In 1818 a charter was secured from the legislature of the territory of Illinois incorporating the city and bank of Cairo.
BELLEVILLE, a city and the county-seat of St Clair county, Illinois, U.S.A., in the S.W.
The trip to the airport and the flight to Illinois were both uneventful, the hotel accommodations better than they could have expected on such short notice.
Clair and Madison in Illinois are grouped as the St.
McClellan as president of the Illinois Central railway.
It is served by the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy, the Chicago & North-Western, the Chicago, Milwaukee & St Paul, the Chicago, Milwaukee & Gary ("Rockford Route") and the Illinois Central railways, and is connected by interurban electric railway with Chicago and Freeport, Illinois, and Janesville, Wisconsin.
The city is served by the Illinois Central and the Louisville & Nashville railways.
CAIRO, a city and the county-seat of Alexander county, Illinois, U.S.A., in the S.
It is served by the Illinois Central, the Mobile & Ohio and the St Louis, Iron Mountain & Southern railways.
Cairo is served by the Illinois Central, the Mobile & Ohio, the Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago & St Louis, the St Louis, Iron Mountain & Southern, and the St Louis South-Western railways, and by river steamboat lines.
KEWANEE, a city of Henry county, Illinois, U.S.A., in the N.
They have a publishing house at Elgin, Illinois, and maintain missions.
Belleville is served by the Illinois Central, the Louisville & Nashville, and the Southern railways, also by extensive interurban electric systems; and a belt line to O'Fallon, Illinois, connects Belleville with the Baltimore & Ohio South Western railway.
He was killed by a mob in a jail at Carthage, Illinois, on the 27th of June 1844.
It is served by the Chicago, Milwaukee & Saint Paul, the Chicago & North-Western, the Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific (which has repair shops here), and the Illinois Central railways, and by interurban electric lines.
He graduated from Illinois College as valedictorian in 1881, and from the Union College of Law, Chicago, in 1883; during his course he studied in the law office of Lyman Trumbull.
The new president was a man comparatively little known outside the state of Illinois, and many of his supporters, doubtful of his ability to deal with the difficult problems of 1861, looked to Seward as the most experienced man of the administration and the one who should direct its policy.
LINCOLN, a city and the county-seat of Logan county, Illinois, U.S.A., in the N.
A successful settlement was made in 1851-1854 under the auspices of the New York Trust Co.; the Illinois Central railway was opened in 1856; and Cairo was chartered as a city in 1857.
MURPHYSBORO, a city and the county-seat of Jackson county, Illinois, U.S.A., in the south part of the state, on the Big Muddy River, about 57 m.
All four Dawkinses joined the showing, which grew to include a widow from Texas, an Illinois couple with a sixyear-old and a handholding pair of seventy-something's with different last names.
But the "bosses" of the Republican party in three great States - New York, Pennsylvania and Illinois - were determined that he should be renominated.
It is served by the Southern, the Louisville & Nashville, the Seaboard Air Line, the Central of Georgia, the Alabama Great Southern (of the Queen & Crescent Route), the Illinois Central, the Atlanta, Birmingham & Atlantic, the Birmingham Southern (for freight only), and the Kansas City, Memphis & Birmingham (Frisco system) railways.
Before that time the St Paul had been a great local railway, operating primarily in the Dakotas, Minnesota, Iowa, Wisconsin and Illinois; but by the construction of a long arm from the Missouri river to Spokane, Seattle and Tacoma, it became a transcontinental line of the first importance, avoiding the mistakes of earlier railway builders by securing a line with easy gradients through the most favourable regions.
The principal lines are the Illinois Central, the Yazoo & Mississippi Valley, the Southern, the Mobile & Ohio, the New Orleans & North-eastern, the Kansas City, Memphis & Birmingham, the Mobile, Jackson & Kansas City, the Alabama & Vicksburg, and the Gulf & Ship Island.
OTTAWA, a city and the county-seat of La Salle county, Illinois, U.S.A., on the Illinois river, at the mouth of the Fox, about 84 m.
Pop. (1900) 10,588, of whom 1804 were foreign-born; (1 9 10 census) 9535 It is served by the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy, and the Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific railways, by interurban electric railways, and by the Illinois & Michigan Canal.
There is a monument at Ottawa to the 1400 soldiers from La Salle county who died in the Civil War, and among the public buildings are the County Court House, the Court House for the second district of the Illinois Appellate Court, and Reddick's Library, founded by William Reddick.
high, on the southern bank of the Illinois, about midway between Ottawa and La Salle, the French explorer La Salle, assisted by his lieutenant Henri de Tonty and a few Canadian voyageurs and Illinois Indians, established (in December 1682) Fort St Louis, about which he gathered nearly 20,000 Indians, who were seeking protection from the Iroquois.
Morris, Illinois; Lordsburg, California; McPherson, Kansas; Bridgewater,, Virginia; Canton, Ohio; Chicago, Illinois; North Manchester,.
STERLING, a city of Whiteside county, Illinois, U.S.A., on the north bank of Rock river, 109 m.
The river is tapped here by the feeder of the Illinois & Michigan Canal, so that there is direct water communication with Chicago and St Louis.
From Oil Creek, development spread first over the eastern United States and then became general, subsequently embracing Canada (1862), recently discovered fields being those of Illinois, Alberta and California (44,854,737 barrels in 1908).
- Schleswig-Holstein, Minnesota, Illinois, Louisiana.
Scotland, North of England, and Midlands, Wales, France, Belgium, Carniola, Moravia, Elsass, Saxony, Perm, Sizran, China, Cape Colony, Nova Scotia, Newfoundland, Pennsylvania, West Virginia, Ohio, Michigan, Indiana, Illinois, Iowa, Missouri, Tennessee, Kentucky, Alabama, Kansas, Arkansas, Colorado, Oklahoma, Tasmania, Victoria (Permo-Carboniferous), West Australia (Permo-Carboniferous).
Shropshire, Wales, Bohemia, Sweden, Esthonia, Manitoba, Ontario, Quebec, Newfoundland, New York, Pennsylvania [?], Ohio, Michigan, Indiana, Illinois, Minnesota, Tennessee, Kentucky, Georgia, Alabama, Oklahoma, New Mexico, New Caledonia.
and the Louisiana Western), the Texas & Pacific, the Kansas City Southern, the Vicksburg, Shreveport & Pacific, the Louisiana Railway & Navigation Co., the Yazoo & Mississippi Valley, the Illinois Central, and the Louisiana & Arkansas.
The Illinois Central, the first railway giving Louisiana connexion with the north, and of immense importance in the trade of New Orleans, has only about 100 m.
It is served by the Mobile & Ohio and the Southern railways; and by a branch of the Illinois Central connecting Jackson, Miss., and Birmingham, Ala.
WILLIAM JENNINGS BRYAN (1860-), American political leader, son of Silas Lillard Bryan, a native of Culpeper county, Virginia, who was a lawyer and from 1860 to 1897 a state circuit judge, was born at Salem, Marion county, Illinois, on the 19th of March 1860.
It is served by the Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific, the Illinois Central, the Chicago Great Western, and the Waterloo, Cedar Falls & Northern railways.
of zinc. This region now furnishes the bulk of the ore required by the smelters of Illinois, Missouri and Kansas.
MOUNT VERNON, a city and the county-seat of Jefferson county, Illinois, U.S.A., about 75 m.
It is served by the Chicago & Eastern Illinois, the Louisville & Nashville, the Wabash, Chester & Western, and the Southern railways.
In 1838 Lundy removed to Lowell, La Salle county, Illinois, where he printed several copies of the Genius of Universal Emancipation.
Unable to dislodge the Illinois, the Pottawattomies cut off their escape and let them die of starvation.
From Pennsylvania the sect spread chiefly westward, and, after various vicissitudes, caused by defections and divisions due to doctrinal differences, in 1908 were most numerous in Pennsylvania, Maryland, Virginia, Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Iowa, Missouri, Nebraska, Kansas and North Dakota.
It is served by the Central Indiana, the Chicago & Eastern Illinois, the Evansville & Indianapolis and the Vandalia railways, and is connected with Indianapolis, Terre Haute and other cities by an interurban electric line.
by Wisconsin, while Illinois and Indiana touch its S.
STREATOR, a city of La Salle county, Illinois, U.S.A., on the Vermilion river, in the N.
ROCKFORD, a city and the county seat of Winnebago county, Illinois, U.S.A., on the Rock river, in the northern part of the state, about 85 m.
SPRINGFIELD, the capital of Illinois, U.S.A., and the countyseat of Sangamon county, on the Sangamon river, in the central part of the state.
It is served by the Baltimore & Ohio South-Western, the Chicago & Alton, the Chicago, Peoria & St Louis, the Illinois Central, the Wabash, and the Cincinnati, Hamilton & Dayton railways, and by inter-urban electric lines.
It is the fifth state capitol of Illinois and the second erected in Springfield.
