Anosmia, the inability to smell, was first described with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism in 1856, but it was not until 1944 that an instance of Kallman's reported the inheritance of the two symptoms together in three separate families.
Some specific conditions associated with diabetes mellitus, such as hemachromatosis, and the Laurence-Moon Biedl, Alstrom, and Cushing syndromes, also typically produce hypogonadism.
Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (HH) occurs when the body does not produce enough of two important hormones, luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH).
In girls with hypogonadism, complications include the social implication of failing to go through puberty with peers (if hypogonadism occurs before puberty).
If a brain tumor is present (central hypogonadism) there may be headaches or visual loss or symptoms of other hormonal deficiencies (such as hypothyroidism).
Kallman's syndrome (KS) is the most frequent cause of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and affects approximately one in 10,000 males and one in 50,000 females.
If hypogonadism occurs after puberty, symptoms include loss of menstruation, low libido, hot flashes, and loss of body hair.
Klinefelter syndrome is a chromosome disorder in males that results in hypogonadism (small penis and small firm testicles).
Kallman's syndrome is a disorder of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, delayed puberty, and anosmia (the inability to smell).
There are a number of causes of hypogonadism, including stress, elevated prolactin levels, and several genetic disorders.