To this ideal he remained faithful.
All men may perhaps be aiming everywhere at the same moral ideal,' but it is absurd to.
That may be your idea of an ideal relationship, but I had to get away from him if I was going to have a life of my own.
To Bolkonski so many people appeared contemptible and insignificant creatures, and he so longed to find in someone the living ideal of that perfection toward which he strove, that he readily believed that in Speranski he had found this ideal of a perfectly rational and virtuous man.
I guess he wasn't the ideal patient so the doctors weren't inclined to put up much of a fuss.
Here, easy accessibility, great ice in a deep, narrow gorge, facilities close by and a park run by people who understood the sport and emphasized safety, made for an ideal package.
Yet it seems plain that any theology, maintaining redemption as historical fact (and not merely ideal), must attach religious importance to conclusions which are technically probable rather than proven.
Clerk Maxwell supposed two compartments, A and B, to be filled with gas at the same temperature, and to be separated by an ideal, infinitely thin partition containing a number of exceedingly small trap-doors, each of which could be opened or closed without any expenditure of energy.
There was no humidity, an ideal temperature and enough of a breeze to perfume the air with the zillion flowers recently wakened after a tough winter or perhaps just planted to welcome the approaching summer season.
I believed in some ideal love which was to keep her faithful to me for the whole year of my absence!
She knew very well she had some physical assets that drew men, even if her body wasn't ideal like Toni's.
He alone--with his ideal of glory and grandeur developed in Italy and Egypt, his insane self-adulation, his boldness in crime and frankness in lying--he alone could justify what had to be done.
The general position which He takes up, that "the Sabbath is made for man and not man for the Sabbath," 2 is only a special application of the wider principle that the law is not an end in itself but a help towards the realization in life of the great ideal of love to God and man, which is the sum of all true religion.
Aroused would have been the ideal word, but certainly wouldn't have defused him.
Aroused would have been the ideal word, but certainly wouldn't have defused him.
The one ideal which has just been described represents the Labour party from the New South Wales standpoint.
On the question of reunion, the ideal of corporate unity was reaffirmed (58).
And, as the sympathizers with Hegel try to force mechanical necessity into the garb of absolute or ideal necessity, so they seek to show that moral necessity is only an inferior form of absolute or ideal or, we might say, mathematical necessity.
It may be convenient at this point to consider Calvin's ideal church polity, as set forth in his famous Christianae religionis institutio, the first edition of which was published in 1536.
The other ideal, typified by the South Australian party, differs from this in one important respect.
square forms an ideal green.
On some of these points the codes differ, and the whole is to be regarded as the ideal qualification, built up theoretically by the canonists.
In a monarchy, where the king can ennoble, this ideal cannot be kept.
In a monarchy, where the king can ennoble, this ideal cannot be kept.
There he passed nine studious years, chiefly devoted to classical reading, Plato and Tacitus being his favourite authors, because "the former described the ideal man, and the latter man as he really is."
The ideal truth within us, constituting the inner life that is studied by philosophers, becomes transmuted by the facts of history into assured reality.
So he will endeavour to be "on the jack," the ideal position being a bowl at rest immediately in front of or behind it.
The ideal truth within us, constituting the inner life that is studied by philosophers, becomes transmuted by the facts of history into assured reality.
So he will endeavour to be "on the jack," the ideal position being a bowl at rest immediately in front of or behind it.
Kant had substituted one great necessity, sprung from an ideal source.
To the latter the material temple is no more than a detail in the picture of a work of restoration eminently ideal and spiritual, and he expressly warns his hearers against attaching intrinsic importance to it (Isa.
So that in Rome also Cynicism was partly the butt of the satirist and partly the ideal of the thinker.
To the latter the material temple is no more than a detail in the picture of a work of restoration eminently ideal and spiritual, and he expressly warns his hearers against attaching intrinsic importance to it (Isa.
This is the full, ideal development, which is always contracted or shortened to a greater or less extent.
Naturally he felt that the prevalence of Christianity was incompatible with his ideal of Roman prosperity, and therefore that the policy of the Flavian emperors was the only logical solution of an important problem.
When the conclusions thus reached by many independent investigators were at length reduced to a system by Calvin, in his famous Institutio, it became the definite ideal of church government for all the Reformed, in contradistinction to the Lutheran, churches.
The threatened dualism of ideal and material becomes for Aristotle mainly a contrast of matter and form; the lower stage in development desires or aims at the higher, matter more and more tending to pass into form, till God is form without any matter.
The riverside trail is an ideal place to enjoy a walk or a bike ride before you eat.
By declaring, as it does, what were the laws and customs of a past age wherein justice prevailed, it shows what was the ideal of good government formed by John's prelates and barons.
With Epiphanes, his son, he was the leader of a philosophic school basing its theories mainly upon Platonism, and striving to amalgamate Plato's Republic with the Christian ideal of human brotherhood.
The Franko-Papal alliance, which conferred a crown on Pippin and sovereign rights upon the see of Rome, held within itself that ideal of mutually Charles supporting papacy and empire which exercised so the iireat powerful an influence in medieval history.
This feeling was fostered by its many confirmations, and in subsequent ages, especially during the time of the struggle between the Stewart kings and the parliament, it was regarded as something sacrosanct, embodying the very ideal of English liberties, which to some extent had been lost, but which must be regained.
A further derogation from the ideal of democratic austerity was committed by adding 80,000 per annum to the kings civil list (14th May 1877) and by burdening the state exchequer with royal household pensions amounting to 20,000 a year.
that is to say, in a radial direction from, or (in the manubrium) parallel to, the same ideal axis.
Aristotle has impressed the ordinary mind chiefly by his criticism of Plato's ideal theory; and therefore he is often ranked as the father of empiricists.
The hydraulic crane has a great advantage in possessing an almost ideal brake, for by simply throttling the exhaust from the lifting cylinder the speed of descent can be regulated within very wide limits and with perfect safety.
His political ideal was a federation of all the Italian states under the presidency of the pope, on a basis of Catholicism, but without a constitution.
Hanni's is an ideal location for meat lovers, but there is a large vegetarian menu as well.
The weight of this ideal gold dollar would be adjusted at intervals in accordance with its power to purchase commodities as shown by the " index number " of prices.
True, Kant refers often to the ideal of a " perceptive " or " intuitive understanding," whose thought would produce the whole of knowledge out of its native contents.
Hegel's system is, in its own way, a great evolutionary philosophy of an ideal type.
Thus the whole classification becomes a rounded-off phylogenetic system, which, at least in its broad outlines, seems to approach the natural system, the ideal goal of the scientific ornithologist.
In Homer he is represented as an ideal warrior, the champion of the Trojans and the mainstay of the city.
Condillac's sensationalism - Locke's philosophy purged of its more ideal if less logical elements - leading on to materialism in J.
This portion of the law, designed to reassure foreign Catholics, met with little opposition; but the second portion, regulating the relations between state and church in Italy, was sharply criticized by deputies who, like Sella, recognized the ideal of a free church in a free state to be an impracticable dream.
Besides, the Left stood for anticlericalism and for the retention by the State of means of coercing the Church, in opposition to the men of the Right, who, with the exception of Sella, favored Cavours ideal of a free Church in a free State, and the consequent abandonment of state control over ecclesiastical government.
In this interpretation of the universe, the difference between mechanical or relative necessity and absolute or ideal necessity is slurred, or dogmatically affirmed to be non-existent.
Hence there are tendencies even in Plato to build up the ideal world in sharp contrast to the actual world - to the half interpenetrated or half tamed world of matter.
Hence there are tendencies even in Plato to build up the ideal world in sharp contrast to the actual world - to the half interpenetrated or half tamed world of matter.
This restaurant is an especially ideal option for families and large parties.
Known for its scenic views ideal for photographs, the inn features a candlelight dining area, monthly recipe specials and superior hospitality.
God, for Pure Reason, is an illegitimate personification of the idea of perfected experience (" Ideal of Pure Reason ").
When, therefore, we remember that Aurelius knew little of the Christians, that the only mention of them in the Meditations is a contemptuous reference to certain fanatics of their number whom even Clement of Alexandria compares for their thirst for martyrdom to the Indian gymnosophists, and finally that the least worthy of them were doubtless the most prominent, we cannot doubt that Aurelius was acting unquestionably in the best interests of a perfectly intelligible ideal.
Isidorus set up celibacy, though in a modified form, as the ideal of the perfect (Clemens, Strom.
He was a moderate liberal in politics and a supporter of the ideal of German unity.
- An ideal line of railway connecting two terminal.
But that ideal is rarely if ever attainable.
A " perfect engine " receiving and rejecting steam at the same temperatures as the actual engine of the locomotive, would develop about twice this power, say 1400 I.H.P. This figure represents the ideal but unattainable standard of performance.
This would be an ideal performance for an engine receiving steam at 190 lb initial pressure absolute, and rejecting steam at the back pressure assumed above, and could never be attained in practice.
The way the thermal efficiency of the ideal engine increases with the pressure is exhibited in fig.
From the diagram it will be seen that the corresponding efficiency of the ideal engine is about 0.18.
12) the ideal suffering servant of Yahweh is portrayed most definitely as an individual.
It is only necessary for us to take note of the ideal in its general features.
To this is united the noble ideal of the suffering servant, which serves both as a contribution to the great problem of suffering as purifying and vicarious and as the interpretation to the mind of the nation itself of that nation's true function in the future, a lesson which the actual future showed that Israel was slow to receive.
While Jeremiah's tendency was spiritual and ideal, Ezekiel's was constructive and practical.
Another element in this ideal scheme which comes into prominence is the sharp distinction between holy and profane.
Unlike the old temple and city, the ideal temple of Ezekiel is entirely separate from the city of Jerusalem.
Yahweh's servant David, whereas in the ideal scheme detailed in chap. xl.
But it cannot be said that we possess in later literature any fresh contribution to the conception of God or any presentation of a higher ideal of human life or national destiny than that which meets us in chap. xl.
If these things, however, indicate Prescott's deficiencies from the point of view of ideal history, few historians have had in a higher degree that artistic feeling in the broad arrangement of materials which ensures popular interest.
From that period Ward and his associates worked undisguisedly for union with the Church of Rome, and in 1844 he published his Ideal of a Christian Church, in which he openly contended that the only hope for the Church of England lay in submission to the Church of Rome.
In the purity of his intention and the earnestness with which he strove to carry out his ideal, he was not inferior to Francis."
>st an ideal; but Austria gained two provinces.
Some took root in the strange lands, and, as later popular stories indicate, evidently reached high positions; others, retaining a more vivid tradition of the land of their fathers, cherished the ideal of a restored Jerusalem.
OLD] ideal kingdom, the trusted and highly favoured minister who was the signet-ring upon Yahweh's hand (contrast Hag.