Among the manufactures are agricultural implements, watches and watch material - the Illinois Watch Company has a large factory here - lumber, flour, foundry and machine-shop products, automobiles, shoes and boilers.
A Colorado farm boy was found cowering from his father's wrath in the loft of a barn while a retarded Illinois ten year old was lured to the house of a local registered sex offender after being told his parents had sold him to the man.
All the way from Illinois!
Alton, Illinois >>
Ottawa is the seat of the Pleasant View Luther College (co-educational), founded in 1896 by the Norwegian Lutherans of Northern Illinois.
independent preacher and lecturer, and in 1859, having joined the Unitarian Church, became a missionary of that church in Chicago, Illinois.
On this account Hecker resolved in September 1848 to emigrate to North America, and obtained possession of a farm near Belleville in the state of Illinois.
Peru, Illinois >>
In 1860 he removed to Galena, Illinois, and became a clerk in a leather store kept by his father.
After some delay he was commissioned colonel of the 21st Illinois regiment and soon afterwards brigadier-general.
After his return to America in September 1880 he went back to his old home in Galena, Illinois.
The total membership of this order probably reached 250,000 to 300,000, principally in Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Iowa, Wisconsin, Kentucky and south-western Pennsylvania.
LOCKPORT, a city of Will county, Illinois, U.S.A., on the Des Plaines river and the Illinois & Michigan Canal, and the terminus of the Chicago Sanitary District Drainage Canal, about 33 m.
A settlement was made here about 1827; in 1837 the site was chosen as headquarters for the Illinois & Michigan Canal and a village was laid out; it was incorporated in 1853, and was chartered as a city in 1904.
The first western periodical was the Illinois Monthly Magazine (1830-1832), published, owned, edited and almost entirely written by James Hall, who followed with his Western Monthly Magazine (1833-1836), produced in a similar manner.
From 1830 to 1844 he was president of Illinois College, Jacksonville, Illinois, and subsequently filled pastorates at the Salem Street church, Boston (1844-1855), and the Congregational church at Galesburg, Illinois (1855-1871).
The county and the city were named in honour of Edward Dickinson Baker (1811-1861), a political leader, orator and soldier, who was born in London, England, was taken to the United States in 1815, was a representative in Congress from Illinois in 1845-1846and 1849-1851, served in the Mexican War as a colonel (1846-1847), became a prominent lawyer in California and later in Oregon, was a Republican member of the United States Senate in 1860-1861 and was killed at Ball's Bluff, Virginia, on the 21st of October in r 861, while serving as a colonel in the Federal army.
It is served by two branches of the Chicago, Milwaukee & St Paul, by the main line and one branch of the Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific, by the Illinois Central, by the Iowa Central, and by the Minneapolis & St Louis railways.
Lebanon, Illinois >>
When hostilities became inevitable, acting in conjunction with Captain (later General) Nathaniel Lyon, he suddenly transferred the arms in the Federal arsenal at St Louis to Alton, Illinois, and a few days later (May ro, 1861) surrounded and captured a force of state guards which had been stationed at Camp Jackson in the suburbs of St Louis with the intention of seizing the arsenal.
For instance, New York has made large contributions to the population of Ohio, Michigan, Illinois, Wisconsin, Iowa and so on.
Virginia has contributed largely to the population of West Virginia, Kentucky, Ohio, Indiana, Illinois and Missouri.
They number about 10o,000 members, mainly in the states of Ohio, Indiana and Illinois.
Jackson is served by the Illinois Central, the Alabama & Vicksburg, the Gulf & Ship Island, New Orleans Great Northern, and the Yazoo & Mississippi Valley railways, and during the winter by small freight and passenger steamboats on the Pearl River.
This group of fields is followed in importance by the " Eastern Interior " group in Indiana, Illinois and Kentucky, and the " Western Interior " group in Iowa, Missouri and Kansas.
It appears to be less numerous on the western side of the Alleghanies, though found in suitable localities across the continent to the Pacific coast, but seldom farther north than Virginia and southern Illinois, and it is said to be common in Kansas.
by the Mississippi river, which separates it from Wisconsin and Illinois, S.
Iowa about equals Illinois in the production of both Indian corn and oats, nearly 10,000,000 acres or about onethird of its improved area usually being planted with Indian corn, with a yield varying from 227,908,850 bushels in 1901 (according to state reports) to 373,275,000 (the largest in the United States, with a crop value second only to that of Illinois) in 1906.
According to the Department of Agriculture in 1907 the acreage was 9,160,000 and the yield 270,220,000 bushels (considerably less than the Illinois crop); the yield of oats was 168,364,170 bushels (Twelfth U.S. Census) in 18 99, 12 4,73 8, 337 bushels (U.S. Department of Agriculture) in 1902, and in 1907 the acreage and crop (greater than those of any other state) were 4,500,000 acres and 108,900,000 bushels, valued at $41,382,000 - a valuation second only to that of Illinois.
In total acreage of cereals (16,920,095 in 1899) it ranked first (Twelfth Census of the United States), and in product of cereals was exceeded by Illinois only; in acreage of hay and forage (4,649,378 in 1899) as well as in the annual supply of milk (535,872,240 gallons in 1899) it was exceeded by New York only.
It ranked far ahead of any other state in 1908 in the number of its hogs (8,413,000, being 15% of the whole number in the United States), Illinois, the second in rank, having only about half as many.
President Cleveland waited a reasonable time, as he conceived, for Governor Altgeld of Illinois to put an end to the disorder in that state.
Jacksonville, Illinois >>
The common bricks made in New York in 1908 were valued at $5,066,084, an amount in excess of that in any other state; and the total value of brick and tile products was $7,270,981, being less than that of Ohio, Pennsylvania or Illinois.
EDWARDSVILLE, a city and the county-seat of Madison county, Illinois, U.S.A., in the south-western part of the state, on Cahokia Creek, about 18 m.
Edwardsville is served by the Toledo, St Louis & Western, the Wabash, the Litchfield & Madison, and the Illinois Terminal railways, and is connected with St Louis by three electric lines.
The company supports a school, Leclaire Academy, and has built a club-house, bowling alleys, tennis-courts, base-ball grounds, &c. The first settlement on the site of Edwardsville was made in 1812, and in 1815 the town was laid out and named in honour of Ninian Edwards (1775-1833), the governor of the Illinois Territory (1809-1818), and later United States senator (1818-1824) and governor of the state of Illinois (1826-1830).
DAVENPORT, a city and the county seat of Scott county, Iowa, U.S.A., on the Mississippi river, opposite Rock Island, Illinois, with which it is connected by two fine bridges and by a ferry.
Davenport is served by the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy, the Chicago, Milwaukee & St Paul, the Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific, the Iowa & Illinois (interurban), and the Davenport, Rock Island & North Western railways; opposite the city is the western terminus of the Illinois and Mississippi, or Hennepin, Canal (which connects the Mississippi and Illinois rivers).
The figures for inhabitants born in the United States but not within the state show a preponderance of immigration from neighbouring states, there being, in 1900, 31,047 natives of Iowa, 24,995 natives of Wisconsin, 18,565 of Minnesota and 16,145 of Illinois, out of a total of 313,062.
the machine shops (35 acres) of the Allis-Chalmers Company at West Allis, employing about 5000 men and making engines of all kinds; and the plant of the Illinois Steel Company, at Bay View on the south side, which covers 154 acres.
NAUVOO, a city of Hancock county, Illinois, U.S.A., on the Mississippi river at the head of the lower rapids and about 50 m.
OLNEY, a city and the county-seat of Richland county, Illinois, U.S.A., about 30 m.
Olney is served by the Baltimore & Ohio South-western, the Illinois Central, and the Cincinnati, Hamilton & Dayton railways, and is a terminus of the Ohio River Division of the last.
Charleston, Illinois >>
PANA, a city of Christian county, Illinois, U.S.A., in the central part of the state.
It is served by the Baltimore & Ohio Southwestern, the Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago & St Louis, the Illinois Central and the Chicago & Eastern Illinois railways.
It is in the Illinois coal region, and coal-mining is the most important industry; the city is also a shipping point for hay and grain grown in the vicinity.
Beginning with a class gathered from the streets, he opened (1858) a Sunday school in North Market Hall, which was organized in 1863 as the Illinois Street Church, and afterwards became the Chicago Avenue Church, of which he was layman pastor.
The town-bred soldier of the eastern states was a thoughtful citizen who was determined to do his duty, but he had far less natural aptitude for war than his enemy from the Carolinas or his comrade from Illinois or Kansas.
It is served by the Chicago, Milwaukee & Saint Paul, the Chicago & North-Western, the Chicago, Saint Paul, Minneapolis & Omaha, the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy, the Illinois Central, and the Great Northern railways.
by Illinois, Indiana and Ohio; E.
