In that hypothetical situation, what would the defense contractor want?
On these lines the equations of concentration cells, deduced above on less hypothetical grounds, may be regained.
These salts are considered to be derived from the hypothetical base OH 3.
But such a hypothetical simplicity is the necessary step for solving the more complex problems of nature.
Birkeland (19), who has made a special study of magnetic disturbances in the Arctic, proceeding on the hypothesis that they arise from electric currents in the atmosphere, and who has thence attempted to deduce the position and intensity of these currents, asserts that whilst in the case of many storms the data were insufficient, when it was possible to fix the position of the mean line of flow of the hypothetical current relatively to an auroral arc, he invariably found the directions coincident or nearly so.
By Wilhelm Ostwald especially, attempts have been made to substitute the notion of atoms and molecular structure by less hypothetical conceptions; these ideas may some day receive thorough confirmation, and when this occurs science will receive a striking impetus.
These observations confirmed by experimental demonstration the hypothetical conclusions of Bell.
These theories endeavour to discover the means by which the exceptional occurrence is brought about; but the explanation is merely hypothetical, and we are not helped in conceiving the mode of the divine activity in the working of miracles.
1-9; and an examination of their contents makes it evident that, though the last two groups are unmistakably derived from E, they cannot have formed part of the original "Book of the Covenant"; for the "judgments," which are expressed in a hypothetical form, consist of a number of legal decisions on points of civil law.
To the work carried on by the Imperial Cancer Research Fund in England, and to investigators in other countries, are due the present day scientific efforts made to systematize investigation and clear away many of the hypothetical speculations that have gathered round this most difficult subject.
The viceroys of Peru still persevered in their attempts to plant a colony in the hypothetical southern continent.
Nitzsch argues against the doctrine of the annihilation of the wicked, regards the teaching of Scripture about eternal damnation as hypothetical, and thinks it possible that Paul reached the hope of universal restoration.
On examination of the metal and its salts it was shown to be identical with the hypothetical element ekasilicon, whose properties had been predicted by D.
This theory, however, is based upon a hypothetical reconstruction of the Gospel in question which has found very few supporters.
Of itself it causes a necessity of consequence, but only a hypothetical necessity; if these premises are true, then this conclusion necessarily follows.
Here the Bashgol and Chitral valleys unite and the boundary passes to the water-divide east of the Chitral river, after crossing it by a spur which leaves the insignificant Arnawai valley to the north; along this water-divide it extends to a point nearly opposite the quaint old town of Pashat in the Kunar valley (the Chitral river has become the Kunar in its course southwards), and then stretches away in an uneven and undefined line, dividing certain sections of the Mohmands from each other by hypothetical landmarks, till it strikes the Kabul river near Palosi.
- A hypothetical pictorial restoration of the mother ichthyosaur accompanied by five of its newly born young, from the information furnished by actual fossils.
The Lamellibranchia are no longer regarded as a distinct branch in contrast to the remaining Mollusca; according to Pelseneer they are allied to the Gastropoda and Scaphopoda, all three classes being derived from a common hypothetical ancestor, called Prorhipidoglossum.
A cable sent to India in the evening may bring a reply next morning, and in these days of rapid cotton fluctuations mail advices are confined mainly to general discussion, hypothetical inquiry, advice, admonition and complaint.
Historical tradition was already dim when the hypothetical and much discussed cantilenae, which may be taken to have formed the repository of the national legends from the 8th to the 10th century, were succeeded in the 11th and the early 12th centuries by the chansons de geste.
In view of the results of this analysis, Reid's theory (and the theory of Scottish philosophy generally) has been dubbed natural realism or natural dualism, in contrast to theories like subjective idealism and materialism or to the cosmothetic idealism or hypothetical dualism of the majority of philosophers.
Adopting a hypothetical law of the dispersion of differently coloured rays of light, he proved analytically the possibility of constructing an achromatic object-glass composed of lenses of glass and water.
abounds in matter spoken by Mary and Darnley which could not be borrowed by the hypothetical forger from Crawford's Declaration, for it does not contain the facts.
It never has been, and never can be, more than an indication of the kind of thing which might he expected in a purely hypothetical world.
Weber therefore supposed each molecule to be acted on by a force tending to preserve it in its original direction, the position actually assumed by the axis being in the direction of the resultant of this hypothetical force and the applied magnetizing force.
The disturbing conditions of will, life and organic forces are eliminated from the problem; he starts with the clear and distinct idea of extension, figured and moved, and thence by mathematical laws he gives a hypothetical explanation of all things.
