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hyperbolic

The introduction of hyperbolic functions into trigonometry was also due to him.

63The hyperbolic or Gudermannian amplitude of the quantity x is ta n (sinh x).

32Hyperbolic antilogarithms are simple exponentials, i.e.

34Hyperbolic antilogarithms are simple exponentials, i.e.

34The largest hyperbolic table as regards range was published by Zacharias Dase at Vienna in 1850 under the title Tafel der natiirlichen Logarithmen der Zahlen.

22When the rings are coloured symmetrically with respect to two perpendicular lines the acute bisectrix and the plane of the optic axes are the same for all frequencies, and the colour for which the separation of the axes is the least is that on the concave side of the summit of the hyperbolic brushes.

22The hyperbolic lemniscate has for its equation (x2 +y2)2 = a2x2 - b 2 y 2 or r 2 =a 2 cos 2 0 - b 2 sin 2 B.

10If 1 denotes the logarithm to base e (that is, the so-called "Napierian " or hyperbolic logarithm) and L denotes, as above, " Napier's " logarithm, the connexion between 1 and L is expressed by L = r o 7 loge 10 7 - 10 7 / or e t = I 07e-L/Ia7 Napier's work (which will henceforth in this article be referred to as the Descriptio) immediately on its appearance in 1614 attracted the attention of perhaps the two most eminent English mathematicians then living - Edward Wright and Henry Briggs.

00The first logarithms to the base e were published by John Speidell in his New Logarithmes (London, 1619), which contains hYPerbolic log sines, tangents and secants for every minute of the quadrant to 5 places of decimals.

00As has been stated, Abraham Sharp's table contains 61-decimal 10 b= log 24 = - log (1-160) d =10g 49 = - log (1-160) 17253 8 35 62 21868 Briggian logarithms of primes up to I ioo, so that the logarithms of all composite numbers whose greatest prime factor does not exceed this number may be found by simple addition; and Wolfram's table gives 48-decimal hyperbolic logarithms of primes up to 10,009.

00An application to the hyperbolic logarithm of is given by Burckhardt in the introduction to his Table des diviseurs for the second million.

00Taking as an example the calculation of the Briggian logarithm of the number 43,867, whose hyperbolic logarithm has been calculated above, we multiply it by 3, giving 131,601, and find by Gray's process that the factors of 1.31601 are (I) 1.316 (5) I.

00It is ~asily seen graphically, or from a table of hyperbolic tangents, that the equation u tanh u = 1 has only one positive root (u = 1.200); the span is therefore 2X =2au =2A/ sinh U = 1.326 A,

00The epithets hyperbolic and parabolic are of course derived from the conic hyperbola and parabola respectively.

00If a line S2 cut an arc aa at b, so that the two segments ab, ba lie on opposite sides of the line, then projecting the figure so that the line Sl goes off to infinity, the tangent at b is projected into the asymptote, and the arc ab is projected into a hyperbolic leg touching the asymptote at one extremity; the arc ba will at the same time be projected into a hyperbolic leg touching the same asymptote at the other extremity (and on the opposite side), but so that the two hyperbolic legs may or may not belong to one and the same branch.

00And we thus see that the two hyperbolic legs belong to a simple intersection of the curve by the line infinity.

00It will readily be understood how the like considerations apply to other cases, - for instance, if the line is a tangent at an inflection, passes through a crunode, or touches one of the branches of a crunode, &c.; thus, if the line S2 passes through a crunode we have pairs of hyperbolic legs belonging to two parallel asymptotes.

00The two legs of a hyperbolic branch may belong to different asymptotes, and in this case we have the forms which Newton calls inscribed, circumscribed, ambigene, &c.; or they may belong to the same asymptote, and in this case we have the serpentine form, where the branch cuts the asymptote, so as to touch it at its two extremities on opposite sides, or the conchoidal form, where it touches the asymptote on the same side.

00First, if the three intersections by the line infinity are all distinct, we have the hyperbolas; if the points are real, the redundant hyperbolas, with three hyperbolic branches; but if only one of them is real, the defective hyperbolas, with one hyperbolic branch.

00With a crossed polarizer and analyser the rings are interrupted by a dark hyperbolic brush that cuts the plane of the optic axes at right angles, if this plane be at 45° to the planes of polarization and analysation - the so-called diagonal position - and that becomes a rectangular cross with its arms parallel and perpendicular to the plane of the optic axes when this plane coincides with the plane of primitive or final polarization - the normal position.

00With a biaxal plate perpendicular to the optic axis in the diagonal position, the hyperbolic brush becomes an hyperbolic line and the rings are expanded or contracted on its concave side, with a positive plate, according as the plane of the optic axes is parallel or perpendicular to the axis of the quarter-wave plate, the reverse being the case with a negative plate.

00They are (low dimensional) groups which act as isometries on hyperbolic 3-space and generalize the Fuchsian groups in a natural way.

00hyperbolic manifolds ' (Springer ).

00hyperbolic geometry on the flat plane.