In 1898 there began an increased activity in the mining of fluorspar, and Crittenden, Fayette and Livingston counties produced in 1902, 29,030 tons (valued at $143,410) of this mineral, in 1903 30,835 tons (valued at $153,960) and in 1904 19,096 tons (valued at $111,499), amounts (and values) exceeding those produced in any other state for these years; but in 1907 the quantity (21,058 tons) was less than the output of Illinois.
The principal lines are the Louisville & Nashville, the Chesapeake & Ohio, the Illinois Central, and the Cincinnati Southern (Queen & Crescent route).
MONMOUTH, a city and the county-seat of Warren county, Illinois, in the W.
In the Upper Mississippi lead region of Missouri, Illinois, Iowa and Wisconsin the ore fills large cavities or chambers in limestone.
With a company of volunteers Clark captured Kaskaskia, the chief post in the Illinois country, on the 4th of July 1778, and later secured the submission of Vincennes, which, however, was recaptured by General Henry Hamilton, the British commander at Detroit.
WAUKEGAN, a city and the county-seat of Lake county, Illinois, U.S.A., on the W.
Litchfield, Illinois >>
It has a publishing house (1834) and Bonebrake Theological Seminary (1871) at Dayton, Ohio; and supports Otterbein University (1847) at Westerville, O.; Westfield College (1865) at Westfield, Illinois; Leander Clark College (1857) at Toledo, Iowa; York College (1890) at York, Nebraska; Philomath College (1867) at Philomath, Oregon; Lebanon Valley College (1867) at Annville, Pa.; Campbell College (1864) at Holton, Kansas, and Central University (1907) at Indianapolis, Indiana.
Thomas (1777-1850) of Illinois, excluding slavery from the "Louisiana Purchase" north of 36° 30' (the southern boundary of Missouri), except within the limits of the proposed state of Missouri.
the border of the plateau on the south-east is an abrupt escarpment, eroded where the folded structure of the mountain belt reveals a series of weaker strata; but in the north-west the plateau suffers only a gradual decrease of height and of relief, until the prairie plains are reached in central Ohio and southern Indiana and Illinois, about 150 m.
The present site of Chicago was determined by an Indian portage or carry across the low divide between Lake Michigan and the headwaters of the Illinois river; and this divide lies on the floor of the former outlet channel of the glacial Lake Michigan.
South-western Wisconsin and parts of the adjacent states of Illinois, Iowa and Minnesota are known as the driftless area, because, although bordered by drift sheets and moraines, it is free from glacial deposits.
So also do the lead and zinc of south-western Wisconsin and the adjacent parts of Iowa and Illinois.
in southern Michigan; (4) the eastern interior field in Indiana, Illinois and Kentucky, with an area of about 58,000 sq.
This, however, is now known not to be the case, as remnants of the formation, isolated by erosion, lie under the old glacial drift in Illinois, and perhaps elsewhere.
The Caiolinian area extends from southern Michigan to northern Georgia and from the Atlantic coast to Western Kansas, comprising Delaware, all of Maryland except the mountainous Western portion, all of Ohio except the north-east corner, nearly the whole of Indiana, Illinois, Iowa and Missouri, eastern Nebraska and Kansas, south-eastern South Dakota, western central Oklahoma, northern Arkansas, middle and eastern Kentucky, middle Tennessee and the Tennessee valley in eastern Tennessee, middle Virginia and North Carolina, western \Vest Virginia, north-eastern Alabama.
The Austroriparian zone comprises nearly all the Gulf States as far West as the mouth of the Rio Grande, the greater part of Georgia, eastern South Carolina, North Carolina and Virginia, and extends up the lowlands of the Mississippi Valley acru_~s western Tennessee and Kentucky into southern Illinois andlndiana and across eastern and southern Arkansas and eastern Oklahoma into south-eastern Missouri and Kansas.
Ten states of the Union had a density in 1910 exceeding 100 persons to the square mile: Illinois (100.7), Delaware (103), Ohio (117), Maryland (130.3), Pennsylvania (171.3), New York (191.2), Connecticut (231.3), NewJersey (~3i~~3), Massachusetts (418.8) and Rhode Island (508.5).
Four statesNew York, Pennsylvania, Illinois and Massachusetts each manufactured in 1900 products valued at over $1,000,000,000; New York exceeding and Pennsylvania attaining almost twice that sum.
A rapid development of the lead mines of the West, both in Missouri and on the Upper Mississippi in the region where Iowa, Wisconsin and Illinois adjoin one another, took place during the first quarter of the I9th century, and as early as 1826 or 1827 the amount of this metal obtained had risen to nearly 10,000 tons a year.
Pennsylvania, Ohio, Illinois, West Virginia, California, Colorado, Montana, Michigan, New York and Missouri were the ten states of greatest absolute production in 1907.
in 1902 were Pennsylvania, Ohio and West Virginia; $500 to $1000, Illinois, Michigan, Indiana, Vermont and Massachusetts.
Pennsylvania (117,179,527 tons of bituminous and 83,268,754 of anthracite), Illinois (47,659,690), West Virginia (41,897,843), Ohio (26,270,639), Indiana (12,314,890) and Alabama (11,604,593) were the states of greatest production.
Colorado, 296,272; Illinois, 240,000; \Vest Virginia, 231,000; Utah, 196,408; Pennsylvania, 112,574; Kentucky, 104,028; OhiO, 86,028; Alabama, 68,903; Indiana, 44,169; Missouri, 40,ooo; New Mexico, 30,805, Tennessee, 25,665; Virginia.
The Lima (Ohio)-Indiana, the Illinois, the Mid-Continent (Kansas, Oklahoma and northern Texas) and the Gulf (Texas and Louisiana) fields produce oils containing more or less of sulphur and asphalt between the extremes of the two other fields just mentioned.
Indiana in 1889, along with Illinois, Kansas, Texas and Missouri, Oklahoma in 1891, Wyoming in 1894, and, lastly, Louisiana in 1902.
So rapid has been the extension of the yielding areas, so diverse the fate of many fields, so shifting their relative rank in output, that the otitlook from year to year as regards all these elements is too uncertain to admit of definite statements respecting the relative importance of the five fields already mentioned The total output of these, it may be stated, from 1901 to 1908uniting the yield of the Illinois to the Lima-Indiana field (since their statistics were long so united, until their industrial differences became apparent), and adding a sixth division for the production of scattered areas of productionwas as follows:
Pennsylvania, Ohio, Illinois, Alabama and New York are the leading states in production.
The production of lead was for many years limited, as already mentioned, to two districts near the Mississippi: one the so-called Upper Mines of Wisconsin, Iowa and Illinois; the other I.
The New York houses number 51 and 150 respectively; those of Pennsylvania, 5o and 204; of Illinois, 51 and 153; of Ohio, 34 and 118; of Massachusetts, 40 and 240.
In another group Michigan, Illinois, Wisconsin, Minnesota, the two Dakotasthe town meeting reappears, though in a less primitive and less perfect form.
Siebert (1904), of Illinois by E.
While the pennated grouse (called the prairie chicken in Canada) has always been plentiful, the prairie hen (or chicken) proper is a more recent arrival from Minnesota and Dakota, to which states it had come from Illinois and the south as settlement and accompanying wheatfields extended north.
of West Florida, and the portion north of this line a part of the "Illinois country," set apart, by royal proclamation, for the use of the Indians.
LA SALLE, a city of La Salle county, Illinois, U.S.A., on the Illinois river, near the head of navigation, 99 m.
The city is served by the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy, the Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific, and the Illinois Central railways, and by the Illinois and Michigan Canal, of which La Salle is the western terminus.
On the 15th of October he took command of the gun-vessels which had been built on the upper waters of the Mississippi, and to which he made important additions at an improvised navy-yard at Mound City, Illinois.
A public park extending from the James to the heart of the city, a deep, spacious and well-protected harbour, a large shipbuilding yard with three immense dry docks, and two large grain elevators of 2,000,000 bushels capacity, are among the most prominent features; at the shipbuilding yard various United States battleships, including the "Kearsarge," "Kentucky," "Illinois," "Missouri," "Louisiana," "Minnesota," "Virginia" and "West Virginia," were constructed, as well as cruisers, gun-boats, merchant vessels, ferry-boats and submarines.
Lockport, Illinois >>
KANKAKEE, a city and the county-seat of Kankakee county, Illinois, U.S.A., in the N.E.
Kankakee is served by the Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago & St Louis, the Illinois Central, and the Chicago, Indiana & Southern (controlled by the New York Central) railways.
It went down quite steadily to 9,424,325 in 1908, and in that year Pennsylvania was out-ranked as an oil-producing state by Oklahoma, California, Illinois, Texas and Ohio.
at the end of 1908, when it was exceeded by only two states in the Union, Texas and Illinois.
The labour unions took advantage of this trouble to force Pennsylvania, Indiana, Illinois, Minnesota, Colorado and several other states to pass anti-Pinkerton statutes making it illegal to import irresponsible armed men from a distance to quell local disturbances.
CANTON, a city of Fulton county, Illinois, U.S.A., in the W.
of the Illinois river, and 28 m.