The more orthodox or conservative Jews preferred the tolerant rule of the Ptolemies: the rest, who chafed at the isolation of the nation, looked to the Seleucids, who inherited Alexander's ideal of a united empire based on a universal adoption of Hellenism.
If the poor were ardent nationalists who would not intermingle with the Greeks, the rich had long outgrown and now could humour such prejudices; and the title of their party was capable of recalling at any rate the sound of the national ideal of righteousness, i.e.
The original motive of the recipients of these favours was doubtless the taste of the time for outward display; St Bernard, zealous for the monastic ideal, de nounced abbots for wearing mitres and the like more pontificum, and Peter the Cantor roundly called the abbatial mitre " inane, superfluous and puerile " (Verb.
Philo's ethical ideal is renunciation, contemplation, complete surrender to the divine influence.
Much of the life of Saul is obscure, and this too, it would seem, because tradition loved rather to speak of the founder of the ideal monarchy than of his less successful rival.
This doctrine or hypothesis he usually speaks of as "the ideal system" or "the theory of ideas"; and to it he opposes his own analysis of the act of perception.
It is here that the danger of "the ideal system" really lies - in its reduction of reality to "particular perceptions," essentially unconnected with each other.
This seeming pedantry is, however, atoned for by the clear practical aim of his sermons, the noble ideal he keeps before his hearers, and the skill with which he handles spiritual experience and urges incentives to virtue.
The neo-chivalry of the 14th century, in which a fantastic love of adventure had displaced the finer and more ideal motives of the old chivalry, looked towards the Vistula and Marienburg.
His suggestion of a plurality of votes, proportioned to the elector's degree of education, was avowedly put forward only as an ideal; he admitted that no authentic test of education could for the present be found.
By this expression we do not mean an ideal mode of living, but the habits and requirements of life generally current in a community or grade of society at a given period.
By his personal conduct he had set an ideal example for Anglican priests, and it was not his fault that national authority failed to crush the individualistic tendencies of the Protestant Reformation.
The ethico-religious ideal is the sorrowless condition, the state of superiority to all evils, the state of order and of rest.
As a means to the realization of this ideal, Origen introduces the whole ethics of Stoicism.
The manufacture, modelling and painting of faience objects, and the making of inlays in many materials were also familiar to Aegean craftsmen, who show in all their best work a strong sense of natural form and an appreciation of ideal balance and decorative effect, such as are seen in the best products of later Hellenic art.
The secret of this character lies evidently in a constant attempt to express an ideal in forms more and more closely approaching to realities.
reality, is an intelligible ideal reality, a system of thought relations, a spiritual cosmos.
How is the existence of this ideal whole to be accounted for?
So long as these remain potential or ideal, they form the motive of action; motive consisting always in the idea of some "end" or "good" which man presents to himself as an end in the attainment of which he would be satisfied, that is, in the realization of which he would find his true self.
the moral ideal, as a whole, can be realized only in some society of persons who, while remaining ends to themselves in the sense that their individuality is not lost but rendered more perfect, find this prefection attainable only when the separate individualities are integrated as part of a social whole.
Moral goodness cannot be limited to, still less constituted by, the cultivation of self-regarding virtues, but consists in the attempt to realize in practice that moral ideal which self-analysis has revealed to us as our ideal.
It is obvious that the final moral ideal is not realized in any body of civic institutions actually existing, but the same analysis which demonstrates this deficiency points out the direction which a true development will take.
Like Gloger, Sundevall in his ideal system separated the true passerines from all other birds, calling them Volucres; but he took a step further, for he assigned to them the highest rank, wherein nearly every recent authority agrees with him; out of them, however, he chose the thrushes and warblers to stand first as his ideal " Centrum " - a selection which, though in the opinion of the present writer erroneous, is still largely followed.
In either case an adequate but not excessive rainfall, increasing from the time of sowing to the period of active growth, and then decreasing as the bolls ripen, with a dry picking season, combined with sunny days and warm nights, provide the ideal conditions for successful cotton cultivation.
This ideal is before the cotton grower in all parts of the world, but practical steps are not always taken to realize it.
These were hard-headed men of affairs - men who would not lightly embark on joyous ventures, or seek for an ideal San Grail; nor were the popes, doomed to the Babylonian captivity for seventy long years at Avignon, able to call down the spark from on high which should consume all earthly ambitions in one great act of sacrifice.
Yet it would be treason to the majesty of man's incessant struggle towards an ideal good, if one were to deny that in and through the Crusades men strove for righteousness' sake to extend the kingdom of God upon earth.
The Cid of history, though falling short of the poetical ideal which the patriotism of his countrymen has so long cherished, is still the foremost man of the heroical period of Spain - the greatest warrior produced out of the long struggle between Christian and Moslem, and the perfect type of the Castilian of the 12th century.
He recognized in the genius of the poets of that time, not only the truest ornament of the court, but a power of reconciling men's minds to the new order of things, and of investing the actual state of affairs with an ideal glory and majesty.
Thus Hull district inaugurated a bold policy of chapel-buildings; Norwich that of a foreign mission; Sunderland and Manchester the ideal of a bettereducated ministry, Sunderland institute being opened in 1868; Nottingham district founded a middle-class school; Leeds promoted a union of Sunday-schools, and the placing of chapel property on a better financial footing.
The Solomonic authorship has long since been given up: the historical setting of the work and its atmosphere - the silent assumption of monotheism and monogamy, the nonnational tone, the attitude towards kings and people, the picture of a complicated social life, the strain of philosophic reflection - are wholly at variance with what is known of the 10th century B.C. and with the Hebrew literature down to the 5th or 4th century B.C. The introduction of Solomon, the ideal of wisdom, is a literary device of the later time, and probably deceived nobody.
As a statesman he did something to uphold the traditional ideal of his office; as a primate he elevated the standards of clerical discipline and education.
Since the distance of a body from the observer cannot be observed directly, but only the right ascension and declination, calling these a and 6 we conceive ideal equations of the form a = f (a, b, c, e, f, g, t) and 5=0 (a, b, c, e, f, g, t), the symbols a, b,.
Instead of the six ideal equations just described we have to combine a number of equations of various forms containing other quantities than the elements.
But so long as Cimon's influence prevailed the ideal of " peace at home and the complete humiliation of Persia " was steadily unheld.
This ideal, when put forward by the consummate eloquence of Demosthenes and other orators, created great enthusiasm among the Athenians, who at times displayed all their old vigour in opposing Philip, notably in the decisive campaign of 338.
The word used shows Loyola's military ideal of the duties and methods of the nascent society.
Robin Hood is at that time the people's ideal as Arthur is that of the upper classes.
He is the ideal yeoman as Arthur is the ideal knight.
But though in Rienzi Wagner had shown energy and ambition, that work was far from representing his preconceived ideal.
Wagner's earlier works have too long been treated as if they represented the pure and healthy childhood of his later ideal; as if Lohengrin stood to Parsifal as Haydn, Mozart and early Beethoven stand to Beethoven's last quartets.
But Wagner never thus represented the childhood of an ideal, though he attained the manhood of the most comprehensive ideal yet known in art.
The raw materials used in the manufacture are: (I) iron-free kaolin, or some other kind of pure clay, which should contain its silica and alumina as nearly as possible in the proportion of 2SiO 2: Al203 demanded by the formula assigned to ideal kaolin (a deficit of silica, however, it appears can be made up for by addition of the calculated weight of finely divided silica); (2) anhydrous sulphate of soda; (3) anhydrous carbonate of soda; (4) sulphur (in the state of powder); and (5) powdered charcoal or relatively ash-free coal, or colophony in lumps.
Thus a scale of i,000,000 signifies that each unit of length on the map 2 Close, " The Ideal Topographical Map," Geog.
It strengthened the hands of church democracy; it formed an alliance with the pure souls who held up to the church the ideal of apostolic poverty; it united itself for a time even with mysticism in a common opposition to the supremacy of the church.
While not unaware that with this, as with all moral questions, there may be a certain borderland of practical difficulty, Friends endeavour to bring all things to the test of the Realities which, though not seen, are eternal, and to hold up the ideal, set forth by George Fox, of living in the.
Gherardo, however, did not say, as has been supposed, that Joachim's books were the new gospel, but merely that the Calabrian abbot had supplied the key to Holy Writ, and that with the help of that intelligentia mystica it would be possible to extract from the Old and New Testaments the eternal meaning, the gospel according to the Spirit, a gospel which would never be written; as for this eternal sense, it had been entrusted to an order set apart, to the Franciscan order announced by Joachim, and in this order the ideal of the third age was realized.
Ormazd in his exalted majesty is the ideal figure of an Oriental king.
According to later legend (Vd., 2, I), Ormazd at first wished to entrust this task to Yima (Jemshid), the ideal of an Iranian king.
Nor do the sages go beyond the old position in their ethical theory: they have no philosophical discussion of the basis of the moral life; their standard of good conduct is existing law and custom; their motive for right-doing is individual eudaemonistic, not the good of society, or loyalty to an ideal of righteousness for its own sake, but advantage for one's self.
The " buckshot clays " of the backlands, which are so stiff that they can scarcely be ploughed until flooded and softened, and are remarkably retentive of moisture, are ideal rice soil; but none of the alluvial lands has an underlying hardpan, and they cannot as a rule be drained sufficiently to make the use of heavy harvesting machinery possible.
Critics have also urged that Kallay; fostered the desire for material welfare at the cost of every other national ideal; that, despite his own popularity, he never secured the goodwill of the people for Austria-Hungary; that he left the agrarian difficulty unsolved, and the hostile religious factions unreconciled.
In spite of the emperor Alexander's engagements to the Grand Alliance and the ideal of European peace, this was no easy matter; for the murder of the patriarch was but the culmination of a whole series of grievances accumulated since the Treaty of Bucharest.
Six hours earlier his conclusion would have been correct, but early that morning the Prussian headquarters, alarmed for the safety of their line of retreat on Berlin by the presence of the French in Naumburg, decided to leave Hohenlohe and Rachel to act as rear-guard, and with the main body to commence their retreat towards the river Unstrutt and the Eckhardtsberge where Massenbach had previously reconnoitred an " ideal " battlefield.
Bouillon is the only town on its banks, and since it is not navigable it has escaped the contamination of manufacturing life; its valley remains an ideal specimen of sylvan scenery and medieval tranquillity.
He issued few ordinances; the unofficial compilation known as the Leges Henrici shows that, like the Conqueror, he made it his ideal to maintain the "law of Edward."
Thirty years after the Ridsdale judgment, the ritual confusion in the Church of England was worse than ever, and the old ideal expressed in the Acts of Uniformity had given place to a desire to sanctify with some sort of authority the parochial "uses" which had grown up. In this respect the dominant opinion in the Church, intent on compromise, seems to have been expressed in the Report presented in 1908 to the convocation of the province of Canterbury by the sub-committee of five bishops appointed to investigate the matter, namely, that under the Ornaments Rubric the vestments prescribed in the first Prayer Book of Edward VI.
