His voice was low and ice cold.
She stirred the ice cream until it was soft.
I don't like ice cream.
A missing girl fell through the ice and drowned while Howie helplessly watched.
Erik challenged, ice blue eyes falling to him.
Ice is an interesting subject for contemplation.
The painkillers she'd taken kicked in soon after, and she bought ice cream.
Jake Weller presented it to Dean one sunny afternoon while the two were sharing a diet-breaking ice cream on the stoop of a Seventh Avenue candy store.
Eyes of blue ice turned on Allen and Giddon's voice was almost a growl.
"Ice pudding, but you won't get any," said Marya Dmitrievna.
It's one of the few times we've been without guests since we opened and we'll practically have a full house next week with the Ice Festival coming up.
He'd been on thin ice with this whole subject since the beginning.
Bird Song's going to be close to empty for a few more days until the ice climbers arrive.
What kind of ice pudding?
There was ice in Cynthia's voice.
This is that portion, also, where in the spring, the ice being warmed by the heat of the sun reflected from the bottom, and also transmitted through the earth, melts first and forms a narrow canal about the still frozen middle.
The very thought of crawling into a dark hole in the ground caused shivers of ice on the back of his neck.
Then, make them all soak their fingers in ice water so they are numb and work even slower, creating another thirty jobs for cold-fingered, blindfolded cotton seed removers.
The blue ice melted with warmth and a slow smile twisted his lips in an attractive way.
Eyes as cold as ice were measuring her every word.
Gabriel's touch was like ice, and Rhyn shuddered.
They discussed their options—snowshoeing and cross country skiing—but decided to try out the ice skates that they had purchased for one another for Christmas.
That will near fill us up when them ice climbing fellows get here.
I shall climb very high mountains in Norway and see much ice and snow.
The walls are curiously constructed of massive blocks of ice which terminate in cliff-like towers.
On the 1st of April it rained and melted the ice, and in the early part of the day, which was very foggy, I heard a stray goose groping about over the pond and cackling as if lost, or like the spirit of the fog.
"You know you should have ice on this!" she chided.
I have seen our river, when, the landscape being covered with snow, both water and ice were almost as green as grass.
He sawed a channel in the ice toward the shore, and hauled it over and along and out on to the ice with oxen; but, before he had gone far in his work, he was surprised to find that it was wrong end upward, with the stumps of the branches pointing down, and the small end firmly fastened in the sandy bottom.
One day when I came to the same place forty-eight hours afterward, I found that those large bubbles were still perfect, though an inch more of ice had formed, as I could see distinctly by the seam in the edge of a cake.
The beauty of the ice was gone, and it was too late to study the bottom.
Supper was pancakes and eggs, with conversation directed to the children, interrupted by confirming calls from ice climbers who would begin arriving on Thursday.
But these within the ice are not so numerous nor obvious as those beneath.
The real celebration of Fred's release from jail didn't begin until the pair returned to Bird Song where Cynthia had baked a fresh apple pie, complete with vanilla ice cream, tagged on to the end of a healthy lunch.
The homemade ice cream stand drew her attention, and she crossed to it.
Like the water, the Walden ice, seen near at hand, has a green tint, but at a distance is beautifully blue, and you can easily tell it from the white ice of the river, or the merely greenish ice of some ponds, a quarter of a mile off.
Exhaustion eventually ended the game and everyone but Dulce gathered in the kitchen for an ice cream snack.
Perhaps the blue color of water and ice is due to the light and air they contain, and the most transparent is the bluest.
"Turn this way!" he shouted, jumping over the ice which creaked under him; "turn this way!" he shouted to those with the gun.
If we thought Howie was upset over the Youngblood matter, it was arsenic versus ice cream compared to how enraged he was over a challenge to his ability.
We stopped for an ice cream to compose our guest though I disliked taking the time from calling Daniel Brennan to run the license plate number we'd recorded.
"Your skin's like ice," she said, suddenly realizing how cold it was in the storage room.
whiskey, one with ice and the other without.
We've got empty rooms, at least until the ice climbers start coming tomorrow.
With the ice climbing festival about to open a lot of the climbers are arriving early.
I'll just leave most of my ice climbing gear in the car.
It is said that a flood-tide, with a westerly wind, and ice in the Neva, would sweep St. Petersburg from the face of the earth.
Being curious to know what position my great bubbles occupied with regard to the new ice, I broke out a cake containing a middling sized one, and turned it bottom upward.
The ice, that had held under those on foot, collapsed in a great mass, and some forty men who were on it dashed, some forward and some back, drowning one another.
Still the cannon balls continued regularly to whistle and flop onto the ice and into the water and oftenest of all among the crowd that covered the dam, the pond, and the bank.
She found Felipa and Destiny in the dining room where they were having an ice cream snack.
She was stacking bowls on the table for ice cream and cake when lights turned into the drive.
The ice cream will help.
In his hand he held a bowl of ice cream, and his eyes held a welcome spark of humor.
He sat on the end of the bed and watched reflectively as she ate the ice cream.
The curtain blocking him from his memories was less defined, like ice beginning to thaw.
The warmth of the evening chased out Bird Song's guests—all non-dieters probably queuing up for ice cream, or maybe simply promenading the Victorian village streets as alpenglow painted the surrounding peaks in pink.
Flustered, Deidre nodded and walked away with her ice cream.
If jump ropes or board games or ice cream turn out to have positive externalities—that is, if they help society—a subsidy could lower the prices of these items.
The iceman delivered ice for your icebox until the electric freezer put him out of business.
Dolokhov who was in the midst of the crowd forced his way to the edge of the dam, throwing two soldiers off their feet, and ran onto the slippery ice that covered the millpool.
Would you like some ice cream?
Just for ice cream.
Vodka. Straight, no ice.
Maybe some scintillating conversation would break the ice.
Triple shot of whiskey, no ice.
Ryland listed his address as Grand Junction, Colorado and indicated he'd stay at least through the weekend when the ice climbing festivities began in earnest.
They're gonna serve fresh ice cream in hell before that lady gets a sniff at this here notebook, even if it proves to be worthless scratchings.
I spoke with her on the phone around Christmas and mentioned I was coming to Ouray for some ice climbing.
In the confusion of the group's departure, a carload of ice climbers arrived to register.
"Men," she said disgustedly as she left the room, calling over her shoulder, "Go out and socialize with all those macho ice climbers."
While Dean had no desire to participate in the new and perilous sport of ice climbing, he didn't share Cynthia total perplexity at why a sane human being would even consider subjecting himself or herself to such uncomfortable danger.
The three third floor rooms contained six ice climbers while Donald Ryland remained in the small first floor quarters.
Bergschrunds, couloirs, moats and seracs peppered conversations—animated tales of past ascents of both ice and stone.
Ice seems a whole lot less permanent.
Ice changes all the time.
The ice climbers smiled politely but one by one began to make excuses about leaving for dinner.
Mick, the ice climber, interrupted them before Dean could think up a proper reply.
With the ice festival, things are pretty busy.
The ice is everywhere.
The coterie of ice climbers was beginning to gather on the front porch.
Why don't you just come over to the ice park and watch?
I'd have scrambled up the ice.
"That's called an ice ax, or piolet," Ryland answered.
We embed the jagged side into the ice above us and pull ourselves up.
The teeth enable the climber to scale a vertical wall by holding to the ice while pulling yourself upward.
Ice is an incredible surface.
It doesn't take much ice to give you a bomber, a firm hold, provide you set your angle right.
There are all kinds of different tools, pitons, hammers to set pitons, ice screws, pound-ins, ice hooks, wired nuts and cams—different stuff for different surfaces.
You're not always just on ice.
You get into mixed rock and ice and there's often snow to clear away to get to a hard surface.
Being able to scale a sheer wall of rock and ice while lugging this junk requires some advance planning.
Today it's warm, but after you've hugged ice for a few hours in the shade, you'll be glad you took time to dress sensibly.
Falling ice is rock-hard stuff!
If we're going to host ice climbers, we ought to know something about their sport.
The group walked up to the ice park climbing area from Bird Song.