Canton is served by the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy, the Toledo, Peoria & Western, and the Illinois Central Electric Interurban railways.
He removed with his family to Bloomington, Illinois, in 1852; was educated at the Illinois Wesleyan University at Bloomington and at Centre College, Danville, Kentucky; and was admitted to the Illinois bar in 1857.
He was master in chancery for Woodford county, Illinois, in 1860-1864, and district-attorney for the twenty-third judicial district of that state from 1865 to 1869, when he removed to Bloomington.
He was a Democratic representative in Congress from Illinois in 1875-1877 and again in 1879-1881; was first assistant postmaster-general in 1885-1889, and was severely criticized for his wholesale removal of Republican postmasters.
AURORA, a city of Kane county, Illinois, U.S.A., in the N.E.
Aurora is served by the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy, the Chicago & North-Western, the EIgin, Joliet & Eastern, and the Illinois, Iowa and Minnesota railways, and is connected with Chicago by an electric line.
LEBANON, a city of Saint Clair county, Illinois, U.S.A., on Silver Creek, about 24 m.
Here, on the 3rd of August 1795, General Wayne, the year after his victory over the Indians at Fallen Timbers, concluded with them the treaty of Greenville, the Indians agreeing to a cessation of hostilities and ceding to the United States a considerable portion of Ohio and a number of small tracts in Indiana, Illinois and Michigan (including the sites of Sandusky, Toledo, Defiance, Fort Wayne, Detroit, Mackinac, Peoria and Chicago), and the United States agreeing to pay to the Indians $20,000 worth of goods immediately and an annuity of goods, valued at $9500, for ever.
More than onehalf of this total membership (63,350) was in New York state, the principal home of the first great Dutch immigration; more than one-quarter (32,290 was in New Jersey; and the other states were: Michigan (11,260), Illinois (4962), Iowa (4835), Wisconsin (2312), and Pennsylvania (1979).
There were 2990 in Iowa, 2392 in New Jersey, 2332 in Illinois, and smaller numbers in Wisconsin, Indiana, Minnesota, S.
The strange phenomena of this region were known to some of the Indians; they were discovered by John Colter, a member of the Lewis and Clark expedition, in 1807; the region was visited by James Bridger before 1840; an account of the geysers was published at Nauvoo, Illinois, in The Wasp, a Mormon paper, in 1842; Captain W.
SIR WILLIAM CORNELIUS VAN HORNE (1843-), Canadian financier, was born in Will county, Illinois, U.S.A., on the 3rd of February 1843, of Dutch descent.
Entering the Mississippi on the 17th of May, Joliet and his companion turned back on the 17th of July, and returned to Green Bay and Michigan (by way of the Illinois river) at the end of September 1673.
On the journey Marquette fell ill of dysentery; and a fresh excursion which he undertook to plant a mission among the Indians of the Illinois river in the winter of1674-1675proved fatal.
It is served by the Chicago & North-Western, and the Chicago, Milwaukee & St Paul railways, and by an inter-urban electric railway to Janesville, Wisconsin and Rockford, Illinois.
CHARLESTON, a city and the county-seat of Coles county, Illinois, U.S.A., in the E.
It is the seat of the Eastern Illinois state normal school (opened in 1899).
Other states in which the Church had communicants were: Maryland (13,442), Wisconsin (8386), Indiana (8289), New York (5700), North Carolina (4718), Iowa (3692), Illinois (2652), Virginia (2288), Kentucky (2101), Michigan (1666), Nebraska (1616), and (less than 1500 in each of the following arranged in rank) S.
He graduated from Brown University in 1858, studied law in the office of Abraham Lincoln, was admitted to the bar in Springfield, Illinois, in 1861, and soon afterwards was selected by President Lincoln as assistant private secretary, in which capacity he served till the president's death, being associated with John George Nicolay (1832-1901).
His father, Thomas (1778-1851), was born in Rockingham (then Augusta) county, Virginia; he was hospitable, shiftless, restless and unsuccessful, working now as a carpenter and now as a farmer, and could not read or write before his marriage, in Washington county, Kentucky, on the 12th of June 1806, to Nancy Hanks (1783-1818), who was a native of Virginia, who is said to have been the illegitimate daughter of one Lucy Hanks, and who seems to have been, in 1 Lincoln's birthday is a legal holiday in California, Colorado, Connecticut, Delaware, Florida, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Montana, Nevada, New Jersey, New York, North Dakota, Pennsylvania, South Dakota, Utah, Washington, West Virginia and Wyoming.
In March 1830 his father emigrated to Macon county, Illinois (near the present Decatur), and soon afterward removed to Coles county.
Being now twenty-one years of age, Abraham hired himself to Denton Offutt, a migratory trader and storekeeper then of Sangamon county, and he helped Offutt to build a flatboat and float it down the Sangamon, Illinois and Mississippi rivers to New Orleans.
He became a candidate for the Illinois House of Representatives; and on the 9th of March 1832 issued an address "To the people of Sangamon county" which betokens talent and education far beyond mere ability to "read, write and cipher," though in its preparation he seems to have had the help of a friend.
The company, a part of the 4th Illinois, was mustered out after the five weeks' service for which it volunteered, and Lincoln reenlisted as a private on the 29th of May, and was finally mustered out on the 16th of June by Lieut.
In 1834 Lincoln was elected (second of four successful candidates, with only 14 fewer votes than the first) a member of the Illinois House of Representatives, to which he was re-elected in 1836, 1838 and 1840, serving until 1842.
Lincoln was the only Whig member of Congress elected in Illinois in 1846.
During the presidential campaign he made speeches in Illinois, and in Massachusetts he spoke before the Whig State Convention at Worcester on the 12th of September, and in the next ten days at Lowell, Dedham, Roxbury, Chelsea, Cambridge and Boston.
Between 1849 and 1854 he took little part in politics, devoted himself to the law and became one of the leaders of the Illinois bar.
Judge David Davis, who knew Lincoln on the Illinois circuit and whom Lincoln made in October 1862 an associate justice of the Supreme Court of the United States, said that he was "great both at nisi Arius and before an appellate tribunal."
Douglas of Illinois - then probably the most powerful figure in national politics.
Already he had shown his capacity as a forcible and able debater; aroused to new activity upon the passage of the Kansas-Nebraska Bill, which he regarded as a gross breach of political faith, he now entered upon public discussion with an earnestness and force that by common consent gave him leadership in Illinois of the opposition, which in 1854 elected a majority of the legislature; and it gradually became clear that he was the only man who could be opposed in debate to the powerful and adroit Douglas.
He was elected to the state House of Representatives, from which he immediately resigned to become a candidate for United States senator from Illinois, to succeed James Shields, a Democrat; but five opposition members, of Democratic antecedents, refused to vote for Lincoln (on the second ballot he received 47 votes-50 being necessary to elect) and he turned the votes which he controlled over to Lyman Trumbull, who was opposed to the Kansas-Nebraska Act, and thus secured the defeat of Joel Aldrich Matteson (1808-1883), who favoured this act and who on the eighth ballot had received 47 votes to 35 for Trumbull and 15 for Lincoln.
The various anti-Nebraska elements came together, in Illinois as elsewhere, to form a new party at a time when the old parties were disintegrating; and in 1856 the Republican party was formally organized in the state.
Lincoln before the state convention at Bloomington of "all opponents of anti-Nebraska legislation" (the first Republican state convention in Illinois) made on the 29th of May a notable address known as the "Lost Speech."
On the 16th of June 1858 by unanimous resolution of the Republican state convention Lincoln was declared "the first and only choice of the Republicans of Illinois for the United States Senate as the successor of Stephen A.
The Illinois State Convention of the Republican party, held at Decatur on the 9th and 10th of May 1860, amid great enthusiasm declared Abraham Lincoln its first choice for the presidential nomination, and instructed the delegation to the National Convention to cast the vote of the state as a unit for him.
Lincoln's name was presented by Illinois and seconded by Indiana.
1843), who graduated at Harvard in 1864, served as a captain on the staff of General Grant in 1865, was admitted to the Illinois bar in 1867, was secretary of war in the cabinets of Presidents Garfield and Arthur in 1881-1885, and United States Minister to Great Britain in 1889-1893, and was prominently connected with many large corporations, becoming in 1897 president of the Pullman Co.
His father died in 1817, and the son passed several years (1820-1824) in Ohio with his uncle, Bishop Philander Chase (1775-1852), the foremost pioneer of the Protestant Episcopal Church in the West, the first bishop of Ohio (1819-1831), and after 1835 bishop of Illinois.
BELVIDERE, a city and the county-seat of Boone county, Illinois, U.S.A., in the N.
Belleville, Illinois >>
The college was removed to Glen Ellyn, Illinois, in 1903 and after 1906 to Ruskin, Florida.