00hyperbolic equations.

00hyperbolic plane (unfinished work ).

00hyperbolic functions to be computed with usable accuracy.

00hyperbolic curve with a long tail.

00Even in the uniformly hyperbolic case, systems with discontinuities do not have many of the good properties of their smooth counterparts.

00One wonders how his somewhat hyperbolic analogy went down in the refugee camps.

00In such a society the only way in which discourse can be used for one's social advancement is by making increasingly hyperbolic statements.

00J. Ratcliffe, ' Foundations of hyperbolic manifolds ' (Springer ).

00The M2 mirror is a convex hyperbolic mirror with an external diameter slightly in excess of 1 meter.

00The logarithms introduced by Napier in the Descriptio are not the same as those now in common use, nor even the same as those now called Napierian or hyperbolic logarithms. The change from the original logarithms to common or decimal logarithms was made by both Napier and Briggs, and the first tables of decimal logarithms were calculated by Briggs, who published a small table, extending to 1000, in 1617, and a large work, Arithmetica Logarithmica, 1 containing logarithms of numbers to 30,000 and from 90,000 to Ioo,000, in 1624.

00The hyperbolic lemniscate has for its equation (x2 +y2)2 = a2x2 - b 2 y 2 or r 2 =a 2 cos 2 0 - b 2 sin 2 B.

00The introduction of hyperbolic functions into trigonometry was also due to him.

00The hyperbolic or Gudermannian amplitude of the quantity x is ta n (sinh x).

00The two systems of logarithms for which extensive tables have been calculated are the Napierian, or hyperbolic, or natural system, of which the base is e, and the Briggian, or decimal, or common system, of which the base is io; and we see that the logarithms in the latter system may be deduced from those in the former by multiplication by the constant multiplier /loge io, which is called the modulus of the common system of logarithms.

00Napier's logarithms are not the logarithms now termed Napierian or hyperbolic, that is to say, logarithms to the base e where e= 2.7182818 ...; the relation between N (a sine) and L its logarithm, as defined in the Canonis Descriptio, being N=10 7 e L/Ip7, so that (ignoring the factors re, the effect of which is to render sines and logarithms integral to 7 figures), the base is C".

00If 1 denotes the logarithm to base e (that is, the so-called "Napierian " or hyperbolic logarithm) and L denotes, as above, " Napier's " logarithm, the connexion between 1 and L is expressed by L = r o 7 loge 10 7 - 10 7 / or e t = I 07e-L/Ia7 Napier's work (which will henceforth in this article be referred to as the Descriptio) immediately on its appearance in 1614 attracted the attention of perhaps the two most eminent English mathematicians then living - Edward Wright and Henry Briggs.

00The first logarithms to the base e were published by John Speidell in his New Logarithmes (London, 1619), which contains hYPerbolic log sines, tangents and secants for every minute of the quadrant to 5 places of decimals.

00Hyperbolic or Napierian logarithms (i.e.

00- The most elaborate table of hyperbolic logarithms that exists is due to Wolfram, a Dutch lieutenant of artillery.

00The largest hyperbolic table as regards range was published by Zacharias Dase at Vienna in 1850 under the title Tafel der natiirlichen Logarithmen der Zahlen.

00the hyperbolic antilogarithm of x is e x .

00As has been stated, Abraham Sharp's table contains 61-decimal 10 b= log 24 = - log (1-160) d =10g 49 = - log (1-160) 17253 8 35 62 21868 Briggian logarithms of primes up to I ioo, so that the logarithms of all composite numbers whose greatest prime factor does not exceed this number may be found by simple addition; and Wolfram's table gives 48-decimal hyperbolic logarithms of primes up to 10,009.

00By means of these tables and of a factor table we may very readily obtain the Briggian logarithm of a number to 61 or a less number of places or of its hyperbolic logarithm to 48 or a less number of places in the following manner.

00Suppose the hyperbolic logarithm of the prime number 43,867 required.

00An application to the hyperbolic logarithm of is given by Burckhardt in the introduction to his Table des diviseurs for the second million.

00Taking as an example the calculation of the Briggian logarithm of the number 43,867, whose hyperbolic logarithm has been calculated above, we multiply it by 3, giving 131,601, and find by Gray's process that the factors of 1.31601 are (I) 1.316 (5) I.

00pp. 66-92, 1873, Henry Wace gave a simple and clear account of both the logarithmic and antilogarithmic processes, with tables of both Briggian and hyperbolic logarithms of factors of the form I t I r n to 20 places.

00Reference should also be made to Hoppe's Tafeln zur dreissigstelligen logarithmischen Rechnung (Leipzig, 1876), which give in a somewhat modified form a table of the hyperbolic logarithm of + Irn.

00It is ~asily seen graphically, or from a table of hyperbolic tangents, that the equation u tanh u = 1 has only one positive root (u = 1.200); the span is therefore 2X =2au =2A/ sinh U = 1.326 A,

00This applies to an elliptic or hyperbolic orbit; the case of the parabolic orbit may be examired separately or treated as a limiting case.

