchester dealers imported themselves, and some spinners bought direct from Liverpool importers, but the rule was the arrangement first described.
Originally cotton was imported by the Liverpool dealer as an agent for American firms or at his own risk, and then sold by private treaty, auction, or through brokers, to Cotton market methods.
Average Quantities of Raw Cotton imported Annually into the United Kingdom from the following Countries in the Periods 1896-1900 and 1901-1904.
The basis of this growth is partly the story-telling instinct innate in all men, which loves to heighten an effect, sharpen a point or increase a contrast - the instinct which breathes in Icelandic sagas like that of Burnt Njal; partly the instinct of idolization, if it may be so called, which leads to the perversion into impossible greatness of an approved character, and has created, in this instance, the legendary figures of Peter the Hermit and Godfrey of Bouillon (qq.v.); partly the religious impulse, which counted nothing wonderful in a holy war, and imported miraculous elements even into the sober pages of the Gesta.
To the north of Aleppo and Antioch live remnants of pre-Aramaean stocks, mixed with many half-settled and settled Turkomans (Yuruks, Avshars, &c.) who came in before the Mahommedan era, and here and there colonies of recently imported Circassians.
Epidemics of smallpox and typhoid occur; and leprosy, imported from the Orange River and Cape Colonies, has taken firm hold on the Basuto, of whom about 9r per too() are sufferers from this disease.
The Basuto ponies, said to be descended from Shetland ponies which, imported to the Cape in 1840, strayed into the mountains, are short-legged, strong-bodied, sure-footed, and noted for their hardiness.
Most of the tobacco used is imported from Cuba, though, as has been indicated, the production of the state has greatly increased since 1880.
After 1615, the date of the pageant prepared for the mayoralty of Sir John Jolles, draper, by Anthony Munday and entitled Metropolis Coronata, a peer was imported into it, and the yeoman of the older version was metamorphosed into the earl of Huntingdon, for whom in the following century William Stukeley discovered a satisfactory pedigree!
The name was imported from Ireland, where it had been used to designate one of the Ribbon societies that devoted its energies to intimidating and maltreating process servers and the agents of landlords, and whose greatest activity was between 1835 and 1855.
All these stones were of course imported, as the Babylonian had no stone (except a rough coral rag) at hand as the Egyptian had.
As early at least as the ith century the art of extracting a blue pigment from lapis lazuli was practised, and from the beginning of the 16th century this pigment began to be imported into Europe from "over the sea," as azurrum ultramarinum.
In Jamaica there were in 1690, 40,000; from that year till 1820 there were imported 800,000; yet at the latter date there were only 340,000 in the island.
Yet by the connivance of the local administrative authorities 54,000 Africans continued to be annually imported.
About 4000 were thus annually imported, and an ad valorem duty was levied by the sultan, which produced about 4800 of annual revenue.
of live-stock, a stud-farm was opened near Serajevo, and foreign horses, cattle, sheep and poultry are imported.
The number of steamships belonging to Turkey in1899-1900was 1 77 of 55,93 8 tons, as compared with 87 of 46,498 tons in 1897-1898, the number of sailing Value of Goods Imported into, and Exported from, together with Number vessels in the same years being respectively 2205 of 141,055 tons and Tonnage of Vessels cleared at, Principal Ports of Turkish Empire.
The following tables show the total value of exports and imports arranged according to countries of origin or destination for1905-1906and 1908-1909; the same information for the year1905-1906with respect to the principal ports of the empire, and the tonnage of vessels cleared thereat during the year 1908-1909; and the value of the principal articles imported and exported for the year 1905-1906.
Value of Principal Articles Imported and Exported for the year 1905-1906.
Value of the Goods Imported from or Exported to Principal Countries during the years1905-1906and 1908-1909.
Under the old commercial treaties which lapsed about 1890 - but which have been maintained " provisionally " in force until one or other of the great powers consents to set a term to the negotiation of fresh treaties - an ad valorem duty of 8% was imposed on all articles imported into the Turkish empire.
This prolific author copied, and so imported into Ottoman literature, a didactic style of ghazel-writing which was then being introduced in Persia by the poet Sa'ib; but so closely did the pupil follow in the footsteps of his master that it is not always easy to know that his lines are intended to be Turkish.
Lately their houses in the colonis have also to some extent been built of imported wood.
There is considerable movement of grain in Siberia itself, the populations of vast portions of the territory, especially of the mining regions, having to rely upon imported corn.
Granite and wood-pulp are exported, and coal and grain imported.
As early as 1293 trade was carried on with Bayonne, and six years later a receiver of customs on wool and wool-fells is mentioned at Weymouth, while wine was imported from Aquitaine.
The rate of exchange had become adverse (by May 1921 £i =1,850-1,900 Latvian rubles), and imported goods were getting more and more expensive to the consumer.
Red fox-skins are largely imported into Europe for various purposes, the American imports alone formerly reaching as many as 60,000 skins annually.
25 annually imported into London from Alaska some five-andtwenty years ago.
Modern industrial development in some of the states has greatly increased the importation of machinery, electric supplies, materials for construction, coal, &c. Kerosene oil also figures among the principal imports, and beef cattle are imported for consumption by some cities.
Rice has been cultivated in places, but without much success, although the quality produced compared favourably with the imported article.
The product of the elevated inland regions is good, but the costs of transportation and the small profits afforded have prevented its extensive cultivation, and it is imported from the La Plata republics for consumption along the coast.
The white potato, known as " batata inglez " (English potato), is grown in elevated localities, but it deteriorates so greatly after the first planting that fresh imported seed is necessary every second or third year.
A very large part of the jerked beef consumed in Brazil is imported from Argentina and Uruguay, and some beef cattle also are imported.
The crude methods of preparing jerked beef were also modified to some extent by better equipped abattoirs and establishments for preparing beef extract, preserved meats, &c. There were also mills for crushing the dried mate leaves, cigar and 1 The " bran " exported is from imported wheat and cannot be considered a national product.
2 The " old metals " consist of old iron, brass, &c., derived from railway material, machinery, &c., all imported, and should not be considered a Brazilian product.
Although the protective tariffs thus imposed have resulted in a large increase in manufacturing industries, some of them have been antagonistic to the productive interests of the country, as in the case of weaving mills which use imported yarns.
Other industries are carried on entirely with imported materials, and are national only in name.
The manufacture of boots and shoes has also received much attention, but the materials used are for the most part imported.
Now, however, many plants were imported not only from Guiana but from India and Africa, cultivated in the Royal Botanic Garden, and thence distributed.
The Australian Eucalyptus and Casuarina in great variety, and many other imported trees, including syringas, wattles, acacias, willows, pines, cypress, cork and oak all thrive when properly planted and protected from grass fires.
The bulk of these exports are to the Transvaal and neighbouring countries, and previously figure as imports, other exports, largely wool and hides, are first imported from the Transvaal.
In that year the external trade of Natal, almost entirely with Cape Colony, was of the total value of 42,000 - of which 32,000 represented imported goods.
A people with an intense national sentiment, such as the Hungarians, do not as a rule incline towards permanent admiration of foreign-born or imported literary styles; and accordingly the work of this class of novelists has frequently met with very severe criticism on the part of various Magyar critics.
Hussein Hilmi, he, with Niazi Bey, imported the flag of revolution in the Macedonian moun - tains, originally with the object of restoring the constitution of 1876, which had been disregarded by 'Abdul Hamid, but also to save himself from a threatened arrest.
