Neither the imperial edict nor the work of Henry VIII.
The Emperor, moreover, had with him not a commander-in-chief's staff but the imperial headquarters staff.
Day of the Schism Immortal World Peasant quarter of the imperial city
The entire imperial city knew how taken he was with his mate.
Naval defence in any case remained primarily a question for the Imperial navy, and by agreement (1903, for ten years) between the British government and the governments of the Commonwealth (contributing an annual subsidy of £200,000) and of New Zealand (£40,000), an efficient fleet patrolled the Australasian waters, Sydney, its headquarters, being ranked as a first-class naval station.
1714 Seville Cathedral.1785-1790Old English tuning-fork' c. 1715 Imperial Russian Court Church Band..
The imperial British pint = 57 of a litre, 34.66 cub.
Though Balashev was used to imperial pomp, he was amazed at the luxury and magnificence of Napoleon's court.
78, and placed it under an imperial procurator as praefectus.
His full face, rather young-looking, with its prominent chin, wore a gracious and majestic expression of imperial welcome.
Shortly afterwards he refused to swear allegiance to the new imperial government, and was dismissed the service.
He trotted down the stairs from his palace to the apple orchard that stretched from his home to the imperial city beyond.
The Imperial Camp near Mozhaysk,
By arrangement with the Chinese government a branch of the Imperial maritime customs has been established there for the collection of duties upon goods coming from or going to the interior, in accordance with the general treaty tariff.
First came the Imperial Cornet Band of Oz, dressed in emerald velvet uniforms with slashes of pea-green satin and buttons of immense cut emeralds.
When Henry the Lion, duke of Saxony and Bavaria, was placed under the imperial ban in 1180, Otto's services were rewarded by the investiture of the dukedom of Bavaria at Altenburg.
On the 15th of December, when Schmerling and the Austrian members had left the cabinet, Gagern became head of the imperial ministry, and on the 18th he introduced a programme (known as the Gagernsche Programm) according to which Austria was to be excluded from the new federal state, but bound to it by a treaty of union.
It's time I knew the Imperial horses and Ilya Ivanych.
When Telyanin had finished his lunch he took out of his pocket a double purse and, drawing its rings aside with his small, white, turned-up fingers, drew out a gold imperial, and lifting his eyebrows gave it to the waiter.
You know, of course, that His Imperial Highness rode with our regiment all the time, so that we had every comfort and every advantage.
The theory was that all the imperial business in Germany was supervised by the elector of Mainz, and for Italy by the elector of Cologne.
He made his way through the orchard and over the wall at the other end, stunned by the mess that had been the immortals' imperial city.
The revolutionary and imperial epoch had seen a great development of Italian patriotism, and Santarosa was aggrieved by the great extension given to the Austrian power in Italy in 1815, which reduced his own country to a position of inferiority.
In attendance on him was the head of the imperial staff, Quartermaster General Prince Volkonski, as well as generals, imperial aides-de-camp, diplomatic officials, and a large number of foreigners, but not the army staff.
The tradition was steadily followed and was extended to some ladies of the imperial family and even to imperial favourites.
Kutuzov had received the Order of St. George of the First Class and the Emperor showed him the highest honors, but everyone knew of the imperial dissatisfaction with him.
of England, in return for which he entered the imperial league of Spain and England against France.
In February 1499 the king became involved in a war with the Swiss, who had refused to pay the imperial taxes or to furnish a contribution for the Italian expedition.
His rule was most energetic; but while he favoured the barbarians in the imperial service, and appointed them to high office, Valentinian, openly jealous of his minister, sought to surround himself with Romans.
In 1664 he was chosen one of the directors of the imperial army raised to fight the Turk; and after the peace which followed the Christian victory at St Gotthard in August 1664, he aided the English king Charles II.
This icon of the Venerable Sergius, the servant of God and zealous champion of old of our country's weal, is offered to Your Imperial Majesty.
In 1772 he was called to the bar; four years afterwards he was nominated to the chair of poetry at the imperial college.
In accordance with this general verdict of all the states, the colonial draft bill was submitted to the imperial government for legislation as an imperial act; and six delegates were sent to England to explain the measure and to pilot it through the cabinet and parliament.
This threefold division of the office of imperial archchancellor was acknowledged in 1356 by the Golden Bull of the emperor Charles IV., but the duties of the office were performed by the elector of Mainz.
m.) was incorporated with the rest of Transylvania; and in 1871 effect was given to the imperial decree of 1869 by which the districts of the Warasdin regiments (St George and the Cross) and the towns of Zengg, B elovar, Ivanic, &c., were "provincialized" or incorporated with the Croatian-Slavonian crown-land.
In the centre of the area are the substructions of a temple, and on the south-east side are the remains of the theatre, built in the early imperial period, restored by Septimius Severus in 196-197 and again in the 4th or 5th century.
Southern Albania and Epirus remained under Byzantine domination till 1204, when, after the capture of Constantinople by the crusaders, Michael Comnenus, a member of the imperial family, withdrew to Epirus and founded an independent sovereignty known as the Despotate of Epirus at Iannina; his realm included the whole of southern Albania, Acarnania and Aetolia.
After studying law at the universities of Leipzig and GÃ¶ttingen, he entered the service of the prince of Nassau-Weilburg, whom in 1791 he represented at the imperial diet.
Having established his daughter Margaret as regent for Charles in the Netherlands, Maximilian met the diet at Constance in 1507, when the imperial chamber (Reichskammergericht) was revised and took a more permanent form, and help was granted for an expedition to Italy.
On the death of this general Descartes quitted the imperial service, and in July 1621 began a peaceful tour through Moravia, the borders of Poland, Pomerania, Brandenburg, Holstein and Friesland, from which he reappeared in February 1622 in Belgium, and betook himself directly to his father's home at Rennes in Brittany.
Then in rapid succession came several independent bodies - the Midland Counties (1895), the London and Southern Counties (1896), the Imperial (1899), the English (1903) and the Irish and Welsh (1904).
He captured it in 1215, but it was not till 1284 that it was adopted as the imperial residence in lieu of Karakorum in the Mongol steppes by his grandson Kublai.
Under the agreement a royal naval reserve was maintained, three of the Imperial vessels provided being utilized as drill ships for crews recruited from the Australian states.
The Imperial army, strictly speaking, was one third composed of Dutch, Belgians, men from the borders of the Rhine, Piedmontese, Swiss, Genevese, Tuscans, Romans, inhabitants of the Thirty-second Military Division, of Bremen, of Hamburg, and so on: it included scarcely a hundred and forty thousand who spoke French.
And the two friends told each other of their doings, the one of his hussar revels and life in the fighting line, the other of the pleasures and advantages of service under members of the Imperial family.
The imperial palace, where Alexander I.
The White God, Darian, strode through his marble halls, the soft footfalls of his leather boots the only sound in the imperial corridor.
If in 1869 he appeared to deviate from this principle by being a candidate at Marseilles for the Corps Legislatif, it was because he yielded to the entreaties of the Imperial government in order to strengthen its goodwill for the Suez Canal.
Among several military memorials, one in the Academy grounds was erected to the Prince Imperial of France, for two years a student in the Academy.
Under Augustus, 15 B.C., the relations conquered territory was formed into an imperial with the province, Gallia Belgica, and the frontier line, the Romans.
The so-called Latin crusade of 1203 placed the imperial crown of Constantinople on the head of Baldwin of Flanders.
Ultimately he rose to high rank in the newly organized imperial government, but in 1873 he retired from the cabinet by way of protest against its decision not to take armed action against Korea.
He went to Vienna and in 1809 was appointed imperial court secretary at the headquarters of the archduke Charles.
It occupies the site of the ancient Beneventum, originally Maleventum or Maluentum, supposed in the imperial period to have been founded by Diomedes.
He was the author of a number of works, of which the most notable besides Ocean to Ocean are, Advantages of Imperial Federation (1889), Our National Objects and Aims (1890), Religions of the World in Relation to Christianity (1894) and volumes of sermons and lectures.
It was the first German colony to dispense (1903-1904) with an imperial subsidy towards its upkeep. Several firms have acquired plantations in which coffee, cocoa, cotton, kola and other tropical products are cultivated.
At Togo Bremen merchants had trading stations, and taking advantage of this fact Dr Gustav Nachtigal, German imperial commissioner, induced the king of Togo (July 5, 1884) to place his country under German suzerainty.
He had been an officer of the guard under Julian and Jovian, and had risen high in the imperial service.
Justina was an Arian, and the imperial court at Milan pitted itself against the Catholics, under the famous Ambrose, bishop of that city.
his Life of his father (1898), his Address to London Chamber of Commerce on " Imperial Telegraphic Communication " (1902), Lecture to Royal United Service Institution on " Submarine Telegraphy " (1907), Lectures to Royal Naval War College (1910) and R.E.
Military School (1908) on " Submarine Cable Laying and Repairing," and articles in Quarterly Review (April 1903) on " Imperial Telegraphs," and in Edinburgh Review (April 1908) on " The International RadioTelegraphic Convention."
