How to use Ibrahim in a sentence
Ibrahim, emperor of Delhi, had made himself detested, even by his Afghan nobles, several of whom called upon Baber for assistance.
The intervention of the powers, based on the convention of London of the i 5th of July 1840, led to the withdrawal of Ibrahim from Syria, and the establishment by the firman of the 13th of February 1841 of Mehemet Ali as hereditary pasha of Egypt under conditions intended to safeguard the sovereign rights of the Ottoman sultan.
In 1832 it was taken by the Egyptians under Ibrahim Pasha.
The great battle was fought at Panipat on the 21st of April 1526, when Ibrahim was slain and his army routed.
England and France protested energetically and the treaty remained a dead letter, but the question came up again in 1840, after Mahmud's renewed attempt to crush Mehemet Ali had ended in the utter defeat of the Turks by Ibrahim at Nezib (June 24, 1839).Advertisement
Ibrahim Pasha was encamped near it when directed by his father, at the bidding of the powers, to stay his further advance.
In 1825 it was sacked by Ibrahim Pasha.
The western end of the boulevard leads to the Place Ibrahim, often called Place Ste Catherine, from the Roman Catholic church at its S.E.
The latter withdrew on the viceroy's promise that Ibrahim should evacuate the Morea.
From the time of Eyubi Effendi until the end of the grand vizierate of Ibrahim Pasha (1730), the empire experienced periodical relief from excessive financial distress under the series of remarkable grand viziers who directed the affairs of state during that time, but the recovery was not permanent.Advertisement
In the next year the sultan died at the age of thirty-one, being succeeded by his brother Ibrahim.
The anarchy and misgovernment of Turkey now reached such a pitch that Ibrahim was dethroned and murdered, and Mahom- his son Mahommed IV.
Ibrahim, taking this as a breach of the convention, set sail from Navarino northwards, but was turned back by Sir Edward Codrington, the British admiral.
In July 1828 France had been commissioned to oust Ibrahim from the Morea; and though by a convention, concluded on the 9th of August by Codrington with Mehemet Ali, the principle of evacuation by the Egyptian troops had already been settled before the arrival of the French expedition, the Morea remained for the time in French occupation.
Thus Sultan Ibrahim was dissuaded from such a step in 1644 only by the refusal of the Sheikh-ul-Islam to sanction the proceeding.Advertisement
In Asia Minor the Kurdish troops under Ibrahim Pasha revolted, and, although they were defeated with the loss of their commander, the Kurds continued to attack indiscriminately the Turks, Nestorians and Armenians; disturbances also broke out among the other reactionary Moslems of this region, culminating in a massacre of the Armenians at Adana.
The first printing-press in Turkey was established by an Hungarian who had assumed the name of Ibrahim, and in 1728 (1141) appeared the first book printed in that country; it was Vanlpuli's Turkish translation of Jevheri's Arabic dictionary.
Admiral de Rigny joined him immediately afterwards, and a joint note was sent by them on the 22nd of September to Ibrahim Pasha, who held the superior command for the sultan.
On the 25th an interview took place, in which Ibrahim gave a verbal engagement not to act against the Greeks, pending orders from the sultan.
A French officer in the Egyptian service, of the name of Letellier, had anchored the vessels of Ibrahim and the Turkish admiral in a horseshoe formation, of which the points touched the entrance to the bay, and there were forts on the lands at both sides of the entry.Advertisement
The allies entered in two lines - one formed of the French and British led byCodrington in the "Asia," the other of the Russians, - and began to anchor in the free water in the midst of Ibrahim's fleet.
The administration of affairs was nominally in the hands of Husain Miyan and his brother Ibrahim Miyan.
Ibrahim, with roo,000 soldiers and numerous elephants, advanced against him.
In the meantime Ibrahim Miyan was assassinated; and after various other scenes of anarchy, the rao Bharmulji, son of Rao Rayadan, by general consent, assumed the chief power.
Ready to rise behind Ibrahim Pasha in 1839, it was only prevented by the news of Nezib.Advertisement
Ibrahim and the doctor Abdullah developed into the conquering empire of the Murabits, or, as Christian writers call them, the Almoravides, and there still, among the Berbers, the marabouts enjoy extraordinary influence, being esteemed as living saints and mediators.
Syracuse has been a place of comparatively little importance since the year 878, when it was destroyed by the Saracens under Ibrahim ibn Ahmad.
The three chief of them carried off the waters of the Euphrates to the Tigris above Babylon, - the Zabzallat canal (or Nahr Sarsar) running from Faluja to Ctesiphon, the Kutha canal from Sippara to Madain, passing Tell Ibrahim or Kutha on the way, and the King's canal or Ar-Malcha between the other two.