Here, easy accessibility, great ice in a deep, narrow gorge, facilities close by and a park run by people who understood the sport and emphasized safety, made for an ideal package.
As the group trudged up a small rise in the road, the awesome creations of the ice park came into view.
Imposing columns and pillars of ice were visible everywhere—massive icicles and mounds, built up from the spraying water tapped from the piping that paralleled the penstock.
As the group approached the area, climbers could be seen, bright colored flies tacked on a wall of ice.
There was ice everywhere, a panoply of shapes and forms.
The steady chinking of ice axes could be heard echoing up and down the deep gorge.
At Ryland's urging they crossed the bridge past the area where the main activities of the ice festival were being assembled for the weekend.
The Deans were learning the sport of ice climbing is critically dependent on equipment, unique and not inexpensive.
There would be dinners, a Saturday night dance, slide shows and hundreds of ice climbing exhibits.
All persons under the age of eighteen must complete and mail a consent of minors use of the ice park in the box below.
Enforcement of all rules will apply appropriately by the Ouray County Sheriff, the Ouray Police or by any board member of the Ouray Ice Park, Inc.
Ouray Ice Park, Inc. is a non-profit corporation and runs exclusively on the donations of sponsor members.
Now, mostly bound to its banks by ice, the river looked much less menacing as it wound its way downward.
It was here Donald Ryland planned to tackle a mixed rock and ice climb innocuously called Rosebud.
Donnie remained with his father and his new found ice climbing friends while Dean took his wife's hand and strolled further down the snow covered path, away from the edge.
Below the falls, a crescent rainbow gave color to the rising mist while sparkles of ice formed from the spray.
If that pansy Ryland can ice climb, it can't be much of a challenge now can it?
After leaving the ice park, Dean had gone on to Duckett's Market for groceries.
The Deans joined the ice climbers and others in the living room for afternoon snacks and chatter just as Edith Shipton descended the stairs.
Piano George said they lost two fine black horses that slipped on the ice of the Sneffles road and I could hear the men talking loudly about it.
If I'm going to get any ice climbing done, I better get moving.
Two of the young ice climber descended the stairs and began gathering their suitcases and gear piled by the door.
He held up his recently purchased room key as the two ice climbers waved good bye.
In fact, I'm off to try my hand at ice climbing for the day.
They say ice climbing is a dangerous sport, so remember you all, be careful out there, you hear?
Ryland and Jerome Shipton had left on their own, presumably for the ice park.
I'll ice climb during the day, then drive back up to Grand Junction.
That's like getting an ice cream sundae with castor oil for topping.
"After the ice festival is over," Ryland answered.
Ice climbing is more of a rush than women— almost!
She eagerly informed the pair how she planned to attend tomorrow's ice festival activities, in search of first hand research for what was sure to be a winning chapter.
The darkening sky matched the mood of Bird Song's guests and inhabitants as they woke to a busy Saturday morning, the main day of the ice festival.
After milling about until nearly nine o'clock, the entire group began to trek up to the ice park and, as Claire Quincy put it, view this craziness.
Dean leaped on Shipton, clawing away at the soft snow, pummeling him like an eighth grade schoolyard brawler while Shipton, still clutching his ice ax in one hand, swung at Dean, catching him on the cheek and face with the side of the solid handle.
By that time, most of the ice climbers were back at Bird Song.
The return trip from Grand Junction had taken Dean twice the usual two hours, a slalom of ditched autos, snow plows, ice and stopped traffic.
I suppose you've got a good reason why you tried to beat the brains out of a guy holding an ice ax, in the middle of the street with a bunch of people watching.
Then he muttered, "I've seen enough ice already today."
I don't suppose you happen to know how this knife got up in the ice park, next to the cut end of a rope?
The ladies were crawling all over the ice park for a peek at him.
He informed Dean the climbers, who were due to check out later, had left for the ice park, grumbling at the heavy accumulation of snow which was abating to a last-ditch flurry after depositing thirty inches of fluffy white.
Most of the climbing gear was absent, presumably picked up by Weller at the ice park.
There remained a second rope, various books on the sport of ice climbing and a few pitons.
He left Bird Song, telling Janet where he was going and together with Fred, hiked up to the ice park to where Shipton had fallen.
Yes, I was up at the ice park when he fell, but no, there's no one to alibi me—I was off alone on the upper trail.
She chose Ouray, at least according to Ryland, because he was her son's father and he was coming here to ice climb.
The ice climbers hadn't shown up yet.
Yup. I can't see any of the ice climbers taking Shipton seriously enough to bother to dump him.
They're starting on the ice climbers but they're only taking about five minutes with each of 'em. I think Penny is in there now.
The ice climbers decided to get in a quick climb and blame their delay returning home on the cops.
Donald is out ice climbing, too.
First off, all the ice climbers are leaving so there's no hurry cleaning up what's going to be empty rooms, probably until the weekend.
As he peddled the road to Ouray, he tried to formulate a scenario of Shipton's ice park fall that made sense.
"You don't look like an ice climber," she called over her shoulder as Fred O'Connor met them at the door.
"Out ice climbing," he answered.
The ice climbers are gone, too.
I sent her up to the ice park.
He motioned with a turn of his head back toward the ice park.
"Let's you and me get an ice cream," Dean said to Martha as the others entered Bird Song.
How did he act when his stepfather had his accident up in the ice park?
They took their time over the ice cream, making soup of the last few spoons full, but Dean learned nothing further.
While he knew he'd have to speak to Corday sooner or later, he hoped to first learn the reason for his wife's reticence about discussing the ice park fall.
Any thoughts of questioning Cynthia about the happenings in the ice park never entered his mind.
They fit together as nice as hot apple pie and a scoop of cold ice cream.
The collection was made up of Shipton's newly purchased, barely used, ice climbing gear, ropes, ice axes, pitons and various garments.
The following weekend, two and a half weeks after Edith's death, Penny and Mick returned to bird Song for a couple of days of ice climbing, a further reminder of the ice park incident.
What happens to the ice anchor?
But you'd have to set an ice anchor?
If you can't find a fixed rappel, you have to rig one, but at popular climbing spots, like in the ice park, there's lots of choices 'cause it's climbed so much.
The sport is called ice climbing—getting back up is the challenge.
Before Dean could comment, she asked, You going to try ice climbing yourself?
Mick and I will take you up to the ice park if you want to give it a go.
The only other party involved with Shipton who was an ice climber was Donald Ryland.
He's going to meet me later after he gets in a little ice climbing.
They just left for the ice park.
I'm going up to the ice park!
Dean jogged up the hill to ice park, hoping to find Penny and Mick, and perhaps Donald Ryland, before confronting Jerome Shipton.
He moved up the steel trestle by the ice climbing area designated The Schoolroom.
Abruptly the scratching sound of the crampons beneath his feet told him he'd reached the first mounds of solid ice.
He swung his ice ax into the wall in front of him, dug in the toes of his crampons and began to ascend toward Dean.
Shipton swung his ice ax again, inching up closer to Dean.
Shipton's ax bit the ice scarcely a foot below Dean as the man glared up at him, a snarl on his face.
Shipton leaned to his right and began to chip away at a large outcrop of ice directly above Dean, laughing as a loosened piece tumbled downward, striking Dean's exposed head, nearly knocking him senseless.
But his cry came an instant too late as Shipton plummeted past him, his ice ax swinging in a rip across Dean's calf as he plummeted backward into space, and down to the rocks and churning river below.
The leg wound from Shipton's flailing ice ax had been an eight-stitcher of no permanent consequence.
I can't see why the fact that he used a pen would send you dashing up to the ice park and half kill yourself.
"If you do any more ice climbing we can put that to the test," she answered.
He may have even realized what happened up at the ice park.
That's why I ran off to the ice park.
Otherwise you might take up ice climbing as a sport.
Normally, he would have had a bottle of scotch and some ice sent to the room, but today there was no time.
At the bottom of the basket sat a bottle wrapped in ice.
I can't wait to meet the guy who melted the Ice Queen.
Bewitched wants to meet me, Ice Queen.
Do you want to tell my why your best friend calls you the Ice Queen?