In 1901, 1985 imperial tuns of oil were shipped from Gallipoli for abroadtwo-thirds to the United Kingdom, one-third to Russiaand 666 to Italian ports; while in 1904 the figures were reversed, 1633 tuns going to Italian ports, and only 945 tuns to foreign ports.
Though their rule was favorable to the Romans, they were Arians; and religious differences, combined with the pride and jealousies of a nation accustomed to imperial honors, rendered the inhabitants of Italy eager to throw off their yoke.
The first thing we have to notice in this revolution which placed Otto the Great upon the imperial throne is that the Italian.
(married to Theophano of the imperial Byzantine house) and his grandson, Otto III., who descended into Italy in 996, found that the affairs of Rome and of the southern provinces were more than even their imperial powers could cope with.
the imperial city, sought once more to control the election of the popes.
crossed the Alps, entered Rome, wrung the imperial coronation from Paschal II.
But in Italy, although they were severally identified with the papal and imperial parties, they really served as symbols for jealousies which altered in complexion from time to time and place to place, expressing more than antagonistic political principles, and involving differences vital enough to split the social fabric to its foundation.
Under the imperial rule of Lothar the Saxon (1125-1137) and Conrad the Swabian (1138I I 52), these civil wars increased in violence owing to the absence of authority.
Frederick immediately B~barossa determined to reassert the imperial rights in his and the southern provinces, and to check the warfare of the Lombard burghs.
Lombardy was, roughly speaking, divided between two parties, the one headed by Pavia professing loyalty to the empire, the other headed by Milan ready to oppose its claims. The municipal animosities of the last quarter of a century gave substance to these factions; yet neither the imperial nor, the anti-imperial party had any real community of interest with Frederick.
He came in 1158 with a large army, overran Lombardy, raised his imperial allies, and sat down before the walls of Milan.
Verona, Vicenza, Padua, Treviso, Venice entered into a compact to defend their liberties; and when he came again in 1163 with a brilliant staff of German knights, the imperial cities refused to join his standards.
was left without a rival for the imperial throne ifl 1218 by the-death of Otto IV., and on the 22nd of November 1220, Honorius III., Innocents successor, crowned him in Rome.
Henry established imperial vicars in the Lombard towns, confirming the tyrants, but gaining nothing for the empire in exchange for the titles he conferred.
In 1521 he changed sides, allied himself to Charles, and died after hearing that the imperial troops had again expelled the French from Milan.
He there received the imperial crown, and summoned the Italian princes for a settlement of all disputed claims. Francesco Sforza, the last and childless heir of the ducal house, was left in Milan till his death, which happened in 1535.
By an imperial decree of the I7th of February 1810, Rome and the neighboring districts, including Spoleto, became part of the French empire.
The French regular troops were withdrawn from Rome in December 1866; but the pontifical forces were largely recruited in France and commanded by officers of the imperial army, and service under the pope was considered by the French war office as equivalent to service in France.
Perceiving the advantage of a visit to the imperial and apostolic court after the Italian occupation of Rome and the suppression of the religious orders, and convinced of the value of more cordial intercourse with the German empire, Visconti-Venosta and Minghetti advised their sovereign to accept both the Austrian and the subsequent German invitations.
The German emperor shared this desire, but Bismarck and the Austrian emperor wished to substitute for the imperial league some more advantageous combination.
He not only re-established the Prussian legation to the Vatican, suppressed since 1874, and omitted from the imperial message to the Reichstag (17th November 1881) all reference to King Humberts visit to Vienna, but took occasion on the n9th of November to refer to Italy as a country tottering on the verge of revolution, and opened in the German semi-official press ~ campaign in favor of an international guarantee for the independence of the papacy.
crushed, in order that the imperial authority and the superiority of Shoan over Tigrin arms might be the more strikingly asserted.
A further cause of resentment was Austrias attitude towards the Vatican, inspired by the strong clerical tendencies of the imperial family, and indeed of a large section of the Austrian people.
Possibly, fuller study of religions may help theologians to formulate the imperial claims of Christianity more happily than in the dry contrast between what is " revealed " and what is " natural."
In the south-east corner of the city are the picturesque ruins of the Roman imperial palace, and near the bridge are the extensive substructures of the 4thcentury Roman baths, 660 ft.
Passing from pride to humility he added "servant of the apostle," and "servant of Jesus Christ" to the imperial title, spent a fortnight in prayer in the grotto of St Clement and did penance in various Italian monasteries.
The older road crossed the back of the promontory at the foot of which Terracina stands; in imperial times, probably, the rock was cut away perpendicularly for a height of 120 ft.
The original road, too, adopted in imperial times a more devious but easier route by Aeclanum instead of by Trevicum.
Sometimes an imperial officer of high rank (as, e.g.
In both cases, imperial assessors were appointed.
At Chalcedon, on the other hand, the imperial commissioners decided points of order, kept the synod to the question, took the votes and adjourned the court.
and was occupied by an imperial burgrave for some fifty years, after which it was retaken by the counts of Flanders.
From his earliest youth he had learned to identify the ritual of the Roman religion with the very essence of the imperial idea.
About 245 the emperor Philip the Arabian entrusted him with an important command on the Danube, and in 249 (or end of 248), having been sent to put down a revolt of the troops in Moesia and Pannonia, he was forced to assume the imperial dignity.
Henry II., duke of Brunswick, then took command of the troops of the league, and after Albert had been placed under the imperial ban in December 1553 he was defeated by Duke Henry, and compelled to fly to France.
(2) That in case the crown and imperial dignity of this realm shall hereafter come to any person not being a native of this kingdom of England, this nation be not obliged to engage in any war for the defence of any dominions or territories which do not belong to the Crown of England, without the consent of parliament.
This chair, now placed in the gallery referred to, was used for centuries in the imperial coronation ceremonies.
These were still further extended in 1250 by the anti-Caesar William of Holland, who had made himself master of the place and of the imperial regalia, after a long siege, in 1248.
As a soldier he fought in the Franco-German War, after which he was for some years tutor to one of the princes of the German imperial family.
Meshed has telegraph (since 1876) and post (since 1879) offices, and the Imperial Bank of Persia opened a branch here in 1891.
Remains of villas can also be traced, and to the largest of these, which occupied the summit of the promontory, and belonged first to Marius, then to Lucullus, and then to the imperial house, probably belongs the subterranean Grotta Dragonara.
In response to the imperial summons, five to six hundred bishops, all Eastern, except the Roman legates and two Africans, assembled in Chalcedon on the Sth of October 451.
In the same year he was nominated a Grand Cross in the Imperial Order of the Rose of Brazil; he also held the Prussian Order "Pour le Merite," and belonged to the Legion of Honour of France and to the Order of the North Star of Sweden and Norway.
MOLSHEIM, a town of Germany, in the imperial province of Alsace-Lorraine at the foot of the Vosges, on the Breusch and at the junction of railways to Zabern and Strassburg.
The Greeks were persuaded, thanks to St Bonaventura, to consent to a union with Rome for the time being, and Rudolph of Habsburg renounced at the council all imperial rights in the States of the Church.
The imperial style is still " Emperor and Autocrat of All the Russias "; but in the fundamental laws as remodelled between the imperial manifesto of 17/30 October and the opening of the first Duma 1 See A.
By the manifesto of the 17/30th of October 1905 the emperor voluntarily limited his legislative power by decreeing that no measure was to become law without the consent of the Imperial Duma, a freely elected national assembly.
The Council of the Empire, or Imperial Council (Gosudarstvenniy Sovyet), as reconstituted for this purpose, consists of 196 members, of whom 98 are nominated by the emperor, The while 98 are elective.
As a legislative body the powers of the Council are co-ordinate with those of the Duma; in practice, however, it has seldom if ever initiated legislation.6 The Duma of the Empire or Imperial Duma (Gosudarstvennaya Duma), which forms the Lower House of the Russian parliament, consists (since the ukaz of the znd of June 1907) on the 27th of April 1906, while the name and princi p le of autocracy was jealously preserved, the word " unlimited " vanished.
If by a two-thirds majority the action of a minister be arraigned, the president of the Imperial Council lays the case before the emperor, who decides.
Other exceptions are the " Institutions of the Empress Marie," which absorb, inter alia, the duties on playing-cards and the taxes on places of public entertainment; the imperial civil list, so far as this does not exceed the sum fixed in 1906 (16,359,595 roubles!); the expenses of the two imperial chanceries, 10,000,000 roubles per annum, which constitute in effect a secret service fund.
The ministries are as follows: (1) of the Imperial Court, to which the administration of the apanages, the chapter of the imperial orders, the imperial palaces and theatres, and the Academy of Fine Arts are subordinated; (2) Foreign Affairs; (3) War and Marine; (4) Finance; (5) Commerce and Industry (created in 1905); (6) Interior (including police, health, censorship and press, posts and telegraphs, foreign religions, statistics); (7) Agriculture; (8) Ways and Communications; (9) Justice; (10) Public Instruction.