It is at once obvious that we are dealing not with an abstract scheme of regulation in a hypothetical world, but with an act of parliament nominally in force for two hundred and fifty years, and applicable to a great variety of trades whose organization and history can be ascertained.
An instance of the latter is the work of Robert Willan (1757-1812) on diseases of the skin - a department of medicine in which abstract and hypothetical views had been especially injurious.
Hamilton (Discussions, p. 197) allows greater sagacity to Collier than to Berkeley, on the ground that he did not vainly attempt to enlist men's natural belief against the hypothetical realism of the philosophers.
The merit of Hegel is to have indicated and to a large extent displayed the filiation and mutual limitation of our forms of thought; to have arranged them in the order of their comparative capacity to give a satisfactory expression to truth in the totality of its relations; and to have broken down the partition which in Kant separated the formal logic from the transcendental analytic, as well as the general disruption between logic and metaphysic. It must at the same time be admitted that much of the work of weaving the terms of thought, the categories, into a system has a hypothetical and tentative character, and that Hegel has rather pointed out the path which logic must follow, viz.
In 1868 they noticed in the solar spectrum a bright yellow line which did not correspond to any substance then known, and which they therefore attributed to the then hypothetical element, helium.
the hypothetical radicals of acids, were denoted by squares enclosing the initial letter of the base; an alkali was denoted by a triangle, and the particular alkali by inserting the initial letter.
Against this hypothetical reconstruction is the fact that Solomon appears to have selected the occasion of the feast for the dedication of the temple, and that it lasted, even in his time, seven days (1 Kings viii.
Some of the regulations are couched in hypothetical form, but their contents are of a different character to the "judgments," e.g.
Their natural resemblances and differences are only to be expressed by disposing them as if they were branches springing from a common hypothetical centre.
Opposition to the " hydrogen-acid " theory centred mainly about the hypothetical radicals which it postulated; moreover, the electrochemical theory of Berzelius exerted a stultifying influence on the correct views of Davy and Dulong.
It is an experimental or observational science, founded on primary or immediate judgments (in his phraseology, perceptions), of relation between facts of intuition; its conclusions are hypothetical only in so far as they do not imply the existence at the moment of corresponding real experience; and its propositions have no exact truth.
If we find that of these A stands apart, showing no great similarity to any of the other six, while B, C, D on the one side, and E, F, G on the other, much resemble each other though differing considerably from the rest, we may express this by saying that B, C, D form a "family" descended from a hypothetical common "ancestor" which we may call X, and E, F, G another "family" descended from a hypothetical "ancestor" which we may call Y.
and it seems highly probable by this delicate mode of analysis that the hypothetical position of any hydrogen which is replaced may be identified, a point which is of prime importance in organic chemistry.
The three evidences, which are fatal to intuitive realism, do not prove hypothetical realism, or the hypothesis that we perceive something mental, but infer something bodily.
But the Cartesian theory, like the later speculations of Kant and Laplace, proposes to give a hypothetical explanation of the circumstances and motions which in the normal course of things led to the state of things required by the law of attraction.
But notwithstanding its illogicality, its tendency to underrate Nature as inferred from such idealistic premises, and its certain transition into a consistent idealism, hypothetical realism has, with little excuse, revived among us in the writings of Shadworth Hodgson, James Martineau and A.
That the propositions are hypothetical in this fashion does not imply any distinction between the abstract truth of the ideal judgments and the im p erfect correspondence of concrete material with these abstract relations.
It is necessary to notice, however, that although the general course of the stream of life is certain, there is not the same certainty as to the actual individual pedigrees of the existing forms. In the attempts to place existing creatures in approximately phylogenetic order, a striking change, due to a more logical consideration of the process of evolution, has become established and is already resolving many of the earlier difficulties and banishing from the more recent tables the numerous hypothetical intermediate forms so familiar in the older phylogenetic trees.
To the primitive two-cell-layered form, the hypothetical ancestor of all Metazoa or Enterozoa, Haeckel gave the name Gastraea; the em- bryonic form which represents in the individual growth from the egg this ancestral condition he called a " gastrula."
The figure here given represents such a hypothetical form according to present views.
The conditions, however, as regards pressure and temperature under which the hypothetical discharges take place must vary greatly in different auroras, or even sometimes in different parts of the same aurora.