Is that why you call her the Ice Queen?
Delivery people scurried about situating floral arrangements and dry ice.
The Ice Queen will get over it.
Full size ice pack coming right up.
She ducked and the ball of ice grazed off her hood.
Flipping it over, she stomped on the bottom until the ice broke loose.
Alex had broken the ice off the top of the water trough by the time she got there and every stall was filled with fresh hay.
The rocks were slippery with half-thawed ice, and when she carelessly stepped on the edge of one, her foot slipped, wedging between two rocks.
You here to kill Linda Segal, The Ice Lady, or is this a social call?
The Ice Lady must have really gotten Leland's goat, Dean thought.
Finally, he donned his jacket and escaped up the street to a luncheonette where he ordered pie and ice cream.
Only the Lord knew what Linda Segal, The Ice Lady of the Parkside Sentinel, would do with this turn of events.
Dean ate a chicken salad on whole wheat with a piece of cherry pie and ice cream.
The Ice Lady, Linda Segal, was going full bore at the Sentinel, trying to convince her reading public that the poor lad might have been saved had the local police properly conducted the search for the missing boy in a timely fashion.
This silence did little to get Linda Segal, the Ice Lady of the Parkside Sentinel, off his back.
They've been more than generous with help and information but the investigation is closed and I have to tip-toe on ice digging into it.
The Ice Lady of the Parkside Sentinel went bonkers.
Linda Segal, The Ice Lady, was speechless.
They silently spooned up Italian ice cream, content in this measure of understanding that was growing between them.
The words sent a chill down his back like an ice cold shower.
Later that evening, while Dean and his stepfather were filling their faces with apple pie and ice cream and feeling sorry for themselves about their lack of progress in finding Byrne, a young man strolled up to them with a smile on his face.
The highway to Pagosa Springs followed the San Juan River up the pass to the top of the Rocky Mountains while side streams, arush with melting snow, ice cold to the touch, cascaded down from the roof of the sky, thousands of feet above.
Would you mind getting us some ice water?
He got the ice water and then sat down in his chair.
No doubt Alex still remembered the way she kicked around in the snow for the half tires, stomped them to get the ice out, and then filled them with water carried from the old farm house.
Apparently you'll do anything to hold a baby in your arms – even risk your life driving on ice.
He was upset and driving on ice.
The sun had melted a thin layer of water over the ice in the water trough.
She took a rock and broke the ice, reaching in the frigid water with her fingers to pull out the jagged pieces of ice.
How would you two like some ice cream?
You're cold as ice.
Sofi made herself a milkshake consisting of frozen blood from Damian, chocolate syrup, pickles, and a scoop of ice cream.
Fire and ice ripped through her, sucking the air from her lungs.
Aaron and I are going into town for an ice cream sundae.
We ate ice cream at the mall.
Aaron and Felipa went to town for some ice cream, so Rob helped Carmen set up table and chairs outside for the barbeque.
Did you get the ice cream?
We brought the ice cream.
How would you like to go out for ice cream with Felipa when she gets back?
They dropped the subject and Carmen suggested Felipa take the children out for ice cream.
He bit the words off and his voice became controlled, his eyes like cubes of ice.
The little ice maiden herself.
She lifted her face from his chest long enough to glance through the kitchen window and saw the huge white chunks of ice plunging to the ground.
He swirled the ice cubes around in his glass.
He took a bite out of an ice cream bar he found in the refrigerator.
For the pressure coefficient per degree, between o° and Ice C., they give the value 0036-6255, when the initial pressure is 700 mm.
The delta arms sometimes remain blocked with ice the whole year round.
On the plains slight frosts occur occasionally, and ice is sometimes seen on the.
The south-moving currents originating from melting ice are probably quite shallow.
About the same time Davy showed that two pieces of ice could be melted by rubbing them together in a vacuum, although everything surrounding them was at a temperature below the freezing point.
He did not, however, infer that since the heat could not have been supplied by the ice, for ice absorbs heat in melting, this experiment afforded conclusive proof against the substantial nature of heat.
The climate throughout Rajputana is very dry and hot during the summer; while in the winter it is much colder in the north than in the lower districts, with hard frost and ice on the Bikanir borders.
Reports to the Postmaster-General upon proposals for transferring to the Post Of f ice the Telegraphs throughout the United Kingdom (1868); Special Reports from Select Committee on the Electric Telegraphs Bills (1868, 1869); Report by Mr Scudamore on the reorganization of the Telegraph system of the United Kingdom (1871); Journ.
On the 24th of January 1458, 40,000 Hungarian noblemen, assembled on the ice of the frozen Danube, unanimously elected Matthias Hunyadi king of Hungary, and on the 14th of February the new king made his state entry into Buda.
At the same time the then existing alpine floras descended to lower levels, though we may agree with Ball that they did not necessarily become extinct at higher ones as long as any land-surface remained uncovered by ice.
On a second cruise from the Society Islands, in 1773, he, first of all men, crossed the Antarctic circle, and was stopped by ice in 71° 10' S.
He proved conclusively that any southern continent that might exist lay under the polar ice.
He was stopped by the ice in 70° 41' N., and named the farthest visible point on the American shore Icy Cape.
On the 14th of February 1779, his second, Captain Edward Clerke, took command, and proceeding to Petropavlovsk in the following summer, he again examined the edge of the ice, but only got as far as 70° 33' N.
Laptyev, started from the Lena in 1739, but encountered masses of drift ice in Chatanga bay, and with this ended the voyages to the westward of the Lena.
Laptyev sailed, but was stopped by the drift ice in August, and in 1739, during another trial, he reached the mouth of the Indigirka, where he wintered.
The Russian Captain Vassili Chitschakov in 1765 and 1766 made two persevering attempts to penetrate the ice north of Spitsbergen, and reached 80° 30' N., while Russian parties twice wintered at Bell Sound.
More mobile and more searching than ice or rock rubbish, the trickling drops are guided by the deepest lines of the hillside in their incipient flow, and as these lines converge, the stream, gaining strength, proceeds in River its torrential course to carve its channel deeper and en- t trench itself in permanent occupation.
Immediately outside the city limits in 1905 were various large and important manufactories, including railway shops, foundries, slaughterhouses, ice factories and brick-yards.
There is evidence that Ungava, like the rest of Labrador, has risen several hundred feet since the Ice Age, marine beaches being found up to 700 ft.
Recently emerged from the Post-Pliocene sea, or freed from their mantle of ice, they persistently maintain the self-same features over immense areas; and the few portions that rise above the general elevation have more the character of broad and gentle swellings than of mountain-chains.
Dvina ice prevents navigation for 125 days, and even the Vistula at Warsaw remains frozen for 77 days.
in very difficult country around the south end of Lake Baikal; this was constructed in 1904, communication being maintained in the interval by ferry-boats, which conveyed all the carriages of a train across the lake, more than 40 m., when the ice permitted.
-- ice _ 1 - /f r- - f?
The extreme frosts and heats of the English climate are unknown, but occasional heavy snow-falls occur, and the sea in shallow inlets is covered with a thin coating of ice.
from a railway, had an electriclighting plant, an ice plant and a hotel.
Thus the heat of fusion of ice (for H 2 O=18 g) is 1440 cal., and the heat of vaporization of water at 100°, for the same quantity, 9670 cal.
Among its manufactures are flour, whisky, dressed lumber and ice.
Moreover, the port is closed by ice three to four months in the year.
The chief industries of Grimsby are shipbuilding, brewing, tanning, manufactures of ship tackle, ropes, ice for preserving fish, turnery, flour, linseed cake, artificial manure; and there are saw mills, bone and corn mills, and creosote works.
He was one of the king's secret managers during the troublesome and dangerous riksdag of 1789, but advised caution and compared the estate of clergy, which at one time held the balance between the jarring orders, to ice which might be walked upon but could not be driven over.
On New Year's Day 1708 he crossed the Vistula, though the ice was in a dangerous condition.
By the time the army reached the little Ukrainian fortress of Hadjacz in January 1709, wine and spirits froze into solid masses of ice; birds on the wing fell dead; saliva congealed on its passage from the mouth to the ground.