Taking no account of the real forces of the time, he aimed at an ideal form of society in which the clergy should confine themselves to their spiritual duties, and the king, after being enlightened by open communication with the Scottish nation, should maintain law and order without respect of persons.
His vision of the ideal state was that of a patriarchial monarchy, surrounded and advised by the traditional estates of the realm - nobles, peasants, burghers - and cemented by the bonds of evangelical religion; but in which there should be no question of the sovereign power being vested in any other hands than those of the king by divine right.
The object of the writer is to embody in St Paul the model ideal of the popular Christianity of the 2nd century.
This ideal lot, from the native point of view, drew such numbers of immigrants from disturbed districts that with the natural increase of population in thirty years the native inhabitants increased from about ioo,000 to fully 350,000.
The ruthless suppression of the Magyar malcontents, in which there was little discrimination between the innocent and the guilty, had so crushed the spirit of the country that Leopold considered the time ripe for realizing a long-cherished ideal of the Habsburgs and changing Hungary from an elective into an hereditary monarchy.
Joseph was an idealist and a doctrinaire, whose dream was to build up his ideal body politic; the first step toward which was to be the amalgamation of all his dominions into a common state under an absolute sovereign.
Writers, savants, poets, artists, noble and plebeian, layman and cleric, without any previous concert, or obvious connexion, were working towards that ideal of political liberty which was to unite all the Magyars.
Himself a Calvinist, he succeeded in putting an end to the old quarrel of Catholic and Protestant and uniting them in a common enthusiasm for a race ideal; nominally a Liberal, he trampled on every Liberal principle in order to secure the means for governing with a firm hand; and if the political corruption of modern Hungary is largely his work, 4 to him also belongs the credit for the measures which have placed the country on a sound economic basis and the statesmanlike temper which made Hungary a power in the affairs of Europe.
But a nation that for a thousand years had maintained its individuality in the midst of hostile and rival races could not be expected to allow itself without a struggle to be sacrificed to the force of mere numbers, and the less so if it were justified in its claim that it stood for a higher ideal of culture and civilization.
His success in both respects fell little short of his lofty ideal.
It is true that we obtain this result by subtracting 3 from io by means of a subtractiontable (concrete or ideal); but this table merely gives the generalized results of a number of operations of addition or subtraction performed with concrete units.
This Pan-Croat ideal was favoured in Vienna as a convenient rival to Pan-Serbism with its centre in Belgrade; but its natural effect was to drive the Serbs of Slavonia and S.
The settlement, though far from ideal, involved concessions on both sides: and Italy, though still forgetful of the principles enunciated at the Roman congress, could at least claim to be the only victorious Power which had relinquished its hold upon conquered territory.
If round the origin of waves an ideal closed surface be drawn, the whole action of the waves in the region beyond may be regarded as due to the motion continually propagated across the various elements of this surface.
The,ideal surface of resolution may be there regarded as a flexible lamina; and we know that, if by forces locally applied every element of the lamina be made to move normally to itself exactly as the air at that place does, the external aerial motion is fully determined.
lx., with its ideal description of Jehovah's kingdom as including Gilead, Samaria, Moab, Edom and Philistia, though the ideal was not realized till the days of John Hyrcanus, would be quite appropriate in the mouth of a Maccabaean patriot.
From the time of Hyrcanus downwards the ideal of the princely high priests became more and more divergent from the ideal of the pious in Israel, and in the Psalter of Solomon we see religious poetry turned against the lords of the Temple and its worship.
Thus "the great unknown" from the Oberland is the ideal character, "who illustrates how God does his work for the world and for the church through a divinely trained and spiritually illuminated layman," just as William Langland in England about the same time drew the figure of Piers Plowman.
The importance of his position in Roman literature consists in this, that he was the first writer who set before himself a high ideal of artistic perfection, and was the first to realize that perfection in style, form, and consistency of conception and execution.
Turning to the ideal, in works entirely modern in motive and treatment, Hamo Thornycroft produced " The Mower " (1884) and " A Sower " (1886); the " Stanley Memorial " in the old church at Holyhead partakes of the same character.
This ideal was realized in 1801, when the whole of the left hank of the Rhine was formally ceded to France.
For much of all this the prime minister's colleagues were primarily responsible; but he himself had given a lead to the anti-militarist section by prominently advocating international disarmament, and the marked rebuff to the British proposals at the Hague conference of 1907 exposed alike the futility of this Radical ideal and the general inadequacy of the prime minister's policy of pacificism.
He conceives of them as living a life of eternal peace and exemption from passion, in a world of their own; and the highest ideal of man is, through the exercise of his reason, to realize an image of this life.
In the second of these passages the disciples are exhorted to choose a life of voluntary poverty; the nearest parallel is the ideal set before the rich young man at Mark x.
As for the author, he was no Essene, for he recognizes animal sacrifices and cherishes the Messianic hope; he was not a Sadducee, for he looks forward to the establishment of the Messianic kingdom (x.); nor a Zealot, for the quietistic ideal is upheld (ix.), and the kingdom is established by God Himself (x.).
At m the ideal mode of origin is shown in order to illustrate the fact that the daughter cyst is comparable to the fore-body of a cysticercus.
Having thus disposed of the ideas of truth and causality, he proceeds to undermine the ethical criterion, and denies that any man can aim at Good, Pleasure or Happiness as an absolute, concrete ideal.
During the greater part of the 19th century the ideal of ploughing was to preserve the furrow-slice unbroken, and this object was attained by the use of long mould-boards which turned the slices gently and gradually, laying them over against one another at an angle of 45°, thus providing drainage at the bottom of the furrow, and exposing the greatest possible surface to the influences of the weather.
But they soon found out that neither Chosroes nor his state corresponded to the Platonic ideal, and Chosroes, in his treaty with Justinian, stipulated that they should return unmolested.
That the ascetic ideal was by no means wholly extinct is evident from the Book of Governors written by Thomas, bishop of Marga, in 840 which bears witness to a Syrian monasticism founded by one Awgin of Egyptian descent, who settled in Nisibis about 3 50, and lasting uninterruptedly until the time of Thomas, though it had long been absorbed in the great Nestorian movement that had annexed the church in Mesopotamia.
The positive Christian ideal which " the saints " should attain, " the Lord enabling," it is the business of the Shepherd to set forth.
Such " doubled-souled " persons, like Mr Facing-both-ways, inclined to say, " The Christian ideal may be glorious, but is it practicable?"
Tristan (Tristram), the ideal lover of the middle ages, whose name is inseparably associated with that of Iseult.
But his history shows that he by no means embodied the current ideal of chivalrous excellence.
Opposition to present tyranny expresses itself in recurrence to the old popular ideal of the first simple Davidic kingdom (iv.
His ideal may have been academic, but it was the dream of a mind that thought nobly both of religion and of the state.
Whether a Japanese art-worker sets himself to copy what he sees before him or to give play to his fancy in combining what he has seen with some ideal in his mind, the result shows perfect facility of execution and easy grace in all the lines.
The orchids may be taken as offering fair types of the Japanese artists ideal in all art work.
This early Chinese manner, which lasted in the parent country down to the end of the 13th century, was characterized by a viril,e grace of line, a grave dignity of composition, striking simplicity of technique, and a strong but incomplete naturalistic ideal.
The best of these are exquisite in workmanship, graceful in design, often strikingly original in conception, and usually naturalistic in ideal.
Studies in drapery, prancing steeds, ideal poses, heads with fragments of torsos attached (in extreme violation of true art), crouching beasts of preyall the stereotyped styles are reproduced.
To subordinate process to result is the European canon; to show the former without marring the latter is the Japanese ideal.
They did not, indeed, achieve their ideal, but they did succeed in producing some exquisitely lustrous glazes of the, tlamb type, rich transparent brown passing into claret color, with flecks or streaks of white and clouds of iron dust.
Complete adaptation to an infinitely receding ideal is impossible, and relative adaptation depends on the distance between the actual and the ideal.
And so in the ideal state everyone will derive egoistic pleasure from doing such altruistic acts as may still be needed.
Both produced their own creatures, which remained apart, in a spiritual or ideal state, for 3000 years, after which the evil spirit began his opposition to the good creation under an agreement that his power was not to last more than 9000 years, of which only the middle 3000 were to see him successful.
Alone among the older writers he was endowed with the gifts of a poetical imagination and animated with enthusiasm for a great ideal.
The story told in the Pro Cluentio may be true or false, but the picture of provincial crime which it presents is vividly dramatic. Had we only known Cicero in his speeches we should have ranked him with Demosthenes as one who had realized the highest literary ideal.
Lucretius Carus (96-55) were entire seclusion from public life and absorption in the ideal pleasures of contemplation and artistic production.
The value of the work consists not in any power of critical investigation or weighing of historical evidence but in the intense sympathy of the writer with the national ideal, and the vivid imagination with which under the influence of this sympathy he gives life to the events and personages, the wars and political struggles, of times remote from his own.
A high ideal of culture, literary as well as practical, was realized in Germanicus, which seems to have been transmitted to his daughter Agrippina, whose patronage of Seneca had important results in the next generation.
Its organization, adopted by the common synod, was the product of the new democratic ideal embodied in the Cleisthenic reforms, as interpreted by a just and moderate exponent.
The result was that, in the cases of Naxos and Thasos, for instance, the league's resources were employed not against the Persians but against recalcitrant Greek islands, and that the Greek ideal of separate autonomy was outraged.
Lebanon was included within the ideal boundaries of the land of Israel, and the whole region was well known to the Hebrews, by whose poets its many excellences are often praised.
Then the potential at any point P in this ideal plane PO is equal to q/AP-q/BP=0, whilst the resultant force at P due to the two point charges is 2gAO/AP 3, and is parallel to AB or normal to PO.
Taking this ideal limit as a theoretical or absolute zero, the value of H may be represented on the diagram by the whole area included between the two adiabatics BAZ, CDZ' down to the points where they intersect the isothermal of absolute zero, or the zero isopiestic OV asymptotically at infinity.
An ideal gas is a substance possessing very simple thermodynamic properties to which actual gases and vapours appear to approximate indefinitely at low pressures and high temperatures.
Deviations of Actual Gases from the Ideal State.
- Since no gas is ideally perfect, it is most important for practical purposes to discuss the deviations of actual gases from the ideal state, and to consider how their properties may be thermodynamically explained and defined.
But this procedure in itself is not sufficient, because, although it would be highly probable that a gas obeying Boyle's law at all temperatures was practically an ideal gas, it is evident that Boyle's law would be satisfied by any substance having the characteristic equation pv = f (0), where f (0) is any arbitrary function of 0, and that the scale of temperatures given by such a substance would not necessarily coincide with the absolute scale.