00Names may also be used for the different forms of infinite branches, but we have first to consider the distinction of hyperbolic and parabolic. The leg of an infinite branch may have at the extremity a tangent; this is an asymptote of the curve, and the leg is then hyperbolic; or the leg may tend to a fixed direction, but so that the tangent goes further and further off to infinity, and the leg is then parabolic; a branch may thus be hyperbolic or parabolic as to its two legs; or it may be hyperbolic as to one leg and parabolic as to the other.

00The epithets hyperbolic and parabolic are of course derived from the conic hyperbola and parabola respectively.

00If a line S2 cut an arc aa at b, so that the two segments ab, ba lie on opposite sides of the line, then projecting the figure so that the line Sl goes off to infinity, the tangent at b is projected into the asymptote, and the arc ab is projected into a hyperbolic leg touching the asymptote at one extremity; the arc ba will at the same time be projected into a hyperbolic leg touching the same asymptote at the other extremity (and on the opposite side), but so that the two hyperbolic legs may or may not belong to one and the same branch.

00And we thus see that the two hyperbolic legs belong to a simple intersection of the curve by the line infinity.

00It will readily be understood how the like considerations apply to other cases, - for instance, if the line is a tangent at an inflection, passes through a crunode, or touches one of the branches of a crunode, &c.; thus, if the line S2 passes through a crunode we have pairs of hyperbolic legs belonging to two parallel asymptotes.

00The two legs of a hyperbolic branch may belong to different asymptotes, and in this case we have the forms which Newton calls inscribed, circumscribed, ambigene, &c.; or they may belong to the same asymptote, and in this case we have the serpentine form, where the branch cuts the asymptote, so as to touch it at its two extremities on opposite sides, or the conchoidal form, where it touches the asymptote on the same side.

00First, if the three intersections by the line infinity are all distinct, we have the hyperbolas; if the points are real, the redundant hyperbolas, with three hyperbolic branches; but if only one of them is real, the defective hyperbolas, with one hyperbolic branch.

00With a crossed polarizer and analyser the rings are interrupted by a dark hyperbolic brush that cuts the plane of the optic axes at right angles, if this plane be at 45Ã‚° to the planes of polarization and analysation - the so-called diagonal position - and that becomes a rectangular cross with its arms parallel and perpendicular to the plane of the optic axes when this plane coincides with the plane of primitive or final polarization - the normal position.

00When the rings are coloured symmetrically with respect to two perpendicular lines the acute bisectrix and the plane of the optic axes are the same for all frequencies, and the colour for which the separation of the axes is the least is that on the concave side of the summit of the hyperbolic brushes.

00With a biaxal plate perpendicular to the optic axis in the diagonal position, the hyperbolic brush becomes an hyperbolic line and the rings are expanded or contracted on its concave side, with a positive plate, according as the plane of the optic axes is parallel or perpendicular to the axis of the quarter-wave plate, the reverse being the case with a negative plate.

00Although the notion of 1 million writing prompts sounds hyperbolic, it's actually an understatement.

00The two systems of logarithms for which extensive tables have been calculated are the Napierian, or hyperbolic, or natural system, of which the base is e, and the Briggian, or decimal, or common system, of which the base is io; and we see that the logarithms in the latter system may be deduced from those in the former by multiplication by the constant multiplier /loge io, which is called the modulus of the common system of logarithms.

01Napier's logarithms are not the logarithms now termed Napierian or hyperbolic, that is to say, logarithms to the base e where e= 2.7182818 ...; the relation between N (a sine) and L its logarithm, as defined in the Canonis Descriptio, being N=10 7 e L/Ip7, so that (ignoring the factors re, the effect of which is to render sines and logarithms integral to 7 figures), the base is C".

01Reference should also be made to Hoppe's Tafeln zur dreissigstelligen logarithmischen Rechnung (Leipzig, 1876), which give in a somewhat modified form a table of the hyperbolic logarithm of + Irn.

01Names may also be used for the different forms of infinite branches, but we have first to consider the distinction of hyperbolic and parabolic. The leg of an infinite branch may have at the extremity a tangent; this is an asymptote of the curve, and the leg is then hyperbolic; or the leg may tend to a fixed direction, but so that the tangent goes further and further off to infinity, and the leg is then parabolic; a branch may thus be hyperbolic or parabolic as to its two legs; or it may be hyperbolic as to one leg and parabolic as to the other.

01- The most elaborate table of hyperbolic logarithms that exists is due to Wolfram, a Dutch lieutenant of artillery.

02the hyperbolic antilogarithm of x is e x .

02By means of these tables and of a factor table we may very readily obtain the Briggian logarithm of a number to 61 or a less number of places or of its hyperbolic logarithm to 48 or a less number of places in the following manner.

02Suppose the hyperbolic logarithm of the prime number 43,867 required.

02This applies to an elliptic or hyperbolic orbit; the case of the parabolic orbit may be examired separately or treated as a limiting case.

03

The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.