Its most famous development was the so-called " Third Section " (of the imperial chancery) instituted by the emperor Nicholas I.
In addition to these, notwithstanding government opposition, a series been given to the effort for improvement, and that the question had been seriously taken in hand by the imperial administration and the Duma.
5 An imperial rescript of 10th of June 1902 foreshadowed a reorganization of secondary education, and an imperial ukaz of 15th of March 1903 laid down the lines on which this was to proceed..
The only sources of extraordinary revenue still remaining under that head are the money derived from loans and the perpetual deposits in the Imperial Bank.
The state is the chief owner of forests (almost exclusive owner in Archangel), and owns no less than 289,226,000 acres in European Russia and Poland (235,000,000 acres of good forests), while private persons own 171,800,000 acres, the peasant communities 67,250,000 and the imperial family 22,400,000 acres.
Then an imperial manifesto reminding the Poles of the treaty of 1768 was issued and a large Russian force entered the Ukraine.
During the revolutionary ferment of 1848-49 he urged the Prussian king to refuse the imperial crown, co-operated with the Austrian emperor in suppressing the Hungarian insurrection, and compelled the Prussians to withdraw their support from the insurgents in Schleswig-Holstein.
In the imperial administration, the corruption and long-established abuses which had momentarily vanished, began to reappear.
It was dissolved, therefore, on the 16th of June 1907, and the electoral law which had given such unsatisfactory results was modified by imperial ukase.
Of Speranski's plan only the establishment of the Imperial Council (January 1st, 1810) was realized in his lifetime.
In January 1881 Count Loris-Melikov, minister of the interior, proposed to convene a " general commission " to examine legislative proposals before these were laid before the Imperial Council; this commission was to consist of members elected by the zemstvos and the larger towns, and others nominated in the provinces having no zemstvos.
In the imperial counsels the resisting forces still seemed to have the upper hand.
Prince Mirski resigned, his resignation being immediately followed by a reactionary imperial manifesto reaffirming the principle of autocracy (February 18th).
When, however, on the 6th of August, the new law was promulgated, it was found that the " Imperial Duma " 5 was to be no more than a consultative body, charged with the examination of legislative proposals before these came before the Imperial Council, the duty and right of passing them into law being still reserved for the autocrat alone.
The address in reply to the speech from the throne, voted after a debate in which abstract theories had triumphed over common sense, demanded universal suffrage, the establishment of pure parliamentary government, the abolition of capital punishment, the expropriation of the landlords, a political amnesty, and the suppression of the Imperial Council.
On the 19th of March he laid before the House his programme of reforms, which included the emancipation of the peasants from the control of the communes and the handing over to them of the crown lands and imperial estates.
An imperial ukaz fixed the new elections of the for the 14th of September, and the meeting of the electoral third Duma for the 14th of November; at the same law.
Even the remnant of the " Cadets " had by this time renounced their sympathy with Polish aspirations, and in the matter of Finland the Duma proved itself even more imperial than the emperor himself.
Finnish diet ought to refer to the imperial legislature not only all military matters - as the tsar demanded (Rescript of October 14) - but the question of the use of the Russian language in the grand-duchy, the principles of the Finnish administration, police, justice, education, formation of business companies and of associations, public meetings, the press, the customs tariff, the monetary system, means of communication, and the pilot and lighthouse system.
The publications of the Imperial Russian Historical Society of St Petersburg, amounting to upwards of 100 vols., are of great value.
Italy did the same in its laws in 1873, 1879, 1881, 1887 and 1889; and Germany fostered enterprise of this kind by the imperial edicts, of 1875, 1878 and 1892.
Similarly, the same authorities decide for themselves the conditions under which the public roads may be used, and the precautions for public safety, all subject to the confirmation of the imperial government.
Valdemar at once cultivated the friendship of the new emperor; and Frederick, by an imperial brief, issued in December 1214 and subsequently confirmed by Innocent III.
In search of materials for this purpose, Pertz made a prolonged tour through Germany and Italy, and on his return in 1823 he received at the instance of Stein the principal charge of the publication of Monumenta germaniae historica, texts of all the more important historical writers on German affairs down to the year 1500, as well as of laws, imperial and regal archives, and other valuable documents, such as letters, falling within this period.
There is an imperial governor, having under him a native high chief assisted by a native council; and there are both German and native judges and magistrates.
For nine centuries Peking, under various names and under the dominion of successive dynasties, has, with some short intervals, remained an imperial city.
This disparity is partly accounted for by the facts that large spaces, notably in the Chinese city, are not built over, and that the grounds surrounding the imperial palace, private residences and temples are very extensive.
Enclosed within the Tatar city is the Hwang ch' eng, or "Imperial city," which in its turn encloses the Tsze-kin ch' eng, or "Forbidden city," in which stands the emperor's palace.
Turning southwards we come again to the Forbidden City, the central portion of which forms the imperial palace, where, in halls which for the magnificence of their proportions and barbaric splendour are probably not to be surpassed anywhere, the Son of Heaven holds his court.
Ober-Ingelheim, formerly an imperial town, is still surrounded by walls.
Her name is first openly connected with the king's as a possible wife in the event of Catherine's divorce, in a letter of Mendoza, the imperial ambassador, to Charles V.
The period from the transference of the imperial residence to Ravenna to the death of Valentinian III.
In this mausoleum Theodoric was buried, but his body was cast forth from it, perhaps during the troublous times of the siege of Ravenna by the imperial troops, and the Rotunda (as it is now generally called) was converted into a church dedicated to the Virgin.
In Roman imperial times the ephebi had to deliver a speech at the Haloa.
A young senator (ab actis senatus) was chosen to draw up these Acta, which were kept in the imperial archives and public libraries.
He was now one of the most powerful sovereigns of Europe, for besides ruling over Provence and Anjou and the kingdom of the Two Sicilies, he was imperial vicar of Tuscany, lord of many cities of Lombardy and Piedmont, and as the pope's favourite practically arbiter of the papal states, especially during the interregnum between the death of Clement IV.
Dubos, but singularly transforming it, he maintained that those invasions were not marked by the violent and destructive character usually attributed to them; that the penetration of the German barbarians into Gaul was a slow process; that the Germans submitted to the imperial administration; that the political institutions of theMerovingians had their origins in the Roman laws at least as much as, if not more than, in German usages; and, consequently, that there was no conquest of Gaul by the Germans.
This was still open in the imperial period, and the town, which was a municipium, possessed its own gild of sailors; but its importance gradually decreased.
The foreign policy of this period brought about the complete isolation of Austria, and the ingratitude towards Russia, as shown during the period of the Crimean War, which has become proverbial, caused a permanent estrangement between the two great Eastern empires and the imperial families.
His reputation as a consistent moderating influence in European policy and one of the chief guarantors of European peace was indeed rudely shaken in October 1908, the year in which he celebrated his ixty years jubilee as emperor, by the issue of the imperial Iscript annexing Bosnia and Herzegovina to the Habsburg ominions, in violation of the terms of the treaty of Berlin.
He seems to have served Tiberius as an official scrutineer of the imperial officials and he commemorated his devotion by the foundation of the city of Tiberias.
After the second crusade the German Jews fell into the class of servi camerae, which at first only implied that they enjoyed the immunity of imperial servants, but afterwards made of them slaves and pariahs.
It is interesting, as bringing out the personal element in the traditional royal seat, that an inscribed sealing belonging to the earliest period of the later palace of Cnossus bears on it the impression of two official signets with portrait heads of a man and of a boy, recalling the " associations " on the coinage of imperial Rome.
The Pact of Halepa was restored, the troops were withdrawn from the interior, financial aid was promised to the island, a Christian governor-general was appointed, the assembly was summoned, and an imperial commissioner was despatched to negotiate an arrangement.
It soon became evident, however, that the Porte was endeavouring to obstruct the execution of the new reforms. Several months passed without any step being taken towards this realization; difficulties were raised with regard to the composition of the international commissions charged with the reorganization of the gendarmery and judicial system; intrigues were set on foot against the Christian governorgeneral; and the presence of a special imperial commissioner, who had no place under the constitution, proved so injurious to the restoration of tranquillity that the powers demanded his immediate recall.
According to the 14th Roman ordo, of 1241, the pope places on the emperor's head first the mitra clericalis, then the imperial diadem.
Possibly, as its form suggests, it is based on the imperial crown and symbolized at the outsgt the quasi - sovereignty over the rayah population which Mahommed II.
Even in imperial times Greek was largely spoken there, for about as many Greek as Latin inscriptions have been found.
Besides the Bhopal battalion, a regiment of imperial service cavalry is maintained, under the name of the Victoria Lancers.
In 1644 the Ming succumbed to the attacks of the Manchus, a northern tribe who captured Peking and founded the present imperial house.
41) Agrippa contributed much by his advice to maintain Claudius in possession of the imperial dignity, while he made a show of being in the interest of the senate.
It remains to mention briefly the fortunes of each remaining member of the once imperial confederation.