In 1805 Boston began the export of ice to Jamaica, a trade which was gradually extended to Cuba, to ports of the southern states, and finally to Rio de Janeiro and Calcutta (1833), declining only after the Civil War; it enabled Boston to control the American trade of Calcutta against New York throughout the entire period.
Large cargoes are annually imported in ice from Norway to the English market.
The lake freezes usually at the end of December, or in the beginning of January, so solidly that a temporary post-horse station is erected on the ice in the middle of the lake, and it remains frozen till the second half of May.
The evaporation from this large basin exercises a certain influence on the climate of the surrounding country, while the absorption of heat for the thawing of the ice has a notable cooling effect in early summer.
In winter, when the lake is covered with ice 3 ft.
o ri Ice o ?- '.
The northern portion of the lake only is covered with ice in winter, and ice never reaches as far south as Milwaukee.
The average date of the opening and closing of navigation at the strait of Mackinac, where the ice remains longest, is the 17th of April and the 9th of January respectively.'
The only manufacturing industries of much importance are the preparation of sugar, coffee and tobacco for market, and the manufacture of cigars, cigarettes, straw hats, soap, matches, vermicelli, sash, doors, ice, distilled liquors and some machinery.
By this method it is shown that water, when present as " water of crystallization," behaves as if it were ice.
radius lies on the lesser heights between Langstrath and Dunmail Raise, which may, however, be the crown of an ancient dome of rocks, "the dissected skeleton of which, worn by the warfare of air and rain and ice, now alone remains" (Dr H.
It is the region in winter of constant ice and snow, but its lower altitude gives it a summer climate with a mean temperature of only 1.6° less than Calgary, and i ï¿½ 8° less than Edmonton.
During the height of the glacial period the ice must have crossed the islands from E.
Other manufactures with a product value in 1905 of between $4,000,000 and $1,000,000 were: bags (not paper); foundry and machine-shop products; planing-mill products; railway cars, construction and repairs; malt liquors; men's clothing; cooperage; food preparations; roasted and ground coffee and spice; fertilizers; cigars and cigarettes; cotton goods; and manufactured ice.
The presence of enormous glaciers in the Ice Age is attested by the moraines at the Atlantic end, and by other indications farther east.
Peary, Northward over the " Great Ice " (2 vols.
Ikermiut Puisorr)ok the great ice-cap, or inland ice, which may be asserted to cover the whole of the interior of Greenland, has been prosecuted chiefly from the west coast.
Nansen with five companions in 1888 made the first complete crossing of the inland ice, working from the east coast to the west, about 64° 25' N., and reached a height of 8922 ft.
Peary and Astrup, as already indicated, crossed in 1892 the northern part of the inland ice between 78° and 82° N., o reaching a height of about 8000 ft., and deter mined the northern termination of the icecovering.
Garde explored in 1893 the interior of the inland ice between 61° and 62° N.
The unusual glaciation of the east coast is evidently owing to the north polar current carrying the ice masses from the north polar basin 4 south-westward along the land, and giving it an entirely arctic climate down to Cape Farewell.
At Umivik, where Nansen began his journey across the inland ice, the highest peak projecting through the icecovering was Gamel's Nuna ak, 6440 ft., in 6 4° 34' N.
The whole interior of Greenland is completely covered by the so-called inland ice, an enormous glacier forming a regular shield-shaped expanse of snow and glacier ice, and burying all valleys and mountains far below its surface.
The inland ice rises in the interior to a level of 9000, and in places perhaps 10,000 ft.
The surface of the inland ice forms in a transverse section from the west to the east coast an extremely regular curve, almost approaching an arc of a wide circle, which along Nansen's route has its highest ridge somewhat nearer the east than the west coast.
The angle of the slope decreases gradually from the margin of the inland ice, where it may be I° or more, towards the interior, where it is o°.
In the interior the surface of the inland ice is composed of dry snow which never melts, and is constantly packed and worked smooth by the winds.
Nearer the coast, where the melting on the surface is more considerable, the wet snow freezes hard during the winter and is more or less transformed into ice, on the surface of which rivers and lakes are formed, the water of which, however, soon finds its way through crevasses and holes in the ice down to its under surface, and reaches the sea as a sub-glacial river.
Near its margin the surface of the inland ice is broken up by numerous large crevasses, formed by the outward motion of the glacier covering the underlying land.
The steep icewalls at the margin of the inland ice show, especially where the motion of the ice is slow, a distinct striation, which indicates the strata of annual precipitation with the intervening thin seams of dust (Nordenskidld's kryokonite).
to the surface of the ice from the ice-bare coast-land and partly the dust of the atmosphere brought down by the falling snow and accumulated on the surface of the glacier's covering by the melting during the summer.
In the rapidly moving glaciers of the icefjords this striation is not distinctly visible, being evidently obliterated by the strong motion of the ice masses.
The motion of the outwardscreeping inland ice will naturally be more independent of the configurations of the underlying land in the interior, where its thickness is so enormous, than near the margin where it is thinner.
Here the ice converges into the valleys and moves with increasing velocity in the form of glaciers into the fjords, where they break off as icebergs.
The drainage of the interior of Greenland is thus partly given off in the solid form of icebergs, partly by the melting of the snow and ice on the surface of the ice-cap, especially near its western margin, and to some slight extent also by the melting produced on its under side by the interior heat of the earth.
in twenty-four hours, with which the glaciers of Greenland move into the sea, the margin of the inland ice and its glaciers was studied by several expeditions.
There seem to be periodical oscillations in the extension of the glaciers and the inland ice similar to those that have been observed on the glaciers of the Alps and elsewhere.
Numerous glacial marks, however, such as polished striated rocks, moraines, erratic blocks, &c., prove that the whole of Greenland, even the small islands and skerries outside the coast, has once been covered by the inland ice.
Numerous raised beaches and terraces, containing shells of marine mollusca, &c., occur along the whole coast of Greenland, and indicate that the whole of this large island has been raised, or the sea has sunk, in post-glacial times, after the inland ice covered its now icebare outskirts.
Laurentian gneiss forms the greatest mass of the exposed rocks of the country bare of ice.
The climate of the interior has been found to be of a continental character, with large ranges of temperature, and with an almost permanent anti-cyclonic region over the interior of the inland ice, from which the prevailing winds radiate towards the coasts.
See Peary, Northward over the " Great Ice," ii.
in the interior of the inland ice.
Such a range is elsewhere found only in deserts, but the surface of the inland ice may be considered to be an elevated desert of snow.'
2 The well-known strangely warm and dry fain- winds of Greenland occur both on the west and the east coast; they are more local than was formerly believed, and are formed by cyclonic winds passing either over mountains or down the outer slope of the inland ice.
The most interesting feature of the glacial epoch is the extinct Lake Agassiz, which the receding ice of the later glacial period left in the Red River Valley of Minnesota,.
This lake drained southward into the Gulf of Mexico via the Minnesota and Mississippi rivers, until the ice sheet which had prevented its natural drainage to the north had melted sufficiently to allow it to be drained off into Hudson Bay by way of the Nelson River.
The most important were: the Australian Antarctic expedition of 1911-4 under Sir Douglas Mawson; the Danish Oceanographical expeditions in the Mediterranean and adjacent seas of 1908-10; a short cruise made by Sir John Murray and Dr. Johan Hjort in the Norwegian Fishery exploring vessel " Michael Sars " in 1910, the general results of which were published as The Depths of the Ocean (1912) by the leaders of the expedition; and a short special cruise made by the " Scotia " in 1913 (after the loss of the " Titanic ") under the leadership of Dr. Matthews, which made observations upon the distribution of ice in the North Atlantic.
In the polar areas the melting of sea-ice and of ice formed by precipitation lowers the density of the seawater and causes a difference of level which sets up streaming movements towards the equator.
Entering the Barents Sea (that is, the area between the ice and the northern coast of Europe), these currents flow along the bottom.
There will be great outbursts of polar ice, but this will melt at higher latitudes than in the periods when the tide-generating force is minimal.
