Patients need regular fasting blood glucose testing for patients who develop hyperglycemia (diabetes) while on atypical antipsychotics.
The high blood glucose, or blood sugar, levels that result are known as hyperglycemia.
Regular home testing of blood sugar levels is also important to make sure that the treatment is working effectively and to avoid a diabetic emergency such as hypoglycemia (low blood sugar) or hyperglycemia (high blood sugar).
Unless hyperglycemia is obvious (e.g., blood glucose levels are extremely high or the child experiences DKA), the fasting or random plasma glucose test should be confirmed on a subsequent day with a repeat test.
These tests are used to detect an increased blood glucose (hyperglycemia) or a decreased blood glucose (hypoglycemia).
Other endocrine disorders and several medications can cause both hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia.
For children with diabetes, eating or drinking large quantities of carbohydrates in an attempt to push blood glucose levels back to normal can result in hyperglycemia, or blood sugars that are too high.
Atypical antipsychotics have been associated with hyperglycemia (high blood sugar) and diabetes in some patients.
Hyperglycemia, also known as diabetic ketoacidosis, is a condition that develops over a period of a few days as the blood glucose levels of a type 1 or type 2 diabetic gradually rise.
Over time as glucose production accelerates, the child develops hyperglycemia or glucotoxicity and lipotoxicity (hyperlipidemia or high fat levels in the blood) as well.
The incidence of hyperglycemia approximately parallels the incidence of diabetes type 1 cases, which represents about 70 percent of all diabetes cases (17 million Americans diagnosed) in the United States.
Those with type 2 have fewer symptoms and are not treated as frequently for hyperglycemia.
Diabetes is a chronic metabolic disorder with hyperglycemia, gradually rising levels of glucose, as its primary characteristic.
As diabetes develops and symptoms increase, hyperglycemia becomes progressive but will occur only occasionally in the carefully managed diabetic patient.
Many young type 2 diabetics do not have symptoms because their hyperglycemia is moderate compared to type 1 diabetics, and they are not taking insulin.
The first signs of hyperglycemia or ketoacidosis are frequent urination and increased thirst.
Hyperglycemia can be diagnosed fairly quickly in known diabetic children.
Routine screening of blood glucose levels and glucose tolerance tests is not recommended in children; symptoms are believed to help confirm hyperglycemia more readily.
Treatment for hyperglycemia must be delivered carefully and with close monitoring to avoid the risk of hypokalemia (higher than normal serum levels of potassium) and subsequent cerebral edema.
Children must be rehydrated very gradually; this can be done orally in mild hyperglycemia and over an extended period (30 to 36 hours) of intravenous administration with severe hyperglycemia.
The insulin infusion will be slowed once hyperglycemia has been corrected (blood glucose levels less than 250mg/dL); in children with moderate hyperglycemia, this can often be accomplished within 24 hours.
In severe cases of hyperglycemia in which cerebral edema occurs, mannitol is administered at the first sign of edema, such as unconsciousness, difficulty breathing, severe headache, irregular heartbeat, or seizures.
Children with moderate to severe hyperglycemia may be treated in an intensive care unit for continuous monitoring and rapid response capabilities.
Transient hyperglycemia can be triggered by any type of stress that overtaxes the child's mental and physical resources.
Stress hyperglycemia may be reversed completely when the stressors are removed or relieved.
Temporary hyperglycemia of this type will still require careful monitoring for symptoms and testing and treatment as above if any symptoms occur.
Nutritional therapy along with insulin therapy can both help avoid hyperglycemia and relieve associated symptoms.
Immediate medical attention is needed, however, and parents should not undertake correction of hyperglycemia or dehydration on their own.
The prognosis for children with mild to moderate hyperglycemia is good; the condition can usually be corrected within 24 hours.
Severe hyperglycemia (serum glucose levels in the range of 800mg/dL) may lead to cerebral edema, coma, and death if not treated immediately.
Hyperglycemia in children during severe illness is a risk factor for poor outcomes in the underlying illness and has been reported as a cause of increased mortality in pediatric intensive care units.
Occurrences of hyperglycemia can be prevented by careful monitoring of blood glucose levels and insulin injections while balancing exercise and diet.
Diabetic adolescents are especially susceptible to hyperglycemia, since hormone levels are in flux and many adolescents exhibit erratic eating and sleeping patterns.
Obese children must be encouraged to eat properly and to avoid the fats and sugary sweets that can lead to increased weight, decreased mobility, and hyperglycemia.
It is important to maintain close contact with the child's diabetes team of professionals and to learn as much as possible about the disease and the symptoms to watch for in the child that may signal hyperglycemia.
The parents of school-age children should make sure that teachers also understand the warning signs of hyperglycemia so that immediate medical attention can be given when needed.
One study even said that a low carbohydrate diet is "a patient-empowering way to ameliorate hyperglycemia without pharmacological intervention."
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.