The disciplined Egyptian army, supported by a well organized fleet, rapidly accomplished what the Turks had failed to do; and by 1826 the Greeks were practically subdued on land, and Ibrahim was preparing to turn his attention to the islands.
Ibrahim, the conqueror of Syria, scoffed at the sultan's idea that reform consisted in putting his soldiers into tight trousers and epaulettes."
In 1834 the revolt of Syria against Ibrahim seemed to give him his opportunity.
When the news of Ibrahim's overwhelming victory at Nessib (June 24, 1839) reached Constantinople, Mahmud lay dying and unconscious.
Burckhardt had hoped in 1815 that the advance of the Egyptian expedition would have given him the opportunity to see something of Nejd, but he had already left Arabia before the overthrow of the Wahhabi power by Ibrahim Pasha had opened Nejd to travellers from Hejaz, and though several European officers accompanied the expedition, none of them left any record of his experience.
On his arrival at Hofuf, Sadlier found that Ibrahim had already left Deraiya, but still hoping to intercept him before quitting Nejd, he followed up the retreating Egyptians through Yemama, and Wushm to Ras in Kasim, where he caught up the main body of Ibrahim's army, though the pasha himself had gone on to Medina.
Here he at last met Ibrahim, but though courteously received, the interview had no results, and Sadlier soon after left for Yambu, whence he embarked for Jidda, and after another fruitless attempt to treat with Ibrahim, sailed for India.
For six months the siege went on with varying fortune, but at last the courage and determination of Ibrahim triumphed, and on the 9th of September, after a heroic resistance, Abdallah, with a remnant of four hundred men, was compelled to surrender.
Mehemet Ali and his son Ibrahim Pasha were, however, now committed to their conflict with Turkey for Syria and Asia Minor, and had no troops to spare for the thankless task of holding the Arabian deserts; the garrisons were gradually withdrawn, and in 1842 Fesal, who had escaped from his prison at Cairo reappeared and was everywhere recognized as amir.
Ibrahim, the last of the Deys (1702-1705), destroyed the house of Mural, and absorbed the beyship in his own office; but, when he fell in battle with the Algerians, Hussein b.
In 1834 the soldiers of Ibrahim Pasha pillaged it.
In 1832 it was occupied by Ibrahim Pasha who defeated and captured the Turkish general, Reshid Pasha, not far from the walls.
Abubekr's successor was Mahommed III., Ahmed ibn Ibrahim el-Ghazi (1507-1543), surnamed Gran (Granye), the left-handed.
The Eastern province consists of well-forested, undulating land (Busoga) on the coast of the lake, a vast extent of marsh round the lake-like backwaters of the Victoria Nile (Lakes Ibrahim or Kioga, Kwania, &c.) and a more stony, open, grain-growing country (Bukedi, Lobor, Karamojo).
Here it broadens into Lake Ibrahim (Kioga) (in reality a vast backwater of the Nile discovered by Colonel Chaille Long in 1874), and continues navigable (save for sudd obstacles at times) right through Lake Ibrahim and thence northwards for loo m.
Bululu is a port on Lake Ibrahim.
Government boats also ply on the Victoria Nile and Lake Kioga (Ibrahim) and on Albert Nyanza and the Mountain Nile.
The same day the Egyptian fleet, under Ibrahim Pasha, sailed from Alexandria.
On the 1st of September, however, Khosrev succeeded in effecting a junction with Ibrahim off Budrun, and two indecisive engagements followed with the united Greek fleet on the 5th and loth.
The object of Ibrahim was to reach Suda Bay with his transports, which the Greeks should at all costs have prevented.
A first attempt was defeated by Miaoulis on the 16th of November, and Ibrahim was compelled to retire and anchor off Rhodes; but the Greek admiral was unable to keep his fleet together, the season was far advanced, his captains were clamouring for arrears of pay, and the Greek fleet sailed for Nauplia, leaving the sea unguarded.
On the 5th of December Ibrahim again set sail, and reached Suda without striking a blow.
The Greek entrenchments were stormed at the point of the bayonet by Ibrahim's fellahin at the first onset; the defenders broke and fled, leaving 600 dead on the field.
But the guerilla tactics of the wily klepht were powerless against Ibrahim, who marched northward, and, avoiding Nauplia for the present, seized Tripolitsa, and made this the base from which his columns marched to devastate the country far and wide.
In September 1825 Ibrahim, at the order of the sultan, had joined Reshid before the town; piecemeal the outlying forts and defences now fell, until the garrison, reduced by starvation and disease, determined to hazard all on a final sortie.
Had Reshid at once advanced over the Isthmus, the Morea also must have been subdued; but he was jealous of Ibrahim, and preferred to return to Iannina to consolidate his conquests.