Among the most successful of the imported trees are citrus trees, the Australian wattle and the eucalyptus.
Whether originally imported from Europe by the Portuguese or brought from the north by Africans is not certain.
All we know is that about the 1st century the Greek word Kacroircpos designated tin, and that tin was imported from Cornwall into Italy after, if not before, the invasion of Britain by Julius Caesar.
From 1783 to 1825 agricultural produce was exported and coal imported.
shelheleth), the celebrated odoriferous shell of the ancients, the operculum or "nail" of a species of Strombus or "wing shell," formerly well known in Europe under the name of Blatta byzantina; it is still imported into Bombay to burn with frankincense and other incense to bring out their odours more strongly; saffron (Heb.
These countries all received Buddhism from India, and a large proportion of the porcelain and earthenware articles imported from China and Japan into Europe consists of innumerable forms of censers.
It is quite possible therefore that, in the course of their widely extended commerce during the one thousand years of their ascendancy, the Buddhists imported the true frankincense trees from Africa and Arabia into India, and that the accepted Indian species are merely varieties of them.
During the protectorate all patent rights virtually lapsed, and mirrors and drinking-glasses were once more imported from Venice.
Glass-cutting was a craft imported from Germany, but the English material so greatly surpassed Bohemian glass in brilliance that the Bohemian cut-glass was eclipsed.
In the middle ages, owing to various causes, the better wines of France and Germany could not be obtained in England except at prohibitive prices; but when this state of things ceased, and foreign wine could be imported, the English consumers would no longer tolerate the inferior productions of their own vineyards.
Anthracnose has been known in Europe for many years, but has only been observed in America since 1881, whither it was probably imported from the old world.
Jamaica quassia is imported into England in logs several feet in length and often nearly one foot in thickness, consisting of pieces of the trunk and larger branches.
20, has an inaccurate notice from Nearchus of the Indian honey-bearing reed, and various classical writers of the first century of our era notice the sweet sap of the Indian reed or even the granulated saltlike product which was imported from India, or from Arabia and Opone (these being entrepots of Indian trade), 1 under the name of saccharum or aaKxape (from Skr.
Quantities of raw and refined cane and beet sugar in tons avoirdupois imported into the United Kingdom in 1870 and in 1875, and yearly from 1880 to 1901 inclusive, with the consumption per head of the population in lb and the price per cwt.
The whole of the sugar produced in India is consumed in the country and sugar is imported, the bulk of it being cane sugar coming from Mauritius and Java, and about 85% of the import is of high quality resembling refined sugar.
There is considerable agricultural trade, and iron founding is carried on; while in the neighbourhood some copper, lead, granite and slate are worked and exported in small vessels; coal, timber and general merchandise being imported.
Many horses, cattle and sheep have been imported, and the meat-preserving industry is prosecuted.
No attempt should ever be made to raise large crops of tobacco from imported seed, but only a small crop, and the seed of the selected plants should be used for future propagation.
Cheroots come principally from Manila, but there are now large quantities imported into the United Kingdom from the East Indies and Burma.
Besides Mexican or Vera Cruz jalap, a drug called Tampico jalap has been imported for some years in considerable quantity.
It is very abundant in the Zoological Gardens in London, where it occurs in conjunction with a much smaller imported species Phyllodromia germanica, which may also be seen in some of the cheaper restaurants.
Sheep ranges under the care of Scottish shepherds have also been established in the department of Junin, the stock being imported from southern Patagonia, England and Australia.
At last their depreciation reached a point where their acceptance was generally refused and silver was imported for commercial needs, when the government suspended their legal tender quality and allowed them to disappear.
The principal articles imported are cotton and cotton goods, coffee, coal, cereals, hides, fruit and tobacco; the principal articles exported are wool and woollen goods,.
As the district was full of traders, Subura may very well be an imported word, but the form with C must either go back to a period before the disappearance of g before v or must come from some other Italic dialect.
Cotton was first imported to Providence from Spain in 1785; a company to carry on cotton-spinning, formed at Providence in 1786, established there in the following year a factory containing a spinning jenny of 28 spindles (the first machine of the kind to be used in the United States), and also a carding machine and a spinning frame with which was manufactured a kind of jean having a linen warp and a cotton filling.
The gad-fly (abu), the housefly (hai), the mosquito (ka), the flea (nonzi) and occasionally the bedbug (called by the Japanese kara-mushi because it is believed to be imported from China), are all fully represented, and the dragon-fly (tombO) presents itself in immense numbers at certain seasons.
But an undue increase in the number of blocks used, combined with the inferiority of the imported colors and carelessness or loss of skill in printing, brought about a rapid decline soon after 1840.
The existence of porcelain clay in Hizen was not discovered for many years, and Shonzuis pieces being made entirely with kaolin imported from China, their manufacture ceased after his death, though knowledge of the processes learned by him survived and was used in the production of greatly inferior wares.
King Stephen silenced Vacarius, and ordered the destruction of the books of civil and canon law which had been imported by Theobald.
Cod-liver oil and salted fish are exported with some reindeer-skins, fox-skins and eiderdown; and coal and salt for curing are imported.
Raw cotton and silk are the principal exports, while manufactured goods are imported from Russia.
In 1920 were exported farm products, live stock, fowls, timber and flax valued at 501,797,000 marks, and imported foreign products and machines at 428,728,000 marks.
Large quantities of timber are imported from Canada and Norway; coal, iron, manufactured goods and agricultural produce are the chief exports.
It is hardly possible to differentiate between imported and indigenous plants.
The food of the working classes is principally bread, with oil, olives, cheese and fruit, sometimes fish, but seldom meat; common wine is largely imported from southern Europe.
In 1582, 20,000 quarters of imported grain were required to avert famine.
More than two-thirds of the wheat comes from abroad; fish, vegetables and fruit are also imported from Sicily in considerable quantities.
To keep alive, in a fair standard of comfort, the population of 206,690, food supplies have to be imported for nine and a half months in the year.
The annual value of exports would be set off against imported food for about one month and a half.
ingens, of which some very large plants have been from time to time imported.
Breadstuffs, cotton fabrics and hardware are imported.
From 1858 to 1863 there were many importations of American vines for grafting purposes to Bordeaux, Roquemaure and other parts of France, England, Ireland, Germany, Portugal, &c. It is practically certain that the deadly phylloxera was imported on these plants.
Yet no imported vine has ever lived there more than five years, and in 1890 the phylloxera crossed the Rocky Mountains, and seriously damaged the vineyards of California, where it had previously been unknown.
Corn, salt, sugar and fish are brought from the south, whilst skins and manufactured wares, imported from Germany, are sent to the southern governments.
The tad is not a coin, the only silver currency, apart from imported dollars, being the ingots of silver known as "sycee"; the only other native currency is the copper "cash."
The props used are preferably of small oak or English larch, but large quantities of fir props, cut to the right length, are also imported from the north of Europe.
The Camden & Amboy railway, begun in 1831 and completed from Bordentown to South Amboy (34 m.) in 1832, was one of the first railways in the United States; in September 1831 the famous engine "Johnny Bull," built in England and imported for this railway, had its first trial at Bordentown, and a monument now marks the site where the first rails were laid.
Another bill (the Declaratory Act), however, was almost immediately passed by the king's party, asserting absolute supremacy of parliament over the colonies, and in the succeeding parliament, by the Townshend Acts of 1767, duties were imposed on paper, paints and glass imported by the colonists; a tax was imposed on tea also.