We reach similar conclusions when we recognize that the laws of nature are general or hypothetical; not in Mill's sense (" If you had such a non-existent thing as three perfectly straight lines united in a triangle "), but in a sense noted in F.
Nobody, however, has ventured exactly to reconstitute this hypothetical phrase; nor is the theory easy to reconcile with (i.) the uncertainty of canonists at the time when the locution was quite recent, (ii.) the fact that Clement V.
The fact that conduction occurred preponderantly in certain directions was explained by appeal to a hypothetical resistance to conduction which, for reasons unascertained, lay less in some directions than in others.
Tschermak, in 1878, regarded them as isomorphous mixtures of the following fundamental molecules: H 2 KA1 3 (SiO 4) 3, corresponding with muscovite; Mg 6 Si 3 0 12, a hypothetical polymer of olivine; and H4S15012, a hypothetical silicic acid.
The trend of modern critical opinion is towards accepting Map as the author of a Lancelot romance, which formed the basis for later developments, and there is a growing tendency to identify this hypothetical original Lancelot with the source of the German Lanzelet.
When once the fixed conditions which any hypothetical group of entities are to satisfy have been precisely formulated, the deduction of the further propositions, which also will hold respecting them, can proceed in complete independence of the question as to whether or no any such group of entities can be found in the world of phenomena.
But the belief died hard; the synthesis of urea remained isolated for many years; and many explanations were attempted by the vitalists (as, for instance, that urea was halfway between the inorganic and organic kingdoms, or that the carbon, from which it was obtained, retained the essentials of this hypothetical vital force), but only to succumb at a later date to the indubitable fact that the same laws of chemical combination prevail in both the animate and inanimate kingdoms, and that the artificial or laboratory synthesis of any substance, either inorganic or organic, is but a question of time, once its constitution is determined.'.
Both were in turn replaced by the Lower Mesozoic flora, which again is thought to have had its birth in the hypothetical Gondwana land, and in which Gymnosperms played the leading part formerly taken by vascular Cryptogams. The abundance of Cycadean plants is one of its most striking features.
Norman Lockyer, and ascribed by him to a hypothetical element helium.
Geometry again is regarded by thoroughgoing empiricists as hypothetical.
III, Hypothetical transition from II to the indirect method with an entocodon; the formation of the manubrium is retarded, that of the umbrella hastened (IIIa, b).
The significance of this complex series of changes is very largely hypothetical.
He accepts Fechner's extension of Weber's law of the external stimuli of sense, while judiciously remarking that " the physiological interpretation is entirely hypothetical."
He definitely repudiates a view often ascribed to him, and certainly advanced by many later empiricists, that the data of geometry are hypothetical.
No question arises regarding the existence of the fact represented by the idea, and in so far, at least, mathematical judgments may be described as hypothetical.
All other judgments and inferences about existing things, or ideas, or names, whether categorical or hypothetical, are afterthoughts, partly true and partly false.
you and I are men, or hypothetical, or disjunctive, &c.
This attempt is connected with the psychological turn given to recent philosophy by Wundt and others, and is dangerous only so far as psychology itself is hypothetical.
On the one hand, early in the igth century Herbart started the view that a categorical judgment is never a judgment of existence, but always hypothetical; on the other hand, in the latter part of the century Brentano started the view that all categorical judgments are existential.
The judgment, " A non-existent but so-called square circle is an impossibility," is an unconditional, or categorical judgment of non-existence, quite different from any hypothetical judgment, which depends on the conditions " if it is thought," or " if it exists," or any other " if."
27, 36) that, while a particular is a categorical judgment of existence, a universal is hypothetical, on the ground that it does not refer to a definite number of individuals, or to individuals at all, but rather to general ideas, and that the appropriate form of " all M is P " is " if anything is M it is P."
In opposition, a categorical particular is the contradictory of a universal, which is also categorical, not hypothetical, e.g., "not all M is P" is the contradictory of " all M is P," not of " if anything is M it is P."
How absurd to suppose that here we pass from a particular categorical to a universal hypothetical, and then treat this very conclusion as a particular categorical to pass to a higher universal hypothetical !
In no case is a universal hypothetical, unless we think it under a condition; for in a universal judgment about the non-existing, e.g.
When Bosanquet says that in " Heat is a mode of motion " there is no reference to individual objects, but " a pure hypothetical form which absolutely neglects the existence of objects," he falls far short of expressing the nature of this scientific judgment, for in his Theory of Heat Clerk Maxwell describes it as " believing heat as it exists in a hot body to be in the form of kinetic energy."