Finally, after months of inaction, Ibrahim began once more his systematic devastation of the country.
To put a stop to this the Powers decided to intervene by means of a joint demonstration of their fleets, in order to enforce an armistice and compel Ibrahim to evacuate the Morea (Treaty of London, July 6, 1827).
The refusal of Ibrahim to obey, without special instruction from the sultan, led to the entrance of the allied British, French and Russian fleet into the harbour of Navarino and the battle of the 10th of October 1827 (see NAVARINo).
But the favourable account was written under the personal supervision of Timur's grandson, Ibrahim, while the other was the production of his direst enemy.
In 762 he took part in the rising led by Ibrahim ibn 'Abdallah ibn al-IIasan, the 'Alid, called "The Pure Soul," against the caliph al-Mansur, and after the defeat and death of Ibrahim was cast into prison.
The first Seljuk rulers were Toghrul Beg, Chakir Beg and Ibrahim Niyal, the son of Mikail, the son of Seljuk, the son of Tukak, or Tuqaq (also styled Timuryalik, "iron bow").
After this victory the three princes Toghrul Beg, Chakir Beg and Ibrahim Niyal separated in different directions and conquered the Mahommedan provinces east of the Tigris; the last named, after conquering Hamadan and the province of Jebel (Irak i Ajami), penetrated as early as 1048, with fresh Ghuzz troops, into Armenia and reached Manzikert, Erzerutn and Trebizond.
This excited the jealousy of Toghrul Beg, who summoned him to give up Hamadan and the fortresses of Jebel; but Ibrahim refused, and the progress of the Seljukian arms was for some time checked by internal discord - an everrecurring event in their history.
Ibrahim was, however, compelled to submit.
Basasiri had the good fortune to be out of his reach; after acknowledging the right of the Fatimites, he gathered fresh troops and incited Ibrahim Niyal to rebel again, and he succeeded so far that he re-entered Bagdad at the close of 1058.
The next year, however, Toghrul Beg got rid of both his antagonists, Ibrahim being taken prisoner and strangled with the bowstring, while Basasiri fell in battle.
The population (8000) has contained few Moslems since the Moslem quarter was destroyed by Ibrahim Pasha, in revenge for the murder of one of his favourites, after the insurrection of 1834.
In 1589 Ferishta removed to Bijapur, where he spent the remainder of his life under the immediate protection of the shah Ibrahim Adil II., who engaged him to write a history of India.
In 1834 it joined the rebellion against Ibrahim Pasha, who took the town and pillaged it.
For the next 500 years they were given over to their own internal disputes, until they came under the power of Ibrahim Pasha in 1832.
But in 875 the accession of Ibrahim ibn Ahmad in Africa changed the face of things.
In goo Panormus had to be won by a son of Ibrahim from Moslem rebels provoked by his father's cruelty.
But when Ibrahim himself came into Sicily, renewed efforts against the Christians led to the first taking of Tauromenium (908), of Rametta and of other points.
About the year 1040 or a little earlier, one of their chiefs, Yahya ibn Ibrahim, made the pilgrimage to Mecca.
His two successors Ibrahim and Ishak are mere names.
According to this, Ibrahim, after the controversy with the Jews, first of all became Mahomet's special forerunner in Medina, then the first Moslem, and finally the founder of the Ka'ba.
On the tenth day of the last month of the year the Great Festival (Al-id al-kabir), or that of the Sacrifice (commemorating the willingness of Ibrahim to slay his son Ismailaccording to the Arab legend), closes the calendar.
The great saints of Egypt are the imam Ash-Shafii, founder of the persuasion called after him, the sayyid Abmad al-Baidawi, and the sayyid Ibrahim Ed-DesUki, both of whom were founders of orders of dervishes.
War; and after the bloody battle of Konia (1832), where the raw Turkish army was routed and the grand vizier taken prisoner, it was only European intervention which prevented the Egyptian general, Ibrahim Pasha, from marching unopposed to the Bosphorus.
Ibrahim, the hero of Konia, declared, however, that no native Egyptian ought to rise higher than the rank of sergeant; and in the Syrian campaigns nearly all the officers were Turks or Circassians, as were several non-commissioned officers.
After the sultans return they soon rebelled, but were again brought into subjection by Sheiks son Ibrahim; his victories excited the envy of his father, who is said to have poisoned him.
In 1743 Othman Bey, who had governed with wisdom and moderation, was forced to fly from Egypt by the intrigues of two adventurers, Ibrahim and Rilwgn Bey, who, when their scheme had succeeded, began a massacre of beys and others thought to be opposed to them; they then proceeded to govern Egypt jointly, holding the two offices mentioned above in alternate years.