The tsetse fly (Glossing morsitans) infests several districts; the sand-flea has been imported from the west coast.
Large quantities of rice are imported from German East Africa.
Trees were imported and land set aside for planting forests.
Bread-stuffs, colonial products and machinery are largely imported.
The subject received little attention in the United Kingdom, owing to the relatively high cost of home-produced alcohol as compared with that of imported petrol; and the use of alcohol in England for generating mechanical power was neither contemplated nor provided for by the Legislature before 1920, when, as the result of the consideration of the position by the Government, following on a report by a Departmental Committee appointed towards the end of 1918, clauses were inserted in the Finance Act of 1920 legalizing the use of alcohol for power purposes.
Few oxen or sheep are reared in the colony, meat, as well as bread and most vegetables, being imported from America.
He also imported great quantities of English coal and had an agency at Newcastle as well as an interest in some English mines.
The Jews and Armenians are engaged in a brisk trade with Odessa, to which they send corn, wine, spirits and timber, floated down from Galicia, as well as with the interior, to which they send manufactured wares imported from Austria.
The Romans at first imported their coins, and no Roman mints were established until about the end of the 3rd century, when coins were being struck at London and Colchester.
The amount of gold in standard ounces (916.6 fine) corresponding to the " imported " bullion is thus ascertained, and on the application of the importer the gold is coined and delivered to him in the form of sovereigns and half-sovereigns at the rate of £3, 17s.
Among imported pests the rabbit and sparrow, and a numerous company of European and American thistles and other weeds, have to be systematically contended with.
They were hindered by murderous tribal wars in which imported muskets more than decimated the Maori.
Imported goods re-exported are of comparatively slight value - some £381,000 in 1908-1909.
In 1765 the regent Prince Xaver imported 300 merino sheep from Spain, and so improved the native breed by this new strain that Saxon sheep were eagerly imported by foreign nations to improve their flocks, and " Saxon electoral wool " became one of the best brands in the market.
In the 14th century it was imported into Europe from the Grain Coast, under the name of pepper, by merchants of Rouen and Lippe.
It was only in years when the harvest was most favourable that AustriaHungary was able to provide for her own requirements in corn; for export purposes only barley was of considerable importance, while wheat, and above all, of recent years, maize had to be imported.
These boards were now given the monopoly of the right to import certain wares (sometimes private buyers were allowed to purchase, but only on condition of selling the goods imported to the board); they were also entrusted with the reception of the instalments of raw materials already mentioned as released from bond in Germany.
The latter also managed the export of sugar, in return for which certain wares were imported.
No better picture can be obtained of its overwhelming economic impoverishment than by studying the figures which show the decline in the crop returns for Austria, and taking into account the fact that imports from Hungary and the territories under military occupation naturally fell far below the proportion of foodstuffs formerly imported.
Cherries are said to have been imported from Flanders and first planted in Kent by Henry VIII., and from this period the culture of fruits (especially apples and cherries) and of hops spread rapidly over the county.
Hardin (2890), in which the court held that liquor might be imported into any state and sold in the original package without reference to local prohibitory or restrictive laws.
All manufactured articles of daily use are imported, as is all ironware and machinery.
Moreover, other letters are present only for use in certain words imported from Bali or Sanskrit.
In 1863 Fransen van de Putte, minister for the colonies, introduced the first of the annual colonial budgets for which the Regulations had provided, thus enabling the statesgeneral to control the revenue and expenditure of Netherlands India; in 1865 he reduced and in 1872 abolished the differentiation of customs dues in favour of goods imported from Holland, substituting a uniform import duty of 6% and establishing a number of free ports throughout the archipelago.
It was a favourite pastime among the Romans, who imported their bears from Britain, a proof that the animal was then comparatively abundant in that country; indeed, from reference made to it in early Scottish history, the bear does not appear to have been extirpated in Britain before the end of the i 1 th century.
In 1803 the skins imported into England numbered 25,000.
From Bengal are imported opium, drugs and cloths; from China, teas, raw silk, silk piece-goods, coarse China wares, paper, and innumerable smaller articles for the Chinese settlers.
The great bulk of the food supplies is brought from Damerghu, and the materials for clothing are also imported.
In 1919 the republic exported merchandise to the extent of 566 million tons and imported 183 millions.
The great mass of manufactured commodities were produced in the United Kingdom more cheaply than in foreign countries, and would not have been imported, with duty or without, except in sporadic amounts for some special qualities.
Still less does it hold good of raw materials, many of which had been really affected by the duties, and were largely imported after their abolition.
A great number of articles had been enumerated in the earlier tariff acts, each of which was imported in very small quantity and yielded an insignificant revenue.
Some further changes were made in 1865, and the close of the war thus left the United States with a complicated system of very high taxes both on imported duties and on domestic products.
Their primary object is to gratify the pleasure most persons take in viewing at close range the curious and beautiful living products of nature, but they serve also as means of instruction in natural history, providing material for museums and for investigations in comparative anatomy and pathology, while they may have a commercial value as pleasure resorts, or as show grounds for the display of animals that have been imported or bred for sale.
These collections are not specially rich in the very interesting and peculiar native fauna, but devote themselves preponderatingly to imported animals.
Hydrated sulphates occur at several localities in the province of Madrid and in other provinces of Spain, and at Miihlingen in Aargau, and copious deposits of glauberite, the double sulphate of sodium and calcium, are met with in the salt-mines of Villarrubia in Spain, at Stassfurt, and in the province of Tarapaca, Chile, &c. A native nitrate of soda is obtained in great abundance in the district of Atacama and the province of Tarapaca, and is imported into Europe in enormous quantities as cubic nitre for the preparation of saltpetre.
Practically the only foreign market for Algerian wine is France, which in 1905 imported about 1 io,000,000 gallons.
Sugar, coffee, machinery, metal work of all kinds, clothing and pottery are largely imported.
Some caution should be used against confounding accidentally introduced indigenous species with those reared from the imported eggs.
Agriculture is insufficient to satisfy the needs of the population, and food is imported from Semiryechensk.
In former times large quantities of it were imported in a dry state into Europe for officinal purposes, the drug having the reputation of being efficacious in diseases of the skin and lungs; and even now it may be found in apothecaries' shops in the south of Europe, country people regarding it as a powerful aphrodisiac for cattle.
Many of the Mexican railways are using these fuel oils, which are superseding imported coal.
About one-half the raw cotton consumed was produced in Mexico, and the balance imported in fibre or as yarn.
The value of the goods imported into the protectorate in 1906 was £118,322; the value of the exports was £77,736.
A great deal of it was local ware, but there were also imported vases from various Greek sites.
In Matthew and Mark, Jesus says of the bread " Take ye it, this is my body," omitting the idea of sacrifice imported by Paul's addition " which is for you "; but in them Jesus enunciates the same idea when he says of the cup: " This is my blood of the covenant which is poured out for many," Mathew adding " for the remission of sins," a phrase which savours of Heb.
Timber is largely imported.
The central section of the plains thus presents a marked contrast to the northern section; for while the northern section owes its smoothness to the removal of local gravels and sands from a formerly uneven surface by the action of degrading rivers and their inflowing tributaries, the southern section owes its smoothness to the deposition of imported gravels and sands upon a previously I uneven surface by the action of aggrading rivers and their outgoing distributaries.