Finally, a universal judgment is often existential; but whether it is so or not it remains categorical, so long as it introduces no hypothetical antecedent about the existence of the thing signified by the subject.
It is true that even in universal judgments of existence there is often a hypothetical element; for example, " All men are mortal " contains a doubt whether every man whatever, whenever and wherever existing, must die.
Hence the hypothetical element is not a hypothetical antecedent " If anything is a' man," but an uncertain conclusion that " All existing men are mortal."
In other words, a categorical universal is often problematic, but a problematic is not the same as a hypothetical judgment.
This is why they confuse the categorical and the universal with the hypothetical.
In ordinary life we may say, " All men are mortal," " All centaurs are figments," " All square circles are impossibilities," " All candidates arriving five minutes late are fined " (the last proposition being an example of the identification of categorical with hypothetical in Keynes's Formal Logic).
But of these universal propositions the first imperfectly expresses a categorical belief in existing things, the second in thinkable things, and the third in nameable things, while the fourth is a slipshod categorical expression of the hypothetical belief, " If any candidates arrive late they are fined."
On the other hand, if on the plan of Sigwart categorical universals were reducible to hypotheticals, the same inference would be a pure hypothetical syllogism, thus: If anything is a man it is mortal.
Sigwart does not indeed shrink from this and greater absurdities; he reduces the first figure to the modus ponens and the second to the modus tollens of the hypothetical syllogism, and then, finding no place for the third figure, denies that it can infer necessity; whereas it really infers the necessary consequence of particular conclusions.
But the crowning absurdity is that, if all universals were hypothetical, Barbara in the first figure would become a purely hypothetical syllogism - a consequence which seems innocent enough until we remember that all universal affirmative conclusions in all sciences would with their premises dissolve into mere hypothesis.
But in a hypothetical syllogism of the ordinary mixed type, the first or hypothetical premise is a conditional belief, e.g.
But even Sigwart's errors are outdone by Lotze, who not only reduces " Every NI is P " so " If S is M, S is P," but proceeds to reduce this hypothetical to the disjunctive, " If S is NI, S is P L or P 2 or 1 33, " and finds fault with the Aristotelian syllogism because it contents itself with inferring " S is P " without showing what P. Now there are occasions when we want to reason in this disjunctive manner, to consider whether S is I n or P 2 or P 3, and to conclude that " S is a particular P "; but ordinarily all we want to know is that " S is P "; e.g.
Worse still, Jevons proceeded to confuse analytic deduction from consequence to ground with hypothetical deduction from ground to conseguence under the common term "inverse deduction."
He then divides it into two species: one categorical, the other hypothetical.
By the hypothetical he means the new-fangled analysis from a given proposition to more particular propositions, i.e.
But his account of the first is imperfect, because in ancient analysis the more general propositions, with which it concludes, are not mere consequences, but the real grounds of the given proposition; while his addition of the second reduces the nature of analysis to the utmost confusion, because hypothetical deduction is progressive from hypothesis to consequent facts whereas analysis is regressive from consequent facts to real ground.
Hence Sigwart is undoubtedly right in distinguishing analysis from hypothetical deduction, for which he proposes the name " reduction.
Sigwart declares himself in agreement with Jevons; except that, being aware of the difference between hypothetical deduction and mathematical analysis, and seeing that, whereas analysis (e.g.
in division) leads to certain conclusions, hypothetical deduction is not certain of the hypothesis, he arrives at the more definite view that induction is not analysis proper but hypothetical deduction, or " reduction," as he proposes to call it.
Lastly, Wundt's view is an interesting piece of eclecticism, for he supposes that induction begins in the form of Aristotle's inductive syllogism, S-P, S-M, M-P, and becomes an inductive method in the form of Jevons's inverse deduction, or hypothetical deduction, or analysis, M-P, S-M, S-P. In detail, he supposes that, while an " inference by comparison," which he erroneously calls an affirmative syllogism in the second figure, is preliminary to induction, a second " inference by connexion," which he erroneously calls a syllogism in the third figure with an indeterminate conclusion, is the inductive syllogism itself.
He agrees with Jevons in calling this second syllogism analytical deduction, and with Jevons and Sigwart in calling it hypothetical deduction.
It is, in fact, a common point of Jevons, Sigwart and Wundt that the universal is not really a conclusion inferred from given particulars, but a hypothetical major premise from which given particulars are inferred, and that this major contains presuppositions of causation not contained in the particulars.