The characteristic equation of the fluid must then be of the form v/0=f(p), where f(p) is any arbitrary function of p. If the fluid is a gas also obeying Boyle's law, pv = f (0), then it must be an ideal gas.
Putting d0/dp=A/0 2 in equation (15), and integrating on the assumption that the small variations of S could be neglected over the range of the experiment, they found a solution of the type, v/0 =f(p) - SA /30 3, in which f(p) is an arbitrary function of p. Assuming that the gas should approximate indefinitely to the ideal state pv = R0 at high temperatures, they put f(p)=Rip, which gives a characteristic equation of the form v= Re/p - SA /30 2 .
The simplest assumption which suffices to express the small deviations of gases and vapours from the ideal state at moderate pressures is that the coefficient a in the expression for the capillary pressure varies inversely as some power of the absolute temperature.
(17) in which c is a small quantity (expressing the defect from the ideal volume V =Re/p due to co-aggregation of the molecules) which varies inversely as the nth power of 0, but is independent of p to a first approximation at moderate pressures.
The value of the angular coefficient d(pv)/dp is evidently (b - c), which expresses the defect of the actual volume v from the ideal volume Re/p. Differentiating equation (17) at constant pressure to find dv/do, and observing that dcldO= - nc/O, we find by substitution in (is) the following simple expression for the cooling effect do/dp in terms of c and b, Sdo/dp= (n+I)c - b..
Zeuner's formula for steam), but they cannot be made to represent with sufficient approximation the deviations from the ideal state at moderate pressures and generally lead to erroneous results.
In the case of imperfect gases, all the available experimental evidence shows that the specific volume tends towards its ideal value, V =Re/p, in the limit, when the pressure is indefinitely reduced and the molecules are widely separated so as to eliminate the effects of their mutual actions.
The energy is less than that of an ideal gas by the term npc. If we imagine that the defect of volume c is due to the formation of molecular aggregates consisting of two or more single molecules, and if the kinetic energy of translation of any one of these aggregates is equal to that of one of the single molecules, it is clear that some energy must be lost in co-aggregating, but that the proportion lost will be different for different types of molecules and also for different types of co-aggregation.
In the case of an ideal gas, dp/d9 at constant volume =R/v, and dvld6 at constant pressure =R/p; thus we obtain the expressions for the change of entropy 0-4)0 from the state poeovo to the state pev, log e e/eo+R logev/vo =S log e 9/00-R (32) In the case of an imperfect gas or vapour, the above expressions are frequently employed, but a more accurate result may be obtained by employing equation (17) with the value of the specific heat, S, from (29), which gives the expression 4-¢o = Sologe0/00 - R logep/po-n(cp/B-copo/Bo)
V =RD/p, Ideal volume of gas per unit mass.
to) of the " messenger," originally conceived as 4 purely ideal figure.
Only when he has regulated his internal and his social relations by this ideal can he be regarded as truly moral.
Mighty fortifications and harbour works have assisted to make this ideal situation an emporium of Mediterranean trade.
His conduct of the battle, once it had opened, was a model of the "partial" victory - the destruction of a part of the enemy's forces under the eyes of the rest - which was in the 17th and 18th centuries the tactician's ideal, and was sufficient to ensure him the reputation of being the best general of his age.
He realized the senate's ideal of the citizen ruler.
From what remains of Machiavelli's official letters, and from his tract upon the Modo the tenne it duca Valentino per ammazzar Vitellozzo Vitelli, we are able to appreciate the actual relations which existed between the two men, and the growth in Machiavelli's mind of a political ideal based upon his study of the duke's character.
Still the fact remains that henceforth Machiavelli cherished the ideal image of the statesman which he had modelled upon Cesare, and called this by the name of Valentino.
Up to the date of Machiavelli, modern political philosophy had always presupposed an ideal.
Dealing freely with the outline of Castruccio's career, as he had previously dealt with Cesare Borgia, he sketched his own ideal of the successful prince.
He had a high ideal of his duty as a king to his own people, and had no natural preference for violent courses.
Hancock was in many respects the ideal soldier of the Northern armies.
Finally, even if "the woman" who is the mother of Christ be taken to be the ideal Israel in the beginning of the chapter, at its close she is clearly the Christian community founded by Him.
John Norris of Bemerton also strongly influenced him by his Essay on the Ideal World (1701-1704).
The Christian ideal might have been lost.
His devotion, indeed, to the ideal of international socialism caused him, at the outbreak of the World War, to lose touch not only with British public feeling in general, but even with the sentiment of the Labour party which he led.
His ideal of public virtue and private worth had been formed by intimate association with the greatest and best of the soldiers and statesmen of an older generation.
Alexander was also an idealist, but his ideals were apt to centre in himself; his dislike and distrust of talents that overshadowed his own were disarmed for a while by the singular charm of Speranski's personality, but sooner or later he was bound to discover that he himself was regarded as but the most potent instrument for the attainment of that ideal end, a regenerated Russia, which was his minister's sole preoccupation.
His ideal was to restore the conditions which he supposed prevailed during the first three centuries of the Church's existence; but the celebrated Ecclesiastical Ordinances adopted by the town in 1541 and revised in 1561 failed fully to realize his ideas, which find a more complete exemplification in the regulations governing the French Church later.
Moreover, the end or ideal of the practical life was conceived of in too vague a way to be of much practical use.
True a completely harmonious world whether of theory or of practice remains an ideal.
But the fact that we have already in part realized the ideal and that the degree in which we have realized it is the degree in which we may regard our experience as trustworthy, is proof that the ideal is no mere idea as Kant taught, but the very substance of reality.
His phrase does not therefore sanctify the established fact but, on the contrary, declares that it partakes of reality only so far as it embodies the ideal of a coherent and stable system which it is not.
As contrasted with the first it stood for the necessity of recognizing a universal or ideal element as a constitutive factor in all experience whether cognitive or volitional; as contrasted with the latter for the ultimate unity of subject and object, knowledge and reality, and therefore for the denial of the existence of any thing-in-itself for ever outside the range of experience.
In so far as the older doctrine is open to the charge of neglecting the conative and teleological side of experience it can afford to be grateful to its critics for recalling it to its own eponymous principle of the priority of the "ideal " to the " idea," of needs to the conception of their object.
As the correction from the one side consists in a more whole-hearted acceptance of the conception of determination by an ideal as the essence of mind, so from the other side it must consist in the recognition of the valuelessness of a freedom which does not mean submission to a self-chosen, though not selfcreated, law.
Religious consciousness asserts, no doubt, that God is necessary to the soul: from Him as its inspiration, to Him as its ideal are all things.
If there be any truth in this suggestion it seems likely that the last word of idealism, like the first, will prove to be that the type of the highest reality is to be sought for not in any fixed Parmenidean circle of achieved being but in an ideal of good which while never fully expressed under the form of time can never become actual and so fulfil itself under any other.
In a gigantic system embracing hundreds of monasteries and thousands of monks, and spread over all the countries of western Europe, without any organic bond between the different houses, and exposed to all the vicissitudes of the wars and conquests of those wild times, to say that the monks often fell short of the ideal of their state, and sometimes short of the Christian, and even the moral standard, is but to say that monks are men.
There was a danger of admitting Gentile converts to the church on too easy moral terms; hence the need of such insistence on the ideal as in The Two Ways and the Mandates.
As compared with Grote's history it lacks enthusiasm for a definite political ideal and is written entirely from the standpoint of a scholar.
The standard set up by eminent statisticians, therefore, may be taken to represent an ideal, not likely to be attained anywhere under present conditions, but towards which each successive census may be expected to advance.
A simultaneous and uniform census of the British empire is an ideal which appeals to many, but its practical advantages are by no means commensurate with the difficulties to be surmounted..
He always made it clear that the ideal philosophy was Christocentric: he said that Reformed theology must "`Christologize ' predestination and decrees, regeneration and sanctification, the doctrine of the Church, and the whole of the Eschatology."
It regards church authority as inhering, according to the very genius of the Gospel, in each local body of believers, as a miniature realization of the whole Church, which can itself have only an ideal corporate being on earth.
the realizing of the Christian ideal in personal conduct, in a fellowship of souls alike devoted to the Highest; nor can it be doubted that the " mingled " communion of the parish churches made church " fellowship " in the apostolic sense a practical impossibility.
But the radical " Puritans " (the above documents in the State Paper Office are endorsed " Bishop of London: Puritans ") felt that this meant treason to the Headship of Christ in His Church; and that until the prince should set aside " the superstition and commandments of men," and " send forth princes and ministers [like another ], and give them the Book of the Lord, that they may bring home the people of God to the purity and truth of the apostolic Church," they could do no other than themselves live after that divine ideal.
In 1589 Greenwood and Barrow composed " A true Description out of the Word of God of the visible Church," which represents the ideal entertained in their circle.
Dale, p. 374 ff.) of moment for the Commonwealth era, between " Independency " as a principle and " Congregationalism " as an ideal of church polity.
Yet the relation of Congregational polity to its religious ideal had already become less intimate and conscious than even half a century before: the system was held simply as one traditionally associated with a serious and unworldly piety.
Another influence making in the same direction, but in a different spirit, was the Broad Church ideal represented in various forms by Thomas Erskine of Linlathen, F.
At all these assemblies the same ideal was formulated: "the establishing for the Jewish people a publicly and legally assured home in Palestine."
His ideal was a return to a 6th century constitution, which his contemporaries could equally regard as a moderate oligarchy or a restricted democracy.
With picturesque surroundings, excellent bathing beach and ideal climate, Santa Barbara is one of the most popular of the health and pleasure resorts of California.
Over against the state and the worship of the Caesar stood as usual the Christian ideal of a rule and a citizenship not of this world, to which a thousand years were but as a day.
The book has an outer protective shell of acutely polemical and exclusive moods and insistences, whilst certain splendid Synoptic breadths and reconciliations are nowhere reached; but this is primarily because it is fighting, more consciously than they, for that inalienable ideal of all deepest religion, unity, even external and corporate, amongst all believers.
Voltaire himself, speaking as a practical man rather than as a metaphysician, declared that if there were no God it would be necessary to invent one; and if the analysis is only carried far enough it will be found that those who deny the existence of God (in a conventional sense) are all the time setting up something in the nature of deity by way of an ideal of their own, while fighting over the meaning of a word or its conventional misapplication.
Many of these definitions describe an ideal state of things rather than realities.
All of these enumerations are open to the objection that they merely describe the action of the state at a particular time, or indicate a theory of what an ideal state should be.
He became, in fact, the ideal Greek youth, equally proficient in the "musical" and "gymnastic" branches of Greek education.