Cairo, Illinois >>
It is pre-eminently a railway centre, being served by the Union Pacific, of which it is the principal eastern terminus, the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy, the Chicago, Milwaukee & Saint Paul, the Chicago & Northwestern, the Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific, the Chicago Great-Western, the Illinois Central, and the Wabash, which together have given it considerable commercialimportance.
In the Illinois campaign of the next year between Abraham Lincoln and Stephen A.
He emigrated to the United States in 1826, and in 1832 began to practice law in Kaskaskia, Illinois.
He was prominent in Democratic politics, was a member of the Illinois House of Representatives in 1836-1838, was state auditor in 1841-1843, was judge of the supreme court of the state in 1843-1845, and was commissioner of the U.S. General Land Office in 1845-1847.
Wool in Chihuahua, and under General Winfield Scott in the southern campaign; he was breveted major-general for gallantry at Cerro Gordo, where he was severely wounded, and he was again wounded at Chapultepec. In1849-1855he was a United States senator from Illinois; and in1858-1859was a senator from Minnesota.
The Enabling Act of Congress, which provided for the organization of Illinois Territory into a state, extended its jurisdiction to the middle of Lake Michigan and the Mississippi river; consequently the total area of the state is 58,329 sq.
The surface of Illinois is an inclined plane, whose general slope is toward the S.
along the Mississippi to the mouth of the Illinois there is a slight elevation and there is another elevation of minor importance along the Wabash.
above the bed of the Illinois river.
The drainage of Illinois is far better than its low elevation and comparatively level surface would suggest.
There are more than 275 streams in the state, grouped in two river systems, one having the Mississippi, which receives three-fourths of the waters of Illinois, as outlet, the other being tributary to the Wabash or Ohio rivers.
The most important river is the Illinois, which, formed by the junction of the Des Plaines and the Kankakee, in the N.E.
The soil of Illinois is remarkable for its fertility.
The climate of Illinois is notable for its extremes of temperature.
"We have seen nothing like this for the fertility of the land, its prairies, woods, and wild cattle," wrote Pere Jacques Marquette of the Illinois region, and later explorers also bore witness to the richness of the country.
The most important fisheries on the Illinois river and its tributaries were at Havana, Pekin and Peoria, which in 2907-1908 were represented by a total catch of about 10,000,000 lb, out of a total for this river system of 27,570,000 lb.
The fertility of the soil, the mineral wealth and the transportation facilities have given Illinois a vast economic development.
In 1900 about nine-tenths of the total land area was inclosed in farms; the value of farm property ($2,004,316,897) was greater than that of any other state; as regards the total value of farm products in 1899 Illinois was surpassed only by Iowa; in the value of crops Illinois led all the states, and the values of property and of products were respectively 35.6% and 87.1% greater than at the end of the preceding decade.
In proportion of farm land improved (84.5%), Illinois was surpassed only by Iowa among the states.
In the production of cereals Illinois surpassed the other states at the close of each decade during the last half of the 19th century except that ending in 1890, when Iowa was the leading state.
The rank of Illinois in the production of Indian corn was first in 1899 with about one-fifth of the total product of the United States, and first in 1907 1 with nearly one-tenth of the total crop of the country (9,521,000 bushels out of 99,93 1, 000).
In 1879, in 1899 and in 1905 (when it produced 1 3 2, 779,7 62 bushels out of 953,216,197 from the entire country) it was first among the states producing oats, but it was surpassed by Iowa in 1889, 1906 and 1907; in 1907 the Illinois crop was 101,675,000 bushels.
From 1850 until 1879 Illinois also led in the production of wheat; the competition of the more western states, however, caused a great decline in both acreage and production of that cereal, the state's rank in the number of bushels produced declining to third in 1889 and to fourteenth in 1899, but the crop and yield per acre in 1902 was larger than any since 1894; in 1905 the state ranked ninth, in 1906 eighth and in 1907 fifth (the crop being 40,104,000 bushels) among the wheat-growing states of the country.
The large urban population of the state makes the animal products very valuable, Illinois ranking third in 1900 in the number of dairy cows, and in the farm value of dairy products; indeed, all classes of live stock, except sheep, increased in number from 1850 to 1900, and at the end of the latter year Illinois was surpassed only by Iowa in the number of horses and swine; in 1909 there were more horses in Illinois than in Iowa.
The growth of manufacturing in Illinois during the last half of the 19th century, due largely to the development of her exceptional transportation facilities, was the most rapid and remarkable in the industrial history of the United States.
From 1870 to 1905 Illinois surpassed the other states in this industry, yielding in 1900 and in 1905 more than one-third of the total product of the United States.
The increase in the value of the product in this industry in Illinois between 1900 and 1905 was over to %.
Indeed, in the manufacture of iron and steel, Illinois was surpassed in 1900 only by Pennsylvania and Ohio, the 1900 product being valued at $60,303,144; but the value of foundry and machine shop products was even greater ($63,878,352).
Consequently, in 1890, in 1900 and again in 1905, Illinois surpassed any one of the other states in the production of agricultural implements, the product in 1900 being valued at $42,033,796, or 41.5% of the total output of agricultural machinery in the United States; and in 1905 with a value of $38,412,452 it represented 34.3% of the product of the entire country.
In the building of railway cars by manufacturing corporations, Illinois also led the states in 1900 and in 1905, the product being valued at $24,845,606 in 1900 and at $30,926,464 (an increase of nearly one-fourth) in 1905; and in construction by railway companies was second in 1900, with a product valued at $16,580,424, which had increased 53.7% in 1905, when the product was valued at $25,491,209.
Of these, the manufacture of distilled liquors was in 1900 and in 1905 the most important, Illinois leading the other states; the value of the 1900 product, which was nearly 12% less than that of 1890, was increased by 41.6%, to $54,101,805, in 1905.
river from the forests of other states), whose output increased from 1890 to 1900 nearly 50%, but declined slightly between 1900 and 1905; of furniture ($22,131,846 in 1905; $15,285,475 in 1900; showing an increase of 44.8%), and of musical instruments ($ 1 3,3 2 3,35 8 in 1905; $ 8, 1 5 6, 445 in 1900; an increase of 6 3.3% in the period), in both of which Illinois was second in 1900 and in 1905; book and job printing, in which the state ranked second in 1900 ($28,293,684 in 1905; $19,761,780 in 1900; an increase of 43.2%), newspaper and periodical printing ($28,644,981 in 1905; $ 1 9,4 0 4,955 in 1900; an increase of 47.6%), in which it ranked third in 1900; and the manufacture of clothing, boots and shoes.
Although the iron ore, for the iron and steel industry, is furnished by the mines of the Lake Superior region, bituminous coal and limestone are supplied by the Illinois deposits.
The great central coal field of North America extends into Illinois from Indiana as far N.
In 1679 Hennepin reported deposits of coal near what is now Ottawa on the Illinois; there was some mining in 1810 on the Big Muddy river in Jackson county; and in 1833, 6000 tons were mined.
The output of petroleum in Illinois was long unimportant.
In April 1906 the first pipe lines for petroleum in Illinois were laid; before that time all shipments had been in tank cars.
Glass sand is obt2 fined from the Illinois river valley in La Salle county; in 1906 it was valued at $156,684, making the state in this product second only to Pennsylvania and West Virginia (in 1905 it was second only to Pennsylvania).
- Transportation facilities have been an important factor in the economic development of Illinois.
The American settlers came by way of the Ohio river, and the immigrants from the New England and Eastern states found their way to Illinois over the Erie Canal and the Great Lakes.
The first transportation problem was to connect Lake Michigan and the Mississippi river; this was accomplished by building the Illinois & Michigan canal to La Salle, at the head of the navigation on the Illinois river, a work which was begun in 1836 and completed in 1848 under the auspices of the state.
In 1890 the Sanitary District of Chicago undertook the construction of a canal from Chicago to Joliet, where the new canal joins the Illinois & Michigan canal; this canal is 24 ft.
new canal, the Illinois & Mississippi, popularly known as the Hennepin, from Hennepin to Rock river (just above the mouth of Green river), 7 ft.
This canal provides, with the Illinois & Michigan canal and the Illinois river, an improved waterway from Chicago to the Mississippi river, and greatly increases the commercial and industrial importance of the "twin cities" of Sterling and Rock Falls, where the Rock river is dammed by a dam nearly 1500 ft.
At the general election in November 1908 the people of Illinois authorized the issue of bonds to the amount of $20,000,000 to provide for the canalizing of the Desplaines and Illinois rivers as far as the city of Utica, on the latter river, and connecting with the channel of the Chicago Sanitary District at Joliet.
The situation of Illinois between the Great Lakes and the Appalachian Mountains has made it a natural gateway for railroads connecting the North Atlantic and the far Western states.
The first railway constructed in the West was the Northern-Cross railroad from Meredosia on the Illinois river to Springfield, completed in 1842; during the last thirty years of the 19th century Illinois had a larger railway mileage than any of the American states, her mileage in January 1909 amounting to 12,215.63 m., second only to that of Texas.