It is noticeable that Wundt quotes Newton's discovery of the centripetal force of the planets to the sun as an instance of this supposed hypothetical, analytic, inductive method; as if Newton's analysis were a hypothesis of the centripetal force to the sun, a deduction of the given facts of planetary motion, and a verification of the hypothesis by the given facts, and as if such a process of hypothetical deduction could be identical with either analysis or induction.
Mill confused Newton's analytical deduction with hypothetical deduction; and thereupon Jevons confused induction with both.
There is a superficial resemblance between induction and this hypothetical deduction.
particular magnets attracing iron are the origin of an inference that all do; in hypothetical deduction, the universal is the evidence by which we explain the given particulars, as when we suppose undulating aether to explain the facts of heat and light.
But whether Kant be right or wrong, Wundt and his school are decidedly wrong in supposing " supplementary notions which are not contained in experience itself, but are gained by a process of logical treatment of this experience "; as if our behalf in causality could be neither a posteriori nor a priori, but beyond experience wake up in a hypothetical major premise of induction.
It is not syllogism because it is based on the disjunctive, not on the hypothetical relation, and so extends horizontally where syllogism strikes vertically downward.
Along the same lines is their use of the hypothetical form for the universal judgment, and their treatment of the hypothetical form as the typical form of inference.
Mill holds even the ideas of mathematics to be hypothetical, and in theory knows nothing of a non-enumerative or non-associative universal.
He was, however, the first whose analysis was sufficiently convincing to exorcise the tyranny of grammatical forms. The categorical and disjunctive judgment reduce to the hypothetical.
From the judgment viewed as hypothetical we pass by affirmation of the antecedent or denial of the consequent to inference.
It is, as it were, a schedule to be filled in, and is connected with the disjunctive judgment as a schematic setting forth of alternatives, not with the hypothetical, and ultimately the apodictic judgment with their suggestion that it is the real movement of thought that is subjected to analysis.
Its special value lies in this, that by a suitable adjustment of the hypothetical displacements we are often enabled to eliminate unknown reactions.
Again, if two bodies are connectedbya string or rod, and if the hypothetical displacements be adjusted so that the distance between the points of attachment is unaltered, the corresponding stress may be ignored.
We are thus able tc imagine a great variety of mechanical systems to which tht principle of virtual work can be applied without any regard tc the internal stresses, provided the hypothetical displacements be such that none of the connections of the system are violated.
The standard mortality of each community is deduced from a life-table, representing a "generation" of people assumed to be born at the same moment and followed throughout their hypothetical life, in the light of the distribution by age ascertained.
On the other hand is a hypothetical dualism, according to which it is held that mind cannot bridge over the chasm so far as to know matter in itself, though it is compelled by its own laws of cause and effect to postulate matter as the origin, if not the motive cause, of its sensations.
But although the rigorous requirements of science could only be fulfilled by the employment of all these means, yet in their absence it was permissible to draw from the tables and the exclusion a hypothetical conclusion, the truth of which might be verified by the use of the other processes; such an hypothesis is called fantastically the First Vintage (Vindemiatio).
Polyzoic Naturalism (hypothetical).
But the truth of Ricardo's theorems is now by his warmest admirers admitted to be hypothetical only.
From simple judgments they proceeded to compound judgments, and declared the hypothetical syllogism to be the normal type of reason, of which the categorical syllogism is an abbreviation.
Among these hypothetical beings, the creations of a sickly scholasticism, hollow abstractions without life or reality, the particular trinity in which the historical Gotama was assigned a subordinate place naturally occupied the most exalted rank.
of the table of hypothetical descent), we may conceive of its descendant as tentaculate, capable of either floating (swimming) or fixation at will like Lucernaria to-day; and exhibiting incipient differentiation of myoepithelial cells (formerly termed neuro-muscular cells).
to Scyphomedusae - represent periods during which the hypothetical ancestors II.
But the first blunder, that of forming a general hypothetical conception of Rabelais and then adjusting interpretation of the work to it, is the commoner.
Pollock, "the conception is that mind is the one ultimate reality; not mind as we know it in the complex forms of conscious feeling and thought, but the simpler elements out of which thought and feeling are built up. The hypothetical ultimate element of mind, or atom of mind-stuff, precisely corresponds to the hypothetical atom of matter, being the ultimate fact of which the material atom is the phenomenon.
In order to reconstruct the hypothetical ancestral Crustacean, therefore, it is necessary to combine the characters of several of the existing groups.