But this phallic character does not explain other aspects of Hermes, as the messenger-god, the master-thief or the ideal Greek ephebe.
Moreover, his commanding qualities were coupled with an organizing talent which made itself felt in every department of the state, and with a marvellous adaptability which made him an ideal diplomatist.
To him monarchy was the ideal form of government.
Of Palacky, the father of the nation, it says: " It was under the influence of German culture that Palacky was able to give a firm foundation to this conscious Bohemian ideal of his.
This was far from resulting in any cooperation of the nationalities in realizing their former ideal; on the contrary, they felt themselves free from all constraint, and formed Governments having no connexion with the old state.
But, under the guise of a restoration on conservative lines, Ultramontanism - notwithstanding the totally different conditions which now obtain - girds itself to work for an ideal of religion and culture in vogue during the middle ages, and at the same time holds itself justified in adopting the extreme point of view with respect to all questions which we have mentioned.
In contrast to the struggle for an ideal freedom, which was at first hailed with tempestuous delight only to reveal itself as a dangerous tyranny, men became conscious of the need for a firmly established authority in the reconstruction of society.
This beautiful picture of the Christian life as a realized ideal, and of Christians as "the soul" of the world, owes its inclusion to a double error: first, to the accidental attachment at the end of another fragment (§ II), which opens with the writer's claim to stand forth as a teaclier as being "a disciple of apostles"; and next, to mistaken exegesis of this phrase as implying personal relations with apostles, rather than knowledge of their teaching, written or oral.
Dale's Atonement (1875), the special point of which is that the death of Christ is not required by the personal demand of God to be propitiated, but by the necessity of honouring an ideal law of righteousness; thus, " the death of Christ is the objective ground on which the sins of men are remitted, because it was an act of submission to the righteous authority of the law by which the human race was condemned.
In former years the "Vegetarian Society" was the most active in producing literature, but since about 1901 the Order of the Golden Age has come to the front with new and up-to-date books, booklets and leaflets, and the Ideal Publishing Union has reprinted much of the earlier literature.
From that time, apparently under the influence of Athenian sculptors, he was conceived as the ideal of a youthful warrior, and was for a time associated with Aphrodite and Eros.
Those who did not adopt the monastic life endeavoured on a lower plane and in a less perfect way to realize the common ideal, and by means of penance to atone for the deficiencies in their performance.
Among the laity, on the other hand, the ideal of holiness found realization in the observance of the ordinary principles of morality recognized by the world at large, in attendance upon the means of grace provided by the Church, in fasting at stated intervals, in eschewing various popular employments and amusements, and in almsgiving and prayer.
This ideal unity found expression in many ways.
In Greek monachism the old Hellenic ideal of the wise man who has no wants (abraprcaa) was from the first fused with the Christian conception of unreserved self-surrender to God as the highest aim and the highest good.
In the first of the new orders, that of the Cistercians (1098), the old monastic ideal set forth in the Rule of Benedict of Nursia still prevailed; but in the constitution and government of the order new ideas were at work.
Their ideal was a return to that simplicity of primitive Christendom which they believed they found revealed in the New Testament and in the writings of the early Fathers.
But neither in civil nor in religious life was this ideal unity expressed in fixed institutions, the old individualism of the Semitic nomad still held its ground.
But this doctrine of relativity really involves a condemnation of our knowledge (and of all knowledge), because it fails to realize an impossible and self-contradictory ideal.
The Cyrenaic ideal was, of course, utterly alien to Christianity, and, in general, subsequent thinkers found it an ideal of hopeless pessimism.
The varied natural conditions form an almost ideal site for a collection of animals; great care and skill have been expended on the designing and construction of the houses, the collection receives many accessions from various government departments, including the foreign consular service, and the whole institution is rapidly becoming a model of what is possible.
With regard to situation, the ideal would be to have the collection placed in the open country, far from centres of population.
The soil of yards and the floors and walls of houses rapidly become contaminated, and the ideal condition would be to have an impermeable flooring covering the whole area, and supplied with suitable layers of sand, sawdust, peat-moss or other absorbent substances which can be changed at frequent intervals.
All collections of living beings are subject to epidemics, and in an ideal menagerie special precautions should be taken.
It is more probable that, like Grosseteste, he had imbibed in early youth an enthusiastic sentiment of attachment to the Papacy as the only centre of authority, and the only guarantee for public order in the Church, but that his experience of the actual working of the papal system (land especially a visit to Rome in 1857) had to a certain extent convinced him how little correspondence there was between his ideal and the reality.
His ideal place of education is an institution combining a school and a university.
While The " new Rousseau sought his ideal in a form of education and human- of culture that was in close accord with nature, the German apostles of the new humanism were convinced that they had found that ideal completely realized in the old Greek world.
In 1818-1840 the leading spirit on the board of education was Johannes Schulze, and a complete and comprehensive system of education continued to be the ideal kept in view.
In the Critias Plato adds a history of the ideal commonwealth of Atlantis.
Among his other works may be named Paroles d'un revolte (1884); La Conquete du pain (1888); L' Anarchic: sa philosophie, son ideal (1896); The State, its Part in History (1898); Fields, Factories and Workshops (1899); Memoirs of a Revolutionist (1900); Mutual Aid, a Factor of Evolution (1902); Modern Science and Anarchism (Philadelphia, 1903); The Desiccation of Asia (1904); The Orography of Asia (1904); and Russian Literature (1905).
In " P's " picture of the Mosaic age there are many ideal elements; it represents the priestly ideal of the past rather than the past as it actually was.
(ii.) This document consisted, in the main though not entirely, of a collection of Sayings of the Lord, which set in strong relief at once His character and the moral and religious ideal that He desired to commend.
(v.) We are confirmed in this opinion by the fact that the epistles of St Paul furnish many indications that Christians in general, including those who had not been much in contact with the original Twelve, were well acquainted with the leading features in the character of Christ and in the Christian ideal, although there is little corresponding evidence for their knowledge of details in the life of Christ.
She hardly rivalled Lady Jane Grey as the ideal Puritan maiden, but she swam with the stream, and was regarded as a foil to her stubborn Catholic sister.
It has always been the evil fate of the Hebrews to destroy their own highest ideals by attempting to translate them into set forms, and the ideal of a prophetic guidance of the nation of Yahweh could not have been more effectually neutralized than by committing its realization to the kind of state Church of professional prophets, "eating bread" by their trade (Amos vii.
The popular faith was full of heathenish superstition strangely blended with the higher ideas which were the inheritance left to Israel by men like Moses and Elijah; but the common prophets accepted all alike, and combined heathen arts of divination and practices of mere physical enthusiasm with a not altogether insincere pretension that through their professional oracles the ideal was being maintained of a continuous divine guidance of the people of Yahweh.
Amos and his successors accepted the old ideal of prophecy if they disowned the class which pretended to embody it.
But Isaiah's ideal of religion was one for which he himself demands as a preliminary condition an outpouring of Yahweh's spirit on king (Isa.
and not to a purely ideal standard, it must have appeared at once that the attempt to govern by prophetic ideas was only sewing a new piece on an old garment.
The theodicea of the prophets is national; they see Yahweh's righteousness working itself out with unmistakable clearness in the present, and know that all that He brings upon Israel is manifestly just; but from the days of Jeremiah' the fortunes of Israel as a nation are no longer the one thing which religion has to explain; the greater question arises of a theory of the divine purpose which shall justify the ways of God with individual men or with His "righteous servant" - that is, with the ideal community of true faith as distinct from the natural Israel.
By ignoring the free poetical form of prophecy, and still more by ignoring the fact that the prophetic pictures of the ideal future of Israel could not be literally fulfilled after the fall of the ancient state had entirely changed the sphere in which the problems of true religion had to be worked out, it was possible to find a great mass of unfulfilled prophecy which might form the basis of eschatological constructions.
The system thus embraces three heads - (i) the primeval Being, (2) the ideal world and the soul, (3) the phenomenal world.
We may also, however, in accordance with the views of Plotinus, divide thus: (A) the invisible world - (i) the primeval Being, (2) the ideal world, (3) the soul; (B) the phenomenal world.
It is at once being and thought, ideal world and idea.
We have nothing to do here with our own private ideal of Christianity, but solely with catholic Christianity and catholic theology.
This was due to the much greater completeness and abundance of material afforded among invertebrate fossils, and it was manifested in the demonstration of two great principles or laws: first, the law of recapitulation, which is found in its most ideal expression in the shells of invertebrates; second, in the law of direct genetic succession through very gradual modification.
A short experience convinced him that this was not for him the ideal Christian life ("amisi monachum, inveni Christianum"), and in February 1522 he made his way to Ebernburg, near Creuznach, where he acted as chaplain to the little group of men holding the new opinions who had settled there under the leadership of Franz von Sickingen.
From Fichte he derived the ideal of a completed whole of philosophic conception and also the formal method to which for the most part he continued true.
It must have reality for itself, a reality which stands in no'conflict with its ideal character, a reality the inner structure of which is ideal, a reality the root and spring of which is spirit.
Nature as the sum of that which is objective, intelligence as the complex of all the activities making up self-consciousness, appear thus as equally real, as alike exhibiting ideal structure, as parallel with one another.
The function of Naturphilosophie is to exhibit the ideal as springing from the real, not to deduce the real from the ideal.
The dynamical series of stages in nature, the forms in which the ideal structure of nature is realized, are matter, as the equilibrium of the fundamental expansive and contractive forces; light, with its subordinate processes - magnetism, electricity, and chemical action; organism, with its component phases of reproduction, irritability and sensibility.'
Just as nature exhibits to us the series of dynamical stages of processes by which spirit struggles towards consciousness of itself, so the world of intelligence and practice, the world of mind, exhibits the series of stages through which self-consciousness with its inevitable oppositions and reconciliations develops in its ideal form.
Phil.) begun to endeavour after an amalgamation of the Spinozistic conception of substance with the Platonic view of an ideal realm, and to find therein the means of enriching the bareness of absolute reason.
They are industrious and abstemious in their lives, and when living up to the standard of their faith they present one of the nearest approaches to the realization of the Christian ideal which have ever been attained.
The latter statement admits an ideal, sumsnum bonum - namely, pleasure.
for "highest good"), in ethics, the ideal of human attainment.
If, however, we abandon intuitional ethics, it is reasonable to argue that the term summum bonum ceases to have any real significance inasmuch as actions are not intrinsically good or bad, while the complete sceptic strives after no systematic ideal.
Though less famous than his contemporaries Zolkiehwski and Chodkiewicz, Koniecpolski was fully their equal as a general, and his inexorable severity made him an ideal lord-marcher.
It has long been a Canadian ideal to shorten the distance from Lake Superior to the sea.
Slaughtering notably free from epizootic diseases, with a fertile D soil or the growth of fodder crops and pasture, with abundance of pure air and water, and with a plentiful supply of ice, the conditions in Canada are ideal for the dairying industry.