- In 1870 and 1880 Illinois was fourth among the states of the United States in population; but in 1890, in 1900, and in 1910, its rank was third, the figures for the last three years named being respectively 3,826,351, 4,821,550, and 5,638,591.3 The increase from 1880 to 1890 was 24.3%; from 1890 to 1900, 26%.
The Illinois Central Railroad Co.
Illinois has been governed under four constitutions, a Territorial constitution of 1812, and three State constitutions of 1818, 1848 and 1870 (subsequently amended).
The governor must be at least thirty years of age, and he must also have been a citizen of the United States and of Illinois for the five years preceding his election.
Requisites for membership in the General Assembly are citizenship in the United States; residence in Illinois for five years, two of which must have been just preceding the candidate's election; and an age of 25 years for senators, and of 21 years for representatives.
The local government of Illinois includes both county and township systems. The earliest American settlers came from the Southern States and naturally introduced the county system; but the increase of population from the New England and Middle States led to a recognition of township organization in the constitution of 1848, and this form of government, at first prevalent only in the northern counties, is now found in most of the middle and southern counties.
In June 1907 the Supreme Court of Illinois declared the sale of liquor not a common right and "sale without license a criminal offence," thus forcing clubs to close their bars or take out licences.
Public education in Illinois had its genesis in the land of the North-West Territory reserved for educational purposes by the Ordinance of 1787.
The state provides for higher education in the University of Illinois, situated in the cities of Champaign and Urbana.
It was founded in 1867, through the United States land grant of 1862, as the Illinois Industrial University, and received its present name in 1885; since 1870 it has been co-educational.
There were in 1907 more than forty other universities and colleges in the state, the most important being the University of Chicago, North-western University at Evanston, Illinois Wesleyan University at Bloomington, Knox College, Galesburg, and Illinois College at Jacksonville.
There were also six normal colleges, five of them public: the Southern Illinois State Normal College at Carbondale, the Eastern Illinois State Normal School at Charleston, the Western Illinois State Normal School at Macomb, the Chicago Normal School at Chicago, the Northern Illinois State Normal School at DeKalb, and the Illinois State Normal University at Normal.
Among other sources of revenue are an inheritance tax, which yields approximately $1,000,000 a year, and 7% of the annual gross earnings of the Illinois Central railway, given in return for the state aid in the construction of the road.
Illinois is the French form of Iliniwek, the name of a confederacy of Algonquian tribes.
On their return journey they ascended the Illinois river as far as Lake Peoria; they then crossed the portage to Lake Michigan, and in 1675 Marquette founded a mission at the Indian town of Kaskaskia, near the present Utica, Ill.
In 1679 the explorer La Salle, desiring to find the mouth of the Mississippi and to extend the domain of France in America, ascended the St Joseph river, crossed the portage separating it from the Kankakee, which he descended to the Illinois, and built in the neighbourhood of Lake Peoria a fort which he called Fort Crevecceur.
The vicissitudes of the expedition, the necessity for him to return to Canada for tools to construct a large river-boat, and opposition in Canada to his plans, prevented him from reaching the mouth of the Illinois until the 6th of February 1682.
A monument of the labours of the missionaries is a manuscript dictionary (c. 1720) of the language of the Illinois, with catechism and prayers, probably the work of Father Le Boulanger.
In 1712 the Illinois river was made the N.
boundary of the French province of Louisiana, which was granted to Antoine Crozat (1655-1738), and in 1721 the seventh civil and military district of that province was named Illinois, which included more than one-half of the present state, the country between the Arkansas river and the line 43° N.
The trade of the Illinois country was now diverted to the settlements in the lower Mississippi river, but the French, although they were successful in gaining the confidence and friendship of the Indians, failed to develop the resources of the country.
In 1771 the people of the Illinois country, through a meeting at Kaskaskia, demanded a form of self-government similar to that of Connecticut.
The petition was rejected by General Thomas Gage; and Thomas Legge, earl of Dartmouth (1731-1801), Secretary of State for Plantations and President of the Board of Trade, drew up a plan of government for Illinois in which all officials were appointed by the crown.
This, however, was never operative, for in 1774, by the famous Quebec Act, the Illinois country was annexed to the province of Quebec, and at the same time the jurisdiction of the French civil law was recognized.
These facts explain the considerable sympathy in Illinois for the colonial cause in the War of Independence.
Consequently, the British government withdrew their troops from the Illinois country.
The English authorities instigated the Indians to make attacks upon the frontiers of the American colonies, and this led to one of the most important events in the history of the Illinois country, the capture of the British posts of Cahokia and Kaskaskia in 1778, and in the following year of Vincennes (Indiana), by George Rogers Clark, who acted under orders of Patrick Henry, Governor of Virginia.
The Virginia House of Delegates, in 1778, extended the civil jurisdiction of Virginia to the north-west, and appointed Captain John Todd (1750-1782), of Kentucky, governor of the entire territory north of the Ohio, organized as "The County of Illinois"; the judges of the courts at Cahokia, Kaskaskia, and Vincennes, who had been appointed under the British administration, were now chosen by election; but this government was confined to the old French settlements and was entirely inefficient.
part of the Illinois country, while the E.
In 18co the Illinois country was included in the Territory of Indiana, and in 1809 the W.
to Canada was organized as the Territory of Illinois; it included, besides the present territory of the state, all of Wisconsin except the N.
In 1818 Illinois became a state of the American Union, the Enabling Act fixing the line 42° 30' as the N.
The reason given for this change was that if the Mississippi and Ohio rivers were the only outlets of Illinois trade, the interests of the state would become identified with those of the southern states; but if an outlet by Lake Michigan were provided, closer relations would be established with the northern and middle states, and so "additional security for the perpetuity of the Union" would be afforded.
For a number of years after the end of the conflict, the Indians were comparatively peaceful; but in 1831 the delay of the Sauk and Foxes in withdrawing from the lands in northern Illinois, caused Governor John Reynolds (1788-1865) to call out the militia.
The following year Black Hawk, a Sauk leader, opened an unsuccessful war in northern Illinois and Wisconsin (the Black Hawk War); and by 1833 all Indians in Illinois had been removed from the state.
Political intrigue, claims of independence from the state, as well as charges of polygamy and lawless conduct, aroused such intense opposition to the sect that in 1844 a civil war broke out in Hancock county which resulted in the murder of Joseph Smith and the removal of the Mormons from Illinois in 1846.
Slaves had been brought into the Illinois country by the French, and Governor Arthur St Clair (1734-1818) interpreted the article of the Ordinance of 1787, which forbade slavery in the North-West Territory, as a prohibition of the introduction of slaves into the Territory, not an interference with existing conditions.
Although a majority of the public men of the state, indeed probably a majority of the entire population, was either born in the Southern states or descended from Southern people, the resolution of the legislature was rejected, the leader of the opposition being Governor Edward Coles (1786-1868), a Virginia slave-holder, who had freed his slaves on coming to Illinois, and at least one half the votes against the proposed amendment of the constitution were cast by men of Southern birth.
This was the first time that the Democratic Party had been defeated, its organization having been in control since the admission of Illinois to the Union.
Douglas was elected, but the vote showed that Illinois was becoming more Northern in sympathy, and two years later Lincoln, then candidate for the presidency, carried the state.
The policy of Illinois in the early period of secession was one of marked loyalty to the Union; even in the S.
After 1838 the Eastern states began to be represented among the governors, but until 1901 no governor was elected who was a native of Illinois.
Greene, Sectional Forces in the History of Illinois (Publications of the Historical Library of Illinois, No.
Palmer, Senator Lyman Trumbull and Gustavus Koerner (1809-1896), one of the most prominent representatives of the German element in Illinois.
In 1876 the Greenback Party, the successor in Illinois of the Independent Reform Party, secured a strong following; although its candidate for governor was endorsed by the Democrats, the Republicans regained control of the state administration.
American Governors Of Illinois Territorial.
- There is no complete bibliography of the varied and extensive literature relating to Illinois; but Richard Bowker's State Publications, part ii.
Greene's The Government of Illinois (New York, 1904) contain useful lists of documents, monographs and books.
The Illinois State Laboratory of Natural History, connected with the State University, has published S.
Richardson's Fishes of Illinois (Urbana, 1909).
Constitutional and administrative problems are discussed in Elliott Anthony's Constitutional History of Illinois; Greene's The Government of Illinois, and H.
P. Judson's The Government of Illinois (New York, 1900).
There is an historical study of the problem of taxation, entitled, "History of the Struggle in Illinois to realize Equality in Taxation," by H.
The Blue Book of the State of Illinois (Springfield, 1903); H.
Hurd's Revised Statutes of Illinois (Chicago, 1903), and Starr and Curtis, Annotated Statutes of the State of Illinois (Chicago, 1896), are also of value.
Moses, Illinois, Historical and Statistical (2 vols., Chicago, 1889); and H.
Stuve, Complete History of Illinois (Springfield, 1874).