Partially manufactured articles imported for use in manufactures are not included.
The only local industries are the preparation of salt (Italian and Indian concessions, with an output of 124,000 tons in 1916-7), the unhuking of Arabian coffee berries and the making of cigarettes from tobacco imported from Egypt.
From the former come most of the manufactured goods imported and large quantities of raw materials; to the latter are sent food-stuffs.
Coal, chiefly bituminous, occurs in large quantities in Nova Scotia, British Columbia and in various parts of the north-west (lignite), though most of the anthracite is imported from the United States, as is the greater part of the bituminous coal used in Ontario.
Under the stimulus of federal bounties, the production of pig iron and of steel, chiefly from imported ore, is rapidly increasing.
They are a distinct breed of Jersey and Brittany type, and are stated to be descended from animals imported from France by the early settlers.
The chief features of his administration were the fiscal preference of 333% in favour of goods imported into Canada from Great Britain, the despatch of Canadian contingents to South Africa during the Boer war, the contract with the Grand Trunk railway for the construction of a second transcontinental road from ocean to ocean, the assumption by Canada of the imperial fortresses at Halifax and Esquimault, the appointment of a federal railway commission with power to regulate freight charges, express rates and telephone rates, and the relations between competing companies, the reduction of the postal rate to Great Britain from 5 cents to 2 cents and of the domestic rate from 3 cents to 2 cents, a substantial contribution to the Pacific cable, a practical and courageous policy of settlement and development in the Western territories, the division of the North-West territories into the provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan and the enactment of the legislation necessary to give them provincial status, and finally (1910), a tariff arrangement with the United States, which, if not all that Canada might claim in the way of reciprocity, showed how entirely the course of events had changed the balance of commercial interests in North America.
were based on the assumption that wheat was imported rates duty free.
The difference in the cost of the operation is shown in the following tabular statement, both the cost in the aggregate on a year's imports and the cost per quarter: Quantity of Wheat and Wheaten Flour (as wheat) imported into the United Kingdom from various sources during the calendar year 1900, together with the average rate of freight.
Quantity of Wheat and Wheaten Flour (as wheat) imported into the United Kingdom from various sources during the calendar year 1872, together with the average rate of freight.
N.B.-A trifling quantity of Californian and Australian wheat was imported in the period in question, but the Board of Trade records do not distinguish the quantities, therefore they cannot be given.
Other roots are substituted for it, notably that of Panax quinquefolium, distinguished as American ginseng, and imported from the United States.
Fuel is imported, chiefly from the United Kingdom.
The shipping trade of the port revived after the construction of the new dock in 1841, and corn and timber have been imported for centuries.
European goods are not imported, but Japanese articles find ready barter.
c. 52, § 123, it was further enacted that the same instruments and methods should be employed in determining the duty upon imported spirits as should in virtue of any Act of Parliament be employed in the determination of the duty upon spirits distilled at home.
Considerable quantities of larch timber are imported into Britain for use in the dockyards, in addition to the large home supply.
Rio is also a distributing centre in the coasting trade, and many imported products, such as jerked beef (came secca), hay, flour, wines, &c., appear among the coastwise exports, as well as domestic manufactures.
Rio de Janeiro has manufactures of flour from imported wheat, cotton, woollen and silk textiles, boots and shoes, readymade clothing, furniture, vehicles, cigars and cigarettes, chocolate, fruit conserves, refined sugar, biscuits, macaroni, ice, beer, artificial liquors, mineral waters, soap, stearine candles, perfumery, feather flowers, printing type, &c. There are numerous machine o nd repair shops, the most important of which are the shops of the Central railway.
Large quantities of grain are imported from Russia, America, &c., and of timber from Norway and Sweden.
Aristotle's vague knowledge of the worm may have been derived from information acquired by the Greeks with Alexander the Great; but long before this time raw silk must have begun to be imported at Cos, where it was woven into a gauzy tissue, the famous Coa vestis, which revealed rather than clothed the form.
Partly supported by imported eggs, the production of silk in France was maintained, and in 1853 reached its maximum of 26,000,000 kilos of cocoons, valued at 117,000,000 francs.
7, 8), an oakfeeding species, native of Mongolia, from which is derived the greater part of the so-called tussur silk now imported intoEurope.
The most considerable quantity of the new material which was imported into the Prayer Book was drawn from Lutheran and Genevan service books.
A few bananas and (especially from Oahu) pineapples of fine quality are exported; since 1901 the canning of 3 The entomological department of the Hawaii Experiment Station undertakes " mosquito control," and in 1905-1906 imported top-minnows (Poeciliidae) to destroy mosquito larvae.
The " native " cattle, descended from those left on the islands by early navigators, are being improved by breeding with imported Hereford, Shorthorn, Angus and Holstein bulls, the Herefords being the best for the purpose.
Those which are not required for the kitchen, if allowed to stand, and if the flower-bud is picked out on its first appearance, and the earth stirred about them, frequently produce bulbs equal in size and quality to the large ones that are imported from the Continent.
Stone seems to have been used first for churches, but this was not before the 7th century, and we are told that at first masons were imported from Gaul.
Coal and coke are largely exported, and corn, timber and esparto grass are imported.
In it the traditions of old cutlure and religious learning imported from Rome, where they had almost ceased to bear any fruit, found a new soil, in which they flourished.
The tea imported from Szechuen is for the most part of very inferior quality, estimated at 35% tea-leaves and 65% twigs and other material.
Russian arms had been imported into Lhasa.
One of these, remarkable for its very short, thick head and deep body, is the socalled Prussian carp, C. gibelio, often imported into English ponds, whilst the best known is the goldfish, C. auratus, first produced in China.
Throughout these periods works of art, such as statues of the gods and sarcophagi, were imported direct at first from Egypt and afterwards mainly from Rhodes.
The former is imported in large quantities from the Sambar lake and Ramsur.
It seems to have been imported into Europe at least as early as the first half of the 16th century,' and has since become the commonest of cage-birds.
In the Roman period it was favoured by Caesar, and took the name of Julia; and, though it suffered severely when the fugitive Dolabella stood his last siege within its walls (43 B.C.), Strabo describes it as a flourishing port, which supplied, from the vineyards on the mountains, the greater part of the wine imported to Alexandria.
The city is a wholesale distributing centre for all northern Vermont and New Hampshire, and is one of the principal lumber markets in the east, most of the lumber being imported from Canada.
Grain and timber form the chief articles of export; textiles, machinery, iron goods and coal being most largely imported.
It probably originated outside Rome, and was imported thence into the Roman use.
With the possible exception of oats, the cereals do not suffice for home consumption, and maize is imported in large quantities for cattle-feeding, and barley for the distilleries and breweries.
In addition 7,344,786 tons, or about half as much as was mined in Great Britain, were imported, 7 8.5% of it from Spain.
The martens, foxes and otters imported from southern Europe and southern Asia, are very mixed in quality, and the majority are poor compared with those of Canada and the north.
In India there is a species called Isabelline bear, which was formerly imported to Great Britain, but does not now arrive in any quantity worth mentioning.
Caracal.-A small lynx from India, the fur very poor, seldom imported.
CAT, House, &c.-18X9 in., mostly black and dark brown, imported from Holland, Bavaria, America and Russia, where they are reared for their coats.
Some small wild cats, very poor flat fur of a pale fawn colour with yellow spots, are imported from Australia and used for linings.