But the duchy was re-established after the death of the German king Henry I., and became hereditary in the Hohenstaufen family, and then in the house of Austria, which succeeded in 1273 to the imperial dignity.
This state of things continued until 1648, when a large part of Alsace, comprising the two landgraviates of Upper and Lower Alsace and the prefecture of the ten free imperial towns, was ceded to France by the treaty of Westphalia.
After the fall of Vitellius he was saluted as Caesar, or prince imperial, by the troops, obtained the city praetorship, and was entrusted with the administration of Italy till his father's return from the East.
Its objects were to relieve agricultural land from half the local rates, and to provide the means of making good out of imperial funds the deficiency in local taxation caused thereby.
per imperial quarter.
These prices are per imperial quarter, - that is, 480 lb of wheat, 400 lb of barley and 312 lb of oats, representing 60 lb, 50 lb and 39 lb per bushel respectively.
- Gazette Annual Average Prices per Imperial Quarter of British Cereals in England and Wales, 1875-1905.
A familiar practical method of estimating carcase weight from live weight is to reckon one Smithfield stone (8 lb) of carcase for each imperial stone (14 lb) of live weight.
In the year 21 6 - the time when the imperial executioners were ravaging Alexandria - we find Origen in Palestine.
Friis succeeded Claus Gjoodsen as imperial chancellor in 1532, and held that dignity till his death.
Napoleon's utter disregard of the neutrality of neighbouring states was soon to be revealed in the course of a royalist plot which helped him to the imperial title.
Other official addresses of the same general tenour flowed in; and even the tribunate showed its docility by proposing that the imperial dignity should be declared hereditary in the family of Bonaparte (3rd of May).
In a plebiscite taken on the subject of the imperial title and the law of succession, there were 3,5 72, 3 2 9 affirmative votes and only 2569 negatives.
The republicans in nearly every case voted for him: and it is significant of the curious trend of French thought that the new imperial constitution of the 18th of May 1804 opened with the words: "The government of the Republic is confided to an emperor, who takes the title Emperor of the French."
More important were the titular changes Napoleon, as we have seen, did not venture to create an order of nobility until 1808, but he at once established an imperial hierarchy.
First came the French princes, namely, the brothers of the emperor; six grand imperial dignities were also instituted, viz.
These with a host of lesser dignities built up the imperial hierarchy and enabled the court quickly to develop on the lines of the old monarchy, so far as rules of etiquette and self-conscious efforts could reproduce the courtly graces of the ancien regime.
Napcleon was now able by degrees to dispense with all republican forms (the last to go was the Republican Calendar, which ceased on the 1st of January 1806), and the scene at the coronation in Notre Dame on the 2nd of December 1804 was frankly imperial in splendour and in the egotism which led Napoleon to wave aside the pope, Pius VII., at the supreme moment and crown himself.
Though garbled in several places by the imperial commission appointed by Napoleon III.
How was this brought about, and what was the imperial centre?
There alone we have proof that the art of writing was commonly practised, and there tribute-tallies suggest an imperial organization; there the arts of painting and sculpture in stone were most highly developed; there the royal residences, which had never been violently destroyed, though remodelled, continued unfortified; whereas on the Greek mainland they required strong protective works.
In the 12th century we find Forli in league with Ravenna, and in the 13th the imperial count of the province of Romagna resided there.
own collection or the Imperial vivarium at Vienna - was at the pains to print at Pavia in his miscellaneous Deliciae Florae et Faunae Insubricae a Specimen Zoologicum 1 containing diagnoses, duly named, of the birds discovered and described by Sonnerat in his.
We next find Charles Emmanuel aspiring to the imperial crown in 1619, but without success.
Angilbert, however, was little like the true medieval saint; his poems reveal rather the culture and tastes of a man of the world, enjoying the closest intimacy with the imperial family.
In fact, he was never acknowledged as emperor by the entire Roman world, though at Rome the senate accepted him and decreed to him the usual imperial honours.
Their maritime importance compelled Narses, the imperial commander, to seek their aid in transporting his army from Grado; and when the Paduans appealed to the Eunuch to restore their rights over the Brenta, the Venetians replied by declaring that islands of the lagoon and the river mouths that fell into the estuary were the property of those who had rendered them habitable and serviceable.
Nor was it long before Venice made a similar assertion to the imperial representative, Longinus.
The pope appealed to Liutprand, the powerful king of the Lombards, to attack the imperial possessions in Ravenna.
He did so, and expelled the exarch Paul, who took refuge in Venice and was restored to his post by the doge of the Heraclean or Byzantine party, Orso, who in return for this assistance received the imperial title of hypatos, and trading rights in Ravenna.
The history of Venice during the next two hundred years is marked externally by the growth of the city, thanks to an ever-expanding trade, both down the Adriatic, which brought the republic into collision with the Dalmatian pirates and led to their final conquest, in 1000, by the doge Pietro Orseolo II., and also on the mainland, where Venice gradually acquired trading rights, partly by imperial diploma, partly by the establishment and the supply of markets on the mainland rivers, the Sile and the Brenta.
The growth of Venetian trade and wealth in the Levant roused the jealousy of Genoa and the hostility of the imperial court at Constantinople, where the Venetians are said to have numbered 200,000 and to have held a large quarter of the city in terror by their brawls.
The imperial officers imprisoned him at Vilvorde Castle, the state prison, 6 m.
At the same time questions of trade, of local politics, finally of colonial autonomy, of imperial policy, had gradually, but already long since, replaced theology in leading interest.
A new career of ambition was opened to her citizens in the Roman honours that rewarded services to the imperial armies during their frequent expeditions in the East.
Wahab-allath(5th year)begins to issue coins at Alexandria without the head of Aurelian and bearing the imperial title; and Zenobia's coins bear the same.
She was worshipped, under the form of a conical stone, in an open-air sanctuary of the usual Cypriote type (not unlike those of Mycenaean Greece), the general form of which is known from representations on late gems, and on Roman imperial coins;' its ground plan was discovered by excavations in 1888.2 It suffered repeatedly from earthquakes, and was rebuilt more than once; in Roman times it consisted of an open court, irregularly quadrangular, with porticos and chambers on three sides, and a gateway through them on the east.
In 1420 the emperor Sigismund made the city the base for his unsuccessful attack on the Taborites; Kuttenberg was taken by Ziika, and after a temporary reconciliation of the warring parties was burned by the imperial troops in 1422, to prevent its falling again into the hands of the Taborites.
The following table, summarized from the Handbook to the Imperial Institute Cotton Exhibition, 1905, giving the length of staple and value on one date (January 16, 1905), will serve to indicate the comparative values of some of the principal commercial cottons.
Attention has been paid in the West Indies to seed selection, by the officers of the imperial Department of Agriculture, with the object of retaining for West Indian Sea Island cotton its place as the most valuable cotton on the British market.
In 1900 the Imperial Department of Agriculture and private planters began experiments with the object of reintroducing the cultivation, owing to the decline in value of sugar.
Professor Wyndham Dunstan of the Imperial Institute, on a reference from the government, made favourable reports as to the possibilities of extending cotton cultivation.
He himself entered the imperial army at an early age and speedily attained high promotion.
Stilicho and Serena were named guardians of the youthful Honorius when the latter was created joint emperor in 394 with special jurisdiction over Italy, Gaul, Britain, Spain and Africa, and Stilicho was even more closely allied to the imperial family in the following year by betrothing his daughter Maria to his ward and by receiving the dying injunctions of Theodosius to care for his children.
He thwarted the efforts of Alaric to seize lands in Italy by his victories at Pollentia and Verona in 402-3 and forced him to return to Illyricum, but was criticized for having withdrawn the imperial forces from Britain and Gaul to employ against the Goths.
In the southwest of Manchuria a line of the imperial railways of Northern China gives connexion from Peking, and branches at Kou-pang-tsze to Sin Population.
On assuming the imperial yellow in China their chief adopted the title of Kin or " Golden " for his dynasty.
As emperor, Henry was eager to resume the imperial Crusade which had been stopped by his father's death; while both as Frederick's successor and as heir to the Norman kings of Sicily, who had again and again waged war against the Eastern empire, he had an account to settle with the rulers of Constantinople.
The brandydrinking habit, which, when the imperial government assumed control of the administration in 1884, threatened the existence of the nation, has been very largely checked.
The Cape government therefore offered no opposition to the appeal made by the Basuto themselves to the imperial government to take them over, and, moreover, Cape Colony undertook to pay towards the cost of administration an annual contribution of £18,000.
Since 1884 he had been a loyal supporter of the imperial authorities, being unwavering in his adherence in critical times.
Direct collection of taxes by imperial procurators was substituted for the system of farming, and a special official (advocatus fisci) was instituted to look after the interests of the imperial treasury.
The administration of the postal service throughout the empire was taken over by the state, and municipal officials were relieved from the burden of maintaining the imperial posts.
Among these posts were various procuratorships (chief of which was that of the imperial fisc), and the offices ab epistulis, a rationibus and a libellis (secretary, accountant, receiver of petitions).