Whether any of the obscure fossils generally referred to the Phyllopoda or Phyllocarida may have approximated to this hypothetical form it is impossible to say.
The probable course of evolution of the different groups of Crustacea from this hypothetical ancestral form can only be touched on here.
Thus they amplified - the Aristotelian logic by the theory of the hypothetical and disjunctive syllogism, and added to the first figure of the categorical syllogism the five moods out of which the fourth figure was afterwards constructed.
Stefan's law of radiation according to the fourth power of the temperature is too difficult to pursue, but if we are content with cognate results we can follow them out mathematically in a hypothetical law of the first power.
Julius's phenomenon seems inseparable from grazing incidence, and hence any explanation it supplies depends upon his hypothetical tubular structure for layers of equal density.
It is obvious that the angles at the base of such a hypothetical dam must depend upon the relation between its density and that of the water.
As a matter of fact, the foundations of most dams are carried down in vertical trenches, the lower part only being in sound materials so that actual separation almost corresponding with the hypothetical On Some Disregarded Points in the Stability of Masonry Dams, Drapers' Company Research Memoir (London, 1904).
With Cousin the absolute as the ground of being is grasped positively by the intelligence, and it renders all else intelligible; it is not as with Kant a certain hypothetical or regulative need.
But only slight modifications are required to produce the Tornaria larva of the Enteropneusta and other larvae, including the special type that is inferred from the Dipleurula larval stages of recent forms to have characterized the ancestor of the Echinoderms. We cannot enter here into all the details of comparison between these larval forms; amid much that is hypothetical a few homologies are widely accepted, and the preceding account will show the kind of relation that the Echinoderms bear to other animals, including what are now usually regarded as the ancestors of the Chordata (to which back-boned animals belong), as well as the nature of the evidence that their study has been, or may be, made to yield.
Wharfinger states that in chlorosis the specific action of iron is only obtained by administering those inorganic preparations which give a reaction with the ordinary reagents; the iron ions in a state of dissociation act as a catalytic agent, destroying the hypothetical toxin which is the cause of chlorosis.
So long, however, as our knowledge of these phyla is confined, as at present, to specialized forms, the nature of the relationship between them must remain to some extent hypothetical.
the other two are hypothetical intermediate forms.
Hyparthropoda (hypothetical forms connecting ancestors of Chaetopoda with those of Arthropoda).
B represents an intermediate hypothetical form in which the cells beneath the lens are beginning to be superimposed as corneagen, vitrella and retinula, instead of standing side by side in horizontal series.
This substitution of hypothetical history for direct analysis of the moral sense is really older than the utilitarianism of Paley and Bentham, which it has so profoundly modified.
The claims of self-culture and of social service may when considered in the abstract or in some hypothetical case appear antagonistic and irreconcilable.
Such knowledge is fundamentally hypothetical, and might well be accepted as such without the labour of a demonstration which is logically invalid.
Hypothetical " Syllogisms " are those in which one premise is a hypothetical proposition, the other a categorical.
These human beings are often sacrificed, for various reasons, actual or hypothetical, and gods and heroes are almost as likely to be explained as spirits of vegetation now, as they were likely to become solar mythological figures in the system of Max Muller.
But Benedict, the deacon of Otgar of Mainz, is as much of a hypothetical personage as Isidorus Mercator; moreover, in the middle of the 9th century the condition of the province of Mainz was not disturbed, nor were the chorepiscopi menaced.
The adjective "hypothetical" is used in the same sense, both loosely in contradistinction to "real" or "actual," and technically in the phrases "hypothetical judgment" and "hypothetical syllogism."
pp. 284 ff., he has withdrawn this, and it is probably too hypothetical; it is, however, the only serious effort to deal with the difficulty, which if not insoluble is at least unsolved.
Now it may be taken as admitted that the book of Esther was written in Persia, or by one who had lived in Persia, and not earlier than the 3rd century B.C. If now there is real weight in the points of contact between this story and the Arabian Nights - and the points of difference cannot be held to outweigh the resemblances between two legends, each of which is necessarily so far removed from the hypothetical common source - the inference is important for both stories.
After establishing the text of I, H and K, von Soden reconstructs an hypothetical text, I-H-K, which he believes to have been their ancestor.
These actions depend on the desires furnished by hypothetical imperatives.
bleat endlessly about the hypothetical risks of recombinant DNA technology -- which never materialize.