Only a few are now imported, which are used for mats.
DoG.-The only dogs that are used in the fur trade in civilized countries are those imported from China, which are heavy and coarse, and only used in the cheaper trade, chiefly for rugs.
The fur is not used in Great Britain, as formerly, and the greater quantity, known 'as mohair, is now imported for purposes of weaving.
The Mongolian goat has a very soft silk underwool, and after the long top hair is removed it is dressed and imported and erroneously named mouflon.
The Tibet lamb so largely imported and used for children's wear is often miscalled Tibet goat.
It is usually imported in small quantities, native dressed, and ready made into rugs.
Few are imported.
Is a sheep found in Russia and Corsica and now very little in demand, and but few are imported into Great Britain.
Only a few thousands are imported to London.
Only a few are now imported from South America for carriage aprons or mats.
There are but a few thousands imported, and being so flat they are only of use for coat linings, but they are very warm and light in weight.
It is more often imported and sold as Japanese fox, but its resemblance to the fur of the American raccoon is so marked as to surely identify it.
The Japanese kind are imported raw, but are few in numbers, very pale and require dyeing.
It is known as kaluga when imported in ready-made linings from Russia where the skins are dressed and worked in an inferior way.
This measurement refers to the Russian and Siberian sorts, which are the only kind imported for the fur.
Another great source of inexpensive furs is China, and for many years past enormous quantities of dressed furs, many of which are made up in the form of linings and Chinese looseshaped garments, have been imported by England, Germany and France for the lower class of business; the garments are only regarded as so much fur and are reworked.
A small number of very pretty guanaco and vicuna carriage rugs are imported into Europe, and many come through travellers and private sources, but generally they are so badly dressed that they are quite brittle upon the leather side.
The only very large establishment is one for the construction of iron steamers, engines, &c., but some factories have been erected within the area of the free port for the purpose of working up imported raw materials duty free.
Other minerals are iron, manganese, lead and zinc. The iron mines produce much less than formerly, and the want of iron is a grave defect in Belgian prosperity, as about £5,000,eoo sterling worth of iron has to be imported annually, chiefly from French Lorraine.
Among minerals, iron ore, sulphur, copper, coal, tin, lead and diamonds are the most imported.
The principal articles imported are textiles, hardware, wines, rice, flour, canned goods and general provisions; the exports are yerba mate, hides, hair, dried meat; wood, oranges, tobacco.
The monastic institute was imported early in the 4th century from Egypt into Syria and the Oriental lands.
It is ?e also largely used for feeding poultry, for which purpose mainly it is imported.
They are imported for poultry feeding like the former species and for cage-birds, but are extensively used in soups, &c., on the Continent.
The greater part of the English goods sold at Herat are imported by Karachi and Kandahar - a fact which testifies to the great insecurity of trade between Meshed and Herat.
Thus the Presbyterians of the north, who were mainly republican in sentiment, combined with a section of the Roman Catholics to form the organization of the United Irishmen, to promote revolutionary ideas imported from France; and a party prepared to welcome a French invasion soon came into existence.
But their instructions were considerably exceeded, for the quantity imported in 1678 was 4713 lb, a quantity which seems to have glutted the market for several years.
For several years the quantities imported were very small, and consisted exclusively of the finer sorts.
From the variety Bohea, or from hybrids of descent from it, came the China teas of former days and the earlier plantings in India grown from imported China stock.
Excluding therefore from any record the quantities produced for internal consumption in China and Japan (that from the former alone has been estimated at a total of 2,000,000,000 lb), the following are the acreage and production of the world as taken from the latest recorded statistics available in 1908: - 726, 601,000 The quantity from China includes about 16,000,000 lb imported from India, Ceylon and Java, and worked up with China teas into bricks and tablets.
imported by Belgium Free.
But, in spite of this considerable yield in cereals, Germany cannot cover her home consumption, and imported on the average of the six years 1900 1905 about 41/2 million tons of cereals to supply the deficiency.
The fisheries do not, however, supply the demand for fish, and fresh, salt and dried fish is imported largely in excess of the home yield.
Although Germany produces wool, flax and hemp, the home production of these materials is not sufficient to meet the demand of manufactures, and large quantities of them have to be imported.
The countries whence goods are imported and the ultimate destination of exports are registered.
The quantities of such imported articles as are liable to duty have, indeed, been known for many years; and in 1872 official tables were compiled showing the value both of imports and of exports.
(about a farthing a pound), and on imported tobacco twentyfour marks.
At the beginning of the autumn session a union of 204 members of the Reichstag was formed for the discussion of econolnic questions, and they accepted Bismarcks reforms. In December he was therefore able to issue a memorandum explaining his policy; it included a moderate duty, about 5%, on all imported goods, with the exception of raw material required for German manufactures (this was a return to the old Prussian principle); high finance duties on tobacco, beer, brandy and petroleum; and protective duties on iron, corn, cattle, wood, wine and sugar.
Having failed to prevent the commercial treaties, Count Kanitz introduced a motion that the state should have a monopoly of all imported corn, and that the price at which it was to be sold should be fixed by law.
Deep-sea fishing is carried on; but the staple trade consists in the export of china clay and minerals, coal being imported.
Save for beds of lignite, said to exist in the extreme north, coal is not found, and has to be imported, chiefly from the states of Ohio and Pennsylvania, though Nova Scotia furnishes an increasing quantity.
The province supplies over two-thirds of the iron ore mined in the Dominion, but much is still imported.
Salt is worked in the vicinity of Lake Huron, but the production is less than half that imported.
The vases were of the last red figure style, and were mostly imported from Greece or Magna Graecia, while the bronze objects came from Etruria, and the brooches (fibulae) from Gaul.
This was done during the year 1877, and in the new treaty, while raw material was still imported free of duty, a low duty was placed on textile goods as well as on corn, and the excise on sugar and brandy was raised.
At the same time special privileges were granted to articles imported by sea, so as to foster the trade of Trieste and Fiume; as in Germany a subvention was granted to the great shipping companies, the Austrian Lloyd and Adria; the area of the Customs Union was enlarged so as to include Trieste, Istria and Dalmatia, as well as Bosnia and Herzegovina.
A peculiar feature of these treaties was that the government was empowered to impose an additional duty (Retorsionszoll) on goods imported from countries in which Austria-Hungary received unfavourable treatment.
The total number of bullocks in the island is calculated to be less than 200,000; and although the ratio of consumption of meat is low in proportion to the population, some of the cattle for slaughter have to be imported.
A better breed of horses is being obtained by more careful selection, and by crossing with Arab and English stallions imported by the government.
The second period (150o-l000 B.C.) shows a great increase in the use of bronze, and the introduction of gold and silver, and of imported Mycenaean vases.
The third period (1000-50o B.C.) in its first phase (1000-700) shows a continual increase of the introduction of objects of Greek origin; the pottery is at first imported geometric, and then vases of local imitation appear.
But the account of Chosroes' mode of action makes it plain that the Hellenism once planted in Iran had withered away; representatives of Greek learning and skill have all to be imported from across the frontier.
Salt and " potash " are imported from Absen in the Sahara; and ivory, ostrich feathers and leather goods are exported to Tripoli.
Trade steadily developed, and owing to the large sums paid as duty on imported spirits, the revenue of the protectorate was sufficient to cover the expenditure.