4) represents an ideal mammalian liver.
C, Ideal pericardium and neph- i, Pore leading from the glandu ridium viewed laterally.
Accordingly, in the end the old ideal of gentlemanliness is displaced by the new ideal of the speculative and practical life.
3 In the Psalms the ideal aspect of the kingship, its religious importance as the expression and organ of Yahweh's sovereignty, is prominent.
Thus the Psalms were necessarily viewed as prophetic; and meantime, in accordance with the common Hebrew representation of ideal things as existing in heaven, the true king remains hidden with God.
The hope of the advent of an ideal king was only one feature of that larger hope of the salvation of Israel from all evils, which was constantly held forth by all the prophets, from the time when the seers of the 8th century B.C. proclaimed that the true conception of Yahweh's relation to His people could become a practical reality only through a great deliverance following a sifting judgment of the most terrible kind.
But all agree in giving the central place to the realization of a real effective kingship of Yahweh; in fact the conception of the religious subject as the nation of Israel, with a national organization under Yahweh as king, is common to the whole Old Testament, and connects prophecy proper with the so-called Messianic psalms and similar passages which speak of the religious relations of the Hebrew commonwealth, the religious meaning of national institutions, and so necessarily contain ideal elements reaching beyond the empirical present.
(belonging to the later stratum) - in which the very existence of a human kingship is represented as a departure from the theocratic ideal, and after the exile, when the monarchy had come to an end, we find pictures of the latter days in which its restoration has no place.
To the prophets the kingship of Yahweh was not a mere ideal, but an actual reality.
He was still the hope of Israel, but the hope too was only to be read in books, and these were interpreted of a future which was no longer the ideal development of forces already at work, but wholly new and supernatural.
The scribes were mainly busied with the law; but no religion can subsist on mere law; and the systematization of the prophetic hopes, and of those more ideal parts of the other sacred literature which, because ideal and dissevered from the present, were now set on one line with the prophecies, went on side by side with the systematization of the law, by means of a harmonistic exegesis, which sought to gather up every prophetic image in one grand panorama of the issue of Israel's and the world's history.
that the picture of the ideal king claimed a place in such constructions.
Comparisons were made, not with the past, but with an ideal state of things which never existed in Russia or elsewhere.
It is dominated by the ducal palace erected by Luciano da Laurana, a Dalmatian architect, in 1460-82, for Federigo Montefeltro, and regarded by the contemporaries of the founder as the ideal of a princely residence.
It was a desultory exposition of the Ruskinian ideal of life, manners and society, full of wit, play, invective and sermons on things in general.
Just as in Anglo-Saxon lands a national ideal is gradually materializing in the principle of the equalization of chances for all citizens, so in continental Europe, along with this equalization of chances, has still more rapidly developed the ideal of an equalization of obligations, which in turn leads to the claim for an enlargement of political rights co-extensive with the obligations.
The fact that every family throughout the land is a contributory to the military forces of the country has made peace a family, and hence a national, ideal.
" The maintenance of universal peace and a possible reduction of the excessive armaments which weigh upon all nations, represent, in the present condition of affairs all over the world, the ideal towards which the efforts of all governments should be directed," were the opening words of the Note which the Russian Minister of Foreign Affairs, Count Mouraviev, handed to the diplomatic representatives of the different powers suggesting the first Hague Conference.
Hardly any one will be so confident of the virtue of his rulers as to believe that every war which his country wages in every part of its dominions with uncivilized as well as civilized populations, is just and necessary, and it is certainly prima facie not in accordance with an ideal morality that men should bind themselves absolutely for life or for a term of years to kill without question, at the command of their superiors, those who have personally done them no wrong."
Two years after, lack of pupils compelled him to move to Rudolstadt and later to Dresden, where he gave lessons in music. In 1805 his ideal of a universal world-society led him to join the Freemasons, whose principles seemed to tend in the direction he desired.
Ideal society results from the widening of the organic operation of this principle from the individual man to small groups of meri, and finally to mankind as a whole.
His published works include (besides several volumes of verse) Homer and the Iliad (1866), maintaining the unity of the poems; Four Phases of Morals: Socrates, Aristotle, Christianity, Utilitarianism (1871); Essay on Self-Culture (1874); Horae Hellenicae (1874); The Language and Literature of the Scottish Highlands (1876); The Natural History of Atheism (1877); The Wise Men of Greece (1877); Lay Sermons (1881); Altavona (1882); The Wisdom of Goethe (1883); The Scottish Highlanders and the Land Laws (1885); Life of Burns (1888); Scottish Song (1889); Essays on Subjects of Moral and Social Interest (1890); Christianity and the Ideal of Humanity (1893).
Eaton & Co.'s enormous departmental shop, and the Ideal Building, which are worthy of note.
This corpulence was due not alone to over-feeding but to an almost purely vegetable diet; stoutness was a part of the ideal of feminine beauty.
" The vision of an ideal state which the master-mind of Plato contemplated, but thought too good ever to become true in actual realization, is full of aspirations which the Christian Church claims to satisfy.
As time went on and even the dynasty of David failed in the persons of unworthy representatives to maintain this ideal, both psalmists and prophets taught the people to look beyond the earthly kingdom to the spiritual kingdom of which it was a type.
The synagogues which traced their origin to the time of Ezekiel, when the sacrificial cultus was impossible, extended this ideal yet further.
Without ceasing to be the congregation of Jehovah, it would claim for itself all the hopes of an ideal state over which Greek philosophers had sighed in vain.
We must take into account not only the idea of the visible actual church, but also the ideal pictured by St Paul in the metaphors of the Body (Rom.
These things represent the ideal of Christendom.
Nor is the ideal of unity adopted simply because experience teaches that " union is strength."
It has its centre not on earth but in heavenly places, where Christ sitteth at the right hand of God."5 (c) Thirdly, there is no question that the Lord intended the one fellowship of his saints to be a visible fellowship. The idea of an invisible church has only commended itself in dark hours when men despaired of unity even as an ideal.
In Dr Lindsay's words, " it is one of the privileges of faith, when strengthened by hope and by love, to see the glorious ideal in the somewhat poor material reality.
St Paul delighted to represent it as the " ideal Israel," and St John echoes the thought in the words of praise (Rev. i.
Thus in the Eucharist the offering of the church is made one with the offering of the Great High Priest.5 All this represents an ideal.
Lastly, Fichte called this system realism, in so far as it posits the thing in itself as another thing; idealism, in so far as it posits it as a noumenon which is a product of its own thinking; and on the whole real idealism or ideal realism.
With this powerful instrument of dialectic in hand, he attempted to show how absolute reason differentiates itself into subjective and objective, ideal and real, and yet is the identity of both - an identity of opposites, as Schelling had said.
But his ardent love of consistency led him far away from Kant in the end; for he proceeded consistently from the assumption, that whatever we think beyond mental phenomena is ideal, to the logical conclusion that in practical matters our moral responsibility cannot prove the reality of a noumenal freedom, because, as on Kant's assumption we know ourselves from inner sense only as phenomena, we can prove only our phenomenal freedom.
His main sympathies are with the Neo-Kantians, and especially with Lange in modifying the a priori, and in extending the power of reason beyond phenomena to an ideal world; and yet the cry of his phenomenalism is not " back to Kant," but " beyond Kant."
At the same time, in spite of his sympathy with the whole development of idealism since Kant, which leads him to reject the thing in itself, to modify a priorism, and to stop at transcendent " ideals," without postulates of practical reason, he nevertheless has so much sympathy with Kant's Kritik as on its theories of sense and understanding to build up a system of phenomenalism, according to which knowledge begins and ends with ideas, and finally on its theory of pure reason to accord to reason a power of logically forming an " ideal " of God as ground of the moral " ideal " of humanity - though without any power of logically inferring any corresponding reality.
Lastly, he believes that reason forms the " ideal " of God as worldwill, though without proof of existence.
Thus, according to him, in the first place reason forms a cosmological " ideal " of a multitude of simple units related; secondly, it forms a psychological " ideal " of a multitude of wills, or substance-generating activities, which communicate with one another by ideas so that will causes ideas in will, while together they constitute a collective will, and it goes on to form the moral ideal of humanity (das sittliche Menschheitsideal); and, thirdly, it forms an ontological " ideal " of God as ground of this moral " ideal," and therewith of all being as means to this end, and an " ideal " of God as world-will, of which the world is development, and in which individual wills participate each in its sphere.
He describes it as idealism in the form of ideal realism, because it recognizes an ideating will requiring substance as substratum or matter for outer relations of phenomena.
But when we look for the evidence of any such will beyond ourselves and our experience, we find Wundt offering nothing but an ontological " ideal " of reason, and a moral " ideal " requiring a religious " ideal," but without any power of inferring a corresponding reality.
The System then ends with the necessity of an " ideal " of God as world-will, but provides no ground for the necessity of any belief whatever in the being of God, or indeed in any being at all beyond our own unitary experience.
Wundt, however, afterwards wrote an Einleitung in die Philosophic (1901; 4th ed., 1906), in which he speaks of realism in the form of ideal realism as the philosophy of the future.
It is not to be materialistic but ideal realism, because the physical and the psychical are inseparable parallels inexplicable by one another.
It is to be monistic ideal realism, like that of Fichte and Hegel; not, however, like theirs idealistic in method, a Phantastisches Begrifsgebaude, but realistic in method, a Wissenschaftliche Philosophie.
It is to be ideal realism, as in the System.
We can only explain it by supposing that Wundt wishes to believe that, beyond the " ideal," there really is proof of a transcendent, ideating, substance-generating will of God; and that he is approaching the noumenal voluntarism of his younger contemporary Paulsen.
For his phenomenalism prevents him from consistently saying the truth inferred by reason - that there is a world beyond experience, a world of Nature, and a will of God, real as well as ideal.
Kant, then, as interpreted by English Hegelians, already believed, before Hegel, that there is one intelligence common to all individuals, and that a noumenon is a thought of this common intelligence, " an ideal of reason "; so that Kant was trying to be a Hegelian, holding that the world has no being beyond the thoughts of one intelligence.
Though again in the Transcendental Dialect he spoke of pure reason conceiving " ideals " of noumena, he did not mean that a noumenon is nothing but a thought arising only through thinking, or projected by reason, but meant that pure reason can only conceive the " ideal " while, over and above the " ideal " of pure reason, a noumenon is a real thing, a thing in itself, which is not indeed known, but whose existence is postulated by practical reason in the three instances of God, freedom, and immortality.
From all points of view, both religious and political, the pope was thus the greatest man of the West, the ideal head of all Christendom.
To many minds the papacy thus came to represent a unifying principle, as opposed to the disruptive tendencies of Liberalism and Nationalism, and the papal monarchy came to be surrounded with a new halo, as in some sort realizing that ideal of a " federation of the world " after which the age was dimly feeling.