In 1918 he went to England with the Prime Minister, Sir Robert Borden, to attend the Imperial Conference.
In 1819 he removed to Liverpool, being appointed editor of the Imperial Magazine, then newly established, and in 1821 to London, the business being then transferred to the capital.
A vigorous campaign against monasticism took place; the monasteries were closed, and many of them pulled down or converted into barracks; monks and nuns were compelled to marry, and exiled in large numbers to Cyprus; the literary and artistic treasures were sold for the benefit of the imperial treasury.
The ascendancy acquired in these years eventually raised Athens to the rank of an imperial state.
In the period of the Antonines the endowment of professors out of the imperial treasury gave Athens a special status as a university town.
The house was the residence not only of Napoleon III., but of the empress Eugenie and of the prince imperial, who is commemorated by a memorial cross on Chislehurst Common.
No more is known of the place until it appears as Germanicia-Caesarea, striking imperial coins with the head of L.
His books on Colonial Defence and Colonial Opinions (1873), The Defence of Great and Greater Britain (1879),(1879), Naval Intelligence and the Protection of Commerce (1881), The Use and the Application of Marine Forces (1883), Imperial Federation: Naval and Military (1887), followed later by other similar works, made him well known among the rising school of Imperialists, and he was returned to parliament (1886-1892) as Conservative member for Bow, and afterwards (1895-1906) for Great Yarmouth.
An ascent made by Dr Honda of the imperial university of Japan showed that, up to a height of 6000 ft., the mountain is clothed with primeval forests of palms, banyans, cork trees, camphor trees, tree ferns, interlacing creepers and dense thickets of rattan or stretches of grass higher than a man's stature.
On his return to Russia he was created a boyar of the first class and entrusted with the direction of the foreign office, with the title of "Guardian of the great Tsarish Seal and Director of the great Imperial Offices."
In 1883 he was sent to Berlin as minister for Baden in the Federal Council and from 1884 to 1890 he represented the Council in the Imperial Insurance Office.
The tax contributed £1,856,000 to the imperial revenue the year before its repeal.
Fighting with the Arabs followed, and in 1889 the company handed over their settlement to the German imperial government.
See The Imperial Gazetteer of India (Oxford, 1908), x.
In 1907 it was incorporated in the Imperial College of Science and Technology.
This imperial coinage was designed to break down the monetary predominance of Athens (Beloch, Gr.
171 (1st ed.), line lot;; but here the tax seems to be, not an imperial one, but one paid to the city of Smyrna.
Havelberg was formerly a strong fortress, but in the Thirty Years' War it was taken from the Danish by the imperial troops in 1627.
The imperial troops defeated the Hungarian insurgents in a battle fought here in October 1848.
The original is now in the imperial library of Vienna.'
It was only the chronologists and historians of the church who, following Julius Africanus, made use of apocalyptic numbers in their calculations, while court theologians like Eusebius entertained the imperial table with discussions as to whether the dining-hall of the emperor - the second David and Solomon, the beloved of God - might not be the New Jerusalem of John's Apocalypse.
Quintilian is said to have been the first public teacher who enjoyed this imperial favour.
After passing through the Ecole Polytechnique he became ingenieur-q cier in 1808, and saw active service with the imperial troops in Spain from 1810 to 1812, and again in France in 1814.
Finally, in 1447 Frederick III., king of the Romans, after negotiations with Eugenius, commanded the burgomaster of Basel not to allow the presence of the council any longer in the imperial city.
Deficits are made good by grants from the imperial treasury.
By Christmas 1902 the railway, called the Imperial Ethiopian railway, was completed to Dire Dawa (or Adis Harrar), 30 m.
But the praetor Rutilius, about the beginning of the 1st century B.C., limited the excessive imposition of such conditions, and his restrictions were carried further by the later jurists and the imperial constitutions.
The general tendency both of the imperial constitutions and of the maxims of the legists is in favour of liberty.
Antoninus directed that slaves treated with excessive cruelty, who had taken refuge at an altar or imperial image, should be sold; and this provision was extended to cases in which the master had employed a slave in a way degrading to him or beneath his character.
It was indeed the requirements of the fiscus and the conscription which impelled the imperial government to regulate the system.
They were not even adscripti glebae, though forbidden to migrate; an imperial ukase of 1721 says, " the proprietors sell their peasants and domestic servants, not even in families, but one by one, like cattle."
This practice, at first tacitly sanctioned by the government, which received dues on the sales, was at length formally recognized by several imperial ukases.
From the schemes prepared by these committees, a general plan had to be elaborated, and the government appointed a special imperial commission for this purpose.
There were also serfs on the apanages affected to the use of the imperial family; these amounted to nearly three and a half millions.
The cause of the final breach was said to have been the refusal of her request to be appointed colonel of the imperial guards.
There Julius Caesar dallied with Cleopatra in 47 B.C. and was mobbed by the rabble; there his example was followed by Antony, for whose favour the city paid dear to Octavian, who placed over it a prefect from the imperial household.
This latter fact, doubtless, was one of the chief reasons which induced Augustus to place it directly under the imperial power.
in the cemetery of St Domitilla, herself a member of the imperial house.
Such an idea is justly stigmatized by Mommsen as ridiculous, and reflecting a discredit as unfounded as it is unjust on the imperial police of the capital.
When the storms of persecution ceased and Christianity had become the imperial faith, the evil fruits of prosperity were not slow to appear.
We are reminded of St Paul, and of his friends Aquila and Prisca, by a monument erected by an imperial freedman who was Praepositvs Tabernacvlorvm - Chief tentmaker.
Kulakovsky in Materials for Russian Archaeology (St Petersburg, 1896; a publication of the Russian Imperial Archaeological Commission), but it is written in Russian, as also is the account by V.
During the 15th century the town suffered greatly from the Hussites, and it was captured by the imperial troops during the war of the league of Schmalkalden, and again in the Thirty Years' War.
It is hardly mentioned in imperial times, except as a station on the road (Via Amerina) which diverged from the Via Cassia near the modern Settevene and ran to Ameria and Tuder.
Experience in South Africa had shown him that underlying the difficulties of the situation there was the wider problem of imperial unity.
He advocated the creation of a permanent deliberative imperial council, and favoured preferential trade relations between the United Kingdom and the other members of the empire; and in later years he took an active part in advocating the cause of tariff reform and colonial preference.
The military force consists of Soo men, besides the Imperial Service Corps of the same strength.
HAGENAU, a town of Germany, in the imperial province of Alsace-Lorraine, situated in the middle of the Hagenau Forest, on the Moder, and on the railway from Strassburg to Weissenburg, io m.
On the site of the hunting lodge he founded an imperial palace, in which were preserved the jewelled imperial crown, sceptre, imperial globe, and sword of Charlemagne.
Subsequently it became the seat of the Landvogt of Hagenau, the imperial advocatus in Lower Alsace.
Richard of Cornwall, king of the Romans, made it an imperial city in 1257.
In 1675 it was captured by imperial troops, but in 1677 it was retaken by the French and nearly all destroyed by fire.
He became a professor at the Turkish naval college; then entered the legal branch of the Turkish service, rising to the post of procureur imperial at the court of cassation.
At the time of the Austrian annexation in 1908, the only remaining token of Ottoman suzerainty was that the foreign consuls received their exequatur from Turkey, instead of Austria; otherwise the government of the country was conducted in the name of the Austrian emperor, through the imperial minister of finance at Vienna, who controlled the civil service for the occupied territory.
The patriarch of Constantinople is the nominal head of the Orthodox priesthood; but by an arrangement concluded in 1879, his authority was delegated to the Austrian emperor, in exchange for a revenue equal to the tribute previously paid by the clergy of the provinces; and his nominations for the metropolitanate of Serajevo, and the bishoprics of Dolnja Tuzla, Banjaluka and Mostar require the imperial assent.
Two years later, the imperial troops reached Dolnja Tuzla, and retired with 3000 Roman Catholic emigrants.
The government of the country was then handed over to the imperial ministry of finance; but the bureaucratic methods of the finance ministers, Baron von Hoffmann and Joseph de Szlavy, resulted only in the insurrection of 1881-82.
Order was restored in June 1882, when the administration was entrusted to Benjamin von Kallay, as imperial minister of finance.
Its decision, of ter being communicated to the sovereigns of the powers signatory to the treaty of Berlin, in a series of autograph letters from the emperor Francis Joseph, was made known to Bosnia and Herzegovina in an imperial rescript published on the 7th of October 1908.
They had now to satisfy the imperial tax-farmers and excisemen, as well as their feudal lords.
It received town rights from Frederick Barbarossa, and after the extinction of the Hohenstaufen became a free imperial town.
(1) Gmund, a town in Lower Austria, containing a palace belonging to the imperial family, (2) a town in Carinthia, with a beautiful Gothic church and some interesting ruins.
A new constitution, differing from that of Abd-ul-Halnid only in some matters of detail, was promulgated by imperial Irade of the 5th of August 1909.