Mason's Chapters from Illinois History (Chicago, 1901) is of interest 1 Mr French's service of seven years is due to the fact that the Constitutional Convention of 1848 ordered a new election of state officials.
Boyd in "The County of Illinois" (American Hist.
Carter, Great Britain and the Illinois Country, 1763-1774 (Washington, 1910), R.
Schuyler, The Transition of Illinois to American Government (New York, 1909), and W.
Smith in The St Clair Papers (Cincinnati, 1882), and the Territorial Records of Illinois (" Publications of the State Historical Library," No.
Governor Thomas Ford's History of Illinois (Chicago, 1854), and Governor John Reynolds's My Own Times (1855), are contemporary sources for 1818-1846; they should be supplemented by N.
Edwards's History of Illinois (1778-1833) and Life of Ninian Edwards (Springfield, 1870), E.
Garnett's State Banks of Issue in Illinois (Univ.
Carr's The Illini (Chicago, 1904) is a study of conditions in Illinois from 1850-1860.
Bloomington, Illinois >>
JACKSONVILLE, a city and the county-seat of Morgan county, Illinois, U.S.A., on Mauvaiseterre Creek, about 33 m.
Illinois College (Presbyterian), founded in 1829 through the efforts of the Rev. John Millot Ellis (1793-1855), a missionary of the American Home Missionary Society and of the so-called Yale Band (seven Yale graduates devoted to higher education in the Middle West), is one of the oldest colleges in the Central States of the United States.
The Jacksonville Female Academy (1830) and the Illinois Conservatory of Music (1871) were absorbed in 1903 by Illinois College, which then became co-educational.
The college embraces, besides the collegiate department, Whipple Academy (a preparatory department), the Illinois Conservatory of Music and a School of Art, and in1908-1909had 21 instructors and 173 students.
Beecher, Newton Bateman (1822-1897), superintendent of public instruction of Illinois from 1865 to 1875 and president of Knox College in 1875-1893, Bishop Theodore N.
The Illinois Woman's College (Methodist Episcopal; chartered in 1847 as the Illinois Conference Female Academy) received its present name in 1899.
The majority of the early settlers came from the southern and border states, principally from Missouri and Kentucky; but subsequently there was a large immigration of New England and Eastern people, and these elements were stronger in the population of Jacksonville than in any other city of southern Illinois.
He served for three months, in 1810, as attorney-general of Illinois Territory, but soon returned to Kentucky, and during the War of 1812 he was for a time on the staff of General Isaac Shelby.
Palmer (1817-1900) of Illinois for president.
19,507 were natives of Wyoming, 6112 were born in Iowa, 5009 in Nebraska, 4923 in Illinois, 4412 in Missouri and 3750 in Utah.
She wrote much, especially for the Offering; became an ardent abolitionist and (in 1843) the friend of Whittier; left Lowell in 1846, and taught for several years, first in Illinois, and then in Beverly and Norton, Massachusetts.
It is served by the Chicago, Indianapolis & Louisville and the Indianapolis Southern (Illinois Central) railways.
There is a State Voter's League similar to that of Illinois.
It is served by the Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific, the St Louis & San Francisco, the Illinois Central, the Southern, the Louisville & Nashville, the Nashville, Chattanooga & St Louis, the St Louis South-Western, the St Louis, Iron Mountain & Southern and the Yazoo & Mississippi Valley railways, and by steamboats on the Mississippi.
The city also manufactures large quantities of cotton-seed oil and cake, lumber, flour and grist-mill products, foundry and machine-shop products, confectionery, carriages and wagons, paints, furniture, bricks, cigars, &c. The Illinois Central and the St Louis & San Francisco railways have workshops here.
Madison is served by the Chicago & North-Western, the Chicago, Milwaukee & St Paul, and the Illinois Central railways (being the northern terminus of the last), and by interurban electric lines, connecting with Janesville, Beloit and Chicago.
It has a picturesque situation in what is known as "the Four-Lakes region"; this region takes its name from a chain of lakes, Kegonsa, Waubesa, Monona and Mendota, which, lying in the order named and connected with one another by the Yahara or Catfish River, form the head-waters of Rock river flowing southward through Illinois into the Mississippi.
BLOOMINGTON, a city and the county-seat of McLean county, Illinois, U.S.A., in the central part of the state, about 125 M.
The city is served by the Chicago & Alton, the Illinois Central, the Cleveland, Chicago, Cincinnati & St Louis, and the Lake Erie & Western railways, and by electric inter-urban lines.
Bloomington is the seat of the Illinois Wesleyan University (Methodist Episcopal, coeducational, founded in 1850), which comprises a college of liberal arts, an academy, a college of law, a college of music and a school of oratory, and in 1907 had 1350 students.
north of Bloomington, are the Illinois State Normal University (opened at Bloomington in 1857 and removed to its present site in 1860), one of the first normal schools in the Middle West, and the state soldiers' orphans' home (1869).
Bloomington derives its name from Blooming Grove, a small forest which was crossed by the trails leading from the Galena lead mines to Southern Illinois, from Lake Michigan to St Louis, and from the Eastern to the far Western states.
This was the first convention of the Republican party in Illinois; among the delegates were Abraham Lincoln, Richard Yates, John M.
In the Transactions of the Illinois State Historical Society for 1905 may be found a paper, "The Bloomington Convention of 1856 and Those Who Participated in it."
GALENA, a city and the county-seat of Jo Daviess county, Illinois, U.S.A., in the N.W.
It is served by the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy, the Chicago & North-Western and the Illinois Central railways; the Galena river has been made navigable by government locks at the mouth of the river, but the river traffic is unimportant.
Here you find articles in the encyclopedia on topics related to Illinois.
CAHOKIA, the name of a North American Indian tribe of the Illinois confederacy, and of their mission station, near St Louis.
It is served by the Chicago & Eastern Illinois, the Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago & St Louis, the Evansville & Indianapolis, the Evansville & Terre Haute, the Southern Indiana, the Vandalia and several electric interurban railways.
Many localities in the United States yield fluor-spar, and it is worked commercially in a few places, notably at Rosiclare in southern Illinois.
Galena, Illinois >>
In 1803 Harrison also became a special commissioner to treat with the Indians " on the subject of boundary or lands," and as such negotiated various treaties - at Fort Wayne (1803 and 1809), Vincennes (1804(1804 and 1809) and Grouseland (1805) - by which the southern part of the present state of Indiana and portions of the present states of Illinois, Wisconsin and Missouri were opened to settlement.
On the 8th of December 1837 a meeting was held at Faneuil Hall to express the sentiments of the people on the murder of Elijah P. Lovejoy, at Alton, Illinois, for defending his press from a proslavery mob.
Removing to Belleville, Illinois, in the same year, he was elected to the state House of Representatives as a Democrat in 1840, and in1841-1843was secretary of state of Illinois.
After 1873 he practised law in Chicago, was the Democratic candidate for governor of Illinois in 1880, became a Populist in 1894, and defended the railway strikers in Chicago in the same year.
Edwardsville, Illinois >>
BEARDSTOWN, a city of Cass county, Illinois, U.S.A., in the W.
bank of the Illinois river, about III m.
During the Black Hawk War (1832) it was a base of supplies for the Illinois troops.
dactyloides (gama grass) extends northwards to Illinois and Connecticut; it is used for fodder and as an ornamental plant.
2 Of the 1900 native-born population 3870 were born in Illinois, 3032 in New York, 2525 in Ohio and 2 519 in Pennsylvania.
In this respect he was assisted by his friendship with Mr Stuyvesant Fish, who, on becoming vice-president of the Illinois Central in 1883, brought Harriman upon the directorate, and in 1887, being then president, made Harriman vice-president; twenty years later it was Harriman who dominated the finance of the Illinois Central, and Fish, having become his opponent, was dropped from the board.
Resigning his commission in 1857, McClellan became successively chief engineer and vice-president of the Illinois Central railroad (1857-1860), general superintendent of the Mississippi & Ohio railroad, and, a little later, president of the eastern branch of the same, with his residence in Cincinnati.
He was admitted to the bar in Shawneetown, Illinois, in 1832; in the same year served as a volunteer in the Black Hawk War, and in 1835 founded the Shawneetown Democrat, which he thereafter edited.
As a Democrat he served in 1836 and in1840-1843in the Illinois House of Representatives, and in1843-1851and in1859-1861was a representative in Congress, where in his first term he vigorously opposed the Wilmot proviso, but in' his second term was a strong Unionist and introduced the resolution of the 15th of July 1861, pledging money and men to the national government.
He resigned from congress, raised in Illinois the "McClernand Brigade," and was commissioned (May 17, 1861) brigadiergeneral of volunteers.
President Lincoln, who saw the importance of conciliating a leader of the Illinois War-Democrats, restored him to his command in 1864, but McClernand resigned in November of that year.
He was district judge of the Sangamon (Illinois) District in 1870-1873, and was president of the National Democratic Convention in 1876.