For many years, indeed, he came to represent to ordinary Englishmen the typical or ideal professor of physics.
The importance of these experiments from the point of view of the theory of solution, lay in the fact that they suggested the conception of a perfect or ideal semi-permeable partition, and that of an equilibrium pressure representing the excess of hydrostatic pressure required to keep a solution in equilibrium with its pure solvent through such a partition.
Artificial membranes are seldom or never perfectly semi-permeable - some leakage of solute nearly always occurs, but the imperfections of actual membranes need no more prevent our use of the ideal conception than the faults of real engines invalidate the theory of ideal thermodynamics founded on the conception of a perfect, reversible, frictionless, heat engine.
Thus the results of our investigations based on ideal conceptions are applicable to the real phenomena of evaporation and freezing.
The conceptions of osmotic pressure and ideal semi-permeable membranes enable us to deduce other thermodynamic relations between the different properties of solutions.
Ancillon had convinced himself that the rigid class distinctions of the Prussian system were the philosophically ideal basis of the state, and that representation "by estates" was the only sound constitutional principle; his last and indeed only act of importance as minister was his collaboration with Metternich in the Vienna Final Act of the 12th of June 1834, the object of which was to rivet this system upon Germany for ever.
Bembo, as a writer, is the beau ideal of a purist.
In proportioning the quantities of matrix to aggregate the ideal to be aimed at is to get a concrete in which the voids or air-spaces shall be as small as possible; and as the lime or cement is usually by far the most expensive item, it is desir able to use as little of it as is consistent with strength.
In the Macedonian and Roman ages the temples and contests of Olympia still interpreted the ideal at which free Greece had aimed.
Grotius's philological skill, however, was not sufficient to enable him to work up to this ideal.
The ideal is well summed up by F.
This was the ideal, but to give the reader a clear view of the actual features of knightly society in their contrast with that of our own day, it is necessary to bring out one or two very significant shadows.
Bauxite is a hydrated oxide of aluminium of the ideal composition, Al 2 0 3.2H 2 0.
The purpose was reasonable, but it was impossible to draw an ideal line and the result was a general alienation of the press.
The general principle of all the machines described below will be best understood by considering a simple ideal case.
The finest wolves are very light weighted and most suitable for carriage aprons, in fact, ideal for the purpose, though lacking the strength of some other furs.
As for the qualities necessary to secure success as a writer on history, he felt that he possessed them in a high degree; and, though neither his ideal of an historian nor his equipment for the task of historical research would now appear adequate, in both he was much in advance of his time.
That the propositions are hypothetical in this fashion does not imply any distinction between the abstract truth of the ideal judgments and the im p erfect correspondence of concrete material with these abstract relations.
The identical relation between the ideas of space and time and the impressions corresponding to them apparently leads him to regard judgments of continuous and discrete quantity as standing on the same footing, while the ideal character of the data gives a certain colour to his inexact statements regarding the extent and truth of the judgments founded on them.
The properties of this individual subject, the idea of the triangle, are, according to him, discovered by observation, and as observation, whether actual or ideal, never presents us with more than the rough or general appearances of geometrical quantities, the relations so discovered have only approximate exactness.
A number of statues, busts, gems and coins represented Antinoos as the ideal type of youthful beauty, often with the attributes of some special god.
The aim of all Paracelsus's writing is to promote the progress of medicine, and he endeavours to put before physicians a grand ideal of their profession.
The lines laid down by St Basil have continued ever since to be the lines in which Greek and Slavonic monasticism has rested, the new multitudinous modifications of the monastic ideal, developed in such abundance in the Latin Church, having no counterpart in the Greek.
It was St Benedict who effected a permanently working adaptation of the monastic ideal and life to the requirements and conditions of the western races.
This ideal it has not been possible permanently to maintain in the great body of the order, but only in limited circles, as Trappists.
All this was a reaction from St Benedict's reconstruction of the monastic life - a reaction which in the matter of austerities .nd individualistic piety has made itself increasingly felt in the later manifestations of the monastic ideal in the West.
In the monk attachment to his own one monastery is a virtue; in the friar detachment is the ideal.
The older Protestantism uncompromisingly judged the monastic ideal and life to be both unchristian and unnatural, an absolute perversion deserving nothing but condemnation.
As contrasted with the Antonian ideal, the special feature was the highly organized system of work, whereby the monastery was a sort of agricultural and industrial colony.
This marks a distinctly new departure in the monastic ideal.
The latter had formed up his army between Heppignies and St Amand in what was then considered an ideal position; a double barrier of marshy brooks was in front, each flank rested on a village, and the space between, open upland, fitted his army exactly.
In the latter we possess a more historical account of the anointing of Jehu, and Robertson Smith observes: "When the history in I Kings represents Elijah as personally commissioned to inaugurate [the revolution] by anointing Jehu and Hazael as well as Elisha, we see that the author's design is to gather up the whole contest between Yahweh and Baal in an ideal picture of Elijah and his work" (Ency.
human spirituality which sought its ideal in the rejection of all that the world could give.
For a moment the emperor Ferdinand appeared to have touched the ideal of Charles V.
Bismarck took the opportunity of avowing that his ideal was a monopoly of tobacco, and this statement was followed by the resignation of Camphausen, minister of finance.
Greek rhetoric began in the "grand" style; then Lysias set an exquisite pattern of the "plain"; and Demosthenes might be considered as having effected an almost ideal compromise.
He was a disciple, not of Machiavelli, but of Rousseau; and his scattered dominions, divided by innumerable divergences of racial and class prejudice, and enncumbered with traditional institutions to which the people clung with passionate conservatism, he regarded as so much vacant territory on which to build up his ideal state.
Germanism had so far served as the basis of the Austrian system, not as a national ideal, but because " it formed a sort of unnational mediating, and common element among the contradictory and clamorous racial tendencies."
But with the growth of the idea of German unity, Germanism had established a new ideal, of which the centre lay beyond the boundaries of the Austrian monarchy, and which was bound to be antagonistic to the aspirations of other races.
Their political ideal was an " Illyrian " kingdom, including Croatia and all the southern Sla y s in the coast district, and a not very successful movement had been started to establish a so-called Illyrian language, which should be accepted by both 'Croats and Slovenes.
We certainly find among those members of the Persian aristocracy, who came by residence in Asia Minor into closer contact with the Greeks, some traces of interest in the more ideal side of Hellenism.
In those departments of intellectual activity which demand no high ideal faculty, in the study of the world of fact, the centuries immediately following Alexander witnessed notable advance.
The Pyramid Kings.A different ideal appears in the pyramid times; in place of the naturalism of the earlier work there is more regularity, some convention, and the sense of a school in the style.
A party had also arisen, whose best-known leader was Mustafa Kamel Pasha (1874-1908), which held that Egypt was ready for self-government and which saw in the presence of the British a hindrance to the attainment of their ideal.
The conditions for a night march were thus ideal; but during the movement the wings closed towards each other, causing great risk of an outbreak of firing.
was a true patriot, whose ideal it was to weld the three northern kingdoms into a powerful state, independent of all foreign influences, especially of German influence as manifested in the commercial tyranny of the Hansa League.
The language, style and contents of this section point unmistakably to the hand of P; and it is now generally admitted that these chapters form part of an ideal representation of the post-exilic ritual system, which has been transferred to the Mosaic age.
The finances also would need careful attention; but the subject is obscure, and we cannot accept Asser's description of Alfred's appropriation of his revenue as more than an ideal sketch.
Again, it assumes an ideal of truth which turns out to be humanly unattainable and incompatible with the existence of error, an d an ideal of science which no human science can be conceived as attaining.
In January Alexander had still upheld the ideal of a free confederation of the European states, symbolized by the Holy Alliance, against the policy of a dictatorship of the great powers, symbolized by the Quadruple Treaty; he had still protested against the claims of collective Europe to interfere in the internal concerns of the sovereign states.
The name, which may be translated "Separatists," indicates their devotion to the ideal, enforced by Ezra and Nehemiah upon the reluctant Jews, of a nation separate from all other nations in virtue of its the old titles of the rulers of the separate king peculiar relation to Yahweh (Neh.
This ideal nation consisted of all who were prepared to obey the Law of Moses, irrespective of their natural descent.
The ideal of separation descended from the Great Synagogue (Assembly) of the time of Ezra to the Synagogue of the IIasidaeans (Assidaeons), who allied themselves with Judas Maccabaeus when his followers decided to suspend the law of the Sabbath, in order that the true Jews might preserve themselves from annihilation and survive to keep the Law as a whole.
Of the great universities but one survives - the Azhar mosque at Cairo - where thousands of students still gather to follow a course of study which gives an accurate picture of the Mahommedan ideal of theological education.
It is possible, though not certain, that to this date also belongs the famous portrait of himself at Munich bearing a false signature and date, 150o; in this it has been lately shown that the artist modified his own lineaments according to a preconceived scheme of facial proportion, so that it must be taken as an ideal rather than a literal presentment of himself to posterity as he appeared in the flower of his early middle age.
But among its native surroundings the career of Darer stands out with an aspect of ideal elevation and decorum which is its own.
The simplest ideational image, which has been described as the primary memory-image, is "the peculiarly vivid and definite ideal representation of an object which we can maintain or recall by a suitable effort of attention immediately after perceiving it" (Stout).
His ideal was founded consciously on the models of Arthur and Godfrey as national king and leader of Christendom.
Speaking at Sheffield on the 13th of October he criticized the scheme in more detail, and, as an Imperialist, warned the country against it, emphasizing his own ideal of the future of the empire - "a strong mother with strong children, each working out his own political and fiscal salvation."
His principal works are El Heroe (1630), which describes in apophthegmatic phrases the qualities of the ideal man; the Arte de ingenio, tratado de la Agudeza (1642), republished six years afterwards under the title of Agudeza, y arte de ingenio (1648), a system of rhetoric in which the principles of conceptismo as opposed to culteranismo are inculcated; El Discreto (1645), a delineation of the typical courtier; El Oraculo manual y arte de prudencia (1647), a system of rules for the conduct of life; and El Criticon (1651-1653-1657), an ingenious philosophical allegory of human existence.
Henry was notoriously treacherous; to kidnap was his ideal in diplomacy.
In its origin a revolt against feudal oppression, it became, under the leadership of Munzer, a war against all constituted authorities, and an attempt to establish by force his ideal Christian commonwealth, with absolute equality and the community of goods.
to) The gist of it, omitting a few repetitions, is as follows: "There are two aims which he who has given up the world ought not to follow after - devotion, on the one hand, to those things whose attractions depend upon the passions, a low and pagan ideal, fit only for the worldly-minded, ignoble, unprofitable, and the practice on the other hand of asceticism, which is painful, ignoble, unprofitable.