A decision model was used to evaluate the outcomes associated with using antiseptic impregnated catheters compared to standard catheters for 10,000 hypothetical patients.
One hypothetical cohort was screened for cancer until a predetermined age, representing the base case.
However, if you cannot do this, the court or tribunal considering your case may construct a hypothetical comparator for you.
Prosecutions do not require scores of witnesses swearing on oath that they were in fact depraved and corrupted; it is all hypothetical.
Study population The hypothetical study population comprised patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy.
To calculate the cost of an annuity de Witt devised a formula based on a hypothetical group of 768 lives.
Any debate now about the potential use of artificial gametes will have to be based on hypothetical scenarios.
This includes the graviton, a hypothetical particle thought to be responsible for gravity.
There seems no need of any supplementary force produced by the hypothetical graviton.
hypothetical at the moment.
hypothetical at this stage.
hypothetical comparator for you.
hypothetical scenario for you to analyze.
hypothetical tenant in an ability to pay scenario is likely to have no profit motive.
hypothetical purchaser would pay at the valuation date.
hypothetical reasoning may included blind sport.
hypothetical imperatives ' .
However, the possibility of an indemnity is not purely hypothetical.
It is, at any rate, a merely hypothetical statement.
It should be clearly understood that the basis on which the points listed below are being raised is entirely hypothetical.
He added: " I've not asked him if he would go because there has been no request - it's all hypothetical.
As this is only hypothetical it's not an issue at present, but I'll certainly bear what you say in mind.
The great power of this principle of selection is not hypothetical.
But such a supposition cannot but remain highly hypothetical.
impregnated catheters compared to standard catheters for 10,000 hypothetical patients.
Your hypothetical landlord would be counted as an owner-occupier, each of the households in his building as renters.
The use of a hypothetical mean sun removes this effect.
Among their heritage can be included numerology (numbers and letter characters in a unified system) and the hypothetical Golden Ratio.
Also obvious is the key of the hypothetical seventh partita.
Many of the novel predicted genes are associated with surface polysaccharide, flagellar biosynthesis and modification in addition to hypothetical genes.
A five acre our hypothetical pounder looked off his.
A hypothetical, but typical, example involving pyrophosphate: enzyme 1: A + ATP « B + AMP + PP i.. .
generating reagents to unknown and hypothetical receptors that have been identified using our mass spectrometry based approach.
This evening event borrowed the television format of getting professionals to state how they would react to a hypothetical scenario.
Several hypothetical scenarios that could provide a coupling between regional seismicity and reservoir hydraulics are proposed and evaluated.
Without a comprehensive review of all the possible hypothetical outcomes Mr Nicholls suggests that her objection is purely superficial.
supposition cannot but remain highly hypothetical.
The hypothetical tenant in an ability to pay scenario is likely to have no profit motive.
Modern Supralapsarians thus accuse the British delegates of teaching hypothetical universalism.
Support a study, tho warning strongly against making pronouncements on hypothetical GM scenarios.
He has relied, however, in his efforts to link the tribes together, too much on the prevalence or absence of such customs as circumcision - always very treacherous evidences - to allow of his hypothetical distribution being regarded very seriously.
These considerations preclude the possibility of solving difficulties in geographical distribution by the construction of hypothetical land-surfaces, an expedient which Darwin always stoutly opposed (Life and Letters, ii.
The symmetrically placed hypothetical islands in the great continuousocean disappeared, and the oekumene acquired a new form by the representation of the Indian Ocean as a larger Mediterranean completely cut off by land from the Atlantic. The terra incognita uniting Africa and Farther Asia was an unfortunate hypothesis which helped to retard exploration.
pp. 294-319.) Leaving, however, this matter as in some degree hypothetical, we have as genera, families, or perhaps even larger groups, a great many very remarkable forms which are characteristic of, or peculiar to, the Neotropical region in part, if not as a whole.
(iii.) Economics can never lead to anything but hypothetical results unless we not only realize that we must " take account of " other than the purely economic factors, but also give due weight and significance to these factors.
A prophecy may be hazarded that in the future these applications will unify themselves into a mathematical theory of a hypothetical substructure of the universe, uniform under all the diverse phenomena.
Copernicus was seized with apoplexy and paralysis towards the close of 1542, and died on the 24th of May 1543, happily unconscious that the fine Epistle, in which he had dedicated his life's work to Paul III., was marred of its effect by an anonymous preface, slipt in by Andreas Osiander (1498-1552), with a view to disarming prejudice by insisting upon the purely hypothetical character of the reasonings it introduced.