For superior education there is (1) the university of Constantinople, with its four faculties of letters, science, law and medicine; and (2) special schools, including (a) the normal school for training teachers, (b) the civil imperial school, (c) the school of the fine arts and (d) the imperial schools of medicine.
The Budget was supposed to be drawn up according to an excellent set of regulations sanctioned by imperial decree, dated the 6th of July 1290 (1875), of which the first article absolutely prohibited the increase, by the smallest sum, of any of the expenses, or the abandonment of the least iota of the revenues fixed by the budget.
In the second category were included the imperial civil list, the departments of the Sheikh-ulIslamat and of religious establishments, the ministries of the interior, war, finance, public instruction, foreign affairs, marine, commerce (including mines and forests), and public works, and, finally, of the grand master of ordnance.
The report drawn up by the commission on the results of its labours was submitted to the Council of Ministers, which then finally drew up a general summary of the definitive budget and submitted it by mazbata (memorandum) for the imperial sanction.
This rectified budget, accompanied by an explanatory memorandum, was examined by the budget commission and the Council of Ministers, and submitted for the imperial sanction, after receiving which it was ordered that both be published.
By this last the centralization of receipts and expenditure and the movement of funds in the provinces were to be confided to the Imperial Ottoman Bank, which extended and perfected its own organization for the purpose.
In permanent remuneration of certain services to be rendered to the state, the sovereign assigned to civil or military functionaries territorial regions for the purpose, and with the power, of collecting land taxes imposed by Mussulman and Imperial law, i.e.
The sultan receives an annual allocation for himself and household of £T240,000, the crown prince one of £T24,000, and a sum of T153,000 is assigned to the Imperial princes and the sultanas.
These " committees" were the " Council of Foreign Bondholders " for Great Britain, the Imperial Ottoman Bank and its " group " for France, Herr S.
The outcome of the negotiations was the issue of an imperial decree, known as the " Decree of AIuharrem," owing to its bearing the date (Turkish style) of the 28th of Muharrem (Dec. 20) 1881.
On this council the Turkish government has the right of naming an imperial commissioner with " consultative voice," i.e.
Finally the Imperial Ottoman government reserved to itself the right of paying off the whole unified debt at par at any moment, and all the dispositions of the decree of Muharrem not modified by the new " Annex-Decree " were formally confirmed and maintained.
In 1888 it was proposed by the public debt administration to undertake the collection of specified revenues to be set aside for the provision of railway guarantees, the principle to be followed being, generally, that such revenues should consist of the tithes of the districts through which the railways would pass, and that the public debt should hand over to guaranteed railway companies the amounts of their guarantees before transmitting to the imperial government any of the proceeds of the revenue so collected.
Since that time various other concessions have been granted to French and German financial groups, principally the Imperial Ottoman Bank group of Paris and the Deutsche Bank group of Berlin.
These were successful in France, the Imperial Ottoman Bank group agreeing to undertake 30% of the finance without, however, any countenance from the French government - the " Glarus Syndicate " being formed for apportioning interests.
At the close of the Crimean War a British bank was opened in 1856 at Constantinople under the name of the Ottoman Bank, with a capital of £500,000 fully paid up. In 1863 this was merged in an Anglo-French bank, under a concession from the Turkish government, as a state bank under the name of the Imperial Ottoman Bank, with a capital of £2,700,000, increased in 1865 to £4,050,000 and in 1875 to £10,000,000, one-half of which is paid up. The original concession to the year 1893 was in 1875 extended to 1913, and in 1895 to 1925.
The National Bank of Turkey (a limited Ottoman Company) is a purely British concern with a capital of £1,000,000, founded by imperial firman of the 11th of April 1909, under the auspices of Sir Ernest Cassel.
It is administered by imperial functionaries called arazi-memuru; it is with the consent of the latter only that the proprietary rights can be sold.
There are two classes of vakuf: (a) Land so declared either directly by the sovereign or in virtue of imperial authority; (b) lands transformed by their proprietors from mulk into vakuf.
Mines can only be exploited in virtue of an imperial irade.
Should a different mineral from that specified in the imperial firman for a mining concession be discovered in a free state, a fresh firman is necessary to exploit it.
The proportional rents are fixed by the Mines Administration according to the wealth, area and facility of working of the mine, and are inserted in the imperial firman governing the mine, and must be paid before the minerals are exported.
Owners of the land in which a mine is located have a prior right to work such mine under imperial firman, on the obtention of which a duty of £T4 is payable; if they do not work it the concession may be granted to others, on payment of a certain compensation to the landowner.
When, on the death of Cantacuzenus, John Palaeologus remained sole occupant of the imperial throne, Murad declared war against him and conquered the country right up to Adrianople; the capture of this city, the second capital of the emperors, was announced in official letters to the various Mussulman rulers by Murad.
On the death of John Palaeologus in 1391 his son Manuel, who was serving in the Turkish army, fled, without asking leave, to Constantinople, and assumed the imperial dignity.
Piale, a Croatian who had been brought up in the imperial harem and succeeded Sinan as capudan-pasha, crowned a series of victories over the galleys of Andrea Doria by the capture of the island of Jerba, off Tripoli (July 31, 1560).
After the conquest of the imperial city the sultans began to adopt the pomp and splendour of eastern sovereigns, and largely copied the system, ready to hand, of the Byzantine emperors.
Affairs of state were at first discussed at the imperial divan, where the great dignitaries were convened at appointed hours.
" it Polity was thought that in future it would be more consonant with the imperial dignity for the sovereign to remain concealed behind a grating where, unseen, he could hear all that was said.
In June 1593, with an army of 30,000 men, he laid siege to Sissek; the Austrian and Hungarian levies hurried to its relief; and on the 22nd the Turks were routed with immense slaughter on the banks of the Kulpa, Hassan himself, with many other beys and two of the imperial princes, being among the slain.
By this treaty the annual tribute payable by Austria was abolished, but an indemnity of 200,000 florins was paid "once for all " by the emperor, who was henceforth to be given his proper imperial title (padishah) in Turkish official documents.
A vast Turkish army marched to the walls of Vienna and closely beleaguered the imperial city, from which the emperor and his court fled.
By the 12th article the Ottoman government agreed " amicably to discuss " the question of recognizing the tsar's claim to the imperial title, and by the 13th admitted his right to send to Constantinople representatives of whatever rank he might judge fitting (Noradounghian, Recueil, i.
The recognition of the imperial title (padishah) was at last conceded to the Russian tsars.
In 1786 Catherine made a triumphal progress through the Crimea in company with her ally, Joseph II., who had succeeded to the imperial throne on the death of his mother.
In 1868 the Imperial Lycee of Galata Serai was founded; most of the later generation of officials received their education there.
After the promulgation of the reforms, the judicial duties of the Imperial Divan, which with other functions also exercised those of a kind of supreme court of appeal, were transferred to the Sheikh-ul-Islam.
The viceroy of Egypt, Ismail Pasha, followed his suzerain's example in this respect, and was lavish in his bribes to his imperial overlord to obtain the extension of his own privileges and the establishment in Egypt of succession from father to son; these concessions were granted to him by the firmans of the 27th of May 1866 and the 8th of June 1867, in the latter of which the viceroy is addressed for the first time as " khedive."
But Kiamil Pasha was not subservient enough to his imperial master's will, and his place was taken by a military man, Jevad Pasha, from whom no independence of action was to be apprehended.
Accordingly, at the beginning of October 1908, the emperor Francis Joseph informed the powers signatory to the treaty of Berlin that the annexation of Bosnia and Herzegovina to the Dual Monarchy had become necessary, and this decision was formally announced in an imperial rescript dated the 7th of October.
For the present purpose it will be convenient to divide the old school promulgated by imperial iade; parliament was prorogued for three months on the 27th, and during the recess the committee of union and progress met at Salonica and modified its own rules (Oct.
Under the name of Humayun Nama (Imperial Book) 'Ali Chelebi made a highly esteemed translation of the well-known Persian Classical classic Anvar-i Suheyli, dedicating it to Suleiman I.
Of Sa`d-ud-Din's successors in the office of imperial historiographer the most remarkable for literary power is Na`ima.
The most distinguished prose writers of this period are perhaps Rashid, the imperial historio grapher, 'Asim, who translated into Turkish two great lexicons, the Arabic Itamus and the Persian Burhan-i and Kani, the only humorous writer of merit belonging to the old school.
The financial arrangement as finally agreed upon was that German financiers should control 40% of the capital of the line; French (through the Imperial Ottoman Bank), 30%; Austrian, Swiss, Italian and Turkish, 20%; and the Anatolian Railway Company, io %.
The operations of the imperial police in regard to Mme de Stael are rather obscure.
Leonardo certainly was in relation with some persons belonging to that circle when he published in 1220 another more extensive work, De practica geometriae, which he dedicated to the imperial astronomer Dominicus Hispanus.
The presentation was accompanied by a kind of mathematical performance, in which Leonardo solved several hard problems proposed to him by John of Palermo, an imperial notary, whose name is met with in several documents dated between 1221 and 1240.