And gladness springs up within him on his realizing that, and joy arises to him thus gladdened, and so rejoicing all his frame becomes at ease, and being thus at ease he is filled with a sense of peace, and in that peace his heart is stayed."9 To have realized the Truths, and traversed the Path; to have broken the Bonds, put an end to the Intoxications, and got rid of the Hindrances, is to have attained the ideal, the Fruit, as it is called, of Arahatship. One might fill columns with the praises, many of them among the most beautiful passages in Pali poetry and prose, lavished on this condition of mind, the state of the man made perfect according to the Buddhist faith.
These outbursts, very terse and enigmatic, are charged with religious emotion, and turn often on some subtle point of Arahatship, that is, of the Buddhist ideal of life.
And even the old ideal of life, the salvation of the Arahat to be won in this world and in this world only, by selfculture and self-mastery, is forgotten, or mentioned only to be condemned.
Under Goethe's stimulus he won fresh laurels in that domain of philosophical lyric which he had opened with Die Kiinstler; and in Das Ideal and das Leben, Die Macht des Gesanges, Wiirde der Frauen, and Der Spaziergang, he produced masterpieces of reflective poetry which have not their equal in German literature.
His Socialism, though it made a brave show at times, was at heart a passionate enthusiasm for an inaccessible artistic ideal.
The ideal of a prosperous, brilliant and attractive Magyar capital, which would keep the nobles and the intellectual flower of the country at home, uniting them in the service of the Fatherland, had received a powerful impetus from Count Stephan Szechenyi, the great Hungarian reformer of the pre-Revolutionary period.
When it is remembered that the ideal of both the authorities and the people is the ultimate monopoly of the home market by Hungarian industry and trade, and the strengthening of the Magyar influence by centralization, it is easy to understand the progress of Budapest.
With this, the expectation of such an event at last separates itself from any connexion with historical fact, and becomes purely ideal.
Duke William was able, restless and adventurous, an ideal knight of the palmy days of chivalry.
i seq.) predicts that in the latter times (in the ideal restoration of the people) all persons, free and bond, male and female, shall have the spirit of prophecy - that is, the old order shall be set aside and a new religious constitution established.
8, 26, 28) - the wicked ruler who oppresses the poor is condemned as not reaching the ideal standard (xxviii.
7-12, misplaced paragraphs) containing praise of ideal wisdom and warnings against unchastity.
It is rather due to an overpowering sense of the value of organization - a sense that liberty can never be dissevered from order, that a vital interconnexion between all the parts of the body politic is the source of all good, so that while he can find nothing but brute weight in an organized public, he can compare the royal person in his ideal form of constitutional monarchy to the dot upon the letter i.
The claims of the individual, the real, material and historical fact, it was said, had been sacrificed by Hegel to the universal, the ideal, the spiritual and the logical.
He speaks, e.g., as if species and genera were fixed and unchangeable; and fixing his eye on the ideal forms in their purity and self-sameness, he scorns the phenomenal world, whence this identity and persistence are absent.
Philosophy alone sees God revealing Himself in the ideal organism of thought as it were a possible deity prior to the world and to any relation between God and actuality; in the natural world, as a series of materialized forces and forms of life; and in the spiritual world as the human soul, the legal and moral order of society, and the creations of art, religion and philosophy.
The completeness and self-consistency which our ideal requires can be realized only in a form of being in which subject and object, will and desire, no longer stand as exclusive opposites, from which it seemed at once to follow that the finite self could not be a reality nor the infinite reality a self.
Truly perceiving that the ultimate metaphysical problem is, here as ever, the relation of the One and the Many, McTaggart starts with a definition of the ideal in which our thought upon it can come to rest.
The best elements in Goethe's genius came from his mother's side; of a lively, impulsive disposition, and gifted with remarkable imaginative power, Frau Rat was the ideal mother of a poet; moreover, being hardly eighteen at the time of her son's birth, she was herself able to be the companion of his childhood.
The Gothic architecture of the Strassburg minster became to him the symbol of a national and German ideal, directly antagonistic to the French tastes and the classical and rationalistic atmosphere that prevailed in Leipzig.
This search for the classic ideal is reflected in the works he completed or wrote under the Italian sky.
The exalted atmosphere of the great man's ideas was too rarefied for the child's intellectual health, and a brain well fitted to do excellent work in the world was ruined by the effort to live up to an impossible ideal.
Nor yet was he a Zealot, for the quietistic ideal is upheld (ix.), and the kingdom is established by God Himself (x.).
Hence the name Rosmini gives it of ideal being; and this he laid down as the fundamental principle of all philosophy and the supreme criterion of truth and certainty.
The French artist attains his ideal, and it is difficult to imagine, from his standpoint, that the metal-work of the present can be surpassed.
From this point of view the lattice-girder bridge is an ideal design in steel.
His ideal of the church required that it should stand clear and above the state.
Mr. Asquith, then Prime Minister, spoke of him in the House of Commons as having come nearest, of all men of his generation, to that ideal of manhood to which every English father would wish to see his son aspire.
The five universities of Calcutta, Madras, Bombay, Allahabad and Lahore, which were formerly merely examining bodies, had their senates reformed by the introduction of experts; while hostels or boarding-houses for the college students were founded, so as to approach more nearly to the English ideal of residential institutions.
It is entirely unlike the present coarse conventional ideal of sculptured beauty, and may even be traced in the delicate profiles on the so-called sun temple at Kanarak, built in the 12th century A.D.
The mirrors of Lindemann's equatorial coude reflecting light downwards upon the mirror R would furnish an ideal siderostat for stellar spectroscopy in conjunction with a fixed horizontal telescope.
But he frequently describes an ideal character of a missionary sage, the perfect Stoic - or, as he calls him, the Cynic. This missionary has neither country nor home nor land nor slave; his bed is the ground; he is without wife or child; his only mansion is the earth and sky and a shabby cloak.
Spain's colonial policy was not based on an exaltation of the commercial ideal.
But this intervention, embodied in the "Andrassy Note" (December 1875) and the Berlin memorandum (May 1876), met with the stubborn opposition of Turkey, where the "young Turks" were beginning to oppose a Pan-Islamic to the Pan-Slav ideal.
The ideal condition is difficult to secure.
According To The Elementary Kinetic Theory Of An Ideal Gas, The Molecules Of Which Are So Small And So Far Apart That Their Mutual Actions May Be Neglected, The Kinetic Energy Of Translation Of The Molecules Is Proportional To The Absolute Temperature, And Is Equal To 3/2 Of Pv, The Product Of The Pressure And The Volume, Per Unit Mass.
The Ideal Atomic Heat Is The Thermal Capacity Of A Gramme Atom In The Ideal State Of Monatomic Gas At Constant Volume.
Some Authors Adopt 2.5 And Some 3.5 For The Ideal Atomic Heat.
This Is The Value Of The Minimum Of Atomic Heat Calculated By Perry From Diatomic Hydrogen, But The Observations Themselves Might Be Equally Well Represented By Taking The Imaginary Limit 3, Since The Quantity Actually Observed Is The Mean Specific Heat Between O° And 182 5° C. Subsequent Experiments On Other Metals At Low Temperatures Did Not Indicate A Similar Diminution Of Specific Heat, So That It May Be Doubted Whether The Atomic Heats Really Approach The Ideal Value At The Absolute Zero.
Brutus, sketching a portrait of the perfect and ideal orator, Cicero's last word on oratory.
Nepos thought that he would have been an ideal historian, but as Cicero ranks history with declamation and on one occasion with great naiveté asks Lucius Lucceius, who was embarking on this task, to embroider the facts to his own credit, we cannot accept this criticism (Fam.
It is, therefore, not to be wondered at that these men saw in Omar the ideal of a prince, and that in Moslem history he has acquired the reputation of a saint.
He seems to have cherished the ideal that this son, called Mahommed b.
The promises made to them during the war against the Omayyads had not been fulfilled, and the new Mandi did not answer at all to their ideal.
The most that it could do would be to cause an ideal judgment, e.g.
Judgment is the act which refers an ideal content recognized as such to a reality beyond the act, predicating an idea of a reality, a what of a that; so that the subject is reality and the predicate the meaning of an idea, while the judgment refers the idea to reality by an identity of content (Bradley and Bosanquet).
The sensory judgment then, which is nothing but a belief that at the moment of sense something sensible exists, is a proof that not all judgment requires conception, or synthesis or analysis of ideas, or decision about the content, or about the validity, of ideas, or reference of an ideal content to reality, as commonly, though variously, supposed in the logic of our day.
But these differences in detail do not alter the main point that all these are beliefs in the existing, in the real as opposed to the ideal, in actual things which are not ideas.
If, contrary to usage, we choose to call the latter a judgment of existence, there is no use in quarrelling about words; but we must insist that new terms must in that case be invented to express so fundamental a difference as that between judgments about real men and judgments about ideal centaurs.
When, again, Bradley and Bosanquet speak of the universal as if it always meant one ideal content referred to reality, they forget that in universal judgments of existence, such as " All men existing are mortal," we believe that every individually existing man dies his own death individually, though similarly to other men; and that we are thinking neither of ideas nor of reality; but of all existent individual men being individually but similarly determined.
Our third point is that, as a process of judgments, inference is a process of concluding from two beliefs in being to another belief in being, and not an ideal construction, because a judgment does not always require ideas, but is always a belief about things, existing or not.
This point is challenged by all the many ideal theories of judgment already quoted.
Inference then, though it is accompanied by ideas, is not an ideal construction, nor a process from idea to idea, nor a process from idea to thing, but a process from direct to indirect beliefs in things, and originally in existing things.
The ideal is progressively to determine a universe of discourse till true infimae species are reached, when no further distinction in the determinate many is possible, though there is still the numerical difference of the indefinite plurality of particulars.
The point of view is to be modified profoundly by what follows - by the doctrine of the class-concept behind the class, of the form or idea as the constitutive formula of a substance, or, again, by the requirement that an essential attribute must be grounded in the nature or essence of the substance of which it is predicated, and that such attributes alone are admissible predicates from the point of view of the strict ideal of science.
The ideal of science or demonstrative knowledge is to exhibit as flowing from the definitions and postulates of a science, from its special principles, by the help only of axioms or principles common to all knowledge, and these not as premises but as guiding rules, all the properties of the subject-matter, i.e.
In the sphere of the concrete sciences where law obtains only ws Eiri To 7roX6 this ideal of science can clearly find only a relative satisfaction with large reserves.
They, too, must fall to be determined sometime, and the ideal of science is fully to determine all the species of the genus.
It was an ideal that failed to embody itself and justify itself by its fruits.
The celebrated Regulae of Descartes are precepts directed to the achievement of the new methodological ideal in any and every subject matter, however reluctant.
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