Murad Bey attempted to resist, but was easily defeated; and he with Ibrahim decided to fly to Upper Egypt and await the trend of events.
Mehemet Ali, then in command of an Albanian regiment, became the head of the former, hut his party was the weaker, and he therefore entered into an alliance with the Mameluke leaders Ibrahim Bey and Osmn Bey al-BardisI.
Three days later (March 12th, 1804) they beset the house of the aged Ibrahim Bey, and that of al-Bardisi, both of whom effected their escape with difficulty.
In the year following the massacre the unfortunate exiles were attacked by Ibrahim Pasha, the eldest son of Mehemet Au, in the fortified town of Ibrim, in Nubia.
Here the want of provisions forced them to evacuate the place; a few who surrendered were beheaded, and the rest went farther south and built the town of New D,ongola (correctly Dunkulah), where the venerable Ibrahim Bey died in 1816, at the age of eighty.
The war was long and arduous, but in 1818 Ibrahim captured the WahhAbi;apital of Deriya.
At the close of the year 1819, Ibrahim returned to Cairo, having subdued all present opposition in Arabia.
Here it will suffice to say that the victorious career of Ibrahim, who once more commanded in his fathers name, beginning with the storming of Acre on the 27th of May 1832, and culminating in the rout and capture of Reshid Pasha at Konia on the 21st of December, was arrested by the intervention of Russia.
Adana, reserved for the moment, was bestowed on Ibrahim under the style of muhassil, or collector of the crown revenues, a few days later.
In September 1848 Ibrahim was acknowledged by the Porte as ruler of the pashalik, but he died in the November (i.) Mehemet Ali, b.
In January 1863 Said Pasha died and was succeeded by his nephew Ismail, a son of Ibrahim Pasha.
Though the Khalif were hapless as Bayezid, cruel as Murad, or mad as Ibrahim, he is the shadow of God, and every Moslem must leap up at his call ou will say, The Egyptian is more ungrateful than a dog, which remembers the hand that fed him.
He occupied Abu Klea wells and Metemma; recalled the amir Ibrahim Khalil, with 4000 men, from the Ghezira; brought to Omdurman thc army of the west under Mahmudsome 10,000 men; entrusted the line of the AtbaraEd Darner, Adarama, Asubri and El Fasherto Osman Digna; constructed defences in the Shabluka gorge; and personally superintended the organization and drill of the forces gathered at Orndurman, and the collection of vast stores of food and supplies of camels for offensive expeditions.
He had, moreover, to contend with domestic enemies, and with difficulty defeated a league formed against him by some Mussulman tribes, under Ibrahim of Berat and Mustapha of Delvinon, and the Suliots.
In 1822 (as in 1872) Antakia suffered by earthquake, and when Ibrahim Pasha made it his headquarters in 1835, it had only some 5000 inhabitants.
The latter accordingly sent 20,000 men under the command of his son Ibrahim Pasha, who besieged Acre in 1831 and entered and plundered it.
Its citadel was courageously defended by the patriots (1822); in 1825 the city was burnt to the ground by Ibrahim Pasha.
In 1526 Baber, the fifth in descent from Timur, and also the fifth Mahommedan conqueror, invaded India at the instigation of the governor of the Punjab, won the victory of Panipat over Ibrahim, the last of the Lodi dynasty, and founded the Mogul empire, which lasted, at least in name, until 1857.
A vague message from Mahommed, that it was the duty of every good Moslem to take part with the family of the Prophet, was interpreted in favour of Mokhtar, and thenceforward all the Shiites, among them the powerful Ibrahim, son of Ali's right hand Malik Ashtar, followed him blindly as their chief.
An army despatched against Obaidallah under Ibrahim routed the Syrians near Mosul (battle of Khazir); Obaidallah and Hosain b.
Abdalmalik, therefore, wrote secretly to the chiefs of Mus`ab's army, and persuaded them to desert to him, with the exception of Ibrahim b.
The history of his four successors, Walid II., Yazid III., Ibrahim and Merwan II., is but the history of the fall of the Omayyads.
Suleiman then made himself master of the treasury and fled with the caliph Ibrahim to Tadmor (Palmyra).
Hisham and Ibrahim tendered their submission and were pardoned.
Ibrahim had a confidant about whose antecedents one fact alone seems certain, that he was a maula (client) of Persian origin.
Merwan had at last discovered who was the real chief of the movement in Khorasan, and had seized upon Ibrahim the Imam and imprisoned him at Harran.
This Abu Salama seems to have had scruples against recognizing Abul-Abbas as the successor of his brother Ibrahim, and to have expected that the Mandi, whom he looked for from Medina, would not be slow in making his appearance, little thinking that an Abbasid would present himself as such.