He died in Springfield, Illinois, on the 10th of September 1900.
PERU, a city of La Salle county, Illinois, U.S.A., in the north-central part of the state, on the N.
bank of the Illinois River, about ioo m.
of La Salle, a terminus of the Illinois & Michigan Canal.
by Illinois, Kentucky and Tennessee; S.
or so above the water, from the mouth of the Meramec to Ste Genevieve, mark where that river cuts the Ozark ridge, which, across the river, is continued by the Shawnee Hills in Illinois.
They were driven out, and went to Illinois, but continued to hold part of their abandoned lands.
Of those born within the United States only 164,431, or less than one-half, were natives of Oregon, and of those born in other states of the Union 128,654, or about seventenths, were natives of one or another of the following states: Missouri, Illinois, Iowa, Ohio, California, New York, Indiana, Kansas, Washington, Wisconsin and Pennsylvania.
It is served by the Illinois Central, the Chicago Great Western, the Minneapolis & Saint Louis, and the Fort Dodge, Des Moines & Southern railways, the last an electric interurban line.
ELGIN, a city of Kane county, Illinois, U.S.A., in the N.
The city is the seat of the Northern Illinois hospital for the insane, of the Elgin Academy (chartered 1839; opened 1856), and of St Mary's Academy (Roman Catholic); and has the Gail Borden public library, with 35,000 volumes in 1908.
Topographically, Indiana is similar to Ohio and Illinois, the greater part of its surface being undulating prairie land, with a range of sand-hills in the N.
The Wabash, which has a total length of more than 500 m., has its headwaters in the western part of Ohio, and flows in a north-west, south-west, and south direction across the state, emptying into the Ohio river and forming for a considerable distance the boundary between Indiana and Illinois.
Other portions of the state are drained by the Kankakee, a tributary of the Illinois, the St Joseph and its principal branch, the Elkhart, which flow north through the south-west corner of Michigan and empty into Lake Michigan; the St Mary's and another St Joseph, whose confluence forms the Maumee, which empties into Lake Erie; and the White Water, which drains a considerable portion of the south-west part of the state into the Ohio.
In 1810, the year following the erection of the western part of Indiana into Illinois Territory, the population was 24,520, in 1820 it had increased to 147,178, in 1850 to 988,416, in 1870 to 1,680,637, in 1890 to 2,192,404, and in 1900 to 2,516,462.
In 1800 it was divided, and from its western part (including the present states of Indiana, Illinois and Wisconsin, the north-east part of Minnesota, and a large part - from 1803 to 1805 all - of the present state of Michigan) Indiana Territory was erected, with General William Henry Harrison - who had been secretary of the North-West Territory since 1798 - as its first governor, and with Vincennes as the seat of government.
In March 1809 the Territory was again divided, Illinois Territory being established from its western portion; Indiana was then reduced to its present limits.
The population of settlers from slave states was considerably larger than in Illinois, the proportion being 20% as late as 1850.
In the five years1896-1900the combined value of the crops of Indian corn and wheat exceeded the value of the same crops in any other state of the Union (Illinois being a close second).
The most important manufacturing industry, both in 1900 and in 1905, was slaughtering and meat-packing - for which Kansas City is the second centre of the country - with a product for the state valued at $77,411,883 in 1900, and $96,375,639 in 1905; in both these years the value of the product of Kansas was exceeded only by that of Illinois.
Evansville is served by the Evansville & Terre Haute, the Evansville & Indianapolis, the Illinois Central, the Louisville & Nashville, the Louisville, Henderson & St Louis, and the Southern railways, by several interurban electric lines, and by river steamboats.
He died at Chicago, Illinois, on the 1st of November 1879.
of Lake Winnebago and as far south as the Illinois line.
of the Illinois line who came from the East, who lived in dug-outs like the hillside burrows of the badger, and who did not go home in winter like the miners from southern Illinois and farther south, who were called "suckers," a name borrowed from the migrating fish in the Rock, Illinois and other rivers flowing south.
The name "suckers" was applied generally to all the people of Illinois, and the name "badgers" to the people of Wisconsin and "badger state" to the state.
The southern portion of the state is drained by several streams flowing across the Illinois boundary and finding their way eventually through other rivers into the Mississippi.
The largest of these are the Rock, Des Plaines, Fox (of the Illinois), or Pishtaka, and the Pecatonica rivers.
In 1680 Father Louis Hennepin, a Recollet Franciscan who had accompanied La Salle, followed the Mississippi northward from the mouth of the Illinois along the western border of Wisconsin to the site of the present City of St Paul.
Perrot built a chain of forts along the Mississippi and a post (the present Galena, Illinois) near the southern boundary of the state, where he discovered and worked a lead mine.
In 1800 Wisconsin was included in the newly organized Indiana Territory; and in 1809 on the admission of Indiana as a state it was attached to Illinois.
In 1818 Illinois was admitted to the Union and Wisconsin was incorporated in Michigan Territory, and at that time American civil government in the Wisconsin region was first established on an orderly and permanent basis.
As originally planned, Wisconsin would have included that part of Illinois west of a line running across the southern end of Lake Michigan; and the inhabitants of this tract actually voted to join Wisconsin, but Congress paid no attention to their demands, and this strip of land, including Chicago, became a part of Illinois.
Cory, The Birds of Illinois and Wisconsin, Field Museum of Natural History, Publication No.
It is served by the Yazoo & Mississippi Valley (Illinois Central), the St Louis, Iron Mountain & Southern (Missouri Pacific), the Arkansas Midland, and the Missouri & North Arkansas railways.
LOGAN, JOHN ALEXANDER (1826-1886), American soldier and political leader, was born in what is now Murphysborough, Jackson county, Illinois, on the 9th of February 1826.
He entered politics as a Douglas Democrat, was elected county clerk in 184 9, served in the State House of Representatives in1853-1854and in 18J7, and for a time, during the interval, was prosecuting attorney of the Third Judicial District of Illinois.
Though unattached and unenlisted, he fought at Bull Run, and then returned to Washington, resigned his seat, and entered the Union army as colonel of the 31st Illinois Volunteers, which he organized.
After massacring several isolated families, he was driven off by a force of Illinois militia.
Twelve states, in this vast cereal-growing region - Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Missouri, Kansas, Nebraska, Michigan, Iowa, Wisconsin, Minnesota, North and South Dakota - still have from 20 to 40% of unimproved land in farms. The total area of these states is nearly four times that of France.
The city is served by the Baltimore & Ohio South-Western, the Chesapeake & Ohio, the Pittsburg, Cincinnati, Chicago & St Louis, the Louisville, Henderson & St Louis, the Illinois Central, the Chicago, Indiana & Louisville, the Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago & St Louis, the Southern and the Louisville & Nashville railways; by steamboat lines to Memphis, Cairo, Evansville, Cincinnati and Pittsburg; by an extensive system of inter-urban electric lines; and by ferries to Jeffersonville and New Albany, Indiana, two attractive residential suburbs.
It is possible that there was a settlement on what was afterward called Corn Island (which has now practically disappeared), at the Falls of the Ohio, as early as 1775; in May 1778, General George Rogers Clark, while proceeding, by way of the Ohio river, against the British posts in the Illinois territory, landed on this island and built block-houses for his stores and cabins for about twenty families of emigrants who had come with him.
General Clark made his home in Louisville and the vicinity after his return from the Illinois country in 1779.
ALTON, a city of Madison county, Illinois, U.S.A., in the W.
Alton is served by the Chicago & Alton, the Chicago, Peoria & St Louis, the Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago & St Louis, and the Illinois Terminal railways.
Most of the people of southern Illinois were in sympathy with slavery, and consequently the Lovejoys became very unpopular.
In 1833 he went West, and finally settled in Jacksonville, Illinois, where he was admitted to the bar in March 1834, and obtained a large practice.
In February 1835 he was elected public prosecutor of the first judicial circuit, the most important at that time in Illinois; in 1835 he was one of several Democrats in Morgan county to favour a state Democratic convention to elect delegates to the national convention of 1836 - an important move toward party regularity; in December 1836 he became a member of the state legislature.
In 1840 he did much to carry the state for Van Buren; and for a few months he was secretary of state of Illinois.
He was a judge of the supreme court of Illinois from 1841 to 1843.
He ardently supported the policy of making Federal appropriations (of land, but not of money) for internal improvements of a national character, being a prominent advocate of the construction, by government aid, of a trans-continental railway, and the chief promoter (1850) of the Illinois Central; in 1854 he suggested that Congress should impose tonnage duties from which towns and cities might themselves pay for harbour improvement, &c. To him as chairman of the committee on territories, at first in the House, and then in the Senate, of which he became a member in December 1847, it fell to introduce the bills for admitting Texas, Florida, Iowa, Wisconsin, Minnesota, California and Oregon into the Union, and for organizing the territories of Minnesota, Oregon, New Mexico, Utah, Washington, Kansas and Nebraska.