(Similar effects can be seen on a small scale, even in our own times, as the result of exceptionally big tides.) Severe winters were experienced and the Baltic was frequently frozen over so that there was solid ice communication between Sweden and Denmark across the Belts and Sound: this happened in the 13th, 14th and 15th centuries but not in the 16th.
There have been great differences in the seas round Iceland and Greenland with regard to the presence of ice: from the 9th to the 12th centuries there is no evidence (in contemporary accounts) of the presence of much ice in the sea off Greenland, nor was much ice carried by the Labrador current, but from the 13th century onwards we do have evidence that there was very troublesome ice off Greenland.
NEVA, or FIRM, the name given to the partly consolidated masses of snow and ice which form in the hollows on the sides of mountains below the belt of freshly fallen snow and just above the compact glacier-ice.
During the winter the smaller tributaries freeze to the bottom, and about 1st January Lake Baikal becomes covered with a solid crust of ice capable of bearing files of loaded sledges.
The Sea of Okhotsk, separated from the Pacific by the Kurile Archipelago and from the Sea of Japan by the islands of Sakhalin and Yezo, is notorious as one of the worst seas of the world, owing to its dense fogs and its masses of floating ice.
Bangor is one of the largest lumber depots in the United States, and also ships considerable quantities of ice.
According to some, Niobe is the goddess of snow and winter, whose children, slain by Apollo and Artemis, symbolize the ice and snow melted by the sun in spring; according to others, she is an earth-goddess, whose progeny - vegetation and the fruits of the soil - is dried up and slain every summer by the shafts of the sun-god.
Since the demagnetizing factor was o 052, the strongest field due to the coil was about 1340; but though arrangements were pro vided for cooling the apparatus by means of o ice, great difficulty was experienced owing to heating.
Among other manufactures are butter and cheese, canned fruits and vegetables, glass and earthenware, printing and wrapping paper, furniture, matches, hats, clothing, pharmaceutical products, soaps and - p erfumery, ice, artificial drinks, cigars and cigarettes, fireworks anc candles.
As a rule the port is closed by ice from November to the end of May.
No less remarkable are the Okno, Vodi and Demenyfalva caverns in the county of Lipt6, the Veterani in the Banat and the ice cave at Dobsina in Gomor county.
Lavoisier he made an important series of experiments on specific heat (1782-1784), in the course of which the "ice calorimeter" was invented; and they contributed jointly to the Memoirs of the Academy (1781) a paper on the development of electricity by evaporation.
The direction of striae on the underlying quartzitic rocks, particularly well seen near the Douglas colliery, Balmoral, point to an ice movement from the north-north-west to south-south-east.
candles, chocolate, cigarettes, cotton fabrics, hats, ice, matches, boots.
Bath also manufactures lumber, iron and brass goods, and has a considerable trade in ice, coal, lumber and iron and steel.
With the melting of the ice the more daring spirits dashed into the new current with such ardour that for them all traditions, all institutions, were thrown into hotchpot; even elderly and sober physicians took enough of the infection to liberate their minds, and, in the field of the several diseases and in that of post-mortem pathology, the hollowness of classification by superficial resemblance, the transitoriness of forms, and the flow of processes, broke upon the view.
Fitzstephen tells how, when the great marsh that washed the walls of the city on the north (Moorfields) was frozen over; the young men went out to slide and skate and sport on the ice.
The frost, which began about seven weeks before Christmas and continued for six weeks after, was the greatest on record; the ice was I i in.
After it had lasted for a month, a thaw of four days, from the 26th to the 29th of January, took place, but this thaw was succeeded by a renewal of the frost, so severe that the river soon became one immovable sheet of ice.
The lake never freezes over, and is less obstructed by ice than the other lakes, but the harbours are closed by ice from about the middle of December to the middle of April.
By a change of temperature and pressure combined, a substance can in general be made to pass from one state into another; thus by gradually increasing the temperature a solid piece of ice can be melted into the liquid state of water, and the water again can be boiled off into the gaseous state as steam.
Some of the stiff boulder clays or " till " so prevalent over parts of the north of England appear to have been deposited from ice sheets during the glacial period.
The few other industries include rum distilleries and factories for chemicals, ice and tobacco.
Haze and fogs greatly prevail in the strait, which is never free of ice.
The temperature has a yearly range of from 45° to 99°, but it occasionally falls below 40°, and ice occurs on the Peak.
In January 1893 ice was found at sea-level.
As they retreated, the ice of the Satschan pond was broken up by the French artillery, and many of the fugitives were drowned.
He noticed that when ice melts it takes up a quantity of heat without undergoing any change of temperature, and he argued that this heat, which as was usual in his time he looked upon as a subtle fluid, must have combined with the particles of ice and thus become latent in its substance.
The cutting of this canal led to the construction of an aqueduct for drinking water, which, besides supplying the city, furnishes an ice factory with enough water to make 200 quintals of ice per day.
The fisheries are of great value, and there is an export trade to England in salmon, which are despatched in ice.
It issues, under the name of the Bhagirathi, from an ice cave at the foot of a Himalayan snow-bed near Gangotri, 10,300 ft.
Soc., 1897, 60, p. 360; " Note on the Dielectric Constant of Ice and Alcohol at very low Temperatures," ib., 1897, 61, p. 2; " On the Dielectric Constants of Pure Ice, Glycerine, Nitrobenzol and Ethylene Dibromide at and above the Temperature of Liquid Air," id.
p. 358; " Ors the Dielectric Constants of Metallic Oxides dissolved or suspended in Ice cooled to the Temperature of Liquid Air," id.
Among, the city's manufactures are refined oil, Portland cement, vitrified brick and tile, glass, asphalt, ice, cigars, drilling machinery, and flour.
Its manufactures are shoes, bricks, lumber, ice, agricultural implements, wagons and handles.
arrived at Haderslev (Hadersleben) in South Jutland, when it was estimated that in a couple of days the ice of the Little Belt would be firm enough to bear even the passage of a mail-clad host.
The cold during the night of the 29th of January was most severe; and early in the morning of the 30th the Swedish king gave the order to start, the horsemen dismounting where the ice was weakest, and cautiously leading their horses as far apart as possible, when they swung into their saddles again, closed their ranks and made a dash for the shore.
On the night of the 5th of February the transit began, the cavalry leading the way through the snow-covered ice, which quickly thawed beneath the horses' hoofs so that the infantry which followed after had to wade through half an ell of sludge, fearing every moment lest the rotting ice should break beneath their feet.
No attempt could be made on Amsterdam until the ice should cover the floods.
It has various industries, including saw and planing mills, shipbuilding, glassworks and factories for wood-pulp, barrels and potato flour; and an active trade in exporting timber, ice, wood-pulp and granite, chiefly to Great Britain, and in importing from the same country coal and salt.
The flask was then brought to o° by immersion in melting ice, the pressure of the gas taken, and the stop-cock closed.
The flask is removed from the ice, allowed to attain the temperature of the room, and then weighed.
During Nansen's expedition on the " Fram " in 1894-1895, Scott Hansen made observations with a Sterneck's half-seconds pendulum on the ice where the sea was more than 1600 fathoms deep and found only an insignificant deviation from the number of swings corresponding to a normal ellipsoid.
Waves and tidal currents produce their full effects in that region, and in high latitudes the effect of transport of materials by ice is very important; while in the warm water of the tropics the reefbuilding animals and plants (corals and calcareous algae) carry on their work most effectively there.
Shore Deposits are the product of the waste of the land arranged and bedded by the action of currents or tidal streams. On the rocky coast of high latitudes blocks of stone detached by frost fall on the beach and becoming embedded in ice during winter are often drifted out to sea and so carry the shore deposits to some distance from the land.
The Arctic Sea presents a great contrast between the salinity of the surface of the ice-free Norwegian Sea with 35 to 35.4 and that of the Central Polar Basin, which is dominated by river water and melted ice, and has a salinity less than 25 per mille in most parts.
Experience shows that sea-water can be cooled considerably below the freezing-point without freezing if there is no ice or snow in contact with it.