Among many trees which have been imported, the lebbek (Albizzia lebbek), a thick-foliaged mimosa, thrives especially, and has been very largely employed.
The principal articles imported are: cotton goods and other textiles, coal, iron and steel, timber, tobacco, machinery, flour, alcoholic liquors, petroleum, fruits, coffee and live animals.
The tobacco is imported chiefly from Turkey and Greece, is made into cigarettes in Egypt, and in this form exported to the value of about 500,000 yearly.
Large quantities of ready-made clothes and fezes are imported from Austria.
In 1907 the total value of the merchandise imported and exported, exclusive of transit, reexportation and specie, was ~E.54,I34,o0oconstituting a record trade return.
The Mamelukes (slaves), imported from the eastern borders of the Black Sea and then trained as soldiers, usurped the government of Egypt, and held it till 1517, when the Ottomans began to rule.
For boatbuilding papyrus stems and acacia wood were employed, and for the best work cedar-wood was imported from Lebanon.
All silver must have been imported, and all copper except a little that the Pharaohs obtained from the mines of Sinai.
In the time of Herodotus much wine was imported from Syria and Greece.
Serapis was a god imported by the first Ptolemy from Sinope on the Black Sea, who soon lost his own identity by assimilation with Osiris-Apis, the bull revered in Memphis.
The XXVIth Dynasty was largely influenced by Greek amphorae imported with wine and oil.
Formerly the commercial legislation of Denmark was to such a degree restrictive that imported manufactures had to be delivered to the customs, where they were sold by public auction, the proceeds of which the importer received from the custom-houses after a deduction was made for the duty.
The commerce of Denmark is mainly based on home production and home consumption, but a certain quantity of goods is imported with a view to re-exportation, for which the free port and bonded warehouses at Copenhagen give facilities.
A small proportion of the whole is imported chiefly from Russia (also Siberia) and Sweden and re-exported as of foreign origin.
The Danish inroads had told heavily upon it; the monasteries had been special points of attack, and though Alfred founded two or three monasteries and imported foreign monks, there was no general revival of monasticism under him.
It was to remedy these evils that he established a court school, after the example of Charles the Great; for this he imported scholars like Grimbald and John the Saxon from the continent and Asser from South Wales; for this, above all, he put himself to school, and made the series of translations for the instruction of his clergy and people, most of which still survive.
She is said to have been the first to introduce into South Carolina (and into continental North America) the cultivation and manufacture of indigo, and she also imported silkworms-in 1753 she presented to the princess of Wales a dress made of silk from her plantations.
Without being so forward as the rival city of Augsburg to embrace the architectural fashions of the Italian renaissance - continuing, indeed, to be profoundly imbued with the old and homely German burgher spirit, and to wear, in a degree which time has not very much impaired even yet, the quaintness of the old German civic aspect - she had imported before the close of the 15th century a fair share of the new learning of Italy, and numbered among her citizens distinguished humanists like Hartmann Schedel, Sebald Schreier, Willibald Pirkheimer and Conrad Celtes.
The theory that stories from the earlier life have been imported by mistake into the later, even if tenable, applies only to three of the miracles, and leaves.
Large quantities of wood are imported from Germany, Scandinavia and America.
As was shown later, he imported into his view of politics a warm sentiment and an imaginative outlook; and he was an enthusiastic student of Lord Beaconsfield's political novels, more particularly of Sybil, after the heroine in which he named one of his daughters.
consumed in Scotland, for the obvious reason that large quantities of goods are brought into the country by rail, nearly all the tea, for example, consumed in Great Britain being imported into London, while several ports have almost a monopoly of certain other imports.
At length, however, in 1912 the Sultan of Muscat issued a proclamation requiring all arms imported into Muscat to be placed in a special warehouse from which they could not be removed except on production of an import permit from the competent authority at their destination.
If salted in the proper way, they would doubtless be in all respects equal to Dutch anchovies, if not to those imported from Italy.
The so-called "Norwegian anchovies" imported into England in little wooden kegs are nothing but sprats pickled in brine with bay-leaves and whole pepper.
But his rooted aversion to the democratic theories imported from France, which were gradually winning their way into England, only grew stronger with advancing age.
The beauty of these effigies led to their being imported into England; most are now destroyed, but a fine specimen still exists at Westminster on the tomb of William de Valence (1296).
- For many years all the sulphur used in the Leblanc process in the shape of sodium sulphate, and originally imported into the manufacture in the shape of brimstone or pyrites, was wasted in the crude calcium sulphide remaining from the lixiviation of black-ash.
Dates are both home-grown and imported.
The true pistachio is found only on the northern frontier; the nuts are imported from Badakshan and Kunduz.
Sugar-cane is grown only in the rich plains; and though cotton is grown in the warmer tracts, most of the cotton cloth is imported.
In1907-1908the gross yield of the salt duty was 3,339,000, of which more than one-fourth was derived from imported salt.
The European breweries at several hill stations pay the same tax as imported beer.
The plant grows wild in many parts of India; but the cultivation of it for ganja is practically confined to a limited area in the Rajshahi district of eastern Bengal, and charas is mainly imported from Central Asia.
Since 1894 a uniform customs duty of 5% ad valorem has been levied generally on imported goods, certain classes being placed on the free list, of which the most important are food-grains, machinery, railway material, coal, and cotton twist and yarn (exempted in 1896).
Cotton goods are taxed at 32%, whether imported or woven in Indian mills.
Special duties are imposed on liquors, arms and ammunition and petroleum, while imported salt pays the same duty as salt manufactured locally.
An agreement with France at the beginning of the decade secured to Indian produce imported into that country the benefits of the minimum tariff, thus protecting the coffee industry from taxation in French ports on a scale which would have seriously hampered the trade.
For the supply of ordnance, baggage, and transport mules a large number of donkey stallions have been imported by the government annually from various European and other sources.
At Bombay itself large quantities of imported copper are wrought up by native braziers.
But they require an extravagant supply of charcoal; and even with the cheapness of native labour the product cannot compete in price with imported iron from England.
Cotton manufactures and yarns are imported almost exclusively from the United Kingdom, and amount to about 40% of the total trade.
During the 16th century Bruges, Antwerp and Amsterdam became the great emporia Dutch whence Indian produce, imported by the Portuguese,.
In the first half of the 19th century other exports were lime, freestone, and grain; West Indian, American and Baltic produce, Irish flax and Welsh pig iron were imported, and shipbuilding was a growing industry.
The soil is suitable for the cultivation of almost all kinds of tropical produce, and it is to be regretted that the prosperity of the colony depends almost entirely on one article of production, for the consequences are serious when there is a failure, more or less, of the sugar crop. Guano is extensively imported as a manure, and by its use the natural fertility of the soil has been increased to a wonderful extent.
The rice comes principally from India and Madagascar; cattle are imported from Madagascar, sheep from South Africa and Australia, and frozen meat from Australia.
In February 1905 Congress authorized the Philippine government to aid and encourage the construction of railways by guaranteeing 4% interest on bonds; the duty on imported materials used in the construction of railways and the internal revenue on Philippine forest products used for that purpose have also been removed.
The friars promoted the social and economic advancement of the islands, cultivated the native taste for music, introduced improvements in agriculture and imported Indian corn and cacao from America.
Coal is imported, and resold to ships calling at the harbour.
Up to the year 693 the Moslems had no special coinage of their own, and chiefly used Byzantine and Persian money, either imported or struck by themselves.