Having become one of the chief inspirers of the imperial policy, Marsilius accompanied Louis of Bavaria to Italy, where he preached or circulated written attacks against the pope, especially at Milan, and where he came within the sight of the realization of his wildest utopias.
deposed by the head of the Empire (April 18), and a mendicant friar, Pietro de Corbara, raised by an imperial decree to the throne of St Peter (as Nicholas V.) after a sham of a popular election (May 12), all this was merely the application of principles laid down in the Defensor pacis.
Here his democratic theory still more clearly leads up to a proclamation of the imperial omnipotence.
Marshal Massena with 120,000, including the corps of Ney, Junot, Reynier and some of the Imperial Guard, was to operate from Salamanca against Portugal; but first Soult, appointed major-general of the army in Spain (equivalent to chief of the staff), was, with the corps of Victor, Mortier and Sebastiani (70,000), to reduce Andalusia.
In anticipation of this event a gigantic system of docks, basins and quays was constructed, at a total cost of some £7,000,000 (of which the imperial treasury contributed 2,000,000), between the confluence of the Alster and the railway bridge (1868-1873), an entire quarter of the town inhabited by some 24,000 people being cleared away to make room for these accessories of a great port.
of Denmark, as heir of the Schauenburg counts; but the suzerainty of Denmark was merely nominal and soon repudiated altogether; in 1510 Hamburg was made a free imperial city by the emperor Maximilian I.
The imperial government, however, intervened, and in 1712 the " Great Recess " established durable good relations between the Rath and the commonalty.
See Reports of the native explorers of the Indian Survey, edited by Montgomery and Harman; Imperial Gazetteer of India (1908); Sir T.
The elder journeyed into Pannonia to obtain support from Attila; the younger betook himself to the imperial court at Rome.
In 1757 be became an associate of the Imperial Academy of St Petersburg, and a foreign member of the Royal Society of London, and in 1758 a member of the Academy of Berlin, in 1766 of that of Stockholm, and in 1770 of the Academies of Copenhagen and of Bern.
who implied that the pope was superior even to the Great Khan, and offered no presents, refused the customary reverences before Baiju, declined to go on to the imperial court, and made unseasonable attempts to convert their hosts.
-FL .A T Tumia _ Lastic., From Photographs in the Collections of the Imperial Institute.
These seeds have been examined at the Imperial Institute, and the kernels have been found to contain nearly half their weight (48%) of an oil resembling linseed oil and applicable for the same purposes.
Specimens of the best known and of many of the lesser known rubbers are included in the Colonial and Indian Collections and Sample Rooms of the Imperial Institute, and many of the authentic specimens have been chemically and technically examined in the Scientific and Technical Department of the Institute and commercially valued.
Reports on many of the lesser known rubbers have been published in the Bulletin of the Imperial Institute.
" Rubber " (London, 1906); Kew Bulletin, 1906-9; Bulletin of the Imperial Institute, 1903-9.
Under Augustus the coins have on the obverse the imperial effigy, and on the reverse the names and often the effigies of the pro-consuls who governed the province, P. Quintilius Varus, L.
By sheer tenacity of purpose, Bestuzhev had extricated his country from the Swedish imbroglio; reconciled his imperial mistress with the courts of Vienna and London, her natural allies; enabled Russia to assert herself effectually in Poland, Turkey and Sweden, and isolated the restless king of Prussia by environing him with hostile alliances.
Moscow imperial guards) to garrison forts, (4) of yamshiks - a special organization of Old Russia entrusted with the maintenance of horses for postal communication, and finally (5) of convicts.
Serfs in the imperial mines were liberated and organized in Cossack regiments (the Transbaikal Cossacks); some of these were settled on the Amur, forming the Amur and Usuri Cossacks.
In 1885 he became Solicitor-General and in 1887 he was senior representative for his Colony at the first Imperial Conference held in London on the occasion of Queen Victoria's Jubilee.
This fiscal policy he pursued during his three Federal premierships (1903-4, 1905-8, 1909-10), and he was also a strong supporter of Australia's cooperation in Imperial defence, being responsible for the acceptance of the measure authorizing Australian naval construction in 1909 and for the invitation to Lord Kitchener to come to Australia to report on the question of defence.
He was the leading figure at the Imperial Conference in London of 1907.
P. Merrill, The Non-Metallic Minerals (New York, 1904), pp. 163180; "The Mining and Preparation of Mica for Commercial Purposes," Bulletin of the Imperial Institute (London, 1904), ii.
Ulm still preserves the dignified and old-fashioned appearance of a free imperial town, and contains many medieval buildings of historic and of artistic interest.
Although burned down by Henry the Lion, it soon recovered from this disaster and became a free imperial town in 1155.
ZABERN (French, Saverne), a town of Germany, in the imperial province of Alsace-Lorraine, district of Lower Alsace, situated on the Rhine-Marne canal at the foot of a pass over the Vosges, and 27 m.
Lower Austria sends 64 members to the Imperial Reichsrat at Vienna.
37 Caligula deprived the proconsul of his military powers and gave them to the imperial legate (legatus Augusti pro praetore provinciae Africae), who was nominated directly by the emperor, and whose special duty it was to guard the frontier zone (Tacitus, Hist.
The headquarters of the imperial legate were originally at Cirta and afterwards at Lambaesa (Lambessa).
Towards 194 Septimius Severus completed the reform of Caligula by detaching from the province of Africa the greater part of Numidia to constitute a special province governed by a procurator, subordinate to the imperial legate and resident at Cirta (Tissot ii.
Here is a Russian imperial domain of 436 sq.
In 1515 Wolsey sent him to urge the Swiss to attack France, and in 1519 he went to Germany to discuss with the electors the impending election to the imperial throne.
There are considerable remains of an aqueduct, an amphitheatre and a theatre (the latter excavated in 1880 - see Notizie degli scavi, 1880, 290, 35 0, 379), all of which belong to the imperial period, while in the hill on which the village of S.
Finally, when Austria had been excluded from the new empire, he replied to the parliamentary deputation that came to offer him the imperial crown that he might have accepted it had it been freely offered to him by the German princes, but that he would never stoop "to pick up a crown out of the gutter."
The only definite information as to the amount of fortune necessary refers to later republican and early imperial times, when it is known to have been 400;000 sesterces (about L3500 to £4000).
Under these officers the equites formed a kind of corporation, which, although' not officially recognized, had the right of passing resolutions, chiefly such as embodied acts of homage to the imperial house.
The control of the imperial correspondence and purse was at first in the hands of freedmen and slaves.
It formed the imperial "Swiss guard," and never left the city except to accompany the emperor.
Among the public buildings are the old imperial palace, a modern summer residence of the national executive and a municipal hall.
He retained his influence during the reign of Henry II., fulfilling important missions in Switzerland and at the imperial court (1547-1551), and at the courts of the German princes (1553-1554).
After the imperial university was founded, he was appointed professor of Greek literature (1809) with Boissonade as his assistant.
Adopting the profession of an advocate, he came to Constantinople and practised in the prefectural courts there, reaching such eminence as to attract the notice of the emperor Justinian, who appointed him in 528 one of the ten commissioners directed to prepare the first Codex of imperial constitutions.
About the same time the emperor placed Tribonian at the head of a fourth commission, consisting of himself as chief and four others - Dorotheus, professor at Beyrut, and three practising advocates, who were directed to revise and re-edit the first Codex of imperial constitutions.
The above facts, which are all that we know about Tribonian, rest on the authority of his contemporary Procopius and of the various imperial constitutions already cited.
and died under the imperial ban in 1089, when Meissen was bestowed upon Henry I., count of Wettin, whose mother was a sister of the margrave Ekkard II.
The count of the sacred bounties was the lord treasurer or chancellor of the exchequer, for the public treasury and the imperial fisc had come to be identical; while the count of the private estates managed the imperial demesnes and the privy purse.
The count of the stable, originally the imperial master of the horse, developed into the "illustrious" commander-in-chief of the imperial army (Stilicho, e.g., bore the full title as given above), and became the prototype of the medieval constable.
The emperors, too, continued to make counts palatine under this title long after the Lateran had ceased to be an imperial palace.
Counts of princely rank (gefiirstete Grafen) voted among the princes in the imperial diet; the others (Reichsgrafen) were grouped in the Grafenbanke - originally two, to which two more were added in the 17th century - each of which had one vote.
Mithras, identified with Sol Invictus at Rome, thus became the giver of authority and victory to the imperial house.
he had brought this question before the diet, and after Frederick's death, when he had become imperial chancellor, he was the leader of the party which pressed the necessity for reform upon Maximilian at the diet of Worms in 1495.
The introduction of European immigrants dates from 1818 when a Swiss colony was located at Nova Friburgo, near Rio de Janeiro, and it was continued under the direction and with the aid of the imperial government down to the creation of the republic. Since then the state governments have assumed charge of immigration, and some of them are spending large sums in the acquisition of labourers.