Freezing takes place by the formation of pure ice in flat crystalline plates of the hexagonal system, which form in perpendicular planes and unite in bundles to form grains so that a thick covering of ice exhibits a fibrous structure.
During the rapid formation of ice the still unfrozen brine is often imprisoned between the little plates of frozen water; hence without some special treatment sea-ice is not suitable as a source of drinking water.
Ice is a very poor conductor of heat and accordingly protects the surface of the water beneath from rapid cooling; hence new-formed pancake ice does not increase excessively in thickness in one winter, and even in the centre of the Arctic Basin the ice-covering only amounts to 6 or at most 9 ft.
in the course of a year, while in the Antarctic regions the season's growth is only half as great; in the latter also the accumulated snow is an important factor in the thickness of the ice, and snow is an even worse conductor of heat.
Hudson Bay is blocked by ice for .a great part of the year, and the Gulf of St Lawrence is blocked every winter.
Ice also clothes the continental shores of the northern fringing seas of eastern Asia.
The latter often gives birth to prodigious icebergs and ice islands, which are carried northward by ocean currents, nearly as far as the tropical zone before they melt.
Strongly marked differences in density are produced by the melting of sea-ice, and this is of particular importance in the case of the great ice barrier round the Antarctic continent.
Pettersson has made a careful study of ice melting as a motive power in oceanic circulation, and points out that it acts in two ways: on the surface it produces dilution of the water, forming a fresh layer and causing an outflow seaward of surface water with very low salinity; towards the deep water it produces a strong cooling effect, leading to increase of density and sinking of the chilled layers.
The existence of a layer of water of low salinity at a depth of 500 fathoms in the tropical oceans of the southern hemisphere is to be referred to this action of the melting ice of the Antarctic regions.
Makaroff, The Yermak in the Ice (in Russian) (St Petersburg, 1901); The Norwegian North Atlantic Expedition (on the " Voringen "), 1876-1878 (Christiania, 1880-1900); Expeditions scientifiques du " Travailleur " et du " Talisman," 1880-1883 (Paris, 1891 et seq.); Die Ergebnisse der Plankton-Expedition, 1889 (Kiel, 1892 et seq.); Resultats des campagnes scientifiques accomplies sur son yacht par Albert I e ' Prince Souverain de Monaco (Monaco, from 1889); The Danish " Ingolf " Expedition, 1806 (Copenhagen, 1900); Prof. Luksch, Expeditionen S.M.
During the months of December, January and February the rivers are frozen up, and even the Gulf of Chih-li is fringed with a broad border of ice.
- Topographically, Iowa lies wholly in the Prairie Plains Region, part of it having been overrun by the Great Ice Sheet of the Glacial epoch.
ice forms in the night, but disappears with the heat of the sun.
Thus baptism is not valid if wine or ice be used instead of water, nor the Eucharist if water be consecrated in place of wine, nor confirmation unless the chrism has been blessed by a bishop; also olive oil must be used.
The ice covered even the Monadnocks.
"In places," writes Hearne, "which have been long frequented by beavers undisturbed, their dams, by frequent repairing, become a solid bank, capable of resisting a great force both of ice arid water; and as.
When the ice breaks up in spring they always leave their embankments, and rove about until a little before the fall of the leaf, when they return to their old habitations, and lay in their winter stock of wood.
North America is bathed in frigid waters around its broad northern shores; its mountains bear huge glaciers in the north-west; the outlying area of Greenland in the north-east is shrouded with ice; and in geologically recent times a vast ice-sheet has spread over its north-eastern third; while warm waters bring corals to its southern shores.
its front rested on Staten Island and Long Island, whose surface features, and a part of whose area, are due to the deposits along the ice front, including terminal moraines and outwash gravel plains.
As the ice receded, it halted at various points, forming moraines and other glacial deposits.
After the continental ice sheet entirely disappeared from the state, local valley glaciers lingered in the Adirondacks and the Catskills.
The rivers and smaller lakes freeze in winter and navigation on the St Lawrence river is closed by ice on the average from about the middle of December until early in April.
The Grand Coulee represents the course of the Columbia river during the glacial period, when its regular channel was blocked with ice.
The rocks are heavily scored by ice, but this was probably marine ice, not that of glaciers.
Its artificial harbour, which admits vessels drawing 19 ft., is freer from ice in winter than any other Swedish Baltic port.
Prior to the break-up of the ice, the army could only disembark at Chemulpo, far from the objective, or at Dalny under the very eyes of its defenders.
Still intent upon the Russian Port Arthur squadron, she had embarked her 2nd Army (General Oku, ist, 3rd, Landing 4th and 5th divisions) during April, and sent it to of the Chinampo whence, as soon as the ice melted and Japanese Kuroki's victory cleared the air, it sailed to the 2nd selected landing-place near Pitszewo.
The action of water and ice upon the soft sandstone of which the hills here are chiefly composed has produced deep gorges and isolated fantastic peaks, which, however, though both beautiful and interesting, by no means recall the characteristics of Swiss scenery.
Along the southern coast of Bolshoy Baron Toll found immense layers of fossil ice, 70 ft.
It can be shown by Isambert's results that the compound AgC1.3NH 3 cannot be formed above 20° C., by the action of ammonia on silver chloride at atmospheric pressure; whilst 2AgC1.3NH 3, under similar conditions, cannot be formed above about 68° C. Liquid ammonia is used for the artificial preparation of ice.
The polar or white bear (Ursus maritimus), common to the Arctic regions of both hemispheres, is distinguished from the other species by having the soles of the feet covered with close-set hairs, - in adaptation to the wants of the creature, the bear being thereby enabled to walk securely on slippery ice.
from the nearest shore, and with no ice in sight to afford it rest."
They are often carried on floating ice to great distances, and to more southern latitudes than their own, no fewer than twelve Polar bears having been known to reach Iceland in this way during one winter.
The city has also flour and woollen mills, breweries and ice factories.
But not the slightest indication has been discovered that these mountains were ever panoplied with ice.
The drift-phenomena connected with the flow of ice from Scotland are of special interest.
When, on the outbreak of the Swedish war of 1809, the emperor ordered the army to take advantage of an unusually severe frost and cross the ice of the Gulf of Finland, it was only the presence of Arakcheev that compelled an unwilling general and a semi-mutinous army to begin a campaign which ended in the conquest of Finland.
Carbon dioxide finds industrial application in the preparation of soda by the Solvay process, in the sugar industry, in the manufacture of mineral waters, and in the artificial production of ice.
In December 1812, while "the last shattered remnants of Napoleon's Grand Army struggled across the ice of the Niemen," the tsar Alexander I.
deep. The district affords frequent evidence of ice activity in the glacial period.
The length of the metre is independent of the thermometer so far that it has its length at a definite physical point, the temperature of melting ice (0° C.), but there is the practical difficulty that for ordinary purposes measurements cannot be always carried out at 0° C.
In the sierras, above the tierras frias, which are not " cold lands " at all, are the colder climates of the temperate zone, suitable for cereals, grazing and forest industries, and, farther up, the isolated peaks which rise into the regions of snow and ice.
Smaller lakes were formed by the deposition of washed drift around the longest-lasting ice remnants; when the ice finally melted away, the hollows that it left came to be occupied by ponds and lakes.
The till is presumably made in part of preglacial soils, but it is more largely composed of rock waste mechanically comminuted by the crccpiiig ice sheets; although the crystalline rocks from Canada and some of the more resistant stratified rocks south of the Great Lakes occur as boulders and stones, a great part of the till has been crushed and ground to a clayey texture.
The great ice sheets formed terminal moraines around their border at various halting stages; but the morainic belts are of small relief in comparison to the great area of the ice; they rise gently from the till plains to a height of 50, 100 or more feet; they may be one, two or three miles wide; and their hilly surface, dotted over with boulders, contains many small lakes in basins or hollows, instead of streams in valleys.
The morainic belts are arranged in groups of concentric loops, convex southward, because the ice sheets advanced in lobes along the lowlands of the Great Lakes; neighboring morainic loops join each other in re-entrants (north-pointing cusps), where two adjacent glacial lobes came together and formed their moraines in largest volume.