Aiming at a currency to consist largely of specie, he caused the payment of these claims to be received and imported in specie as far as possible; and in 1836 he ordered land-agents to receive for land nothing but specie.
It occurs in France as well as in England, and was certainly imported into English speech through the medium of Norman French.
Japanese cotton yarns are imported to be woven into a strong cloth on Korean hand-looms. Beans and peas, rice, cowhides, and ginseng are the chief exports, apart from gold.
Though there are large clay deposits in the vicinity, very little of it can be used for crockery, and most of the clay used in the city's potteries is obtained from other states; some of it is imported from Europe.
Previous to 1860 almost every manufactured article used in the state was imported from the east or from Europe.
The McKinley Bill reduced revenues by its high and in many cases almost prohibitive duties; it put sugar on the free list with a discriminating duty of 30th of one cent a pound on sugar imported from countries giving a bounty for sugar exported, and it gave bounties to American sugar growers; it attempted to protect many "infant" industries such as the manufacture of tin-plate; under its provision for reciprocal trade agreements (a favourite project of James G.
It appears to have been imported early into the Cape Verd Islands, where, as also in some of the Greater Antilles and in Ascension, it has run wild.
While these monotheistic, pantheistic doctrines were taught in the schools, the people were left to a debased polytheism and to new superstitions imported from the Orient; the philosophers themselves were by no means unaffected by the popular beliefs.
In the interior the principal medium of exchange among the natives is the large earthenware jars, imported originally, it is believed, from China, which form the chief wealth both of tribes and individuals.
According to some authorities, especially Hodges, the plague was imported into London by bales of merchandise from Holland, which came originally from the Levant; according to others it was introduced by Dutch prisoners of war; but Boghurst regarded it as of local origin.
An outbreak of plague at Messina in 1743 is important, not only for its fatality, but as one of the strongest cases in favour of the theory of imported contagion.
According to one view it was imported from the opposite coast of Dalmatia, though no definite history of contagion was established; according to others, it originated endemically in that place.
The Astrakhan disease may have been imported from Resht or Baku, or may have been caused concurrently with the epidemics of these places by some cause affecting the basin of the Caspian generally.
Plague was recognized at Hong Kong in May 1894, and there can be little doubt that it was imported from Canton, where a violent outbreak-said to have caused ioo,000 deaths-was in progress a few months earlier, being part of an extensive wave of infection which is believed to have come originally out of the province of Yunnan, one of the recognized endemic centres, and to have invaded a large number of places in that part of China, including Pakhoi and other seaports.
Japan itself has had a certain amount of imported plague, but not on a large scale.
It occupies an advantageous position on the great artery of Russian trade, at a place where the manufactured and agricultural products of the basin of the Oka meet the metal wares from that of the Kama, the corn and salt brought from the south-eastern governments, the produce of the Caspian fisheries, and the various wares imported from Siberia, Central Asia, Caucasia and Persia.
The Russian goods constitute four-fifths of the whole trade; those brought from Asia - tea (imported via Kiakhta and via Canton and Suez), raw cotton and silk, leather wares, madder and various manufactured wares - do not exceed 10 or 11%.
Manufactured wares, groceries and wines are the goods principally imported from western Europe.
From 1845 to 1849 he was a United States senator from New York; and as chairman of the committee on commerce was author of the warehouse bill passed by Congress in 1846 to relieve merchants from immediate payment of duties on imported goods.
The British resident estimated in 1904 that at least 3000 loads of British cotton goods, which he valued at 5 a load, were imported.
The whole of the wine consumed in the United Kingdom is imported.
On the average somewhat more than one-third of the wine imported is derived from France, and about a quarter from Spain and Portugal respectively.
Wines imported into the United Kingdom in 1906.
Of the wines imported from France, about one-quarter was Champagne and Saumur, the remainder consisting almost entirely of still wines, such as claret and burgundy.
Although France produces such enormous quantities of wine it is a remarkable fact that more wine is imported into France than is exported from that country.
1,16 1, 339 gallons of champagne, to the value of £1,679,611, were imported into the United Kingdom.
The trade with the United Kingdom is of considerable proportions, the total quantity of Spanish wines imported in 1906 amounting to 1,689,049 gallons of red wine (to the value of £154,963), and white wines to the extent of 1,119,702 gallons (to the value of £242,877).
The bulk of the sherry imported into the United Kingdom still consists of the heavier, fortified wines, varying in strength from 17 to 21% of absolute alcohol, although the fiscal change introduced in 1886, whereby wines not exceeding 30° proof (i.e.
The value of the port taken by the United Kingdom was in the year 1906 over one million sterling, that is, rather less than half of the total value of all the French wines imported, but more than double the value of the total of Spanish wines.
proportions of alcohol (the bulk of the wine imported into the United Kingdom containing some 18 to 22% of alcohol), sugar and tannin..
The shipments to the United Kingdom, however, which reached a maximum in 1820, when over half a million gallons were imported, has fallen off to one-tenth of that amount, and the consumption in these islands was barely 20,000 gallons in 1906.
The value of exports of fish, &c., was £140,000 in 1904, but fish was also imported to the value of £61,300.
Another Russian port from which a large quantity of flax is imported is Pernau, where the marks in use are comparatively few.
Modern improvements and the use of imported machinery have, however, been adopted by some.
A committee exists " for the improvement of the breeds of Cyprus stock "; stallions of Arab blood have been imported, and prizes are offered for the best donkeys.
In the first, the implements are rather of copper than of bronze, tin being absent or in small quantities (2 to 3%); the types are common to Syria and Asia Minor as far as the Hellespont, and resemble also the earliest forms in the Aegean and in central Europe; the pottery is all hand-made, with a red burnished surface, gourd-like and often fantastic forms, and simple geometrical patterns incised; zoomorphic art is very rare, and imported objects are unknown.
it exported timber and imported silver; it included a town Sikra, traded with Byblus in North Syria, and was exposed to piratical raids of Lykki (?Lycians).
Imported vases from the Aegean, of the " Dipylon," " proto-Corinthian " and " Rhodian " fabrics, occur rarely, " and were imitated by the native potters; and early in the 6th century appears the specific influence of Ionia, and still more of Naucratis in the Egyptian delta.
of bream and other Cyprinids, most of them being imported alive from Holland and sold in the Jewish fish markets.
It may be added that we have here no generalization imported from a higher level of culture, but an idea or blend of ideas familiar to primitive thought.
Sweet-peas raised in Calcutta from seed imported from England rarely blossom, and never yield seed; plants from French seed flower better, but are still sterile; but those raised from Darjeeling seed (originally imported from England) both flower and seed profusely.
Merino sheep bred at the Cape of Good Hope have been found far better adapted for India than those imported from England; and while the Chinese variety of the Ailanthus silk-moth is quite hardy, the variety found in Bengal will only flourish in warm latitudes.
The little rooibek of South Africa (Estrilda astrild) has been so long and well established in St Helena that it is known in the bird trade as the St Helena waxbill, and the brilliant scarlet weaver of Madagascar (Foudia madagascariensis) inhabits as an imported bird Mauritius, the Seychelles and even the remote Chagos Islands.
Many insects and other invertebrates, mostly noxious, have been accidentally naturalized, and some have been deliberately introduced, like the honey-bee, now feral in Australasia and North America, and the humble-bee, imported into New Zealand to effect the fertilization of red clover.