The general confirmation by experiment of Poisson's theoretical results created a tendency to regard his hypothetical magnetic fluids as having a real existence; but it was pointed out by W.
Psychological idealism assumes without proof that we perceive nothing but mental objects, and metaphysical idealism draws the logical but hypothetical conclusion that all we can know from these mental objects of sense is mental objects of knowledge.
Again, in his Grundproblem der Erkenntnisstheorie (1889) he uses without proof the hypothesis of psychological idealism, that we perceive psychical effects, to infer with merely hypothetical consistency the conclusion of noumenal metaphysical idealism that all we can thereby know is psychical causes, or something transcendent, beyond phenomena indeed, yet not beyond mind.
Sigwart, indeed, has missed the essential difference between the categorical and the hypothetical construction of syllogisms. In a categorical syllogism of the first figure, the major premise, " Every M whatever is P," is a universal, which we believe on account of previous evidence without any condition about the thing signified by the subject M, which we simply believe sometimes to be existent (e.g.
" If anything is M it is P," containing a hypothetical antecedent, " If anything is NI," which is sometimes a hypothesis of existence (e.g.
" If an existing man is wise "); and the second premise or assumption, " Something is NI," establishes part of the first, namely, the hypothetical antecedent, whether as regards existence (e.g.
Thereupon the Newtonian analysis which preceded this synthesis, became forgotten; until at last Mill in his Logic, neglecting the Principia, had the temerity to distort Newton's discovery, which was really a pure example of analytic deduction, into a mere hypothetical deduction; as if the author of the saying " Hypotheses non lingo" started from the hypothesis of a centripetal force to the sun, and thence deductively explained the facts of planetary motion, which reciprocally verified the hypothesis.
It is perhaps not wholly fanciful to connect with this attitude the fact that Aristotle's pupils dealt with a surer hand than the master with the conclusions from premises of unlike modality, and that a formal advance of some significance attributable to Theophrastus and Eudemus is the doctrine of the hypothetical and disjunctive syllogisms.
The paradox of the theory of judgment is due to the ideal of identity, and the way in which this is evaded by supplementation to produce a non-judgmental identity, followed by translation of the introduced accessories with conditions in the hypothetical judgment, is thoroughly in Herbart's manner.
How the hypothetical Dipleurula became an Echinoderm, and how the primitive Echinoderms diverged in structure so as to form the various classes, are questions to which an answer is attempted in the following paragraphs: - Confining our attention to that form of Dipleurula (fig.
These additional features are the following - (1) All existing Arthropoda have an ostiate heart and have undergone " phleboedesis," that is to say, the peripheral portions of the blood-vascular system are not fine tubes as they are in the Chaetopoda and as they were in the hypothetical ancestors of Arthropoda, but are swollen so as to obliterate to a large extent the coelom, whilst the separate veins entering the dorsal vessel or heart have coalesced, leaving valvate ostia (see fig.
Each syllogism of the series is called a "prosyllogism "2 in relation to the one that succeeds, and an " episyllogism " in ' For a dilemma which includes both hypothetical and disj[tnctive reasoning see Dilemma.
Let's look at another hypothetical.
This is all hypothetical.
A hypothetical, but typical, example involving pyrophosphate: enzyme 1: A + ATP « B + AMP + PP i...
The discussion is written to interest the hypothetical layman, so read on !
Generating reagents to unknown and hypothetical receptors that have been identified using our mass spectrometry based approach.
About 70 hypothetical dyes were created and QSAR were used to estimate sorption characteristics.
A very important point to note is that in the small hypothetical economic model we have constructed there are some unwritten assumptions.
And the hypothetical reply is: the hypothetical costs will be paid out of the hypothetical windfall savings.
Pose a hypothetical question to each family member such as, "What if you had a million dollars that could only be used for a charitable cause?
As a hypothetical example, someone who only adds $10 to his or her account will find that the balance is only valid for 15 days.
Additionally, Aquarius and Libra will have a wonderful time discussing literature and hypothetical situations.
Terraforming is a hypothetical science of developing a living, breathing earth-like conditions from the uninhabitable.
For a stock-picking site, adding a portolio-tracking app that allows your users to run hypothetical scenarios could make your site stand out from the other small guys and bring you one step closer to the authority of "real" finance sites.
That's the question that should be (gently) asked of the hypothetical client mentioned above.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.