The Museu Nacional at Rio de Janeiro, which has occupied the imperial palace of Sao Christovao since the overthrow of the monarchy, contains large collections of much scientific value, but defective organization and apathetic direction have rendered them of comparatively slight service.
With the exception of Para, and Rio Grande the provinces were at peace, but these were in open rebellion; the former was reduced to obedience, but in the latter, though the imperial troops occupied the town, the country was ravaged by its warlike inhabitants.
A grand social reform was effected in the law passed in September 1871, which enacted that from that date every child born of slave parents should be free, and also declared all the slaves belonging to the state or to the imperial household free from that time.
Occasional political outbreaks occurred, but none of very serious nature except in Rio Grande do Sul, where a long guerrilla warfare was carried on against the imperial authority.
Though the overthrow of the imperial dynasty was totally unexpected throughout, the new regime was accepted without any disturbances.
The baron Cerro Azul was shot down without trial; Marshal de Gama Eza, an old imperial soldier of eighty years of age, was murdered in cold blood, and numerous executions of men of lesser note took place, among these being two Frenchmen for whose death the Brazilian government was subsequently called upon to pay heavy compensation.
An attempt was made in 184 B.C. to get round it by an embankment thrown out into the sea: but it was probably not until early in the imperial period that a cutting in the rocks at the foot of the promontory (Pisco Montano) finally solved the problem.
It was probably in consequence of the cutting just mentioned that some of the more important buildings of the imperial period were erected in the low ground by the shore, and near the small harbour.
On the terrace, as was ascertained in 1894, stood a Corinthian temple of the early imperial period, iio by 65 ft.; the cella was decorated internally with engaged half-columns, and contained the pedestal for the statue of the deity, according to some authorities Venus, but more probably Jupiter Anxur worshipped as a child - a theory confirmed by the discovery of many curious leaden toys, like those made for dolls' houses at the present day, in the favissae on the E.
Of the lower town by the harbour, which had buildings of some importance of the imperial period (amphitheatre, baths, &c.), little is now visible, and its site is mainly occupied by a new quarter built by Pope Pius VI., who restored the Via Appia through the Pomptine Marshes.
to deprive Hungary of her constitution and the Protestants of their religious liberties speedily alienated Bocskay, especially after the terrible outrages inflicted on the Transylvanians by the imperial generals Basta and Belgiojoso from 1602 to 1604.
To save the Austrian provinces of Hungary, the archduke Matthias, setting aside his semi-lunatic imperial brother Rudolph, thereupon entered into negotiations with Bocskay, and ultimately the peace of Vienna was concluded (June 23, 1606), which guaranteed all the constitutional and religious rights and privileges of the Hungarians both in Transylvania and imperial Hungary.
in Siena gave fresh courage to the malcontents, who, backed by the imperial authority, overthrew the government of the nine and substituted a magistracy of twelve drawn from the lowest class.
This time they were actively aided by Charles IV., who, having returned from Rome, sent his militia, commanded by the imperial vicar Malatesta da Rimini, to attack the public palace.
But the Sienese people, being called to arms by the council of fifteen, made a most determined resistance, routed the imperial troops, captured the standard, and confined the emperor in the Salimbeni palace.
Thereupon Charles came to terms with the government, granted it an imperial patent, and left the city, consoled for his humiliation by the gift of a large sum of money.
The imperial legates and the captains of the Spanish guard in Siena crushed both government and people by continual extortions and by undue interference with the functions of the balia.
The balia was reconstituted several times by the imperial agents - in 1530 by Don Lopez di Soria and Alphonso Piccolomini, duke of Amalfi, in 1540 by Granvella (or Granvelle) and in 1548 by Don Diego di Mendoza; but government was carried on as badly as before, and there was increased hatred of the Spanish rule.
The first hostilities of the imperial forces in Val di Chiana (1552-1553) did little damage; but when Cosimo took the field with an army commanded by the marquis of Marignano the ruin of Siena was at hand.
The subdeacons, no doubt, became a necessity when the deacons, whose number was limited to seven in memory of their original institution, were no longer equal to their duties in the " regions " of the imperial city, and left their lower work, such as preparation of the sacred vessels, to their subordinates.
In 1184 Frederick made it a free imperial city, and about the same time the archbishop obtained the dignity of a prince of the Empire.
Imperial service cavalry are maintained.
A small garrison of imperial troops is quartered at Maritzburg.
The Roman-Dutch law, as accepted and administered by the courts of Cape Colony up to 1845 (the date of the separation of Natal from the Cape), is the law of the land, save as modified by ordinances and laws enacted by the local legislature, mostly founded upon imperial statute law.
In 1890 the elections to the council led to the return of a majority in favour of accepting self-government, and in 1893 a bill in favour of the proposed change was passed and received the sanction of the Imperial government.
In July the Natal ministry J Y Y learnt that it was not the intention of the Imperial government to endeavour to hold the frontier in case hostilities arose, but that a line of defence considerably south of the frontier would be taken up. This led to a request on their part that if the Imperial government had any reason to anticipate the breakdown of negotiations, " such steps may be at once taken as may be necessary for the effectual defence of the whole colony."
During the Boer invasion the government and the loyal colonists, constituting the great majority of the inhabitants of the colony, rendered the Imperial forces every assistance.
The Imperial Light Horse and other irregular corps were recruited in Natal, although the bulk of the men in the forces were Uitlanders from Johannesburg.
The Imperial government decided to sanction only the first of these two proposals.
An incident which marked the beginning of this rebellion brought the Natal ministry into sharp conflict with the Imperial government (the Campbell-Bannerman administration).
Thereupon the Natal ministry resigned, giving as their reason the importance of maintaining the authority of the colonial administration at a critical period, and the constitutional question involved in the interference by the imperial authorities in the domestic affairs of a self-governing colony.
He endeavoured to attract to his court the best scholars of Britain and Ireland, and by imperial decree (787) commanded the establishment of schools in connexion with every abbey in his realms. Peter of Pisa and Alcuin of York were his advisers, and under their care the opposition long supposed to exist between godliness and secular learning speedily disappeared.
There is a Chinese imperial agent at Urga.
Woyeikoff, Climates of the Earth (1884); Mongolia and Kham (Imperial Russian Geographical Society's Expedition, 1899-1901).
The splendour of the imperial city profoundly impressed all the northern barbarians, and the Magyars, during the 10th century, saw a great deal of the Greeks.
equal terms with their imperial rivals for the possession of Dalmatia, Rascia (the original home of the Servians, situated between Bosnia, Dalmatia and Albania) and Rama or northern Bosnia (acquired by Hungary in 1135); but on the accession of Manuel Comnenus in 1143 the struggle became acute.
To begin with, there can be no doubt that from 1558, when the German imperial crown was transferred from the Spanish to the Austrian branch of the Habsburg family, royal Hungary 1 was regarded by the emperors as an insignificant barrier province yielding far more trouble than profit.
grand vizier in Walachia in 1595, when the Magyar army penetrated as far as Giurgevo), but very bitter as between the emperor and Transylvania, the principality being finally subdued by the imperial general, George Basta, in August 1604.
This was partly owing to the fact that national aspirations of any sort were contrary to the imperial system, which claimed to rule by right divine, and partly to an inveterate distrust of the Magyars, who were regarded at court as rebels by nature, and therefore as enemies far more troublesome than the Turks.
The attitude of the distracted imperial government towards these movements was at first openly suspicious and hostile.
Jellachich, who as a soldier was devoted to the interests of the imperial house, realized that the best way to break the revolutionary power of the Magyars and Germans would be to encourage the Slav national ideas, which were equally hostile to both; to set up against the Dualism in favour at Pest and Vienna the federal system advocated by the Sla y s, and so to restore the traditional Habsburg principle of Divide et impera.
Under pressure from the palatine of Batthyany an imperial edict was issued, on the 7th day of May, ordering the ban to desist from his separatist plans and take his orders from Pest.
Once more, at the instance of Batthyany, the emperor intervened; and on the 10th an imperial edict stripped Jellachich of all his offices.
All hope of crushing revolutionary Vienna with Magyar aid was thus at an end, and Jellachich, who on the 10th issued a proclamation to the Croat regiments in Italy to remain with their colours and fight for the common fatherland, was free to carry out his policy of identifying the cause of the southern Sla y s with that of the imperial army.
Meanwhile the humiliating defeats of the imperial army and the course of events in Hungary had compelled the court of Vienna to accept the assistance which the emperor Nicholas I.
By the end of the month Paskevich could write to the Emperor Nicholas: " Hungary lies at the feet of your Imperial Majesty."
1851 to 1860 pure terrorism was succeeded by the " Bach System," which derives its name from the imperial minister of the interior, Baron Alexander von Bach.
The supreme government was entrusted to an imperial council responsible to the emperor alone.
The counties were administered by imperial officials, Germans, Czechs and Galicians, who did not understand the Magyar tongue.
1860) which proposed to prop up the crazy common state with the shadow of a constitution and to grant some measure of local autonomy to Hungary, subject always to the supervision of the imperial council (Reichsrath).