From the year Boo, it must be added, Africa only nominally belonged to the Abbasids; for, under the reign of Harun al-Rashid, Ibrahim b.
Obaidallah governor of Medina, with orders to lay hands on Mahommed and his brother Ibrahim, who, warned betimes, took refuge in flight.
On the same day Mahommed was to raise the standard of revolt in Medina, Ibrahim in Basra.
In the meanwhile Ibrahim had not only gained possession of Basra, Ahwaz and Fars, but had even occupied Wasit.
Had Ibrahim marched at once against Kufa he might have crushed Mansur, but he let slip the opportunity.
Moslim, came to the rescue by attacking the rear of Ibrahim.
Homaid rallied his troops, and Ibrahim was overpowered.
Ibrahim, surnamed al-Barm, was suppressed by Yazid b.
Abdallah, another brother of Mahommed and Ibrahim, who had taken refuge in the land of Dailam on the south-western shores of the Caspian Sea, succeeded in forming a powerful party, and publicly claimed the Caliphate.
Musa, declared Mamun deposed, and elected his uncle, Ibrahim, son of Mandi, to the Caliphate.'
From that moment the pseudo-caliph Ibrahim found himself deserted, and was obliged to seek safety in concealment.
The pseudo-caliph, Ibrahim, who, since Mamun's entry into Bagdad, had led a wandering life, was eventually arrested.
After that time, Ibrahim lived peacefully at the court, cultivating the arts of singing and music.
Before the war of independence it was the capital of the Morea and the seat of a pasha, with about 20,000 inhabitants; but in 1821 it was taken and sacked by the insurgents, and in 1825 its ruin was completed by Ibrahim Pasha.
The Wahhabi War, indeed, dragged on till 1818, when Ibrahim (q.v.), the pasha's son, who in 1816 had driven the remnant of the Mamelukes into Nubia, brought it to an end.
The immediate price was the pashalik of Crete; in the event of the victory of the Egyptian arms the pashaliks of Syria and Damascus were to fall to Mehemet Ali, that of the Morea to his son Ibrahim.
The stubborn resistance of the garrison delayed Ibrahim's progress; and, meanwhile, wild rumours went abroad as to Mehemet Ali's intentions.
Meanwhile, Ibrahim had occupied Gaza and Jerusalem as well as Jaffa; on the 27th of May, a few days after the publication of the ban, Acre was stormed; on the 15th of June the Egyptians occupied Damascus.
Ibrahim pressed on with characteristic rapidity, his rapid advance being favoured by the friendly attitude of the various sections of the Syrian population, whom he had been at pains to conciliate.
Palmerston, however, did not share Canning's belief in the possible regeneration of Turkey; he held that an isolated intervention of Great Britain would mortally offend not only Russia but France, and that Mehemet Ali, disappointed of his ambitions, would find in France a support that would make him doubly dangerous.1 In the autumn Sultan Mahmud, as a last independent effort, despatched against Ibrahim the army which, under Reshid Pasha, had been engaged in pacifying Albania.
Ottoman agents, backed by letters from the French charge d'affaires, were sent to Mehemet Ali and to Ibrahim, to point out the imminence of Russian intervention and to offer modified terms. Muraviev himself went to Alexandria, where, backed by the Austrian agent, Count Prokesch-Osten, he announced to the pasha the tsar's immutable hatred of rebels.
Mehemet Ali merely protested the complete loyalty of his intentions; Ibrahim, declaring that as a soldier he had no choice but to obey his father's orders, advanced to Afium-Karahissar and Kutaiah, whence he wrote to the sultan asking his gracious permission to advance to Brusa.
The Russian squadron was detained by contrary winds, and before it could sail peremptory orders arrived from the tsar for it to remain until Ibrahim should have repassed the Taurus mountains.
France and Great Britain now urged the sultan to yield, and in March a Turkish agent was sent to Ibrahim to offer the pashaliks of Syria, Aleppo and Damascus.
The Porte now tried once more to modify its terms; but the Western powers were now intent on getting rid of the Russians at all costs, and as a result of the pressure they brought to bear on both parties the preliminary convention of Kutaiah, conceding all the Egyptian demands, was signed on the 8th of April, and Ibrahim began his withdrawal.
The convention stipulated for the bestowal of the pashalik of Adana on Ibrahim; but when on the 16th he received the official list of appointments, he found that Adana had been expressly reserved by the sultan.
He at once arrested his march; but the pressure of famine in the capital, caused by the cutting off of supplies from Asia and the presence of the large Russian force, compelled Mahmud to yield, and on the 3rd of May a firman ceded Adana to Ibrahim under the pretext of appointing him muhassil, or collector of the revenue.