The chief articles imported are sugar, rice, raw cotton and opium, as well as cotton cloths, iron goods and other European manufactures.
The colour of the greater proportion of alpaca imported into the United Kingdom is black and brown, but there is also a fair proportion of white, grey and fawn.
Alpaca, Vicuna, and Llama Wool imported into the United Kingdom.
For years small quantities of jute were imported into Great Britain and other European countries and into America, but it was not until the year 1832 that the fibre may be said to have made any great impression in Great Britain.
The principal exports are grain, live stock and fruit; cement, coal, iron, machinery, flour, raw cotton and hides are imported.
Cereals are grown, but the inhabitants prefer to raise such articles of produce as are in demand for export, and consequently part of the grain supply has to be imported.
The labour required on the tea gardens is almost entirely imported, as the natives of the province are too prosperous to do such work.
Berard) take Zeus Lycaeus for a Semitic Baal, whose worship was imported into Arcadia by the Phoenicians; Immerwahr identifies him with Zeus Phyxios, the god of the exile who flees on account of his having shed blood.
In 1888 the imports of iron ore amounted to 3,562,071 tons, in 1898 to 5,468,396 tons, in 1899 to 7,054,578 tons, in 1900 to 6,297,953 tons, in 1901 to 5,548,888 tons and in 1909 to 6,361,571 tons, of which the bulk was imported from Spain.
The principal fluctuations in production were as follows: It should be noted also that from imported cupreous iron pyrites, copper, gold and silver are extracted at some fifteen metal extraction works in Great Britain.
of raw cotton imported, exported and retained for Cot consumption for various years during the period1890-1910were as follows: During the same period the minimum and maximum amount of raw cotton (in lb) imported into the United Kingdom from the principal countries whence it is exported was as follows: United States of America (1893), 1, 0 55, 8 55,3 60; (1898), 1,805,353,424; Egypt (1890), 181,266,176; (1907), 4 2 3, 0 5 2, 44 8; British possessions in the East Indies (1898), 27,349,728; (1890), 2 3 8, 74 6, 7 0 4; (1909), 75,621,168;75,621,168; Brazil (1899), 5,4 6 4,59 2; (1906), 54,362,000; Peru (1891), 6, 1 75,344; (1909), 2 4,4 1 3,§4 8.8.
In 1905 there were imported 7,941,920 lb from Chile (only 195,328 in 1909); 6,033,104 lb from Canada (this also fluctuates greatly; 1,801,072 in 1909); 1,241,408 lb from British West Africa (4,985,232 in 1909); 1,126,720 lb from the British West Indies and Guiana (3,022,208 in 1908).
The extent of the woollen and worsted manufactures of the United Kingdom is indicated by the following table showing the imports and exports of wool and the quantity retained for use in various years (1890-19ò5):--- During the same period the minimum and maximum amount of wool (in lb) imported into the United Kingdom was as follows: Australia (1904), 220,483,961; (1895), 417,163,078; New Zealand (1890), 95, 6 3 2, 59 8; (1909), 1 7 6, 457, 1 5 0; British possessions in South Africa (1900), 32,219,369; (1909), 115,896,598; South America (1890), 11,173,692; (1908), 78,938,157; British possessions in the East Indies (1901), 24,069,571; (1909), 56,238,633; France (1890), 10, 8 73,7 88; (1902), 27,770,790; Turkish Empire (1908), 5,705,671; (1897), 25,727,462.
To make up for the ravages caused by the recent wars colonists were imported to cultivate the land and work the mines, and the old inhabitants gradually returned.
The centre of the beetsugar industry is Skane, but it is also carried on in the island of Gotland; its great access of prosperity is chiefly owing to the existence of a protective duty on imported sugar.
The coal imported (which forms over 90% of the whole consumed) comes mainly from Great Britain; while most of the colonial produce, such as coffee and tobacco, comes through Germany.
The government has been trying to promote cattle-breeding by levying duties (as high as 16 pesos a head) on cattle imported from Argentina, but with no great success.
Books were not allowed to be imported, and education was limited to such as was given here and there by priests and monks.
In many places oysters are simply imported from France and Holland and laid down to grow, or are obtained by dredging from open grounds.
A Persian gentleman erected a cotton-spinning factory at Teheran in 1894 with expensive machinery; it turned out some excellent yarn but could not compete in price with imported yarns.
There is a brisk trade, especially in horses, cotton, leather-ware and all kinds of imported manufactured goods.
The tubers introduced under the auspices of Raleigh were thus imported a few years later than those mentioned by Clusius in 1588, which must have been in cultivation in Italy and Spain for some years prior to that time.
The duty in the United Kingdom on imported cochineal was repealed in 1845.
Sarsaparilla must have come into extensive use soon afterwards, for John Gerard, about the close of the century, states that it was imported into England from Peru in great abundance.
China and is a native of Cochin China, China and Japan, and extensively imported into India, also from S.
Bamboos are imported to a considerable extent into Europe for the use of basket-makers, and for umbrella and walking-sticks.
From the 16th century to the 18th many artistic handicrafts were practised by the Portuguese in imitation of the fine pottery, cabinetwork, embroideries, &c., which they imported from India and Persia.
Seeking for commercial profit, not in the exchange of commodities, but solely in the acquisition of actual gold and silver, and realizing that the home market could not absorb a tithe of the merchandise imported, the Lisbon capitalists sent their ships to discharge in Antwerp (where a Portuguese staple was established in 1503), or in some other port near the central markets of Europe.
While the country was being drained of its best citizens, hordes of slaves were imported to fill the vacancies, especially into the southern provinces.'
Other industries, including agriculture, were neglected, and even food-stuffs were imported from Great Britain.
As in the 16th century immense quantities of bullion were imported by the treasury, and were lavished upon war, luxury and the Church, while agriculture and manufactures continued to decline, and the countryside was depopulated by emigration to Brazil.
Portugal observed neutrality on the outbreak of the AngloBoer War, but the permission it conceded to the British consul at Lourenco Marques to search for contraband of war among goods imported there, and the free passage accorded to an armed force under General Carrington from Beira through Portuguese territory to Rhodesia, were vehemently attacked in the Press and at public meetings.
Pedro is one of the first representatives of those Spanish influences which set aside the Provençal manner and in its place adopted a taste for allegory and a reverence for classical antiquity, both imported from Italy.
It is characteristic of the vagaries of Californian commerce in the early years that dressed granite for some buildings was imported from China.
Mules are used to a large extent as pack animals, but they are imported from Argentina.
Chestnuts (the fruit of the tree) are extensively imported into Great Britain, and are eaten roasted or boiled, and mashed or otherwise as a vegetable.
Wheat, barley, millet and sesame are cultivated on the plain, but fruit and vegetables have mostly to be imported from Persia.
Annalists of the Gracchan age imported into the early struggles of patricians and plebeians the economic controversies of their own day, and painted the first tribunes in the colours of the two Gracchi or of Saturninus.
Up to that date the amount imported did not exceed 200 chests, and was usually brought from India by junks as a return cargo.
Of this amount China required for home consumption 325,270 piculs, the remainder being chiefly exported to IndoChina, whilst 54,225 piculs of foreign opium were imported into China.
The greater proportion of the Persian opium imported into London is again exported, a comparatively small quantity being used, chiefly for the manufacture of codeine when Turkey opium is dear, and a little in veterinary practice.
Foreign opium was first imported by the Portuguese (early 18th century).