The discovery of this significant looped arrangement of the morainic belts is the greatest advance in interpretation of glacial phenomena since the first suggestion of a glacial period; it is also the strongest proof that the ice here concerned was a continuous sheet of creeping land ice, and not a discontinuous series of floating icebergs, as had been supposed.
When the ice sheets fronted on land sloping southward to the Ohio, Mississippi and Missouri rivers, the drift-laden streams flowed freely away from the ice border; and as the streams, escaping from their subglacial channels, spread in broader channels, they ordinarily could not carry forward all their load; hence they acted not as destructive but as constructive agents, and aggraded their courses.
Later when the ice retreated farther and the unloaded streams returned to their earlier degrading habit, they more or less completely scoured out the valley deposits, the remains of which are now seen in terraces on either side of the present flood plains.
When the ice of the last glacial epoch had retreated so far that Its front lay on a northward slope, belonging to the drainage area of the Great Lakes, bodies of water accumulated in front of the ice margin, forming glacio-marginal lakes.
The lakes were small at first, and each had its own outlet at the lowest depression in -the height of land to the south; but as the ice melted back, neighboring lakes became confluent at the level of the lowest outlet of the group; the outflowing streams grew in the same proportion and eroded a broad channel across the height of land and far down stream, while the lake waters built sand reefs or carved shore cliffs along their margin, and laid down sheets of clay on their floors.
Certain extraordinary features were produced when the retreat of the ice sheet had progressed so far as to open an eastward outlet for the marginal lakes along the depression between the northward slope of the Appalachian plateau in west-central New York and the southward slope of the melting ice sheet; for when this eastward outlet came to be lower than the south-westward outlet across the height of land to the Ohio or Mississippi river, the discharge of the marginal lakes was changed from the Mississippi system to the Hudson system.
Successive channels are found at lower and lower levels on the plateau slope, thus indicating the successive courses taken by the lake outlet as the ice melted farther and farther back.
high, half a mile or a mile long, with axes parallel to the direction of the ice motion as indicated by striae on the underlying rock floor; these hills are known by the Irish name, drumlins, used for similar hills in north-western Ireland.
It must therefore have been a sort of oasis, when the ice sheets from the north advanced past it on the east and west and joined around its southern border.
The reason for this exemption from glaciation is the converse of that for the southward convexity of the morainic loops; for while they mark the paths of greatest glacial advance along lowland troughs (lake basins), the driftless area is a district protected from ice invasion by reason of the obstruction which the highlands of northern Wisconsin and Michigan (part of the Superior oldland~ offered to glacial advance.
The treelessness of the prairies cannot be due to insufficient time for tree invasion since glacial evacuation; for forests cover the rocky uplands of Canada, which were occupied by ice for ages after the prairies were laid bare.
In New Mexico, if glaciers were formed at all in the high valleys, they were so small as not greatly to modify the more normal forms. In central Colorado and Wyoming, where the mountains are higher and the Pleistocene glaciers were larger, the valley heads were hollowed out in well-formed cirques, often holding small lakes; and the mountain valleys were enlarged into U-shaped troughs as far down as the ice reached, with hanging lateral valleys oii the way.
Four defined zones of interglacial deposits are detected, all of which are thought to represent great recessions of the ice, or perhaps its entire disappearance.
The principal terminal moraines are associated with the ice of the Wisconsin epoch.
Loess is widespread in the Mississippi River basin, especially along the larger streams which flowed from the ice.
Some of the bess is thought to have been derived by the wind from the surface of the drift soon after the retreat of the ice, before vegetation got a foothold upon the new-made deposit; but a large part of the bess, especially that associated with the main valleys, appears to have been blown up on to the bluffs of the valleys from the flood plains below.
This system, which has been employed for the lowest weir on the Moldau, and for a weir at the upper end of the Danube canal near Vienna to shut out floods and floating ice, as well as on the Seine, possesses the merits of raising all the movable parts of the weir out of water in flood-time, and rendering the working of the weir very safe and easy.
The Gulf of St Lawrence with its much indented shores and the coast of Nova Scotia and New Brunswick supply endless harbours, the northern ones closed by ice in the winter, but the southern ones open all the year round; and on the Pacific British Columbia is deeply fringed with islands and fjords with well-sheltered harbours everywhere, in strong contrast with the unbroken shore of the United States to the south.
The greatly varied Arctic coast line of Canada with its large islands, inlets and channels is too much clogged with ice to be of much practical use, but Hudson Bay, a mediterranean sea 850 m.
wide, with its outlet Hudson Strait, has long been navigated by trading ships and whalers, and may become a great outlet for the wheat of western Canada, though closed by ice except for four months in the summer.
The retreat of the ice left Canada much in its present condition except for certain post-glacial changes of level which seem to be still in progress.
69°, and in its flood season the head-waters pour down their torrents before the thick ice of the lower part with its severer climate has yet given way, piling up the ice iii great barriers and giving rise to widespread floods along the lower reaches.
In most parts the Laurentian hills are bare roches moutonnees scoured by the glaciers of the Ice Age, but a broad band of clay land extends across northern Quebec and Ontario just north of the divide.
There are no permanent ice sheets known on the mainland of north-eastern Canada, but some of the larger islands to the north of Hudson Bay and Straits are partially covered with glaciers on their higher points.
North-west and north-east of Hudson Bay it becomes too severe for the growth of trees as seen on the " barren grounds," and there may be perpetual ice beneath the coating of moss which serves as a non-conducting covering for the " tundras."
Slaughtering notably free from epizootic diseases, with a fertile D soil or the growth of fodder crops and pasture, with abundance of pure air and water, and with a plentiful supply of ice, the conditions in Canada are ideal for the dairying industry.
Many indications of ice action are found in these islands; striated surfaces are to be seen on the cliffs in Eday and Westray, in Kirkwall Bay and on Stennie Hill in Eday; boulder clay, with marine shells, and with many boulders of rocks foreign to the islands (chalk, oolitic limestone, flint, &c.), which must have been brought up from the region of Moray Firth, rests upon the old strata in many places.
The principal manufacture is cotton goods; among the other products are lumber, flour, cotton waste, cotton-seed oil and cake, ice, silk, boilers and engines, and general merchandise staples.
Rio de Janeiro has manufactures of flour from imported wheat, cotton, woollen and silk textiles, boots and shoes, readymade clothing, furniture, vehicles, cigars and cigarettes, chocolate, fruit conserves, refined sugar, biscuits, macaroni, ice, beer, artificial liquors, mineral waters, soap, stearine candles, perfumery, feather flowers, printing type, &c. There are numerous machine o nd repair shops, the most important of which are the shops of the Central railway.
It is a trading and shipping centre of an extensive farming territory devoted to the raising of live-stock and to the growing of cotton, Indian corn, fruit, &c. It has large cotton gins and compresses, a large cotton mill, flour mills, canning and ice factories, railway repair shops, planing mills and carriage works.
Ice, cigars, hats, boots and shoes are manufactured, but the characteristic local industry is the production of "Panama chains," ornaments made of thin gold wire.
These rocks illustrate on a grand scale the action of ice in mountain sculpture.
On the other hand, since the spurs of the Taurus bring the winter cold a long way south, and the cold increases from west to east as we leave the mild coast of the Mediterranean, far down into the Mesopotamian plain the influence of the snowcovered ridges can be felt, and in the higher parts of the plain snow and ice are not infrequent; and although there is no point of sufficient altitude to retain snow for long, the temperature may fall as low as 14° F., especially if the cold north winds are blowing.
It is navigable as far up as Minusinsk, a distance of 1840 m., and is free from ice on the average for 155 days at Turukhansk and for 196 days at Krasnoyarsk.
But while Forbes asserted that ice was viscous, Tyndall denied it, and insisted, as the result of his observations, on the flow being due to fracture and regelation.
All agreed that ice flowed as if it were a viscous fluid; and of this apparent viscosity James Thomson offered an independent explanation by the application of pure thermodynamical theory, which Tyndall considered inefficient to account for the facts he observed.