On the 23rd of June it was attacked and utterly routed by Ibrahim at Nezib.
The grand vizier, in the sultan's name, wrote beseeching him to avoid the further shedding of Mussulman blood, offering him a free pardon, the highest honours of the state, the hereditary pashalik of Egypt for himself, and Syria for Ibrahim until he should succeed his father in Egypt.
On the 3 rd of October Beirut fell; and Ibrahim, cut off from his communications by sea, and surrounded by a hostile population, began a hurried retreat southward.
He was an old man; his mind was soon to give way; and for some time before his death on the 2nd of August 1849 the reins of power were held by his son and successor Ibrahim,who did not long survive him.
The most important event was the advance (1832-1833) of an Egyptian army, under Ibrahim Pasha, through the Cilician Gates to Konia and Kutaiah.
But the invaders appear to have acquired only an imperfect possession of the country, as it was again wrested from the Hindu princes of Orissa about the year 1571, during the reign of Ibrahim, of the Kutb Shahi dynasty of Hyderabad or Golconda.
In 1805 Ibrahim Khan of Kara-bagh invoked the protection of Russia, but the annexation was not completed until 1822.
Jezzar was succeeded on his death by his son Suleiman, under whose milder rule the town advanced in prosperity till 1831, when Ibrahim Pasha besieged and reduced the town and destroyed its buildings.
Ultimately in the reign of Merwan II.the non-Arabic Moslems found a leader in AbuMoslim, a maula (client) of Persian origin and a henchman of Ibrahim b.
There were Timurid governors of Fars under Shah Rukh, Pir Mahommed (1405-1409), Iskendar (140914,4), Ibrahim (1415-1434) and Abdallah (1434); in other parts of Persia many of the Timurid family held governorships of greater or less importance.
Three sons were the issue of this marriage, Sultan Ali, Ibrahim Mirza, and the youngest, Ism&il, the date of whose birth is put down as 1480 for reasons which will appear hereafter.
Adil Shah was soon dethroned by his own brother, Ibrahim, and he in his turn was defeated by the adherents of Shah Rukh, who made their leader king.
Hajji Ibrahim became his chief adviser, and a new minister was found for him in Mirza Uosain Shirazi.
But Hajji Ibrahim had been intriguing against his sovereign, to whose family he owed everything, not only with his officers and soldiers but also with Aga Mahommed, the chief of the Kajars, and arch-enemy of the Zends.
Lutf Ali Khan was suddenly deserted by the whole of his army, except seventy faithful followers; and when he retreated to Shiraz he found the gates closed against him by Hajji Ibrahim, who held the city for the Kajar chief, Thence falling back upon Bushire, he found that the sheikh of that town had also betrayed him.
Somewhat later Ibrahim Khalil of Shusha, repenting of his Russophilism, determined to deliver up the Muscovite garrison at that place, but his plans were betrayed, and he and his relatives put to death.
Of these the north-westerly, the lower of the two, but the larger in superficial area, is called Ibrahim Khalil, from a ziara, or shrine, of Abraham, the friend of God, which stands on its highest point.
In 1821 the Greeks captured the town, situated near the southern extremity of the bay, but in 1825 they had to retire before Ibrahim Pasha.
In 1526 Baber, sixth in descent from Timurlane, invaded India, defeated and killed Ibrahim Lodi at the battle of Panipat, entered Delhi, was proclaimed emperor, and finally put an end to the Afghan empire.
Next to this comes the Ibrahim Roza, or tomb and mosque of Ibrahim Adil Shah II., which was completed about 1620 and is supposed to be one of the most exquisite buildings in the world after the Taj at Agra.
As a young man he fought in Syria under Ibrahim Pasha, his real or supposed uncle.
The death of Ibrahim in November 1848 made Abbas regent of Egypt, and in August following, on the death of Mehemet Ali - who had been deposed in July 1848 on account of mental weakness, - Abbas succeeded to the pashalik.
After the defeat of the Turkish army at Konia it was granted to Ibrahim Pasha, and though the firman announcing his appointment named him only muhassil, or collector of the crown revenue, it continued to be held by the Egyptians till the treaty of July 1840 restored it to the Porte.
After the Ka`ba the principal points of interest in the mosque are the well Zamzam and the Maqam Ibrahim.
The whole legend of this stone, which is full of miraculous incidents, seems to have arisen from a misconception, the Maqam Ibrahim in the Koran meaning the sanctuary itself; but the stone, which is a block about 3 spans in height and 2 in breadth, and in shape "like a potter's furnace" (Ibn Jubair), is certainly very ancient.