It is unnecessary here to rake among the ashes of this prolonged dispute, but it may be noted that Helmholtz, who, in his lecture on "Ice and Glaciers," adopted Thomson's theory, afterwards added in an appendix that he had come to the conclusion that Tyndall had "assigned the essential and principal cause of glacier motion in referring it to fracture and regelation" (1865).
So intense is the cold in Tibet that these springs are sometimes represented by columns of ice, the nearly boiling water having frozen in the act of ejection.
To take the simplest case of a one component system water substance has its three phases of solid ice, liquid water and gaseous vapour in equilibrium with each other at the freezing point of water under the pressure of its own vapour.
If we attempt to change either the temperature or the pressure ice will melt, water will evaporate or vapour condense until one or other of the phases has vanished.
Thus, if we supply heat to the mixture of ice, water and steam ice will melt and eventually vanish.
The phenomena of equilibrium can be represented on diagrams. Thus, if we take our co-ordinates to represent pressure and temperature, the state of the systems p with ice, water and vapour in equilibrium is represented by the point 0 where the pressure is that of the vapour of water at the freezing point and the temperature is the freezing point under that pressure.
If all the ice be melted, we pass along the vapour pressure curve of water OA.
If all the water be frozen, we have the vapour pressure curve of ice OB; while, if the pressure be raised, so that all the vapour vanishes, we get the curve OC of equilibrium between the pressure and the freezing point of water.
The four phases are (I) crystals of salt, (2) crystals of ice, (3) a saturated solution of the salt in water, and (4) the vapour, which is that practically of water alone, since the salt is non-volatile at the temperature in question.
Thus a mixture of ice, salt and the saturated solution has a constant freezing point, and the composition of the solution is constant and the same as that of the mixed solids which freeze out on the abstraction of heat.
If heat be added to the mixture ice will melt and salt dissolve in the water so formed.
If the supply of ice fails first the temperature will rise, and, since solid salt remains, we pass along a curve OA giving the relation between temperature and the vapour pressure of the saturated solution.
If, on the other hand, the salt of the cryohydrate fails before the ice the water given by the continued fusion dilutes the solution, and we pass along the curve OB which shows the freezing points of a series of solutions of constantly increasing dilution.
If the process be continued till a very large quantity of ice be melted the resulting solution is so dilute that its freezing point B is identical with that of the pure solvent.
Again, starting from 0, by the abstraction of heat we can remove all the liquid and travel along the curve OD of equilibrium between the two solids (salt and ice) and the vapour.
Or, by increasing the pressure, we eliminate the vapour and obtain the curve OF giving the relation between pressure, freezing point and composition when a saturated solution is in contact with ice and salt.
Taking the point 0 to denote the state of equilibrium between ice, hydrate; saturated solution and vapour, we pass along OA till a new solid phase, that of Na2S04, appears at 32.6°; from this point arise four curves, analogous to those diverging from the point O.
At B is a nonvariant system made up of ice, solid phenol, saturated solution and vapour.
At B we have the non-variant cryohydric point at which ice, the hydrate Fe2C16 12H20, the saturated solution and the vapour are in equilibrium at 55° C. As the proportion 26 of salt is increased, the melting point of the con glomerate rises, till, at the -40 maximum point C, we have the pure compound the hydrate with twelve molecules ¦¦ 0.b, E, ?
Crystals of ice may lie side by side with crystals of common salt, but each crystalline individual is either ice or salt; no one crystal contains both components in proportions which can be varied continuously.
Further, in the free surface the solutions of an involatile solute in a volatile solvent, through which surface the vapour of the solvent alone can pass, and in the boundary of a crystal of pure ice in a solution, we have actual surfaces which are in effect perfectly semipermeable.
Similar 'considerations show that, since at its freezing point the vapour pressure of a solution must be in equilibrium with that of ice, the depression of freezing point produced by dissolving a substance in water can be calculated from a knowledge of the vapour pressure of ice and water below the freezing point of pure water.
Let us Freezing freeze out unit mass of solvent from a solution at its freezing point T - dT and remove the ice, which is assumed to be the ice of the pure solvent.
Then let us heat both ice and solution through the infinitesimal temperature range dT to the freezing point T of the solvent, melt the ice by the application of an amount of heat L, which measures its latent heat of fusion, and allow the solvent so formed to enter the solution reversibly through a semi-permeable wall into an engine cylinder, doing an amount of work Pdv.
This solution is stirred continuously and the temperature falls slowly below the freezing point, till the supersaturation point is reached, or until a crystal of ice is introduced.
The solution then freezes, until the heat liberated is enough to raise the tern perature to the point of equilibrium given by the tendency of the solution taken in contact with ice to approach the true freezing point on one side and the temperature of the enclosure on the other.
One way in which this has been secured is by obtaining the under cooling by temporary cooling of the air space by a spiral tube in which ether may be evaporated, the outer vessel being filled with ice in contact with a solution of equivalent concentration to that within.
The difference in the two slopes for water and ice is dp/dT - dp'/d T=L/Tv, Solutions.
where L, the latent heat of fusion, is the difference between the heats of evaporation for ice and water, and v is the specific volume of the vapour.
The latent heat L at any temperature is given by L=Lo - f 0 64 0 (s - s')dT, where Lo is value at To and s--s' is the difference in the specific heats of water and ice.
Among the products are packed meats, flour, beer, trunks, crackers, candy, paint, ice, paste, cigars, clothing, shoes, mattresses, woven wire beds, furniture and overalls; and there are foundries, iron rolling mills and tanneries.
Snow sometimes lies, and ice is stored for summer use.
The optical phenomena produced by atmospheric water and ice may be divided into two classes, according to the relative position of the luminous ring and the source of light.
The two first men who really systematically explored the regions of ice and snow were H.
With the return of a milder climate, the so-called northern forms of the present alpine flora were split in two, one portion following close on the northern ice in its gradual retreat to the Arctic, the other following the shrinking glaciers till the plants were able to establish (or re-establish) themselves on the slopes of the Alps.
The entrance to the port is free from ice nearly all the year round, is excellently buoyed, and lighted by two lightships and eight lighthouses, among the latter the remarkable Rothesand Leuchtturm, erected 1884-1885.
See that the ornamental plants and trees are not injured by heavy weights of ice or snow.
These bridges prove useful in breaking up the ice which forms above them in winter.
The very severe frost of that winter gave his troops an easy passage over all the rivers and low-lying = lands; town after town fell before him; he occupied Over= throw of Amsterdam, and crossing the ice with his cavalry the Stad- took the Dutch fleet, as it lay frost-bound at the holderate.
Of those actually in the Baltic and fit to go to sea, twelve were at Reval shut in by the ice, and the others were at Kronstadt.
Parker's orders were to give Denmark twenty-four hours in which to withdraw from the coalition, and on her refusal to destroy or neutralize her strength and then proceed against the Russians before the breaking up of the ice allowed the ships at Reval to join the squadron at Kronstadt.
The Russian squadron had, however, cut a passage through the ice in the harbour on the 3rd, and had sailed for Kronstadt.
It was opened in 1899 and is a naval station, being free from ice all the year round.
The harbour, which is usually closed by ice from about the middle of December to the second week in May, is sheltered against the east winds by a group of islands.
Its inundations, dangerous even at Cracow, become still more so in the plain, when the accumulations of ice in its lower course obstruct the outflow, or the heavy rains in the Carpathians raise its level.
are not uncommon, and the rivers are generally icebound for two and a half to three months - the Warta being under ice for 70 to 80 days, the Vistula at Warsaw for 80 days and (exceptionally) even for 116, and the Memel for 100 (exceptionally for 140).
Adam's information concerning Vinland did not, however, impress his medieval readers, as he placed the new land somewhere in the Arctic regions: "All those regions which are beyond are filled with insupportable ice and boundless gloom."
The principal manufactures are tobacco, cigars, cigarettes, malt liquors, distilled liquors, cotton fabrics, clothing, ice, lumber, foundry and machine shop products, carriages, waggons, furniture and boots and shoes.
In the foundries and machine shops small engines, boiler§ and church bells are made, and the government maintains an ice and cold-storage plant.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.