Invading armies from the south have often been opposed near Homs, from the time of Rameses II., who had to fight the battle of Kadesh, to that of Ibrahim Pasha, who broke the first line of Ottoman defence in 1831 by his victory there.
The ruins of this castle, blown up by Ibrahim Pasha, are still the most conspicuous feature of Homs, and contain many remains of ancient buildings.
In the north Ibrahim Pasha Milli, and in the south the Sheikh of Barzan and Sheikh Said Barzinja of Sulaimani, became the great leaders, while Saiyid Taha of Shemsdinan held the greatest power in central Kurdistan.
When in 1908 the Turkish Revolution occurred, resulting in the deposition of the Sultan and the victory of Enver Bey's Young Turk party, Kurdistan remained generally loyal to the old regime, and Ibrahim Pasha Milli and Sheikh Said of Sulaimani both declared themselves loyalists.
In 1909 Ibrahim Pasha Milli was defeated and lost his life and comparative order was restored in his district.
The invasion of Syria by Mehemet Ali in 1831 caused Beshir to desert Abdallah and throw in his lot with Ibrahim Pasha; but he was not cordially followed by the Druses in general, and had good excuse for revolt in 1839, and intrigue with the British admiral in 1840.
Ibrahim, however, by his possession of Druse hostages, restrained the amir, and after the bombardment of Acre, the Turks called him to account for his record of rebellion and treachery.
They had successfully resisted Ibrahim, the Egyptian, in 1839 in the Lija, and asserted complete independence of the Turks, living under a theocratic government directed by the chief Akil in Suweda.
When Mehemet Ali went to Arabia to prosecute the war against the Wahhabis in 1813, Ibrahim was left in command in Upper Egypt.
Mehemet Ali had already begun to introduce European discipline into his army, and Ibrahim had probably received some training, but his first campaign was conducted more in the old Asiatic style than his later operations.
Ibrahim landed at Yembo, the port of Medina, on the 30th of September 1816.
The holy cities had been recovered from the Wahhabis, and Ibrahim's task was to follow them into the desert of Nejd and destroy their fortresses.
Ibrahim displayed great energy and tenacity, sharing all the hardships of his army, and never allowing himself to be discouraged by failure.
Ibrahim set an example by submitting to be drilled as a recruit.
When in 1824 Mehemet Ali was appointed governor of the Morea by the sultan, who desired his help against the insurgent Greeks, he sent Ibrahim with a squadron and an army of 17,000 men.
Ibrahim's operations in the Morea were energetic and ferocious.
By the terms of the capitulation of the 1st of October 1828, Ibrahim evacuated the country.
In 1831, his father's quarrel with the Porte having become flagrant, Ibrahim was sent to conquer Syria.
After the campaign of 1832 and 1833 Ibrahim remained as governor in Syria.
Ibrahim won his last victory for his father at Nezib on the 24th of June 1839.
Ibrahim spent the rest of his life in peace, but his health was ruined.
A great deal of unpublished material of the highest interest with regard to Ibrahim's personality and his system in Syria is preserved in the British Foreign Office archives; for references to these see Cambridge Mod.
During the succeeding epoch of rebellion at Acre under Jezzar and Abdullah pashas, Beirut declined to a small town of about 10,000 souls, in dispute between the Druses, the Turks and the pashas, - a state of things which lasted till Ibrahim Pasha captured Acre in 1832.
When the powers moved against the Egyptians in 1840, Beirut had recently been occupied in force by Ibrahim as a menace to the Druses; but he was easily driven out after a destructive bombardment by Admiral Sir Robert Stopford (1768-1847).
The wealthier inhabitants have summer residences at Beilan near the summit of the pass, long a stronghold of freebooting Dere Beys and the scene of the victory won by Ibrahim Pasha in 1832, which opened Cilicia to his advance.
In its more recent history the only incidents that need be mentioned are its capture by Ibrahim Pasha, the Egyptian general, in 1832, when the city was first opened to the representatives of foreign powers; its revolt against Ibrahim's tyranny in 1834, which he crushed with the aid of the Druses; the return of the city to Turkish domination, when the Egyptians were driven out of Syria in 1840 by the allied powers; and the massacre of July 1860, when the Moslem population rose against the Christians, burnt their quarter, and slaughtered about 3000 adult males.
Ibrahim says his business has been pummeled as people have become more observant.
I will use the story of Ibrahim Khalil the former Egyptian Coptic priest.
Ibrahim worked as a porter, singer, drummer, circus strongman and shoe shine.
The tsar consented, and proposed that the coercion should take the form of a pacific blockade of the Morea, so as to force Ibrahim, by cutting off his supplies, to evacuate the country.
Ibrahim Pasha replaced Tusun in command, and on reaching Arabia in September 1816 his first aim was to gain over the great Bedouin tribes holding the roads between Hejaz and his objective in Nejd; having thus secured his line of advance he pushed on boldly and defeated Abdallah at Wiya, where he put to death all prisoners taken; thence rapidly advancing, with contingents of the friendly Harb and Muter tribes in support of his regular troops, he laid siege to Ras; this place, however, held out and after a four months' siege he was compelled to give up the attack.
Kadisha, "the holy river" (the valley of which begins in the immediate neighbourhood of the highest summits, and rapidly descends in a series of great bends till the river reaches the sea at Tripoli), Wadi el-Joz (falling into the sea at Batrun), Wadi Fidar, Nahr Ibrahim (the ancient Adonis, having its source in a recess of the great mountain amphitheatre where the famous sanctuary Apheca, the modern Afka, lay), Nahr el-Kelb (the ancient Lycus), Nahr Beirut (the ancient Magoras, entering the sea at Beirut), Nahr Damur (ancient Tamyras), Nahr el-'Auwali (the ancient Bostrenus, which in the upper part of its course is joined by the Nahr el-Baruk).
The original apostle of America was Ibrahim George Khayru'llah, who began his propaganda at the Chicago Exhibition and later supported the claims of Muhammad `Ali.
The history of the events that led up to the battle of Navarino and the liberation of Greece is told elsewhere (see NAVARINO and GREEK INDEPENDENCE, WAR OF); the withdrawal of the Egyptians from the Morea was ultimately due to the action of Admiral Sir Edward Codrington, who early in August 1828 appeared before Alexandria and induced the pasha, by no means sorry to have a reasonable excuse, by a threat of bombardment, to sign a convention undertaking to recall Ibrahim and his army.
Abdallah, a brother of Mahommed and Ibrahim, the rivals of Mansur, succeeded in escaping, and fled to Egypt, whence by the help of the postmaster, himself a secret partisan of the Shiites, he passed into West Africa, where at a later period his son founded the Idrisite dynasty in Fez (see Morocco).
Salman (under Sultan Ibrahim, 1059 1099) had successfully continued, reached its perfection in the famous group of panegyrists who gathered in the first half of the 6th century of the Hegira round the throne of Sultan Sinjar, and partly also round that of his great antagonist, Atsiz, shah of Khwarizm.
Ibrahim was undoubtedly helped by Colonel Seve and the European officers in his army, but his intelligent docility to their advice, as well as his personal hardihood and energy, compare most favourably with the sloth, ignorance and arrogant conceit of the Turkish generals opposed to him.
Love To Know Cleaning sat down to talk with Mareya Ibrahim, the co-founder of Eat Cleaner, mom and working woman who wants what's best for her family.
As Mareya Ibrahim stated in her interview, you wouldn't come in from working in the garden to wash your hands in just water.
Eat Cleaner offers a seafood and poultry cleaner that helps remove the "yuk" factor as Ibrahim describes it - the slime that is typically on stored chicken and fish.
Mareya Ibrahim shops for her family, like most other mothers, she brings home the fresh produce and she cleans it right away using the fruit and vegetable wash.
Love To Know would like to thank Mareya Ibrahim for taking the time to share more information about their products and eating cleaner.
Laristan remained an independent state under a Turkish ruler until 1602, when Shah Ibrahim Khan was deposed and put to death by Shah `Abbas the Great.
Nisibis (Nezib) appeared for the last time in history in 1839, when the Egyptians under Ibrahim Pasha defeated the Turkish army under Hafiz Pasha on the 24th of June in a battle at which von Moltke was present.
He here continued to render great service to Abu Salem (Ibrahim III.), Abu Inan's successor, but, having offended the prime minister, he obtained permission to emigrate to Spain, where, at Granada, he was received with great cordiality by Ibn al Ahmar, who had been greatly indebted to his good offices when an exile at the court of Abu Salem.
Russia, driven from Azov in 1695, succeeded in capturing it in the following year; Venice continued to press the Turks; in this condition of affairs Hussein Kuprili (q.v.) was called to office; England and Holland urged Turkey to Ibrahim, Ahmed II., 1691-1695.
The armistice, accepted by the Greeks, was refused by Ibrahim, pending instructions from Constantinople, though he consented to keep his ships in the harbour of Navarino.
On the 23rd of June it was attacked by Ibrahim at Nezib and annihilated.
Ibrahim Pasha, though unable to operate at sea, considered himself at liberty to carry on the war by land.
On the 17th of October, a joint letter of expostulation was sent in to Ibrahim Pasha, but was returned with the manifestly false answer that he had left Navarino, and that his officers did not know where he was.